115 relations: Acetylcholine, Acetylcholinesterase, Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, Acute toxicity, Almond, American Academy of Pediatrics, Andrew N. Liveris, Anxiety, Atropine, Autoimmune disease, Bee, Bioaccumulation, Biomonitoring, Birth weight, Brush border, Buffer strip, California Air Resources Board, California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, California Proposition 65 (1986), Chiang Mai, Chronic condition, Clackamas, Oregon, Clean Water Act, Cockroach, Crustacean, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, Depression (mood), Dexamethasone, Dow Chemical Company, Drinking water quality standards, Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, Endangered Species Act of 1973, Endocannabinoid system, Enzyme, Epidemiology, Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, Fetus, Food, Food and Drug Administration, Freedom of Information Act, Genetic variation, Human development (biology), Hydrate, Hydrolysis, Insect, Isomer, Lindsay, California, Lung cancer, Maize, ..., Median lethal dose, Metabolite, Mosquito, Muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, Myocarditis, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Pesticide Information Center, Natural Resources Defense Council, Neuromuscular junction, Neuron, Neuropathy target esterase, Neurotransmission, Neurotransmitter, Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, Oregon Department of Environmental Quality, Organic food, Organophosphate, Organophosphate poisoning, Oxime, Permissible exposure limit, Pest (organism), Pesticide Action Network, Pesticide drift, Pesticide residue, PON1, Pralidoxime, Preterm birth, Promoter (genetics), Rainbow trout, Randomized controlled trial, Reference dose, Reuters, River Kennet, River Ouse, Sussex, River Roding, Salmon, Scott Pruitt, Sediment, SENSOR-Pesticides, Serine hydrolase, Serotonin, Sexual differentiation, Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, Superfund, Synapse, Termite, Thiol, Toxic Substances Control Act of 1976, Toxics Release Inventory, United States Coast Guard, United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, United States courts of appeals, United States Department of Agriculture, United States District Court for the Western District of Washington, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Urine, Washington (state), Waterway, Wheeze, Worker Protection Standard, World Health Organization, 3-Methylpyridine. Expand index (65 more) » « Shrink index
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
Acetylcholinesterase, encoded by HGNC gene ACHE; EC 184.108.40.206) is the primary cholinesterase in the body. It is an enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of acetylcholine and of some other choline esters that function as neurotransmitters. AChE is found at mainly neuromuscular junctions and in chemical synapses of the cholinergic type, where its activity serves to terminate synaptic transmission. It belongs to carboxylesterase family of enzymes. It is the primary target of inhibition by organophosphorus compounds such as nerve agents and pesticides.
An acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (often abbreviated AChEI) or anti-cholinesterase is a chemical or a drug that inhibits the acetylcholinesterase enzyme from breaking down acetylcholine, thereby increasing both the level and duration of action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Acute toxicity describes the adverse effects of a substance that result either from a single exposure or from multiple exposures in a short period of time (usually less than 24 hours).
The almond (Prunus dulcis, syn. Prunus amygdalus) is a species of tree native to Mediterranean climate regions of the Middle East, from Syria and Turkey to India and Pakistan, although it has been introduced elsewhere.
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is an American professional association of pediatricians, headquartered in Itasca, Illinois.
Andrew N. Liveris (born 5 May 1954) is CEO and chairman of The Dow Chemical Company, a global specialty chemical, advanced materials, agrosciences and plastics company based in Midland, Michigan with 2013 annual sales of more than $57 billion.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
Atropine is a medication to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisonings as well as some types of slow heart rate and to decrease saliva production during surgery.
An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.
Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax.
Bioaccumulation is the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism.
In analytical chemistry, biomonitoring is the measurement of the body burden of toxic chemical compounds, elements, or their metabolites, in biological substances.
Birth weight is the body weight of a baby at its birth.
A brush border (striated border or brush border membrane) is the microvilli-covered surface of simple cuboidal epithelium and simple columnar epithelium cells found in certain locations of the body.
A buffer strip is an area of land maintained in permanent vegetation that helps to control air, soil, and water quality, along with other environmental problems, dealing primarily on land that is used in agriculture.
The California Air Resources Board (CARB or ARB) is the "clean air agency" in the government of California.
The Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment, commonly referred to as OEHHA (pronounced oh-EEE-ha), is a specialized department within the cabinet-level California Environmental Protection Agency (CalEPA) with responsibility for evaluating health risks from environmental chemical contaminants.
Proposition 65 (formally titled The Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986) is a California law passed by direct voter initiative in 1986 by a 63%–37% vote.
Chiang Mai (from เชียงใหม่, ᨩ᩠ᨿᨦ ᩲᩉ᩠ᨾ᩵) sometimes written as "Chiengmai" or "Chiangmai", is the largest city in northern Thailand.
A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.
Clackamas is an unincorporated community and former census-designated place (CDP) in Clackamas County, Oregon, United States.
The Clean Water Act (CWA) is the primary federal law in the United States governing water pollution.
Cockroaches are insects of the order Blattodea, which also includes termites. About 30 cockroach species out of 4,600 are associated with human habitats. About four species are well known as pests. The cockroaches are an ancient group, dating back at least as far as the Carboniferous period, some 320 million years ago. Those early ancestors however lacked the internal ovipositors of modern roaches. Cockroaches are somewhat generalized insects without special adaptations like the sucking mouthparts of aphids and other true bugs; they have chewing mouthparts and are likely among the most primitive of living neopteran insects. They are common and hardy insects, and can tolerate a wide range of environments from Arctic cold to tropical heat. Tropical cockroaches are often much bigger than temperate species, and, contrary to popular belief, extinct cockroach relatives and 'roachoids' such as the Carboniferous Archimylacris and the Permian Apthoroblattina were not as large as the biggest modern species. Some species, such as the gregarious German cockroach, have an elaborate social structure involving common shelter, social dependence, information transfer and kin recognition. Cockroaches have appeared in human culture since classical antiquity. They are popularly depicted as dirty pests, though the great majority of species are inoffensive and live in a wide range of habitats around the world.
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
Dexamethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication.
The Dow Chemical Company, commonly referred to as Dow, is an American multinational chemical corporation headquartered in Midland, Michigan, United States, and the predecessor of the merged company DowDuPont.
Drinking water quality standards describes the quality parameters set for drinking water.
The Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act of 1986 is a United States federal law passed by the 99th United States Congress located at Title 42, Chapter 116 of the U.S. Code, concerned with emergency response preparedness.
The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA; 16 U.S.C. § 1531 et seq.) is one of the few dozens of US environmental laws passed in the 1970s, and serves as the enacting legislation to carry out the provisions outlined in The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a biological system composed of endocannabinoids, which are endogenous lipid-based retrograde neurotransmitters that bind to cannabinoid receptors, and cannabinoid receptor proteins that are expressed throughout the mammalian central nervous system (including the brain) and peripheral nervous system.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
The United States Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (abbreviated as FFDCA, FDCA, or FD&C), is a set of laws passed by Congress in 1938 giving authority to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to oversee the safety of food, drugs, and cosmetics.
The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA) is a United States federal law that set up the basic U.S. system of pesticide regulation to protect applicators, consumers, and the environment.
A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Freedom of Information Act may refer to the following legislations in different jurisdictions which mandate the national government to disclose certain data to the general public upon request.
Genetic variation means that biological systems – individuals and populations – are different over space.
Human development is the process of growing to maturity.
In chemistry, a hydrate is a substance that contains water or its constituent elements.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.
An isomer (from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos.
Lindsay is a city in Tulare County, California, United States.
Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
In toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose, 50%"), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCt50 is a measure of the lethal dose of a toxin, radiation, or pathogen.
A metabolite is the intermediate end product of metabolism.
Mosquitoes are small, midge-like flies that constitute the family Culicidae.
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, or mAChRs, are acetylcholine receptors that form G protein-coupled receptor complexes in the cell membranes of certain neurons and other cells.
Myocarditis, also known as inflammatory cardiomyopathy, is inflammation of the heart muscle.
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a survey research program conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in the United States, and to track changes over time.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) is a United States federal agency, responsible for the stewardship of national marine resources.
The National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) is a collaboration between Oregon State University and the United States Environmental Protection Agency to provide objective, science-based information about pesticides, the recognition and management of pesticide poisonings, toxicology and environmental chemistry.
The Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) is a United States-based, non-profit international environmental advocacy group, with its headquarters in New York City and offices in Washington, D.C.; San Francisco; Los Angeles; New Delhi, India; Chicago; Bozeman, Montana; and Beijing, China.
A neuromuscular junction (or myoneural junction) is a chemical synapse formed by the contact between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neuropathy target esterase also known as patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 6 (PNPLA6) is a neuropathy target esterase enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PNPLA6 gene.
Neurotransmission (Latin: transmissio "passage, crossing" from transmittere "send, let through"), also called synaptic transmission, is the process by which signaling molecules called neurotransmitters are released by the axon terminal of a neuron (the presynaptic neuron), and bind to and activate the receptors on the dendrites of another neuron (the postsynaptic neuron).
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, or nAChRs, are receptor proteins that respond to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) is the chief regulatory agency of the government of the U.S. state of Oregon responsible for protecting and enhancing the state's natural resources and managing sanitary and toxic waste disposal.
Organic food is food produced by methods that comply with the standards of organic farming.
Organophosphates (also known as phosphate esters) are a class of organophosphorus compounds with the general structure O.
Organophosphate poisoning is poisoning due to organophosphates (OPs).
An oxime is a chemical compound belonging to the imines, with the general formula R1R2C.
The permissible exposure limit (PEL or OSHA PEL) is a legal limit in the United States for exposure of an employee to a chemical substance or physical agent such as loud noise.
A pest is a plant or animal detrimental to humans or human concerns including crops, livestock, and forestry.
Pesticide Action Network (PAN) is "an international coalition of around 600 NGOs, citizens' groups, and individuals in about 60 countries." PAN is involved in fighting problems caused by pesticide use, and advocates ecologically sound alternatives.
Pesticide drift refers to the unintentional diffusion of pesticides and the potential negative effects of pesticide application, including off-target contamination due to spray drift as well as runoff from plants or soil.
Pesticide residue refers to the pesticides that may remain on or in food after they are applied to food crops.
Serum paraoxonase/arylesterase 1 (PON1) also known as A esterase, homocysteine thiolactonase or serum aryldialkylphosphatase 1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PON1 gene.
Pralidoxime (2-pyridine aldoxime methyl chloride) or 2-PAM, usually as the chloride or iodide salts, belongs to a family of compounds called oximes that bind to organophosphate-inactivated acetylcholinesterase.
Preterm birth, also known as premature birth, is the birth of a baby at fewer than 37 weeks gestational age.
In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene.
The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is a trout and species of salmonid native to cold-water tributaries of the Pacific Ocean in Asia and North America.
A randomized controlled trial (or randomized control trial; RCT) is a type of scientific (often medical) experiment which aims to reduce bias when testing a new treatment.
A reference dose is the United States Environmental Protection Agency's maximum acceptable oral dose of a toxic substance.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
The Kennet is a river in the south of England, and a tributary of the River Thames.
The Ouse is a river in the English counties of West and East Sussex.
The River Roding is a river in England that rises at Molehill Green near Dunmow in Essex.
Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae.
Edward Scott Pruitt (born May 9, 1968) is an American lawyer and Republican politician from the state of Oklahoma who is the fourteenth Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles.
Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks (SENSOR)-Pesticides is a U.S. state-based surveillance program that monitors pesticide-related illness and injury.
Serine hydrolases are one of the largest known enzyme classes comprising approximately ~200 enzymes or 1% of the genes in the human proteome.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Sexual differentiation is the process of development of the differences between males and females from an undifferentiated zygote.
Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants is an international environmental treaty, signed in 2001 and effective from May 2004, that aims to eliminate or restrict the production and use of persistent organic pollutants (POPs).
Superfund is a United States federal government program designed to fund the cleanup of sites contaminated with hazardous substances and pollutants.
In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.
Termites are eusocial insects that are classified at the taxonomic rank of infraorder Isoptera, or as epifamily Termitoidae within the cockroach order Blattodea.
Thiol is an organosulfur compound that contains a carbon-bonded sulfhydryl (R–SH) group (where R represents an alkyl or other organic substituent).
The Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) is a United States law, passed by the United States Congress in 1976 and administered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, that regulates the introduction of new or already existing chemicals.
The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a publicly available database containing information on toxic chemical releases and other waste management activities in the United States.
The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is a branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the country's seven uniformed services.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit (in case citations, 4th Cir.) is a federal court located in Richmond, Virginia, with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts.
The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit (in case citations, 9th Cir.) is a U.S. Federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts.
The United States courts of appeals or circuit courts are the intermediate appellate courts of the United States federal court system.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.
The United States District Court for the Western District of Washington (in case citations, W.D. Wash.) is the Federal district court whose jurisdiction comprises the following counties of the state of Washington: Clallam, Clark, Cowlitz, Grays Harbor, Island, Jefferson, King, Kitsap, Lewis, Mason, Pacific, Pierce, San Juan, Skagit, Skamania, Snohomish, Thurston, Wahkiakum, and Whatcom.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.
A waterway is any navigable body of water.
A wheeze (formally called "sibilant rhonchi" in medical terminology) is a continuous, coarse, whistling sound produced in the respiratory airways during breathing.
The Worker Protection Standard is intended to protect employees on farms, forests, nurseries, and greenhouses that are occupationally exposed to agricultural pesticides.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
3-Methylpyridine or 3-picoline, is an organic compound with formula 3-CH3C5H4N.