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The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals. [1]

139 relations: Akodon, Albert de la Chapelle, Allele, Allosome, Amelogenin, AMELX, AMELY, Androgen insensitivity syndrome, Aneuploidy, Arctic lemming, Autosome, Azoospermia, Azoospermia factor, Base pair, Bonobo, BPY2, Bryn Mawr College, Cancer, Cell (biology), Cell (journal), Cell division, Chimpanzee, Chromosomal translocation, Chromosome, Clarence Erwin McClung, Creeping vole, Cricetidae, DAZ1, DAZ2, Defeminization, DNA, Drosophila, Drosophila melanogaster, Ectotherm, Edmund Beecher Wilson, Entropy rate, Eutheria, Extrapolation, Fisher's principle, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, G banding, Gamete, Gametogenesis, Gene, Gene conversion, Genealogical DNA test, Genealogy, Genetic drift, Genetic genealogy, Genetic recombination, ..., Genetics, Gorilla, Haematopoiesis, Hairy-fronted muntjac, Haplodiploidy, Harvard University Press, Hermann Henking, Homology (biology), Human, Human genome, Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup, Intersex, Japanese rice fish, Karyotype, Klinefelter syndrome, List of Y-STR markers, LZ77 and LZ78, Mammal, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Mealworm, Meiosis, Mitochondrial DNA, Monotreme, Mosaic (genetics), Muller's ratchet, Muridae, Mutation rate, Nettie Stevens, Noncoding DNA, Nondisjunction, Offspring, Palindrome, Phenotype, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, Platypus, Polysomy, PRKY, Pseudoautosomal region, Reptile, RNA binding motif protein, Y-linked, family 1, member A1, Rodent, RPS4X, RPS4Y1, RPS4Y2, Ryukyu spiny rat, Selection (biology), Sex, Sex ratio, Sex-determination system, Sexual reproduction, Single-nucleotide polymorphism, Species, Sperm, Stem cell, Telomere, Testicle, Testis determining factor, Theria, Tobacco smoking, Tokudaia, Tokudaia tokunoshimensis, Transcaucasian mole vole, Triple X syndrome, TSPY1, Turner syndrome, USP9Y, UTY (gene), Vertebrate, Virilization, W. D. Hamilton, Wood lemming, X chromosome, XX male syndrome, XXYY syndrome, XY gonadal dysgenesis, XY sex-determination system, XYY syndrome, Y chromosome microdeletion, Y linkage, Y-chromosomal Aaron, Y-chromosomal Adam, Y-chromosome haplogroups by populations, Y-STR, Zaisan mole vole, ZFY, Zinc finger, ZW sex-determination system, Zygosity, 45,X/46,XY mosaicism. Expand index (89 more) »


Akodon is a genus consisting of South American grass mice.

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Albert de la Chapelle

Albert de la Chapelle, MD, Ph.D (born 11 February 1933 in Helsinki, Finland) is a Finnish human geneticist.

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An allele, or allel, is one of a number of alternative forms of the same gene or same genetic locus.

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An allosome (also referred to as a sex chromosome, heterotypical chromosome, heterochromosome, or idiochromosome) is a chromosome that differs from an ordinary autosome in form, size, and behavior.

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Amelogenin is the name for a series of closely related proteins involved in amelogenesis, the development of enamel.

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Amelogenin, X isoform is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AMELX (amelogenin, X isoform) gene.

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Amelogenin, Y isoform is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AMELY (amelogenin, Y-linked) gene.

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Androgen insensitivity syndrome

Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is a condition that results in the partial or complete inability of the cell to respond to androgens (androgenic hormones) that stimulate or control the development and maintenance of male physiological characteristics by binding to androgen receptors.

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Aneuploidy is the presence of an abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell, such as having 45 or 47 chromosomes when 46 is expected.

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Arctic lemming

The Arctic lemming (Dicrostonyx torquatus) is a species of rodents in the family Cricetidae.

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An autosome is a chromosome that is not an allosome (i.e., not a sex chromosome).

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Azoospermia is the medical condition of a man not having any measurable level of sperm in his semen.

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Azoospermia factor

Azoospermia factor (AZF) refers to one of several proteins or their genes, which are coded from the AZF region on the human male Y chromosome.

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Base pair

Base pairs (unit: bp), which form between specific nucleobases (also termed nitrogenous bases), are the building blocks of the DNA double helix and contribute to the folded structure of both DNA and RNA.

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The bonobo (Pan paniscus), formerly called the pygmy chimpanzee and less often, the dwarf or gracile chimpanzee, is an endangered great ape and one of the two species making up the genus Pan; the other is Pan troglodytes, or the common chimpanzee.

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Testis-specific basic protein Y 2 also known as basic charge, Y-linked 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BPY2 gene which resides on the Y chromosome.

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Bryn Mawr College

Bryn Mawr College (Welsh) is a women's liberal arts college in Bryn Mawr, a community in Lower Merion Township, in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania, west of Philadelphia.

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Cancer, also known as a malignant tumor or malignant neoplasm, is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cell (journal)

Cell is a peer-reviewed scientific journal publishing research papers across a broad range of disciplines within the life sciences.

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Cell division

Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.

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Chimpanzees, colloquially called chimps, are two extant hominid species of apes in the genus Pan.

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Chromosomal translocation

In genetics, a chromosome translocation is a chromosome abnormality caused by rearrangement of parts between nonhomologous chromosomes.

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A chromosome (''chromo-'' + ''-some'') is a packaged and organized structure containing most of the DNA of a living organism.

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Clarence Erwin McClung

Clarence Erwin McClung (April 5, 1870 – January 17, 1946) was an American biologist who discovered the role of chromosomes in sex determination.

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Creeping vole

The creeping vole (Microtus oregoni), sometimes known as the Oregon meadow mouse, is a small rodent in the family Cricetidae.

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The Cricetidae are a family of rodents in the large and complex superfamily Muroidea.

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Deleted in azoospermia 1, also known as DAZ1, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the DAZ1 gene.

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Deleted in azoospermia protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DAZ2 gene.

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In developmental biology and zoology, defeminization is an aspect of the process of sexual differentiation by which a potential female-specific structure, function, or behavior is prevented from developing by one of the processes of male development.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a molecule that carries most of the genetic instructions used in the development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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Drosophila is a genus of small flies, belonging to the family Drosophilidae, whose members are often called "fruit flies" or (less frequently) pomace flies, vinegar flies, or wine flies, a reference to the characteristic of many species to linger around overripe or rotting fruit.

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Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the family Drosophilidae.

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An ectotherm, from the Greek εκτός (ektós) "outside" and θερμός (thermós) "hot", is an organism in which internal physiological sources of heat are of relatively small or quite negligible importance in controlling body temperature.

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Edmund Beecher Wilson

Edmund Beecher Wilson (19 October 1856 – 3 March 1939) was a pioneering American zoologist and geneticist.

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Entropy rate

In the mathematical theory of probability, the entropy rate or source information rate of a stochastic process is, informally, the time density of the average information in a stochastic process.

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Eutheria (from Greek εὐ-, eu- "true/good" and θηρίον, thēríon "beast" hence "true beasts") is one of two mammalian clades with extant members that diverged in the Early Cretaceous or perhaps the Late Jurassic.

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In mathematics, extrapolation is the process of estimating, beyond the original observation range, the value of a variable on the basis of its relationship with another variable.

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Fisher's principle

Fisher's principle is an evolutionary model that explains why the sex ratio of most species which produce offspring through sexual reproduction is approximately 1:1 between males and females.

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Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center

The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center is a cancer research institute established in 1972 in Seattle, Washington.

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G banding

G-banding, G banding, or Giemsa banding is a technique used in cytogenetics to produce a visible karyotype by staining condensed chromosomes.

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A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete "wife") is a cell that fuses with another cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.

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Gametogenesis is a biological process by which diploid or haploid precursor cells undergo cell division and differentiation to form mature haploid gametes.

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A gene is a locus (or region) of DNA that encodes a functional RNA or protein product, and is the molecular unit of heredity.

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Gene conversion

Gene conversion is the process by which one DNA sequence replaces a homologous sequence such that the sequences become identical after the conversion event.

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Genealogical DNA test

A genealogical DNA test looks at a person's genome at specific locations.

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Genealogy (from γενεά, "generation"; and λόγος, "knowledge"), also known as family history, is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history.

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Genetic drift

Genetic drift (or allelic drift) is the change in the frequency of a gene variant (allele) in a population due to random sampling of organisms.

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Genetic genealogy

Genetic genealogy is the use of DNA testing in combination with traditional genealogy and traditional genealogical and historical records to infer relationships between individuals.

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Genetic recombination

Genetic recombination is the production of offspring with combinations of traits that differ from those found in either parent.

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Genetics is the study of genes, heredity, and genetic variation in living organisms.

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Gorillas are ground-dwelling, predominantly herbivorous apes that inhabit the forests of central Africa.

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Haematopoiesis (from Greek αἷμα, "blood" and ποιεῖν "to make"; also hematopoiesis in American English; sometimes also haemopoiesis or hemopoiesis) is the formation of blood cellular components.

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Hairy-fronted muntjac

The hairy-fronted muntjac or black muntjac (Muntiacus crinifrons) is a type of deer currently found in Zhejiang, Anhui, Jiangxi and Fujian in southeastern China.

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Haplodiploidy is a sex-determination system in which males develop from unfertilized eggs and are haploid, and females develop from fertilized eggs and are diploid.

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Harvard University Press

Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.

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Hermann Henking

Hermann Henking (1858 - 1942) was a cytologist who discovered the X chromosome in 1890 or 1891.

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Homology (biology)

In the context of biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different species.

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Modern humans (Homo sapiens, primarily ssp. Homo sapiens sapiens) are the only extant members of the hominin clade (or human clade), a branch of the great apes; they are characterized by erect posture and bipedal locomotion, manual dexterity and increased tool use, and a general trend toward larger, more complex brains and societies.

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Human genome

The human genome is the complete set of nucleic acid sequence for humans (Homo sapiens), encoded as DNA within the 23 chromosome pairs in cell nuclei and in a small DNA molecule found within individual mitochondria.

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Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup

In human genetics, a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup is a haplogroup defined by differences in the non-recombining portions of DNA from the Y chromosome (called Y-DNA).

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Intersex, in humans and other animals, is a variation in sex characteristics including chromosomes, gonads, or genitals that do not allow an individual to be distinctly identified as male or female.

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Japanese rice fish

The Japanese rice fish (Oryzias latipes), also known as the medaka and Japanese killifish, is a member of genus Oryzias (ricefish), the only genus in the subfamily Oryziinae.

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A karyotype (from Greek κάρυον karyon, "kernel", "seed", or "nucleus", and τύπος typos, "general form") is the number and appearance of chromosomes in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell.

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Klinefelter syndrome

Klinefelter syndrome or Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) also known as 47,XXY or XXY, is the set of symptoms that result from two or more X chromosome in males.

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List of Y-STR markers

The following list of Y-STR markers are commonly used in forensic and genealogical DNA testing.

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LZ77 and LZ78

LZ77 and LZ78 are the two lossless data compression algorithms published in papers by Abraham Lempel and Jacob Ziv in 1977 and 1978.

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Mammals (class Mammalia from Latin mamma "breast") are any members of a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles and birds by the possession of hair, three middle ear bones, mammary glands, and a neocortex (a region of the brain).

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Mealworms are the larval form of the mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor, a species of darkling beetle.

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Meiosis is a specialized type of cell division which reduces the chromosome number by half.

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Mitochondrial DNA

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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Monotremes are mammals that lay eggs (Prototheria) instead of giving birth to live young like marsupials (Metatheria) and placental mammals (Eutheria).

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Mosaic (genetics)

In genetics, a mosaic or mosaicism denotes the presence of two or more populations of cells with different genotypes in one individual who has developed from a single fertilized egg.

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Muller's ratchet

In evolutionary genetics, Muller's ratchet (named after Hermann Joseph Muller, by analogy with a ratchet effect) is a process by which the genomes of an asexual population accumulate deleterious mutations in an irreversible manner.

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The Muridae, or murids, are the largest family of rodents and indeed of mammals, containing over 700 species found naturally throughout Eurasia, Africa, and Australia.

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Mutation rate

In genetics, the mutation rate is a measure of the rate at which various types of mutations occur over time.

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Nettie Stevens

Nettie Maria Stevens (July 7, 1861 – May 4, 1912) was an early American geneticist.

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Noncoding DNA

In genomics and related disciplines, noncoding DNA sequences are components of an organism's DNA that do not encode protein sequences.

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Nondisjunction is the failure of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate properly during cell division.

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In biology, offspring is the product of reproduction of a new organism produced by one or, in the case of sexual reproduction, two parents.

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A palindrome is a word, phrase, number, or other sequence of characters which reads the same backward or forward.

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A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, phenology, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).

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Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Society.

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The platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) also known as the duck-billed platypus is a semiaquatic egg-laying mammal endemic to eastern Australia, including Tasmania.

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Polysomy is found in many species, including fungi, plants, insects, and mammals.

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Serine/threonine-protein kinase PRKY is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PRKY gene.

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Pseudoautosomal region

The pseudoautosomal regions, PAR1, PAR2, and PAR3, are homologous sequences of nucleotides on the X and Y chromosomes.

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Reptiles are a group (Reptilia) of tetrapod animals comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.

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RNA binding motif protein, Y-linked, family 1, member A1

RNA-binding motif protein, Y chromosome, family 1 member A1/C is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBMY1A1 gene.

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Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of unremittingly growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.

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40S ribosomal protein S4, X isoform is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RPS4X gene.

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40S ribosomal protein S4, Y isoform 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RPS4Y1 gene.

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Ribosomal protein S4, Y-linked 2 also known as RPS4Y2 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the RPS4Y2 gene which resides on the Y chromosome.

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Ryukyu spiny rat

The Ryukyu spiny rat (Tokudaia osimensis) is a species of rodent in the family Muridae.

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Selection (biology)

Selection generally refers to the pressures on cells and organisms to evolve.

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Organisms of many species are specialized into male and female varieties, each known as a sex.

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Sex ratio

The sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a population.

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Sex-determination system

A sex-determination system is a biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an organism.

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Sexual reproduction

Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.

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Single-nucleotide polymorphism

A single nucleotide polymorphism, also known as simple nucleotide polymorphism, (SNP, pronounced snip; plural snips) is a DNA sequence variation occurring commonly within a population (e.g. 1%) in which a single nucleotide — A, T, C or G — in the genome (or other shared sequence) differs between members of a biological species or paired chromosomes.

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In biology, a species (abbreviated sp., with the plural form species abbreviated spp.) is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank.

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Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").

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Stem cell

Stem cells are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells and can divide (through mitosis) to produce more stem cells.

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A telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromatid, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes.

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The testicle (from Latin testiculus, diminutive of testis, meaning "witness" of virility, plural testes) is the male gonad in animals.

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Testis determining factor

Testis-determining factor (TDF), also known as sex-determining region Y (SRY) protein, is a DNA-binding protein (also known as gene-regulatory protein/transcription factor) encoded by the SRY gene that is responsible for the initiation of male sex determination in humans.

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Theria (Greek: θηρίον, wild beast) is a subclass of mammals that give birth to live young without using a shelled egg, consisting of the eutherians (including the placental mammals) and the metatherians (including the marsupials).

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Tobacco smoking

Tobacco smoking is the practice of burning tobacco and inhaling the smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).

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Tokudaia is a genus of murine rodent native to Japan.

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Tokudaia tokunoshimensis

The Tokunoshima spiny rat (Tokudaia tokunoshimensis) is a rodent found only on the island of Tokunoshima in Japan.

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Transcaucasian mole vole

The Transcaucasian mole vole (Ellobius lutescens) is a species of rodent in the family Cricetidae.

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Triple X syndrome

Triple X syndrome (also known as triplo-X, trisomy X, XXX syndrome, 47,XXX aneuploidy) is a form of chromosomal variation characterized by the presence of an extra X chromosome in each cell of a human female.

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Testis-specific Y-encoded protein 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TSPY1 gene.

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Turner syndrome

Turner syndrome (TS) also known as Ullrich–Turner syndrome, gonadal dysgenesis, and 45,X, is a condition in which a female is partly or completely missing an X chromosome.

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Ubiquitin specific peptidase 9, Y-linked (fat facets-like, Drosophila), also known as USP9Y, is an enzyme which in humans is encoded by the USP9Y gene.

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UTY (gene)

Histone demethylase UTY is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the UTY gene.

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Vertebrates comprise any species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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In biology and medicine, virilization or masculinization is the biological development of sex differences, changes that make a male body different from a female body.

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W. D. Hamilton

William Donald "Bill" Hamilton, FRS (1 August 1936 – 7 March 2000) was an English evolutionary biologist, widely recognised as one of the most significant evolutionary theorists of the 20th century.

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Wood lemming

The wood lemming (Myopus schisticolor) is a species of rodents in the family Cricetidae.

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X chromosome

The X chromosome is one of the two sex-determining chromosomes (allosomes) in many animal species, including mammals (the other is the Y chromosome), and is found in both males and females.

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XX male syndrome

XX male syndrome (also called de la Chapelle syndrome, for Albert de la Chapelle, who characterized it in 1972) is a rare sex chromosomal disorder.

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XXYY syndrome

48, XXYY syndrome is a sex chromosome anomaly in which males have an extra X and Y chromosome.

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XY gonadal dysgenesis

Swyer syndrome, or XY gonadal dysgenesis, is a type of hypogonadism in a person whose karyotype is 46,XY.

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XY sex-determination system

The XY sex-determination system is the sex-determination system found in humans, most other mammals, some insects (Drosophila), and some plants (Ginkgo).

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XYY syndrome

XYY syndrome is a genetic condition in which a human male has an extra male (Y) chromosome, giving a total of 47 chromosomes instead of the more usual 46.

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Y chromosome microdeletion

Y chromosome microdeletion (YCM) is a family of genetic disorders caused by missing gene(s) in the Y chromosome.

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Y linkage

In mammals, Y-linkage, also known as holandric inheritance, is the determination of a phenotypic trait by an allele (or gene) on the Y chromosome.

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Y-chromosomal Aaron

Y-chromosomal Aaron is the name given to the hypothesized most recent common ancestor of many of the patrilineal Jewish priestly caste known as Kohanim (singular "Kohen", "Cohen", or Kohane).

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Y-chromosomal Adam

In human genetics, Y-chromosomal most recent common ancestor (Y-MRCA; informally also known as Y-chromosomal Adam) refers to the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) from whom all currently living people are descended patrilineally.

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Y-chromosome haplogroups by populations

The following articles are lists of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups found in populations around the world.

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A Y-STR is a short tandem repeat (STR) on the Y-chromosome.

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Zaisan mole vole

The Zaisan mole vole or eastern mole vole (Ellobius tancrei) is a species of rodent in the family Cricetidae.

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Zinc finger Y-chromosomal protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ZFY gene.

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Zinc finger

A zinc finger is a small protein structural motif that is characterized by the coordination of one or more zinc ions in order to stabilize the fold.

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ZW sex-determination system

The ZW sex-determination system is a system that determines the sex of offspring in birds, some fish and crustaceans such as the giant river prawn, some insects (including butterflies and moths), and some reptiles, including komodo dragons.

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Zygosity is the degree of similarity of the alleles for a trait in an organism.

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45,X/46,XY mosaicism

45,X/46,XY mosaicism, also known as X0/XY mosaicism and Mixed gonadal dysgenesis, "45,X/46,XY including Y chromosome rearrangements".

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Y_chromosome

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