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Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories). [1]

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Abidjan

Abidjan is the economic capital of Côte d'Ivoire and is one of the most populous French-speaking cities in Africa.

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Abolitionism

Abolitionism is a general term which describes the movement to end slavery.

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Abraham

Abraham (Arabic: إبراهيم Ibrahim), originally Abram, is the common patriarch of the three Abrahamic religions.

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Abuja

Abuja is the capital city of Nigeria located in the centre of the country within the Federal Capital Territory (FCT).

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Abyssinian people

Abyssinian people (ሐበሻይት), also known as the Habesha or Abesha, are a population inhabiting the Horn of Africa.

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Accra

Accra is the capital and largest city of Ghana, covering an area of with an estimated urban population of 2.27 million.

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Addis Ababa

Addis Ababa (አዲስ አበባ,, "new flower"; or Addis Abeba (the spelling used by the official Ethiopian Mapping Authority); Finfinne "natural spring") is the capital and largest city of Ethiopia.

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Afri

Afri (singular Afer) was a Latin name for the inhabitants of Africa, referring in its widest sense to all the lands south of the Mediterranean (Ancient Libya).

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Africa (Roman province)

Africa Proconsularis was a Roman province on the north African coast that was established in 146 BC following the defeat of Carthage in the Third Punic War.

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Africa Rising

Africa Rising is a term coined to describe the rapid economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa since 2000 and the belief in the inevitability of further, rapid development on the continent.

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African art

African art describes the modern and historical paintings, sculptures, installations, and other visual culture from native or indigenous Africans and the African continent.

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African buffalo

The African buffalo or Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is a large African bovine.

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African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights

The African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights (ACHPR) is a quasi-judicial body tasked with promoting and protecting human rights and collective (peoples') rights throughout the African continent as well as interpreting the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights and considering individual complaints of violations of the Charter.

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African Economic Community

The African Economic Community (AEC) is an organization of African Union states establishing grounds for mutual economic development among the majority of African states.

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African French

African French (français africain) is the generic name of the varieties of a French language spoken by an estimated 120 million people in Africa spread across 24 francophone countries.

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African independence movements

The African Independence Movements took place in the 20th century, when a wave of struggles for independence in European-ruled African territories were witnessed.

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African Plate

The African Plate is a major tectonic plate straddling the equator as well as the prime meridian.

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African Renaissance

The African Renaissance is the concept that African people and nations shall overcome the current challenges confronting the continent and achieve cultural, scientific, and economic renewal.

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African Union

The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent, extending slightly into Asia via the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt.

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Afrikaans

Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.

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Afro-Eurasia

Afro-Eurasia (or Afroeurasia,Field, Henry. "", American Anthropologist, New Series Vol. 50, No. 3, Part 1 (Jul. - Sep., 1948), pp. 479-493. or Eurafrasia, or nicknamed the World Island) is a landmass which can be subdivided into Africa and Eurasia (which can be further subdivided into Asia and Europe).

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Afroasiatic languages

Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.

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Afrobeat

Afrobeat, also known as afrofunk, is a music genre which developed in the 1970s when African musicians began combining elements of West African musical styles such as jùjú music and highlife with American funk and jazz influences, with a focus on chanted vocals, complex intersecting rhythms, and percussion.

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Afrocentrism

Afrocentrism (also Afrocentricity) is an approach to the study of world history that focuses on the history of people of recent African descent.

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Afrotropical realm

The Afrotropical realm is one of the Earth's eight biogeographic realms.

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Agriculture

Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.

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Akan language

Akan is a Central Tano language that is the principal native language of the Akan people of Ghana, spoken over much of the southern half of that country, by about 58% of the population, and among 30% of the population of Ivory Coast.

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Akan people

The Akan are a meta-ethnicity predominantly speaking Central Tano languages and residing in the southern regions of the former Gold Coast region in what is today the nation of Ghana.

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Alans

The Alans (or Alani) were an Iranian nomadic pastoral people of antiquity.

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Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.

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Alexandria

Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.

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Algeria

Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.

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Algiers

Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.

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Almoravid dynasty

The Almoravid dynasty (Imṛabḍen, ⵉⵎⵕⴰⴱⴹⴻⵏ; المرابطون, Al-Murābiṭūn) was an imperial Berber Muslim dynasty centered in Morocco.

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Americas

The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.

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Amharas

Amharas (አማራ, Āmara; አምሐራ, ʾÄməḥära), also known as Abyssinians, are an ethnic group traditionally inhabiting the northern and central highlands of Ethiopia, particularly the Amhara Region.

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Amphibian

Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.

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Anatolia

Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Ancient Libya

The Latin name Libya (from Greek Λιβύη, Libyē) referred to the region west of the Nile generally corresponding to the modern Maghreb.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Angola

Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.

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Angolan Civil War

The Angolan Civil War (Guerra civil angolana) was a major civil conflict in Angola, beginning in 1975 and continuing, with some interludes, until 2002.

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Antananarivo

Antananarivo (French: Tananarive), also known by its colonial shorthand form Tana, is the capital and largest city of Madagascar.

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Anthropology

Anthropology is the study of humans and human behaviour and societies in the past and present.

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Apartheid

Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.

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Aquatic ecosystem

An aquatic ecosystem is an ecosystem in a body of water.

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Arab world

The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.

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Arabian Peninsula

The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.

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Arabic

Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arabization

Arabization or Arabisation (تعريب) describes either the conquest and/or colonization of a non-Arab area and growing Arab influence on non-Arab populations, causing a language shift by their gradual adoption of the Arabic language and/or their incorporation of Arab culture, Arab identity.

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Arable land

Arable land (from Latin arabilis, "able to be plowed") is, according to one definition, land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops.

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Arabs

Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.

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Archipelago

An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.

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Architecture of Africa

The architecture of Africa, like other aspects of the culture of Africa, is exceptionally diverse.

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Arid

A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life.

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Ashanti Empire

The Ashanti Empire (also spelled Asante) was an Akan empire and kingdom in what is now modern-day Ghana from 1670 to 1957.

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Asia

Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.

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Asian people

Asian people or Asiatic peopleUnited States National Library of Medicine.

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Askia Mohammad I

Askia Muhammad I (ca. 1443 – 1538), born Muhammad Ture or Mohamed Toure in Futa Tooro, later called Askia, also known as Askia the Great, was an emperor, military commander, and political reformer of the Songhai Empire in the late 15th century.

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Asmara

Asmara (ኣስመራ), known locally as Asmera (meaning "They made them unite" in Tigrinya), is the capital city and largest city of Eritrea.

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Assassination

Assassination is the killing of a prominent person, either for political or religious reasons or for payment.

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Assembly of the African Union

The Assembly of the African Union, which is formally known as the African Union Assembly of Heads of State and Government (AU-AHSG), is one of several decision-making bodies within the African Union.

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Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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Atlantic Ocean

The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.

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Atlantic slave trade

The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly to the Americas.

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Australopithecus afarensis

Australopithecus afarensis (Latin: "Southern ape from Afar") is an extinct hominin that lived between 3.9 and 2.9 million years ago in Africa and possibly Europe.

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Australopithecus africanus

Australopithecus africanus is an extinct (fossil) species of the australopithecines, the first of an early ape-form species to be classified as hominin (in 1924).

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Austronesian peoples

The Austronesian peoples are various groups in Southeast Asia, Oceania and East Africa that speak languages that are under the Austronesian language super-family.

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Authoritarianism

Authoritarianism is a form of government characterized by strong central power and limited political freedoms.

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‘Aziziya

‘Aziziya (Anglicized:; العزيزية / /), sometimes spelled El Azizia, is a small town and it was the capital of the Jafara district in northwestern Libya, southwest of the capital Tripoli.

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Bab-el-Mandeb

The Bab-el-Mandeb (Arabic: باب المندب, "Gate of Tears") is a strait located between Yemen on the Arabian Peninsula, and Djibouti and Eritrea in the Horn of Africa.

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Bahá'í Faith

The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.

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Bamako

Bamako is the capital and largest city of Mali, with a population of 1.8 million (2009 census, provisional).

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Bangui

Bangui (or Bangî in Sango, formerly written Bangi in English) is the capital and largest city of the Central African Republic.

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Banjul

Banjul, officially the City of Banjul and formerly known as Bathurst, is the capital of The Gambia and is in a division of the same name.

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Bantu languages

The Bantu languages (English:, Proto-Bantu: */baⁿtʊ̀/) technically the Narrow Bantu languages, as opposed to "Wide Bantu", a loosely defined categorization which includes other "Bantoid" languages are a large family of languages spoken by the Bantu peoples throughout Sub-Saharan Africa.

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Bantu peoples

The Bantu peoples are the speakers of Bantu languages, comprising several hundred ethnic groups in sub-Saharan Africa, spread over a vast area from Central Africa across the African Great Lakes to Southern Africa.

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Banu Hilal

The Banu Hilal (Arabic: بنو هلال or الهلاليين) was a confederation of tribes of Arabia from the Hejaz and Najd regions of the Arabian Peninsula that emigrated to North Africa in the 11th century.

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Banu Ifran

The Ifranids, also called Banu Ifran, Ifran, or the children of the Ifran (بنو يفرن, Banu Yifran), were a Zenata Berber tribe prominent in the history of pre-Islamic and early Islamic North Africa.

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Barbary pirates

The Barbary pirates, sometimes called Barbary corsairs or Ottoman corsairs, were Ottoman pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa, based primarily in the ports of Salé, Rabat, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli.

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Bauxite

Bauxite is a sedimentary rock with a relatively high aluminium content.

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BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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BBC World Service

The BBC World Service, the world's largest international broadcaster, broadcasts radio and television news, speech and discussions in over 30 languages to many parts of the world on analogue and digital shortwave platforms, Internet streaming, podcasting, satellite, DAB, FM and MW relays.

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Bead

A bead is a small, decorative object that is formed in a variety of shapes and sizes of a material such as stone, bone, shell, glass, plastic, wood or pearl and with a small hole for threading or stringing.

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Bedouin

The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.

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Benin

Benin (Bénin), officially the Republic of Benin (République du Bénin) and formerly Dahomey, is a country in West Africa.

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Berber languages

The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.

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Berbers

Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.

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Berlin Conference

The Berlin Conference of 1884–85, also known as the Congo Conference (Kongokonferenz) or West Africa Conference (Westafrika-Konferenz), regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power.

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Biblical Hebrew

Biblical Hebrew (rtl Ivrit Miqra'it or rtl Leshon ha-Miqra), also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of Hebrew, a Canaanite Semitic language spoken by the Israelites in the area known as Israel, roughly west of the Jordan River and east of the Mediterranean Sea.

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Bissau

Bissau is the capital city of the African Republic of Guinea-Bissau.

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Bloemfontein

Bloemfontein (Afrikaans and Dutch "fountain of flowers" or "blooming fountain"; also known as Bloem) is the capital city of the province of Free State of South Africa; and, as the judicial capital of the nation, one of South Africa's three national capitals (the other two being Cape Town, the legislative capital, and Pretoria, the administrative capital) and is the seventh largest city in South Africa.

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Blues

Blues is a music genre and musical form originated by African Americans in the Deep South of the United States around the end of the 19th century.

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Botswana

Botswana, officially the Republic of Botswana (Lefatshe la Botswana), is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa.

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Brazzaville

Brazzaville is the capital and largest city of the Republic of the Congo and is on the north side of the Congo River, opposite Kinshasa.

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British diaspora in Africa

The British diaspora in Africa is a population group broadly defined as English-speaking white Africans of mainly (but not only) British descent who live in or come from Sub-Saharan Africa.

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Buddhism

Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Bujumbura

Bujumbura, (formerly Usumbura), is the capital, largest city, and main port of Burundi.

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Burkina Faso

Burkina Faso is a landlocked country in West Africa.

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Burundi

Burundi, officially the Republic of Burundi (Republika y'Uburundi,; République du Burundi, or), is a landlocked country in the African Great Lakes region of East Africa, bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and south, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west.

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Cairo

Cairo (القاهرة) is the capital of Egypt.

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Calestous Juma

Calestous Juma FRS HonFREng (June 9, 1953 – December 15, 2017) was an internationally recognised authority in the application of science and technology to sustainable development worldwide.

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Caliphate

A caliphate (خِلافة) is a state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (خَليفة), a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire ummah (community).

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Camel

A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back.

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Camel train

A camel train or caravan is a series of camels carrying passengers and/or goods on a regular or semi-regular service between points.

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Cameroon

No description.

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Canary Islands

The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.

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Cap-Vert

Cap-Vert or the Cape Verde Peninsula is a peninsula in Senegal, and the westernmost point of the continent of Africa and of the Old World mainland.

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Cape Agulhas

Cape Agulhas (Cabo das Agulhas, "Cape of the Needles") is a rocky headland in Western Cape, South Africa.

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Cape Coloureds

In Southern Africa, Cape Coloureds is the name given to an ethnic group composed primarily of persons of mixed race.

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Cape Guardafui

Cape Guardafui (Gees Gardafuul), also known historically as Aromata promontorium, is a headland in the autonomous Puntland region in Somalia.

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Cape Town

Cape Town (Kaapstad,; Xhosa: iKapa) is a coastal city in South Africa.

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Cape Verde

Cape Verde or Cabo Verde (Cabo Verde), officially the Republic of Cabo Verde, is an island country spanning an archipelago of 10 volcanic islands in the central Atlantic Ocean.

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Capital city

A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.

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Carnation Revolution

The Carnation Revolution (Revolução dos Cravos), also referred to as the 25th of April (vinte e cinco de Abril), was initially a military coup in Lisbon, Portugal, on 25 April 1974 which overthrew the authoritarian regime of the Estado Novo.

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Carnivore

A carnivore, meaning "meat eater" (Latin, caro, genitive carnis, meaning "meat" or "flesh" and vorare meaning "to devour"), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.

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Carthage

Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.

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Casablanca

Casablanca (ad-dār al-bayḍāʾ; anfa; local informal name: Kaẓa), located in the central-western part of Morocco bordering the Atlantic Ocean, is the largest city in Morocco.

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Cataracts of the Nile

The Cataracts of the Nile are shallow lengths (or white water rapids) of the Nile River, between Aswan and Khartoum, where the surface of the water is broken by many small boulders and stones jutting out of the river bed, as well as many rocky islets.

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Cattle

Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.

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Celts

The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.

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Central Africa

Central Africa is the core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda.

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Central African Republic

The Central African Republic (CAR; Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka; République centrafricaine, or Centrafrique) is a landlocked country in Central Africa.

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Ceuta

Ceuta (also;; Berber language: Sebta) is an Spanish autonomous city on the north coast of Africa, separated by 14 kilometres from Cadiz province on the Spanish mainland by the Strait of Gibraltar and sharing a 6.4 kilometre land border with M'diq-Fnideq Prefecture in the Kingdom of Morocco.

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Chad

Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.

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Cheetah

List |F. jubata Erxleben, 1777 |F. jubatus Schreber, 1775 |Felis guttata Hermann, 1804 |F. venatica Griffith, 1821 |Acinonyx venator Brookes, 1828 |F. fearonii Smith, 1834 |F. megaballa Heuglin, 1868 |C. jubatus Blanford, 1888 |Cynælurus jubata Mivart, 1900 |C. guttatus Hollister, 1911 --> The cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) is a large cat of the subfamily Felinae that occurs in Southern, North and East Africa, and a few localities in Iran. The species is IUCN Red Listed as vulnerable, as it suffered a substantial decline in its historic range in the 20th century due to habitat loss, poaching, illegal pet trade, and conflict with humans. By 2016, the global cheetah population has been estimated at approximately 7,100 individuals in the wild. Several African countries have taken steps to improve cheetah conservation measures. It is the fastest land animal. The only extant member of the genus Acinonyx, the cheetah was formally described by Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber in 1775. The cheetah is characterised by a slender body, deep chest, spotted coat, small rounded head, black tear-like streaks on the face, long thin legs and long spotted tail. Its lightly built, slender form is in sharp contrast with the robust build of the big cats, making it more similar to the cougar. The cheetah reaches nearly at the shoulder, and weighs. Though taller than the leopard, it is notably smaller than the lion. Typically yellowish tan or rufous to greyish white, the coat is uniformly covered with nearly 2,000 solid black spots. Cheetahs are active mainly during the day, with hunting their major activity. Adult males are sociable despite their territoriality, forming groups called coalitions. Females are not territorial; they may be solitary or live with their offspring in home ranges. Carnivores, cheetah mainly prey upon antelopes and gazelles. They will stalk their prey to within, charge towards it and kill it by tripping it during the chase and biting its throat to suffocate it to death. Cheetahs can reach speeds of in short bursts, but this is disputed by more recent measurements. The average speed of cheetahs is about. Cheetahs are induced ovulators, breeding throughout the year. Gestation is nearly three months long, resulting in a litter of typically three to five cubs (the number can vary from one to eight). Weaning occurs at six months; siblings tend to stay together for some time. Cheetah cubs face higher mortality than most other mammals, especially in the Serengeti region. Cheetahs inhabit a variety of habitatsdry forests, scrub forests and savannahs. Because of its prowess at hunting, the cheetah was tamed and used to kill game at hunts in the past. The animal has been widely depicted in art, literature, advertising and animation.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Christian

A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.

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Christianity

ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Christianity in Africa

Christianity in Africa began in Egypt in the middle of the 1st century.

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Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Chromium

Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.

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Church of Saint George, Lalibela

The Church of Saint George (Bete Giyorgis) is one of eleven rock-hewn monolithic churches in Lalibela, a city in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia.

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Civilization

A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.

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Clade

A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".

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Coat of arms

A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard.

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Cobalt

Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.

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Cocoa bean

The cocoa bean, also called cacao bean, cocoa, and cacao, is the dried and fully fermented seed of Theobroma cacao, from which cocoa solids and, because of the seed's fat, cocoa butter can be extracted.

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).

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Colonialism

Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.

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Colonization

Colonization (or colonisation) is a process by which a central system of power dominates the surrounding land and its components.

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Colony

In history, a colony is a territory under the immediate complete political control of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign.

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Coltan

Coltan (short for columbite–tantalites and known industrially as tantalite) is a dull black metallic ore, from which the elements niobium and tantalum are extracted.

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Comoros

The Comoros (جزر القمر), officially the Union of the Comoros (Comorian: Udzima wa Komori, Union des Comores, الاتحاد القمري), is a sovereign archipelago island nation in the Indian Ocean located at the northern end of the Mozambique Channel off the eastern coast of Africa between northeastern Mozambique and northwestern Madagascar.

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Conakry

Conakry (Sosso: Kɔnakiri) is the capital and largest city of Guinea.

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Confederation of African Football

The Confederation of African Football or CAF (Confédération Africaine de Football) is the administrative and controlling body for African association football.

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Confucianism

Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.

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Constitutive Act of the African Union

The Constitutive Act of the African Union sets out the codified framework under which the African Union is to conduct itself.

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Continent

A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world.

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Copper

Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

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Corruption Perceptions Index

Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".

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Country

A country is a region that is identified as a distinct national entity in political geography.

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Coup d'état

A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.

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Cradle of Humankind

The Cradle of Humankind is a paleoanthropological site about northwest of Johannesburg, South Africa, in the Gauteng province.

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Cricket

Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular pitch with a target at each end called the wicket (a set of three wooden stumps upon which two bails sit).

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Crocodile

Crocodiles (subfamily Crocodylinae) or true crocodiles are large aquatic reptiles that live throughout the tropics in Africa, Asia, the Americas and Australia.

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Cushitic languages

The Cushitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.

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Dahomey

The Kingdom of Dahomey was an African kingdom (located within the area of the present-day country of Benin) that existed from about 1600 until 1894, when the last king, Béhanzin, was defeated by the French, and the country was annexed into the French colonial empire.

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Dakar

Dakar is the capital and largest city of Senegal.

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Dar es Salaam

Dar es Salaam (Dar) (from دار السلام, "the house of peace"; formerly Mzizima) is the former capital as well as the most populous city in Tanzania and a regionally important economic centre.

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De facto

In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.

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Decolonisation of Africa

The decolonisation of Africa took place in the mid-to-late 1950s, very suddenly, with little preparation.

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Decolonization

Decolonization (American English) or decolonisation (British English) is the undoing of colonialism: where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over one or more other territories.

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Deforestation

Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.

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Democracy

Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.

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Democratic Republic of the Congo

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.

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Desert

A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.

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Desertification

Desertification is a type of land degradation in which a relatively dry area of land becomes increasingly arid, typically losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife.

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Diamond

Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.

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Diaspora

A diaspora (/daɪˈæspərə/) is a scattered population whose origin lies in a separate geographic locale.

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Diplomatic recognition

Diplomatic recognition in international law is a unilateral political act with domestic and international legal consequences, whereby a state acknowledges an act or status of another state or government in control of a state (may be also a recognized state).

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Divide and rule

Divide and rule (or divide and conquer, from Latin dīvide et imperā) in politics and sociology is gaining and maintaining power by breaking up larger concentrations of power into pieces that individually have less power than the one implementing the strategy.

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Djenné

Djenné (also Djénné, Jenné and Jenne) is a town and an urban commune in the Inland Niger Delta region of central Mali.

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Djibouti

Djibouti (جيبوتي, Djibouti, Jabuuti, Gabuuti), officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.

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Djibouti (city)

Djibouti City (also called Djibouti; مدينة جيبوتي, Ville de Djibouti, Magaalada Jabuuti, Magaala Gabuuti) is the eponymous capital and largest city of Djibouti.

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Dodoma

Dodoma (literally "It has sunk" in Gogo), officially Dodoma City, is the national capital of The United Republic Of Tanzania and the capital of Dodoma Region, with a population of 410,956.

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Dominant minority

A dominant minority is a minority group that has overwhelming political, economic, or cultural dominance in a country, despite representing a small fraction of the overall population (a demographic minority).

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Donkey

The donkey or ass (Equus africanus asinus) is a domesticated member of the horse family, Equidae.

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Dutch people

The Dutch (Dutch), occasionally referred to as Netherlanders—a term that is cognate to the Dutch word for Dutch people, "Nederlanders"—are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands.

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Earth

Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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East Africa

East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern region of the African continent, variably defined by geography.

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East African Rift

The East African Rift (EAR) is an active continental rift zone in East Africa.

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Egypt

Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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Elephant

Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea.

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Enclave and exclave

An enclave is a territory, or a part of a territory, that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Endangered language

An endangered language, or moribund language, is a language that is at risk of falling out of use as its speakers die out or shift to speaking another language.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Epher

Epher (‘Êp̄er) was a grandson of Abraham, according to Gen. 25:4, whose descendants, Jewish historian Flavius Josephus claimed, had invaded Libya.

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Equator

An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).

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Equatorial Guinea

Equatorial Guinea (Guinea Ecuatorial, Guinée équatoriale, Guiné Equatorial), officially the Republic of Equatorial Guinea (República de Guinea Ecuatorial, République de Guinée équatoriale, República da Guiné Equatorial), is a country located in Central Africa, with an area of.

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Eritrea

Eritrea (ኤርትራ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara.

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Estado Novo (Portugal)

The Estado Novo ("New State"), or the Second Republic, was the corporatist authoritarian regime installed in Portugal in 1933, which was considered fascist.

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Ethiopia

Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.

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Ethnic groups in Europe

The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.

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Ethnic nepotism

In sociology, the term ethnic nepotism describes a human tendency for in-group bias or in-group favouritism applied by nepotism for people with the same ethnicity within a multi-ethnic society.

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Etymologiae

Etymologiae (Latin for "The Etymologies"), also known as the Origines ("Origins") and usually abbreviated Orig., is an etymological encyclopedia compiled by Isidore of Seville (c. 560–636) towards the end of his life.

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European exploration of Africa

The geography of North Africa has been reasonably well known among Europeans since classical antiquity in Greco-Roman geography.

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Evolution

Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Expulsion of Asians from Uganda

In early August 1972, the President of Uganda, Idi Amin, ordered the expulsion of his country's Asian minority, giving them 90 days to leave the country.

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Extraction of petroleum

The extraction of petroleum is the process by which usable petroleum is drawn out from beneath the earth's surface location.

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Ferrous metallurgy

Ferrous metallurgy is the metallurgy of iron and its alloys.

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FIFA World Cup

The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.

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Flag

A flag is a piece of fabric (most often rectangular or quadrilateral) with a distinctive design and colors.

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Fon people

The Fon people, also called Fon nu, Agadja or Dahomey, are a major African ethnic and linguistic group.

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Fossil

A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.

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Freetown

Freetown is the capital and largest city of Sierra Leone.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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Frumentius

Saint Frumentius (ፍሬምናጦስ Fremnāṭos; born in Tyre, Eastern Roman Empire, in the early fourth century, died circa 383, Kingdom of Aksum) was the first bishop of Axum, and is credited with bringing Christianity to the Kingdom of Aksum.

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Fula people

The Fula people or Fulani or Fulany or Fulɓe (Fulɓe; Peul; Fulani or Hilani; Fula; Pël; Fulaw), numbering between 40 and 50 million people in total, are one of the largest ethnic groups in the Sahel and West Africa, widely dispersed across the region.

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Funchal

Funchal is the largest city, the municipal seat and the capital of Portugal's Autonomous Region of Madeira, bordered by the Atlantic Ocean.

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Gabon

Gabon, officially the Gabonese Republic (République gabonaise), is a sovereign state on the west coast of Central Africa.

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Gaborone

Gaborone (English) is the capital and largest city of Botswana with a population of 231,626 based on the 2011 census, about 10% of the total population of Botswana.

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Gallia Celtica

Gallia Celtica, meaning "Celtic Gaul" in Latin, was a cultural region of Gaul inhabited by Celts, located in what is now Switzerland, France, Luxembourg and the west bank of the Rhine in Germany.

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Gao

Gao is a city in Mali and the capital of the Gao Region.

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Geary–Khamis dollar

The Geary–Khamis dollar, more commonly known as the international dollar (Int'l. dollar or Intl. dollar, abbreviation: Int'l$., Intl$. or Int$), is a hypothetical unit of currency that has the same purchasing power parity that the U.S. dollar had in the United States at a given point in time.

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General History of Africa

The is a two-phase project undertaken by UNESCO from 1964 to the present.

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Genocide

Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.

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Geopolitics

Geopolitics (from Greek γῆ gê "earth, land" and πολιτική politikḗ "politics") is the study of the effects of geography (human and physical) on politics and international relations.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Ghana

Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa.

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Ghana Empire

The Ghana Empire (700 until 1240), properly known as Awkar (Ghana or Ga'na being the title of its ruler), was located in the area of present-day southeastern Mauritania and western Mali.

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Giraffe

The giraffe (Giraffa) is a genus of African even-toed ungulate mammals, the tallest living terrestrial animals and the largest ruminants.

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Gobir

Gobir (Demonym: Gobirawa) was a city-state in what is now Nigeria.

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Gold

Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.

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Great Pyramid of Giza

The Great Pyramid of Giza (also known as the Pyramid of Khufu or the Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza pyramid complex bordering what is now El Giza, Egypt.

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Great Zimbabwe

Great Zimbabwe is a medieval city in the south-eastern hills of Zimbabwe near Lake Mutirikwe and the town of Masvingo.

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Guerrilla warfare

Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.

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Guinea

Guinea, officially the Republic of Guinea (République de Guinée), is a country on the western coast of Africa.

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Guinea-Bissau

Guinea-Bissau, officially the Republic of Guinea-Bissau (República da Guiné-Bissau), is a sovereign state in West Africa.

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Harare

Harare (officially named Salisbury until 1982) is the capital and most populous city of Zimbabwe.

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Hausa Kingdoms

The Hausa Kingdom, also known as Hausaland, was a collection of states started by the Hausa people, situated between the Niger River and Lake Chad (modern day northern Nigeria).

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Hausa language

Hausa (Yaren Hausa or Harshen Hausa) is the Chadic language (a branch of the Afroasiatic language family) with the largest number of speakers, spoken as a first language by some 27 million people, and as a second language by another 20 million.

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Herbivore

A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.

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Highlife

Highlife is a music genre that originated in Ghana early in the 20th century.

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Hindu

Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.

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Hip hop music

Hip hop music, also called hip-hopMerriam-Webster Dictionary entry on hip-hop, retrieved from: A subculture especially of inner-city black youths who are typically devotees of rap music; the stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rap; also rap together with this music.

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History of the Jews in Africa

African Jewish communities include.

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HIV/AIDS in Africa

HIV/AIDS is a major public health concern and cause of death in many parts of Africa.

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Hominidae

The Hominidae, whose members are known as great apes or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, which includes modern humans and its extinct relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal), and ancestors, such as Homo erectus.

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Homo erectus

Homo erectus (meaning "upright man") is an extinct species of archaic humans that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch.

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Homo ergaster

Homo ergaster (meaning "working man") or African Homo erectus is an extinct chronospecies of the genus Homo that lived in eastern and southern Africa during the early Pleistocene, between about 1.9 million and 1.4 million years ago.

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Homo habilis

Homo habilis was a species of early humans, who lived between roughly 2.1 and 1.5 million years ago.

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Homo sapiens

Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.

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Horn of Africa

The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.

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Human

Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.

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Human Development Index

The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.

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Human migration

Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily in a new location.

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Human rights

Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.

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Human taxonomy

Human taxonomy is the classification of the human species (systematic name Homo sapiens) within zoological taxonomy.

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Hunter-gatherer

A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.

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Hyena

Hyenas or hyaenas (from Greek ὕαινα hýaina) are any feliform carnivoran mammals of the family Hyaenidae.

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Hyksos

The Hyksos (or; Egyptian heqa khasut, "ruler(s) of the foreign countries"; Ὑκσώς, Ὑξώς) were a people of mixed origins, possibly from Western Asia, who settled in the eastern Nile Delta some time before 1650 BC.

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Ian Smith

Ian Douglas Smith (8 April 1919 – 20 November 2007) was a politician, farmer and fighter pilot who served as Prime Minister of Rhodesia (or Southern Rhodesia; today Zimbabwe) from 1964 to 1979.

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Ibadan

Ibadan is the capital and most populous city of Oyo State, Nigeria.

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Ice age

An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.

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Idi Amin

Idi Amin Dada (2816 August 2003) was a Ugandan politician and military officer.

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Ife

Ife (Ifè, also Ilé-Ifẹ̀) is an ancient Yoruba city in south-western Nigeria.

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Ifriqiya

Ifriqiya or Ifriqiyah or el-Maghrib el-Adna (Lower West) was the area during medieval history that comprises what is today Tunisia, Tripolitania (western Libya) and the Constantinois (eastern Algeria); all part of what was previously included in the Africa Province of the Roman Empire.

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Igbo language

Igbo (Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh), is the principal native language of the Igbo people, an ethnic group of southeastern Nigeria.

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Igbo people

The Igbo people (also Ibo," formerly also Iboe, Ebo, Eboe, Eboans, Heebo; natively Ṇ́dị́ Ìgbò) are an ethnic group native to the present-day south-central and southeastern Nigeria.

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Igbo-Ukwu

Igbo-Ukwu (Igbo: Great Igbo) is a town in the Nigerian state of Anambra in the southeastern part of the country.

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Imperialism

Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.

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Index of Africa-related articles

This is an index of articles related to Africa, by country.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indian Ocean

The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).

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Indian subcontinent

The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.

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Indians in Uganda

There is a sizable community of people of Indian origin living in Uganda, but it is less than in previous times.

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Indigenous peoples of Africa

The indigenous people of Africa are those people of Africa whose way of life, attachment or claims to particular lands, and social and political standing in relation to other more dominant groups have resulted in their substantial marginalization within modern African states (namely "politically underprivileged group who have been an ethnic entity in the locality before the present ruling nation took over power").

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International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.

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Irreligion in Africa

Irreligion in Africa, encompassing also atheism in Africa, as well as agnosticism, secular humanism, and general secularism, has been estimated at over tens of millions in various polls.

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Isidore of Seville

Saint Isidore of Seville (Isidorus Hispalensis; c. 560 – 4 April 636), a scholar and, for over three decades, Archbishop of Seville, is widely regarded as the last of the Fathers of the Church, as the 19th-century historian Montalembert put it in an oft-quoted phrase, "The last scholar of the ancient world." At a time of disintegration of classical culture, and aristocratic violence and illiteracy, he was involved in the conversion of the Arian Visigothic kings to Catholicism, both assisting his brother Leander of Seville, and continuing after his brother's death.

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Islam

IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Islam in Africa

Africa was the first continent into which Islam spread from Southwest Asia, during the early 7th century CE.

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Isthmus of Suez

The Isthmus of Suez is the 75-mile-wide (125-km) strip of land.

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Italian Empire

The Italian Empire (Impero Italiano) comprised the colonies, protectorates, concessions, dependencies and trust territories of the Kingdom of Italy and, after 1946, the Italian Republic.

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Italian language

Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.

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Ivan Van Sertima

Ivan Gladstone Van Sertima (26 January 1935 – 25 May 2009) was a Guyanese-born associate professor of Africana Studies at Rutgers University in the United States.

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Ivory Coast

Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire and officially as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a sovereign state located in West Africa.

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Jamestown, Saint Helena

Jamestown is the capital of the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, located on the island of Saint Helena in the South Atlantic Ocean.

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Jazz

Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.

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Jigawa State

Jigawa is a state in central northern Nigeria.

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Johannesburg

Johannesburg (also known as Jozi, Joburg and Egoli) is the largest city in South Africa and is one of the 50 largest urban areas in the world.

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Josephus

Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.

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Juba

Juba (جوبا) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of South Sudan.

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Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.

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Jungle

A jungle is land covered with dense vegetation dominated by trees.

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Kairouan

Kairouan (القيروان, also known as al-Qayrawan), is the capital of the Kairouan Governorate in Tunisia.

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Kalahari Desert

The Kalahari Desert is a large semi-arid sandy savanna in Southern Africa extending for, covering much of Botswana, parts of Namibia and regions of South Africa.

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Kampala

Kampala is the capital and largest city of Uganda.

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Kanem–Bornu Empire

The Kanem–Bornu Empire was an empire that existed in modern Chad and Nigeria.

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Kano

Kano is the state capital of Kano State in North West, Nigeria.

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Kanuri people

The Kanuri people (Kanouri, Kanowri, also Yerwa, Bare Bari and several subgroup names) are an African ethnic group living largely in the lands of the former Kanem and Bornu Empires in Niger, Nigeria and Cameroon.

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Katsina

Katsina is a city (formerly a city-state) and a Local Government Area in northern Nigeria and is the capital of Katsina State.

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Kenya

Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.

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Kenya national cricket team

The Kenya national cricket team has been an associate member of the International Cricket Council (ICC) since 1981; it played its first One Day International in 1996, and its first Twenty20 International in 2007.

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Khartoum

Khartoum is the capital and largest city of Sudan.

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Khoikhoi

The Khoikhoi (updated orthography Khoekhoe, from Khoekhoegowab Khoekhoen; formerly also Hottentots"Hottentot, n. and adj." OED Online, Oxford University Press, March 2018, www.oed.com/view/Entry/88829. Accessed 13 May 2018. Citing G. S. Nienaber, 'The origin of the name “Hottentot” ', African Studies, 22:2 (1963), 65-90,. See also.) are the traditionally nomadic pastoralist non-Bantu indigenous population of southwestern Africa.

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Khoisan languages

The Khoisan languages (also Khoesan or Khoesaan) are a group of African languages originally classified together by Joseph Greenberg.

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Kigali

Kigali is the capital and largest city of Rwanda.

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Kingdom of Aksum

The Kingdom of Aksum (also known as the Kingdom of Axum, or the Aksumite Empire) was an ancient kingdom in what is now northern Ethiopia and Eritrea.

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Kingdom of Benin

The Kingdom of Benin, also known as the Benin Kingdom, was a pre-colonial kingdom in what is now southern Nigeria.

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Kingdom of Nri

The Kingdom of Nri was a medieval polity.

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Kinshasa

Kinshasa (formerly Léopoldville (Léopoldville or Dutch)) is the capital and the largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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Laayoune

Laayoune (Maghrebi Arabic: لعيون Al-ʿAyyūn/El-Aiun,; El Aaiún; Laâyoune; Berber: ⵍⵄⵢⵓⵏ, Leɛyun; Literary Arabic: العيون, literally "The Springs") is the largest city of the disputed territory of Western Sahara currently administered by Morocco.

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Lagos

Lagos is a city in the Nigerian state of Lagos.

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Lalibela

Lalibela (ላሊበላ) is a town in Amhara Region, northern Ethiopia famous for monolithic rock-cut churches.

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Language

Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.

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Language family

A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.

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Languages of Africa

The languages of Africa are divided into six major language families.

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Las Palmas

Las Palmas, officially Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, is a city and capital of Gran Canaria island, in the Canary Islands, on the Atlantic Ocean.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Leopold II of Belgium

Leopold II (9 April 183517 December 1909) reigned as the second King of the Belgians from 1865 to 1909 and became known for the founding and exploitation of the Congo Free State as a private venture.

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Leptis Magna

Leptis Magna (also Lepcis, Berber: Lubta, Neo-Punic: lpqy) was a prominent city in Roman Libya.

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Lesotho

Lesotho officially the Kingdom of Lesotho ('Muso oa Lesotho), is an enclaved country in southern Africa.

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Liberia

Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast.

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Library of Congress

The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.

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Libreville

Libreville is the capital and largest city of Gabon, in western central Africa.

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Libya

Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.

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Lilongwe

Lilongwe is the capital city of Malawi with an estimated population of 1,077,116 for 2015.

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Lincoln Cathedral

Lincoln Cathedral or the Cathedral Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Lincoln, and sometimes St.

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Lion

The lion (Panthera leo) is a species in the cat family (Felidae).

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List of Africans by net worth

The Richest Africans is an annual ranking of the richest African people, compiled and published by the American business magazine Forbes.

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List of continents by GDP (nominal)

This article includes a list of continents of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the market value of all final goods and services from a continent in a given year.

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List of continents by population

This is a list of all major continents' population.

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List of countries and dependencies by area

This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.

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List of countries and dependencies by population

This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population.

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List of countries and dependencies by population density

This is a list of countries and dependent territories ranked by population density, measured by the number of human inhabitants per square kilometer.

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List of countries by past and projected GDP (nominal)

This is an alphabetical list of countries by past and projected gross domestic product (nominal) as ranked by the IMF.

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List of countries by past and projected GDP (PPP)

This is an alphabetical list of countries by past and projected Gross Domestic Product, based on the Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) methodology, not on market exchange rates.

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List of ethnic groups of Africa

The ethnic groups of Africa number in the thousands, with each population generally having its own language (or dialect of a language) and culture.

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List of highest mountain peaks of Africa

This is a list of the highest mountains of Africa.

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List of rulers of Nri

The following is a list of rulers of Nri.

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List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Africa

This is a list of sovereign states and dependent territories in Africa.

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List of states with limited recognition

A number of polities have declared independence and sought diplomatic recognition from the international community as de jure sovereign states, but have not been universally recognised as such.

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List of tallest buildings and structures

The world's tallest artificial structure is the Burj Khalifa in Dubai (of the United Arab Emirates).

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List of transcontinental countries

This is a list of countries located on more than one continent, known as transcontinental states or intercontinental states.

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Lists of cities in Africa

The following are lists of cities in Africa. List of urban agglomerations in Africa.

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Literacy

Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.

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Lomé

Lomé, with a population of 837,437 (metro population 1,570,283), is the capital and largest city of Togo.

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Luanda

Luanda, formerly named São Paulo da Assunção de Loanda, is the capital and largest city in Angola, and the country's most populous and important city, primary port and major industrial, cultural and urban centre.

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Lumber

Lumber (American English; used only in North America) or timber (used in the rest of the English speaking world) is a type of wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production.

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Lusaka

Lusaka is the capital and largest city of Zambia.

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Madagascar

Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.

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Madeira

Madeira is a Portuguese archipelago situated in the north Atlantic Ocean, southwest of Portugal.

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Malabo

Malabo (formerly Santa Isabel) is the capital of Equatorial Guinea and the province of Bioko Norte.

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Malagasy people

The Malagasy (Malgache) are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the island and country of Madagascar.

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Malawi

Malawi (or; or maláwi), officially the Republic of Malawi, is a landlocked country in southeast Africa that was formerly known as Nyasaland.

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Mali

Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton.

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Mali Empire

The Mali Empire (Manding: Nyeni or Niani; also historically referred to as the Manden Kurufaba, sometimes shortened to Manden) was an empire in West Africa from 1230 to 1670.

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Malnutrition

Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.

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Mamoudzou

Mamoudzou (Shimaore Comorian: Momoju) is the capital of the French overseas region and department of Mayotte, in the Indian Ocean.

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Mande languages

The Mande languages are spoken in several countries in Africa by the Mandé people and include Maninka, Mandinka, Soninke, Bambara, Dioula, Bozo, Mende, Susu, and Vai.

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Mandinka people

The Mandinka (also known as Mandenka, Mandinko, Mandingo, Manding or Malinke) are an African ethnic group with an estimated global population of 11 million (the other three largest ethnic groups in Africa being the unrelated Fula, Hausa and Songhai peoples).

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Manganese

Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.

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Maputo

Maputo (formerly named Lourenço Marques until 1976) is the capital and most populous city of Mozambique.

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Maqil

The Maqil (المعقل) were an Arabian nomadic tribe that emigrated to the Maghreb region, with the Banu Hillal and Banu Sulaym tribes, in the 11th century.

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Maseru

Maseru is the capital and largest city of Lesotho.

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Mauritania

Mauritania (موريتانيا; Gànnaar; Soninke: Murutaane; Pulaar: Moritani; Mauritanie), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwestern Africa.

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Mauritius

Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.

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Mayotte

Mayotte (Mayotte,; Shimaore: Maore,; Mahori) is an insular department and region of France officially named the Department of Mayotte (French: Département de Mayotte).

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Mbabane

Mbabane (ÉMbábáne) is the capital and largest city in Swaziland.

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Median

The median is the value separating the higher half of a data sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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Megafauna

In terrestrial zoology, megafauna (from Greek μέγας megas "large" and New Latin fauna "animal life") are large or giant animals.

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Melilla

Melilla (مليلية, Maliliyyah; ⵎⵔⵉⵜⵙ, Mřič) is a Spanish autonomous city located on the north coast of Africa, sharing a border with Morocco, with an area of.

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Midrand

Midrand is an area in central Gauteng Province, South Africa.

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Military

A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.

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Military dictatorship

A military dictatorship (also known as a military junta) is a form of government where in a military force exerts complete or substantial control over political authority.

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Mogadishu

Mogadishu (Muqdisho), known locally as Xamar or Hamar, is the capital and most populous city of Somalia.

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Molefi Kete Asante

Molefi Kete Asante (born Arthur Lee Smith Jr.; August 14, 1942) is an African-American professor.

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Monolithic church

A monolithic church or rock-hewn church is a church made from a single block of stone.

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Monrovia

Monrovia is the capital city of the West African country of Liberia.

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Morocco

Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.

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Moroni, Comoros

Moroni (Arabic: موروني Mūrūnī) is the largest city, federal capital and seat of the government of the Union of the Comoros, a sovereign archipelago nation in the Indian Ocean.

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Mozambique

Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique) is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.

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Multilingualism

Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers.

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Musa I of Mali

Musa I or Mansa Musa was the tenth Mansa, which translates to "sultan", "conqueror", or "emperor", of the wealthy West African Mali Empire.

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Music of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Music of the Democratic Republic of the Congo varies in its different forms.

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Muslim

A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.

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N'Djamena

N’Djamena (N'Djaména; انجمينا Injamīnā) is the capital and largest city of Chad.

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Nairobi

Nairobi is the capital and the largest city of Kenya.

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Namibia

Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.

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Namibia national cricket team

The Namibia cricket team is governed by Cricket Namibia, an associate member of the International Cricket Council (ICC) since 1992, at CricketArchive and became part of the High Performance Program in 2007.

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Nassarius

Nassarius, common name nassa mud snails (USA) or dog whelks (UK), is a genus of minute to medium-sized sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Nassariidae.

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Natural resource

Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind.

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New Imperialism

In historical contexts, New Imperialism characterizes a period of colonial expansion by European powers, the United States, and Japan during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

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New World

The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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Niamey

Niamey is the capital and largest city of the West African country Niger.

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Niger

Niger, also called the Niger officially the Republic of the Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa named after the Niger River.

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Niger–Congo languages

The Niger–Congo languages constitute one of the world's major language families and Africa's largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers and number of distinct languages.

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Nigeria

Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.

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Nilo-Saharan languages

The Nilo-Saharan languages are a proposed family of African languages spoken by some 50–60 million people, mainly in the upper parts of the Chari and Nile rivers, including historic Nubia, north of where the two tributaries of the Nile meet.

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Nilotic peoples

The Nilotic peoples are peoples indigenous to the Nile Valley who speak Nilotic languages, which constitute a large sub-group of the Nilo-Saharan languages spoken in South Sudan, Uganda, Kenya, and northern Tanzania.

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Nomad

A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.

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Non-resident Indian and person of Indian origin

No description.

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North Africa

North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.

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Northern Hemisphere

The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is north of the Equator.

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Nouakchott

Nouakchott (نواكشوط, originally derived from Berber Nawākšūṭ, "place of the winds") page 273.

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Nubia

Nubia is a region along the Nile river encompassing the area between Aswan in southern Egypt and Khartoum in central Sudan.

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Oba (ruler)

Oba means ruler in the Yoruba and Bini languages of contemporary West Africa.

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Official language

An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.

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One Day International

A One Day International (ODI) is a form of limited overs cricket, played between two teams with international status, in which each team faces a fixed number of overs, usually 50.

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Ophir

Ophir is a port or region mentioned in the Bible, famous for its wealth.

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Organisation of African Unity

The Organisation of African Unity (OAU; Organisation de l'unité africaine (OUA)) was established on 25 May 1963 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia with 32 signatory governments.

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Oromo people

The Oromo people (Oromoo; ኦሮሞ, ’Oromo) are an ethnic group inhabiting Ethiopia and parts of Kenya and Somalia.

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Ouagadougou

Ouagadougou (Mossi) is the capital of Burkina Faso and the administrative, communications, cultural, and economic centre of the nation.

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Outline of Africa

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the continent Africa: Africa is the world's second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia.

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Overseas Chinese

No description.

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Oyo Empire

The Oyo Empire was a Yoruba empire of what is today Western and North central Nigeria.

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Paleoanthropology

Paleoanthropology or paleo-anthropology is a branch of archaeology with a human focus, which seeks to understand the early development of anatomically modern humans, a process known as hominization, through the reconstruction of evolutionary kinship lines within the family Hominidae, working from biological evidence (such as petrified skeletal remains, bone fragments, footprints) and cultural evidence (such as stone tools, artifacts, and settlement localities).

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Palm oil

Palm oil is an edible vegetable oil derived from the mesocarp (reddish pulp) of the fruit of the oil palms, primarily the African oil palm Elaeis guineensis, and to a lesser extent from the American oil palm Elaeis oleifera and the maripa palm Attalea maripa.

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Pan-African Parliament

The Pan-African Parliament (PAP), also known as the African Parliament, is the legislative body of the African Union and held its inaugural session in March 2004.

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Paranthropus boisei

Paranthropus boisei or Australopithecus boisei or "Karl Surva" was an early hominin, described as the largest of the genus Paranthropus (robust australopithecines).

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Patriotic Front (Zimbabwe)

The Patriotic Front in Zimbabwe was a coalition of two African Leadership parties: the Zimbabwe African Peoples Union (ZAPU) and the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU) which had worked together to fight against white minority rule in Rhodesia.

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Petroleum

Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.

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Pharaoh

Pharaoh (ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE.

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Phoenicia

Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.

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Phoenician language

Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal (Mediterranean) region then called "Canaan" in Phoenician, Hebrew, Old Arabic, and Aramaic, "Phoenicia" in Greek and Latin, and "Pūt" in the Egyptian language.

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Pied-Noir

Pied-Noir ("Black-Foot"), plural Pieds-Noirs, is a term primarily referring to people of European, mostly ethnic French origin, who were born in Algeria during the period of French rule from 1830 to 1962.

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Planned economy

A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.

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Plate tectonics

Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.

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Platinum

Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.

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Political corruption

Political corruption is the use of powers by government officials or their network contacts for illegitimate private gain.

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Port Louis

Port Louis (Port-Louis, Mauritian Creole: Porlwi poːrlwi) is the capital city of Mauritius.

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Porto-Novo

Porto-Novo (also known as Hogbonu and Ajashe) is the capital of Benin, and was the capital of French Dahomey.

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Portuguese Angola

Portuguese Angola refers to Angola during the historic period when it was a territory under Portuguese rule in southwestern Africa.

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Portuguese Guinea

Portuguese Guinea (Guiné), called the Overseas Province of Guinea from 1951, was a West African colony of Portugal from the late 15th century until 10 September 1974, when it gained independence as Guinea-Bissau.

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Portuguese language

Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.

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Portuguese Mozambique

Portuguese Mozambique (Moçambique) or Portuguese East Africa (África Oriental Portuguesa) are the common terms by which Mozambique is designated when referring to the historic period when it was a Portuguese overseas territory.

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Poverty in Africa

Poverty in Africa refers to the lack of basic human needs faced by certain people in African society.

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Praia

Praia (lit. "beach", in both Portuguese and Cape Verdean Creole), is the capital and largest city of Cape Verde, an island nation in the Atlantic Ocean west of Senegal.

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President's Cup 1997–98

The Kenya Cricket Association President's Cup was a three team ODI cricket tournament that was held in Kenya during the 1997–98 season.

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Presidential system

A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.

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Pretoria

Pretoria is a city in the northern part of Gauteng, South Africa.

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Primate

A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").

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Prime meridian

A prime meridian is a meridian (a line of longitude) in a geographic coordinate system at which longitude is defined to be 0°.

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Protected area

Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values.

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Ptolemaic dynasty

The Ptolemaic dynasty (Πτολεμαῖοι, Ptolemaioi), sometimes also known as the Lagids or Lagidae (Λαγίδαι, Lagidai, after Lagus, Ptolemy I's father), was a Macedonian Greek royal family, which ruled the Ptolemaic Kingdom in Egypt during the Hellenistic period.

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Ptolemaic Kingdom

The Ptolemaic Kingdom (Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.

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Ptolemy

Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.

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Punics

The Punics (from Latin punicus, pl. punici), also known as Carthaginians, were a people from Ancient Carthage (now in Tunisia, North Africa) who traced their origins to the Phoenicians.

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Pygmy peoples

In anthropology, pygmy peoples are ethnic groups whose average height is unusually short.

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Rabat

Rabat (الرِّبَاط,; ⴰⵕⴱⴰⵟ) is the capital city of Morocco and its third largest city with an urban population of approximately 580,000 (2014) and a metropolitan population of over 1.2 million.

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Radiometric dating

Radiometric dating or radioactive dating is a technique used to date materials such as rocks or carbon, in which trace radioactive impurities were selectively incorporated when they were formed.

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Rainforest

Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall in the case of tropical rainforests between, and definitions varying by region for temperate rainforests.

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Ras ben Sakka

Ras ben Sakka is the northmost point of the African continent, located 15 kilometres from Bizerte, the northmost city in Africa on the Mediterranean Sea, 22 kilometres to the northeast of the Ichkeul Lake World Heritage Site, in Tunisia.

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Ras Hafun

Ras Hafun (Ras Xaafuun, رأس حـافـون), also known as Cape Hafun, is a promontory in the northeastern Bari region of Somalia.

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Réunion

Réunion (La Réunion,; previously Île Bourbon) is an island and region of France in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar and southwest of Mauritius.

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Recent African origin of modern humans

In paleoanthropology, the recent African origin of modern humans, also called the "Out of Africa" theory (OOA), recent single-origin hypothesis (RSOH), replacement hypothesis, or recent African origin model (RAO), is the dominant model of the geographic origin and early migration of anatomically modern humans (Homo sapiens).

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Red Sea

The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.

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Reggae

Reggae is a music genre that originated in Jamaica in the late 1960s.

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Republic

A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.

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Republic of the Congo

The Republic of the Congo (République du Congo), also known as the Congo-Brazzaville, the Congo Republic or simply the Congo, is a country in Central Africa.

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Rhodesia

Rhodesia was an unrecognised state in southern Africa from 1965 to 1979, equivalent in territory to modern Zimbabwe.

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Rhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence

The Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) was a statement adopted by the Cabinet of Rhodesia on 11 November 1965, announcing that Rhodesia, a British territory in southern Africa that had governed itself since 1923, now regarded itself as an independent sovereign state.

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Rhodesian Bush War

The Rhodesian Bush War—also known as the Second Chimurenga or the Zimbabwe War of Liberation—was a civil war that took place from July 1964 to December 1979 in the unrecognised country of Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe-Rhodesia).

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Rift

In geology, a rift is a linear zone where the lithosphere is being pulled apart and is an example of extensional tectonics.

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Rock music

Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, and developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and later, particularly in the United Kingdom and in the United States.

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Roman emperor

The Roman Emperor was the ruler of the Roman Empire during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Royal Navy

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.

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Rugby union

Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.

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Rutgers University

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, commonly referred to as Rutgers University, Rutgers, or RU, is an American public research university and is the largest institution of higher education in New Jersey.

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Rwanda

Rwanda (U Rwanda), officially the Republic of Rwanda (Repubulika y'u Rwanda; République du Rwanda), is a sovereign state in Central and East Africa and one of the smallest countries on the African mainland.

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Rwandan genocide

The Rwandan genocide, also known as the genocide against the Tutsi, was a genocidal mass slaughter of Tutsi in Rwanda by members of the Hutu majority government.

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Sahara

The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.

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Saharan rock art

Saharan rock art is a significant area of archaeological study focusing on artwork carved or painted on the natural rocks of the central Sahara desert.

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Saharo-Arabian Region

The Saharo-Arabian Region is a floristic region of the Holarctic Kingdom proposed by Armen Takhtajan.

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Sahel

The Sahel is the ecoclimatic and biogeographic zone of transition in Africa between the Sahara to the north and the Sudanian Savanna to the south.

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Sahelanthropus

Sahelanthropus tchadensis is an extinct homininae species and is probably the ancestor to Orrorin that is dated to about, during the Miocene epoch, possibly very close to the time of the chimpanzee–human divergence.

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Sahelian kingdoms

The Sahelian kingdoms were a series of kingdoms or empires that were centered on the Sahel, the area of grasslands south of the Sahara.

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Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic

The Sahrawi Republic, officially the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR; also romanized with Saharawi; República Árabe Saharaui Democrática; الجمهورية العربية الصحراوية الديمقراطية), is a partially recognized state that controls a thin strip of area in the Western Sahara region and claims sovereignty over the entire territory of Western Sahara, a former Spanish colony and later province.

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Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha

Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha is a British Overseas Territory located in the South Atlantic and consisting of the island of Saint Helena, Ascension Island and the archipelago of Tristan da Cunha.

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Saint-Denis, Réunion

Saint-Denis (or unofficially Saint-Denis de la Réunion for disambiguation) is the préfecture (administrative capital) of the French overseas region and department of Réunion, in the Indian Ocean.

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Samba

Samba is a Brazilian musical genre and dance style, with its roots in Africa via the West African slave trade and African religious traditions, particularly of Angola and the Congo, through the samba de roda genre of the northeastern Brazilian state of Bahia, from which it derived.

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San people

No description.

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Santa Cruz de Tenerife

Santa Cruz de Tenerife (commonly abbreviated as Santa Cruz is a global city (with Sufficiency status) and capital (jointly with Las Palmas) of the Canary Islands, the capital of Province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, and of the island of Tenerife. Santa Cruz has a population of 206,593 (2013) within its administrative limits. The urban zone of Santa Cruz extends beyond the city limits with a population of 507,306 and 538,000 within urban area. It is the second largest city in the Canary Islands and the main city on the island of Tenerife, with nearly half the island population living in or around it. Santa Cruz is located in northeast quadrant of Tenerife, about off the northwestern coast of Africa within the Atlantic Ocean. The distance to the nearest point of mainland Spain is about. Between the 1833 territorial division of Spain and 1927 Santa Cruz de Tenerife was the sole capital of the Canary Islands, until 1927 when a decree ordered that the capital of the Canary Islands be shared, as it remains at present. on wikisource at the official website of the Canary Islands Government The port is of great importance and is the communications hub between Europe, Africa and Americas, with cruise ships arriving from many nations. The city is the focus for domestic and inter-island communications in the Canary Islands. The city is home to the Parliament of the Canary Islands, the Canarian Ministry of the Presidency (shared on a four-year cycle with Las Palmas), one half of the Ministries and Boards of the Canarian Government, (the other half being located in Gran Canaria), the Tenerife Provincial Courts and two courts of the Superior Court of Justice of the Canary Islands. There are several faculties of the La Laguna University in Santa Cruz, including the Fine Arts School and the Naval Sciences Faculty. Its harbour is one of Spain's busiest; it comprises three sectors. It is important for commercial and passenger traffic, as well as for being a major stopover for cruisers en route from Europe to the Caribbean. The city also has one of the world's largest carnivals. The Carnival of Santa Cruz de Tenerife now aspires to become a World Heritage Site, and is the most important of Spain and the second largest in the world. The main landmarks of the city include the Auditorio de Tenerife (Auditorium of Tenerife), the Santa Cruz Towers (Torres de Santa Cruz) and the Iglesia de la Concepción. Santa Cruz de Tenerife hosts the first headquarters of the Center UNESCO in the Canary Islands. In recent years the city of Santa Cruz de Tenerife has seen the construction of a significant number of modern structures and the city's skyline is the sixth in height across the country, only behind Madrid, Benidorm, Barcelona, Valencia and Bilbao. In 2012, the British newspaper The Guardian included Santa Cruz de Tenerife in the list of the five best places in the world to live. The 82% of the municipal territory of Santa Cruz de Tenerife is considered a natural area, this is due in large part to the presence of the Anaga Rural Park. This fact makes Santa Cruz the third largest municipality in Spain with the highest percentage of natural territory, after Cuenca (87%) and Cáceres (83%).

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Savanna

A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close.

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São Tomé

São Tomé is the capital city of the African Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe and is by far the nation's largest town.

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São Tomé and Príncipe

São Tomé and Príncipe, officially the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe, is an island nation in the Gulf of Guinea, off the western equatorial coast of Central Africa.

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Science Daily

Science Daily is an American website that aggregates press releases and publishes lightly edited press releases (a practice called churnalism) about science, similar to Phys.org and EurekAlert!.

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Scramble for Africa

The Scramble for Africa was the occupation, division, and colonization of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism, between 1881 and 1914.

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Second Congo War

The Second Congo War (also known as the Great War of Africa or the Great African War, and sometimes referred to as the African World War) began in August 1998 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, little more than a year after the First Congo War, and involved some of the same issues.

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Semitic languages

The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.

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Senegal

Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.

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Septimius Severus

Septimius Severus (Lucius Septimius Severus Augustus; 11 April 145 – 4 February 211), also known as Severus, was Roman emperor from 193 to 211.

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Seychelles

Seychelles (French), officially the Republic of Seychelles (République des Seychelles; Creole: Repiblik Sesel), is an archipelago and sovereign state in the Indian Ocean.

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Sierra Leone

Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa.

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Sinai Peninsula

The Sinai Peninsula or simply Sinai (now usually) is a peninsula in Egypt, and the only part of the country located in Asia.

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Slavery

Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.

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Snake

Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.

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Soil retrogression and degradation

Soil retrogression and degradation are two regressive evolution processes associated with the loss of equilibrium of a stable soil.

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Somali Plate

The Somali Plate, or Somalian Plate, is a minor tectonic plate, which straddles the equator in the eastern hemisphere.

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Somalia

Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.

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Somalis

Somalis (Soomaali, صوماليون) are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa (Somali Peninsula).

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Songhai Empire

The Songhai Empire (also transliterated as Songhay) was a state that dominated the western Sahel in the 15th and 16th century.

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Songhai people

The Songhai people (also Songhay or Sonrai) are an ethnic group in West Africa who speak the various Songhai languages.

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Sonni Ali

Sunni Ali, also known as Sunni Ali Ber, was born Ali Kolon.

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Soukous

Soukous (from French secouer, "to shake") is a popular genre of dance music from the Congo Basin.

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.

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South Africa national cricket team

The South African national cricket team, nicknamed the Proteas (after South Africa's national flower, Protea cynaroides, commonly known as the "king protea"), is administered by Cricket South Africa.

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South Sudan

South Sudan, officially known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa.

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Southeast Africa

Southeast Africa or Southeastern Africa is an African region that is intermediate between East Africa and Southern Africa.

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Southern Africa

Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics, and including several countries.

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Southern Hemisphere

The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the Equator.

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Southern Provinces

The Southern Provinces or Moroccan Sahara are the terms used by the Moroccan government for Western Sahara.

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Sovereign state

A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Spanish language

Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.

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Stanford University

Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.

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State religion

A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.

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Steppe

In physical geography, a steppe (p) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.

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Strait of Gibraltar

The Strait of Gibraltar (مضيق جبل طارق, Estrecho de Gibraltar) is a narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar and Peninsular Spain in Europe from Morocco and Ceuta (Spain) in Africa.

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Sub-Saharan Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.

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Subarctic

The subarctic is a region in the Northern Hemisphere immediately south of the true Arctic and covering much of Alaska, Canada, Iceland, the north of Scandinavia, Siberia, and the Shetland Islands.

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Sudan

The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.

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Sudan (region)

The Sudan is the geographic region to the south of the Sahara, stretching from Western to eastern Central Africa.

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Suez Canal

thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.

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Superpower

Superpower is a term used to describe a state with a dominant position, which is characterised by its extensive ability to exert influence or project power on a global scale.

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Swahili coast

The Swahili Coast is a coastal area in Southeast Africa inhabited by the Swahili people.

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Swahili language

Swahili, also known as Kiswahili (translation: coast language), is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people.

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Swahili people

The Swahili people (or Waswahili) are an ethnic and cultural group inhabiting East Africa.

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Swaziland

Swaziland, officially the Kingdom of Eswatini since April 2018 (Swazi: Umbuso weSwatini), is a landlocked sovereign state in Southern Africa.

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Tantalite

The mineral group tantalite is the primary source of the chemical element tantalum.

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Tantalum capacitor

A tantalum electrolytic capacitor is an electrolytic capacitor, a passive component of electronic circuits.

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Tanzania

Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.

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Tassili n'Ajjer

Tassili n'Ajjer (Tasili n Ajjer, طاسيلي ناجر; "Plateau of the Rivers") is a national park in the Sahara desert, located on a vast plateau in south-east Algeria.

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Temperate climate

In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.

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Territory

A territory is an administrative division, usually an area that is under the jurisdiction of a state.

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Test cricket

Test cricket is the longest form of the sport of cricket and is considered its highest standard.

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Thabo Mbeki

Thabo Mvuyelwa Mbeki (born 18 June 1942) is a South African politician who served as the second President of South Africa from 14 June 1999 to 24 September 2008.

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The Gambia

No description.

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Tigrayans

Tigrayans (ተጋሩ) also called Agazian, are an ethnolinguistic group primarily inhabiting the Eritrean highlands and the northern Tigray region of Ethiopia.

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Timbuktu

Timbuktu, also spelt Tinbuktu, Timbuctoo and Timbuktoo (Tombouctou; Koyra Chiini: Tumbutu), is an ancient city in Mali, situated north of the Niger River.

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Togo

Togo, officially the Togolese Republic (République Togolaise), is a sovereign state in West Africa bordered by Ghana to the west, Benin to the east and Burkina Faso to the north.

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Traditional African religions

The traditional African religions (or traditional beliefs and practices of African people) are a set of highly diverse beliefs that include various ethnic religions.

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Trans-Saharan trade

Trans-Saharan trade requires travel across the Sahara (north and south) to reach sub-Saharan Africa from the North African coast, Europe, to the Levant.

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Tripoli

Tripoli (طرابلس,; Berber: Oea, or Wy't) is the capital city and the largest city of Libya, with a population of about 1.1 million people in 2015.

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Tripolitania

Tripolitania or Tripolitana (طرابلس, Berber: Ṭrables, from Vulgar Latin *Trapoletanius, from Latin Regio Tripolitana, from Greek Τριπολιτάνια) is a historic region and former province of Libya.

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Tropical climate

A tropical climate in the Köppen climate classification is a non-arid climate in which all twelve months have mean temperatures of at least.

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Tuareg people

The Tuareg people (also spelt Twareg or Touareg; endonym: Kel Tamasheq, Kel Tagelmust) are a large Berber ethnic confederation.

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Tunis

Tunis (تونس) is the capital and the largest city of Tunisia.

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Tunisia

Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.

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Tyre, Lebanon

Tyre (صور, Ṣūr; Phoenician:, Ṣūr; צוֹר, Ṣōr; Tiberian Hebrew, Ṣōr; Akkadian:, Ṣurru; Greek: Τύρος, Týros; Sur; Tyrus, Տիր, Tir), sometimes romanized as Sour, is a district capital in the South Governorate of Lebanon.

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Uganda

Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.

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UNESCO

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.

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Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence

The Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence was issued by the government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 28 February 1922.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations Environment Programme

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency of United Nations and coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.

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United Nations geoscheme for Africa

The following is an alphabetical list of subregions in the United Nations geoscheme for Africa, used by the UN and maintained by the UNSD department for statistical purposes.

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United States Army Africa

United States Army Africa (USARAF), also known as the Southern European Task Force (SETAF), is the United States Army service component command of United States Africa Command (USAFRICOM or AFRICOM).

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United States dollar

The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.

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Uranium

Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.

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Urbanization in Africa

The urbanization of most of Africa is moving fast forward, especially south of the Sahara.

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UTC+04:00

UTC+04:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +04.

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UTC−01:00

UTC−01:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of −01.

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V. S. Naipaul

Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad "Vidia" Naipaul, TC (born 17 August 1932), is an Indo-Caribbean writer and Nobel Laureate who was born in Trinidad with British citizenship.

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Vandals

The Vandals were a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes that first appear in history inhabiting present-day southern Poland.

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Victoria, Seychelles

Victoria is the capital city of Seychelles and is situated on the north-eastern side of Mahé island, the archipelago's main island.

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War in Darfur

The War in Darfur is a major armed conflict in the Darfur region of Sudan, that began in February 2003 when the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) rebel groups began fighting the government of Sudan, which they accused of oppressing Darfur's non-Arab population.

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West Africa

West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.

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West Africa Squadron

The Royal Navy established the West Africa Squadron at substantial expense in 1808 after Parliament passed the Slave Trade Act of 1807.

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West African Vodun

Vodun (meaning spirit in the Fon and Ewe languages, with a nasal high-tone u; also spelled Vodon, Vodoun, Vodou, Voudou, Voodoo, etc.) is practiced by the Fon people of Benin, and southern and central Togo; as well in Ghana, and Nigeria.

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Western Asia

Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.

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Western Sahara

Western Sahara (الصحراء الغربية, Taneẓroft Tutrimt, Spanish and French: Sahara Occidental) is a disputed territory in the Maghreb region of North Africa, partially controlled by the self-proclaimed Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and partially Moroccan-occupied, bordered by Morocco proper to the north, Algeria to the northeast, Mauritania to the east and south, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.

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White Africans of European ancestry

White Africans are people of European descent residing in, or hailing from, Africa who identify themselves as (or are identified as) white.

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Wildlife

Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal species, but has come to include all plants, fungi, and other organisms that grow or live wild in an area without being introduced by humans.

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Windhoek

Windhoek (Windhuk; ǀAiǁgams; Otjomuise) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Namibia.

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Wolof people

The Wolof people are a West African ethnic group found in northwestern Senegal, The Gambia and southwestern coastal Mauritania.

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World Bank

The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.

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World Book Encyclopedia

The World Book Encyclopedia is an encyclopedia published in the United States.

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World Meteorological Organization

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) is an intergovernmental organization with a membership of 191 Member States and Territories.

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World population

In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have reached 7.6 billion people as of May 2018.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Yafran

Yafran (يفرن), also spelled Jefren, Yefren, Yifran, Yifrin or Ifrane, is a city in northwestern Libya, in the Jabal al Gharbi District in the western Nafusa Mountains.

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Yamoussoukro

Yamoussoukro is the political capital and administrative capital of Ivory Coast and an autonomous district of the country.

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Yaoundé

Yaoundé (Jaunde) is the capital of Cameroon and, with a population of approximately 2.5 million, the second largest city in the country after the port city Douala.

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Yoruba language

Yoruba (Yor. èdè Yorùbá) is a language spoken in West Africa.

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Yoruba people

The Yoruba people (name spelled also: Ioruba or Joruba;, lit. 'Yoruba lineage'; also known as Àwon omo Yorùbá, lit. 'Children of Yoruba', or simply as the Yoruba) are an ethnic group of southwestern and north-central Nigeria, as well as southern and central Benin.

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Zagros Mountains

The Zagros Mountains (کوه‌های زاگرس; چیاکانی زاگرۆس) form the largest mountain range in Iran, Iraq and southeastern Turkey.

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Zaire

Zaire, officially the Republic of Zaire (République du Zaïre), was the name for the Democratic Republic of the Congo that existed between 1971 and 1997 in Central Africa.

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Zambia

Zambia, officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in south-central Africa, (although some sources prefer to consider it part of the region of east Africa) neighbouring the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west.

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Zarma people

The Zarma people are an ethnic group predominantly found in westernmost Niger also found in significant numbers in the adjacent areas of Nigeria and Benin, along with smaller numbers in Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast and Ghana.

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Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.

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Zimbabwe national cricket team

The Zimbabwe national cricket team is administered by Zimbabwe Cricket (formerly known as the Zimbabwe Cricket Union or ZCU).

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14th & 15th century Africa

In the 14th and 15th century the main civilizations and kingdoms in Africa were the Mali Empire, Kingdom of Kongo, Benin Kingdom, Hausa City-states, Great Zimbabwe, Ethiopian Empire, Kilwa Sultanate and the Ajuran Sultanate.

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1983–1985 famine in Ethiopia

A widespread famine affected Ethiopia from 1983 to 1985.

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2002 Morocco Cup

The 2002 Morocco Cup was a three-team cricket tournament which took place in Tangier, Morocco during August 2002.

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2003 Cricket World Cup

The 2003 Cricket World Cup (known officially as ICC Cricket World Cup 2003) was the eighth Cricket World Cup, organized by the International Cricket Council (ICC).

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2007–08 world food price crisis

World food prices increased dramatically in 2007 and the first and second quarter of 2008, creating a global crisis and causing political and economic instability and social unrest in both poor and developed nations.

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2010 FIFA World Cup

The 2010 FIFA World Cup was the 19th FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national association football teams.

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2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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Redirects here:

AFRICA, AfricA, Africa (etymology), African Continent, African continent, African politics, Africay, Biodiversity in Africa, Continent of Africa, Name of Africa, Politics in Africa, Politics of Africa.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Africa

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