163 relations: Akodon, Allele, Amelogenin, AMELX, AMELY, Androgen insensitivity syndrome, Aneuploidy, Arbitrary unit, Arctic lemming, Autosome, Azoospermia, Azoospermia factor, Base pair, Bonobo, BPY2, Bryn Mawr College, Cancer, Cell (biology), Cell (journal), Cell division, Centromere, Chimpanzee, Chromosomal translocation, Chromosome, Clarence Erwin McClung, Consensus CDS Project, Creeping vole, Cricetidae, DAZ1, DAZ2, DDX3Y, Defeminization, Developmental disability, DFNY1, DNA, DNA annotation, Drosophila, Drosophila melanogaster, Ectotherm, Edmund Beecher Wilson, Ensembl genome database project, Entropy rate, Eutheria, Extrapolation, Fisher's principle, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, G banding, Gamete, Gametogenesis, GC-content, ..., Gene, Gene conversion, Gene desert, Gene prediction, Genealogical DNA test, Genealogy, Genetic drift, Genetic genealogy, Genetic recombination, Genetics, Gorilla, Haematopoiesis, Hairy-fronted muntjac, Haplodiploidy, Harvard University Press, Hermann Henking, Homology (biology), HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee, Human, Human genome, Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, Intersex, Japanese rice fish, Karyotype, Klinefelter syndrome, List of Y-chromosome haplogroups in populations of the world, List of Y-STR markers, Locus (genetics), LZ77 and LZ78, Mammal, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mealworm, Meiosis, Mitochondrial DNA, Mitosis, Monotreme, Mosaic (genetics), Muller's ratchet, Muridae, Mutation rate, National Center for Biotechnology Information, Natural selection, Nature (journal), Nettie Stevens, Non-coding DNA, Non-coding RNA, Nondisjunction, Offspring, Palindrome, Patricia Jacobs, PCDH11X, PCDHY, Phenotype, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, Platypus, Polysomy, PRKY, Protein, Pseudoautosomal region, Pseudogene, Reference genome, Reptile, RNA binding motif protein, Y-linked, family 1, member A1, Rodent, RPS4X, Ryukyu spiny rat, Scotland, Sex, Sex chromosome, Sex ratio, Sex-determination system, Sexual reproduction, Single-nucleotide polymorphism, Species, Sperm, Stem cell, Telomere, Testicle, Testis-determining factor, Theria, Tobacco smoking, Tokudaia, Tokunoshima spiny rat, Transcaucasian mole vole, Triple X syndrome, TSPY1, Turner syndrome, UCSC Genome Browser, UniProt, USP9Y, UTY (gene), Vertebrate, Virilization, W. D. Hamilton, Wood lemming, X chromosome, XX male syndrome, XXYY syndrome, XY gonadal dysgenesis, XY sex-determination system, XYY syndrome, Y chromosome microdeletion, Y linkage, Y-chromosomal Aaron, Y-chromosomal Adam, Y-STR, Zaisan mole vole, ZFY, ZW sex-determination system, Zygosity, 40S ribosomal protein S4, Y isoform 1, 40S ribosomal protein S4, Y isoform 2, 45,X/46,XY mosaicism. Expand index (113 more) » « Shrink index
Akodon is a genus consisting of South American grass mice.
An allele is a variant form of a given gene.
Amelogenin is the name for a series of closely related proteins involved in amelogenesis, the development of enamel.
Amelogenin, X isoform is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AMELX (amelogenin, X isoform) gene.
Amelogenin, Y isoform is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AMELY (amelogenin, Y-linked) gene.
Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is an intersex condition in which there is a partial or complete inability of many cells in the affected genetic male to respond to androgenic hormones.
Aneuploidy is the presence of an abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell, for example a human cell having 45 or 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46.
In science and technology, an arbitrary unit (abbreviated arb. unit, see below) or procedure defined unit (p.d.u.) is a relative unit of measurement to show the ratio of amount of substance, intensity, or other quantities, to a predetermined reference measurement.
The Arctic lemming (Dicrostonyx torquatus) is a species of rodents in the family Cricetidae.
An autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (a sex chromosome).
Azoospermia is the medical condition of a man whose semen contains no sperm.
Azoospermia factor (AZF) refers to one of several proteins or their genes, which are coded from the AZF region on the human male Y chromosome.
A base pair (bp) is a unit consisting of two nucleobases bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.
The bonobo (Pan paniscus), formerly called the pygmy chimpanzee and less often, the dwarf or gracile chimpanzee, is an endangered great ape and one of the two species making up the genus Pan; the other is Pan troglodytes, or the common chimpanzee.
Testis-specific basic protein Y 2 also known as basic charge, Y-linked 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BPY2 gene which resides on the Y chromosome.
Bryn Mawr College (Welsh) is a women's liberal arts college in Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cell is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing research papers across a broad range of disciplines within the life sciences.
Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.
The centromere is the specialized DNA sequence of a chromosome that links a pair of sister chromatids (a dyad).
The taxonomical genus Pan (often referred to as chimpanzees or chimps) consists of two extant species: the common chimpanzee and the bonobo.
In genetics, a chromosome translocation is a chromosome abnormality caused by rearrangement of parts between nonhomologous chromosomes.
A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.
Clarence Erwin McClung (April 5, 1870 – January 17, 1946) was an American biologist who discovered the role of chromosomes in sex determination.
The Consensus Coding Sequence (CCDS) Project is a collaborative effort to maintain a dataset of protein-coding regions that are identically annotated on the human and mouse reference genome assemblies.
The creeping vole (Microtus oregoni), sometimes known as the Oregon meadow mouse, is a small rodent in the family Cricetidae.
The Cricetidae are a family of rodents in the large and complex superfamily Muroidea.
Deleted in azoospermia 1, also known as DAZ1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the DAZ1 gene.
Deleted in azoospermia protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DAZ2 gene.
ATP-dependent RNA helicase DDX3Y is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the DDX3Y gene.
In developmental biology and zoology, defeminization is an aspect of the process of sexual differentiation by which a potential female-specific structure, function, or behavior is changed by one of the processes of male development.
Developmental disability is a diverse group of chronic conditions that are due to mental or physical impairments that arise before adulthood.
Deafness, Y-linked 1 (DFNY1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DFNY1 gene.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
DNA annotation or genome annotation is the process of identifying the locations of genes and all of the coding regions in a genome and determining what those genes do.
Drosophila is a genus of flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called "small fruit flies" or (less frequently) pomace flies, vinegar flies, or wine flies, a reference to the characteristic of many species to linger around overripe or rotting fruit.
Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the family Drosophilidae.
An ectotherm (from the Greek ἐκτός (ektós) "outside" and θερμός (thermós) "hot"), is an organism in which internal physiological sources of heat are of relatively small or quite negligible importance in controlling body temperature.
Edmund Beecher Wilson (19 October 1856 – 3 March 1939) was a pioneering American zoologist and geneticist.
Ensembl genome database project is a joint scientific project between the European Bioinformatics Institute and the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, which was launched in 1999 in response to the imminent completion of the Human Genome Project.
In the mathematical theory of probability, the entropy rate or source information rate of a stochastic process is, informally, the time density of the average information in a stochastic process.
Eutheria (from Greek εὐ-, eu- "good" or "right" and θηρίον, thēríon "beast" hence "true beasts") is one of two mammalian clades with extant members that diverged in the Early Cretaceous or perhaps the Late Jurassic.
In mathematics, extrapolation is the process of estimating, beyond the original observation range, the value of a variable on the basis of its relationship with another variable.
Fisher's principle is an evolutionary model that explains why the sex ratio of most species that produce offspring through sexual reproduction is approximately 1:1 between males and females.
The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, also known as Fred Hutch or The Hutch, is a cancer research institute established in 1972 in Seattle, Washington.
G-banding, G banding, or Giemsa banding is a technique used in cytogenetics to produce a visible karyotype by staining condensed chromosomes.
A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.
Gametogenesis is a biological process by which diploid or haploid precursor cells undergo cell division and differentiation to form mature haploid gametes.
In molecular biology and genetics, GC-content (or guanine-cytosine content) is the percentage of nitrogenous bases on a DNA or RNA molecule that are either guanine or cytosine (from a possibility of four different ones, also including adenine and thymine in DNA and adenine and uracil in RNA).
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Gene conversion is the process by which one DNA sequence replaces a homologous sequence such that the sequences become identical after the conversion event.
Gene deserts are regions of the genome that are devoid of protein-coding genes.
In computational biology, gene prediction or gene finding refers to the process of identifying the regions of genomic DNA that encode genes.
A genealogical DNA test is a DNA-based test which looks at specific locations of a person's genome in order to determine ancestral ethnicity and genealogical relationships.
Genealogy (from γενεαλογία from γενεά, "generation" and λόγος, "knowledge"), also known as family history, is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history.
Genetic drift (also known as allelic drift or the Sewall Wright effect) is the change in the frequency of an existing gene variant (allele) in a population due to random sampling of organisms.
Genetic genealogy is the use of DNA testing in combination with traditional genealogical methods to infer relationships between individuals and find ancestors.
Genetic recombination (aka genetic reshuffling) is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Gorillas are ground-dwelling, predominantly herbivorous apes that inhabit the forests of central Sub-Saharan Africa.
Haematopoiesis (from Greek αἷμα, "blood" and ποιεῖν "to make"; also hematopoiesis in American English; sometimes also haemopoiesis or hemopoiesis) is the formation of blood cellular components.
The hairy-fronted muntjac or black muntjac (Muntiacus crinifrons) is a type of deer currently found in Zhejiang, Anhui, Jiangxi and Fujian in southeastern China.
Haplodiploidy is a sex-determination system in which males develop from unfertilized eggs and are haploid, and females develop from fertilized eggs and are diploid.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Hermann Paul August Otto Henking (16 June 1858 – 28 April 1942) was a cytologist who discovered the X chromosome in 1890 or 1891.
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
The HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) is a committee of the Human Genome Organisation (HUGO) that sets the standards for human gene nomenclature.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
The human genome is the complete set of nucleic acid sequences for humans, encoded as DNA within the 23 chromosome pairs in cell nuclei and in a small DNA molecule found within individual mitochondria.
In human genetics, a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup is a haplogroup defined by mutations in the non-recombining portions of DNA from the Y-chromosome (called Y-DNA).
Intersex people are born with any of several variations in sex characteristics including chromosomes, gonads, sex hormones, or genitals that, according to the UN Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, "do not fit the typical definitions for male or female bodies".
The Japanese rice fish (Oryzias latipes) also known as the medaka, is a member of genus Oryzias (ricefish), the only genus in the subfamily Oryziinae.
A karyotype is the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.
Klinefelter syndrome (KS) also known as 47,XXY or XXY, is the set of symptoms that result from two or more X chromosomes in males.
The following articles are lists of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups found in populations around the world.
The following list of Y-STR markers are commonly used in forensic and genealogical DNA testing.
A locus (plural loci) in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker).
LZ77 and LZ78 are the two lossless data compression algorithms published in papers by Abraham Lempel and Jacob Ziv in 1977 and 1978.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
Mealworms are the larval form of the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, a species of darkling beetle.
Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.
Monotremes are one of the three main groups of living mammals, along with placentals (Eutheria) and marsupials (Metatheria).
In genetics, a mosaic, or mosaicism, involves the presence of two or more populations of cells with different genotypes in one individual, who has developed from a single fertilized egg.
In evolutionary genetics, Muller's ratchet (named after Hermann Joseph Muller, by analogy with a ratchet effect) is a process by which the genomes of an asexual population accumulate deleterious mutations in an irreversible manner.
The Muridae, or murids, are the largest family of rodents and of mammals, containing over 700 species found naturally throughout Eurasia, Africa, and Australia.
In genetics, the mutation rate is the frequency of new mutations in a single gene or organism over time.
The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is part of the United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), a branch of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Nettie Maria Stevens (July 7, 1861 – May 4, 1912) was an early American geneticist.
In genomics and related disciplines, noncoding DNA sequences are components of an organism's DNA that do not encode protein sequences.
A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is an RNA molecule that is not translated into a protein.
Nondisjunction is the failure of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate properly during cell division.
In biology, offspring are the young born of living organisms, produced either by a single organism or, in the case of sexual reproduction, two organisms.
A palindrome is a word, number, or other sequence of characters which reads the same backward as forward, such as madam or racecar.
Patricia Ann Jacobs OBE FRSE FRS FMedSci FRCPath (born 1934) is a Scottish geneticist and is Honorary Professor of Human Genetics, Co-director of Research, Wessex Regional Genetics Laboratory, within Southampton University.
Protocadherin 11 X-linked, also known as PCDH11X, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the PCDH11X gene.
PCDH11Y is a gene unique to human males that encodes Protocadherin 11Y, a protein that guides the development of nerve cells.
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Society.
The platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), sometimes referred to as the duck-billed platypus, is a semiaquatic egg-laying mammal endemic to eastern Australia, including Tasmania.
Polysomy is a condition found in many species, including fungi, plants, insects, and mammals, in which an organism has at least one more chromosome than normal, i.e., there may be three or more copies of the chromosome rather than the expected two copies.
Serine/threonine-protein kinase PRKY is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKY gene.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
The pseudoautosomal regions, PAR1, PAR2, are homologous sequences of nucleotides on the X and Y chromosomes.
Pseudogenes are segments of DNA that are related to real genes.
A reference genome (also known as a reference assembly) is a digital nucleic acid sequence database, assembled by scientists as a representative example of a species' set of genes.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
RNA-binding motif protein, Y chromosome, family 1 member A1/C is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBMY1A1 gene.
Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.
40S ribosomal protein S4, X isoform is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RPS4X gene.
The Ryukyu spiny rat (Tokudaia osimensis) is a species of rodent in the family Muridae.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Organisms of many species are specialized into male and female varieties, each known as a sex. Sexual reproduction involves the combining and mixing of genetic traits: specialized cells known as gametes combine to form offspring that inherit traits from each parent.
An allosome (also referred to as a sex chromosome, heterotypical chromosome, heterochromosome, or idiochromosome) is a chromosome that differs from an ordinary autosome in form, size, and behavior.
The sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a population.
A sex-determination system is a biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an organism.
Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.
A single-nucleotide polymorphism, often abbreviated to SNP (plural), is a variation in a single nucleotide that occurs at a specific position in the genome, where each variation is present to some appreciable degree within a population (e.g. > 1%).
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").
Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.
A telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes.
The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.
Testis-determining factor (TDF), also known as sex-determining region Y (SRY) protein, is a DNA-binding protein (also known as gene-regulatory protein/transcription factor) encoded by the SRY gene that is responsible for the initiation of male sex determination in humans.
Theria (Greek: θηρίον, wild beast) is a subclass of mammals amongst the Theriiformes (the sister taxa to Yinotheria).
Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).
Tokudaia is a genus of murine rodent native to Japan.
The Tokunoshima spiny rat (Tokudaia tokunoshimensis) is a rodent found only on the island of Tokunoshima in the Ryukyu Islands of Japan.
The Transcaucasian mole vole (Ellobius lutescens) is a species of rodent in the family Cricetidae.
Triple X syndrome, also known as trisomy X and 47,XXX, is characterized by the presence of an extra X chromosome in each cell of a female.
Testis-specific Y-encoded protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TSPY1 gene.
Turner syndrome (TS), also known as 45,X or 45,X0, is a condition in which a female is partly or completely missing an X chromosome.
The UCSC Genome Browser is an on-line, and downloadable, genome browser hosted by the University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC).
UniProt is a freely accessible database of protein sequence and functional information, many entries being derived from genome sequencing projects.
Ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, Y-linked (fat facets-like, Drosophila), also known as USP9Y, is an enzyme which in humans is encoded by the USP9Y gene.
Histone demethylase UTY is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the UTY gene.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Virilization or masculinization is the biological development of sex differences, changes that make a male body different from a female body.
William Donald Hamilton, FRS (1 August 1936 – 7 March 2000) was an English evolutionary biologist, widely recognised as one of the most significant evolutionary theorists of the 20th century.
The wood lemming (Myopus schisticolor) is a species of rodents in the family Cricetidae.
The X chromosome is one of the two sex-determining chromosomes (allosomes) in many organisms, including mammals (the other is the Y chromosome), and is found in both males and females.
XX male syndrome is a rare congenital condition where an individual with a female genotype has phenotypically male characteristics that can vary between cases.
XXYY syndrome is a sex chromosome anomaly in which males have an extra X and Y chromosome.
Swyer syndrome, or XY gonadal dysgenesis, is a type of hypogonadism in a person whose karyotype is 46,XY.
The XY sex-determination system is the sex-determination system found in humans, most other mammals, some insects (Drosophila), some snakes, and some plants (Ginkgo).
XYY syndrome is a genetic condition in which a male has an extra Y chromosome.
Y chromosome microdeletion (YCM) is a family of genetic disorders caused by missing gene(s) in the Y chromosome.
Y linkage, which can also be known as sex linkage or holandric inheritance, describes traits that are produced by genes located on the Y chromosome.
Y-chromosomal Aaron is the name given to the hypothesized most recent common ancestor of the majority of the patrilineal Jewish priestly caste known as Kohanim (singular "Kohen", also spelled "Cohen").
In human genetics, the Y-chromosomal most recent common ancestor (Y-MRCA, informally known as Y-chromosomal Adam) is the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) from whom all currently living men are descended patrilineally.
A Y-STR is a short tandem repeat (STR) on the Y-chromosome.
The Zaisan mole vole or eastern mole vole (Ellobius tancrei) is a species of rodent in the family Cricetidae.
Zinc finger Y-chromosomal protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ZFY gene of the Y chromosome.
The ZW sex-determination system is a chromosomal system that determines the sex of offspring in birds, some fish and crustaceans such as the giant river prawn, some insects (including butterflies and moths), and some reptiles, including Komodo dragons.
Zygosity is the degree of similarity of the alleles for a trait in an organism.
40S ribosomal protein S4, Y isoform 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RPS4Y1 gene.
Ribosomal protein S4, Y-linked 2 also known as RPS4Y2 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the RPS4Y2 gene which resides on the Y chromosome.
45,X/46,XY mosaicism, also known as X0/XY mosaicism and mixed gonadal dysgenesis, "45,X/46,XY including Y chromosome rearrangements".
Chromosome Y (human), Chromosomes, human, y, Holandric, Holandric trait, Human chromosome Y, Partial deletion of Y, Y Chromosome, Y Chromosone, Y DNA, Y chromosome (human), Y chromosomes, Y-Chromosome, Y-DNA, Y-chromosome, Y-chromosomes, Y-chromosone, Y-chromsome, Y-gene.