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# Orbital eccentricity

The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle. [1]

92 relations: Ancient Greek, Angular momentum, Apsidal precession, Apsis, Asteroid, Asteroid belt, Astronomical object, Axial precession, C/1980 E1 (Bowell), C/2006 P1, Center of mass, Central force, Ceres (dwarf planet), Circle, Circular orbit, Classical physics, Comet, Comet Hale–Bopp, Comet Ikeya–Seki, Conic section, Earth, Eccentricity (mathematics), Eccentricity vector, Electrostatics, Ellipse, Elliptic orbit, Epoch (astronomy), Equation of time, Equinox, Eris (dwarf planet), Exoplanet, ʻOumuamua, Focus (geometry), Galilean moons, Grand tack hypothesis, Gravity, Halley's Comet, Haumea, Hilda asteroid, Hills cloud, Hyperbola, Hyperbolic trajectory, IAU definition of planet, Interstellar object, Inverse trigonometric functions, Irregular moon, Jupiter, Kepler orbit, Kepler problem, Klemperer rosette, ... Expand index (42 more) »

## Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

## Angular momentum

In physics, angular momentum (rarely, moment of momentum or rotational momentum) is the rotational equivalent of linear momentum.

## Apsidal precession

In celestial mechanics, apsidal precession or orbital precession is the precession (rotation) of the orbit of a celestial body.

## Apsis

An apsis (ἁψίς; plural apsides, Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in the orbit of an object.

## Asteroid

Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.

## Asteroid belt

The asteroid belt is the circumstellar disc in the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter.

## Astronomical object

An astronomical object or celestial object is a naturally occurring physical entity, association, or structure that exists in the observable universe.

## Axial precession

In astronomy, axial precession is a gravity-induced, slow, and continuous change in the orientation of an astronomical body's rotational axis.

## C/1980 E1 (Bowell)

C/1980 E1 is a non-periodic comet discovered by Edward L. G. Bowell on 11 February 1980.

## C/2006 P1

Comet McNaught, also known as the Great Comet of 2007 and given the designation C/2006 P1, is a non-periodic comet discovered on 7 August 2006 by British-Australian astronomer Robert H. McNaught using the Uppsala Southern Schmidt Telescope.

## Center of mass

In physics, the center of mass of a distribution of mass in space is the unique point where the weighted relative position of the distributed mass sums to zero, or the point where if a force is applied it moves in the direction of the force without rotating.

## Central force

In classical mechanics, a central force on an object is a force that is directed along the line joining the object and the origin: where \scriptstyle \vec is the force, F is a vector valued force function, F is a scalar valued force function, r is the position vector, ||r|| is its length, and \scriptstyle \hat.

## Ceres (dwarf planet)

Ceres (minor-planet designation: 1 Ceres) is the largest object in the asteroid belt that lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, slightly closer to Mars' orbit.

## Circle

A circle is a simple closed shape.

## Circular orbit

A circular orbit is the orbit with a fixed distance around the barycenter, that is, in the shape of a circle.

## Classical physics

Classical physics refers to theories of physics that predate modern, more complete, or more widely applicable theories.

## Comet

A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.

## Comet Hale–Bopp

Comet Hale–Bopp (formally designated C/1995 O1) is a comet that was perhaps the most widely observed of the 20th century, and one of the brightest seen for many decades.

## Comet Ikeya–Seki

Comet Ikeya–Seki, formally designated C/1965 S1, 1965 VIII, and 1965f, was a long-period comet discovered independently by Kaoru Ikeya and Tsutomu Seki.

## Conic section

In mathematics, a conic section (or simply conic) is a curve obtained as the intersection of the surface of a cone with a plane.

## Earth

Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

## Eccentricity (mathematics)

In mathematics, the eccentricity, denoted e or \varepsilon, is a parameter associated with every conic section.

## Eccentricity vector

In celestial mechanics, the eccentricity vector of a Kepler orbit is the dimensionless vector with direction pointing from apoapsis to periapsis and with magnitude equal to the orbit's scalar eccentricity.

## Electrostatics

Electrostatics is a branch of physics that studies electric charges at rest.

## Ellipse

In mathematics, an ellipse is a curve in a plane surrounding two focal points such that the sum of the distances to the two focal points is constant for every point on the curve.

## Elliptic orbit

In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics, an elliptic orbit or elliptical orbit is a Kepler orbit with an eccentricity of less than 1; this includes the special case of a circular orbit, with eccentricity equal to 0.

## Epoch (astronomy)

In astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time used as a reference point for some time-varying astronomical quantity, such as the celestial coordinates or elliptical orbital elements of a celestial body, because these are subject to perturbations and vary with time.

## Equation of time

The equation of time describes the discrepancy between two kinds of solar time.

## Equinox

An equinox is commonly regarded as the moment the plane (extended indefinitely in all directions) of Earth's equator passes through the center of the Sun, which occurs twice each year, around 20 March and 22-23 September.

## Eris (dwarf planet)

Eris (minor-planet designation 136199 Eris) is the most massive and second-largest (by volume) dwarf planet in the known Solar System.

## Exoplanet

An exoplanet or extrasolar planet is a planet outside our solar system.

## ʻOumuamua

ʻOumuamua is a mildly active comet, and the first known interstellar object to pass through the Solar System.

## Focus (geometry)

In geometry, focuses or foci, singular focus, are special points with reference to which any of a variety of curves is constructed.

## Galilean moons

The Galilean moons are the four largest moons of Jupiter—Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.

## Grand tack hypothesis

In planetary astronomy, the grand tack hypothesis proposes that after its formation at 3.5 AU, Jupiter migrated inward to 1.5 AU, before reversing course due to capturing Saturn in an orbital resonance, eventually halting near its current orbit at 5.2 AU.

## Gravity

Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

## Halley's Comet

Halley's Comet or Comet Halley, officially designated 1P/Halley, is a short-period comet visible from Earth every 74–79 years.

## Haumea

Haumea, minor-planet designation 136108 Haumea, is a dwarf planet located beyond Neptune's orbit.

## Hilda asteroid

The Hilda asteroids (adj. Hildian) are a dynamical group of asteroids in a 3:2 orbital resonance with Jupiter.

## Hills cloud

In astronomy, the Hills cloud (also called the inner Oort cloud and inner cloud) is a vast theoretical circumstellar disc, interior to the Oort cloud, whose outer border would be located at around 20,000 to 30,000 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun, and whose inner border, less well-defined, is hypothetically located at, well beyond planetary and Kuiper Belt object orbits - but distances might be much greater.

## Hyperbola

In mathematics, a hyperbola (plural hyperbolas or hyperbolae) is a type of smooth curve lying in a plane, defined by its geometric properties or by equations for which it is the solution set.

## Hyperbolic trajectory

In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics, a hyperbolic trajectory is the trajectory of any object around a central body with more than enough speed to escape the central object's gravitational pull.

## IAU definition of planet

The International Astronomical Union (IAU) defined in August 2006 that, in the Solar System, a planet is a celestial body which.

## Interstellar object

An interstellar object is a body other than a star or substar located in interstellar space, and not gravitationally bound to a star.

## Inverse trigonometric functions

In mathematics, the inverse trigonometric functions (occasionally also called arcus functions, antitrigonometric functions or cyclometric functions) are the inverse functions of the trigonometric functions (with suitably restricted domains).

## Irregular moon

In astronomy, an irregular moon, irregular satellite or irregular natural satellite is a natural satellite following a distant, inclined, and often eccentric and retrograde orbit.

## Jupiter

Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.

## Kepler orbit

In celestial mechanics, a Kepler orbit (or Keplerian orbit) is the motion of one body relative to another, as an ellipse, parabola, or hyperbola, which forms a two-dimensional orbital plane in three-dimensional space.

## Kepler problem

In classical mechanics, the Kepler problem is a special case of the two-body problem, in which the two bodies interact by a central force F that varies in strength as the inverse square of the distance r between them.

## Klemperer rosette

A Klemperer rosette is a gravitational system of heavier and lighter bodies orbiting in a regular repeating pattern around a common barycenter.

## Kuiper belt

The Kuiper belt, occasionally called the Edgeworth–Kuiper belt, is a circumstellar disc in the outer Solar System, extending from the orbit of Neptune (at 30 AU) to approximately 50 AU from the Sun.

## List of multiplanetary systems

From the total of stars known to have exoplanets (as of), there are a total of known multiplanetary systems, or stars with at least two confirmed planets, beyond the Solar System.

## List of periodic comets

Periodic comets (also known as short-period comets) are comets having orbital periods of less than 200 years or that have been observed during more than a single perihelion passage (e.g. 153P/Ikeya–Zhang).

## Makemake

Makemake (minor-planet designation 136472 Makemake) is a dwarf planet and perhaps the largest Kuiper belt object in the classical population, with a diameter approximately two thirds that of Pluto.

## Mars

Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.

## Medieval Latin

Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange, as the liturgical language of Chalcedonian Christianity and the Roman Catholic Church, and as a language of science, literature, law, and administration.

## Mercury (planet)

Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System.

## Milankovitch cycles

Milankovitch cycles describe the collective effects of changes in the Earth's movements on its climate over thousands of years.

## Moon

The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.

## NASA

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

## Neptune

Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System.

## Nereid (moon)

Nereid is the third-largest moon of Neptune.

## Oort cloud

The Oort cloud, named after the Dutch astronomer Jan Oort, sometimes called the Öpik–Oort cloud, is a theoretical cloud of predominantly icy planetesimals proposed to surround the Sun at distances ranging from.

## Orbit

In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet.

## Orbital state vectors

In astrodynamics and celestial dynamics, the orbital state vectors (sometimes state vectors) of an orbit are cartesian vectors of position (\mathbf) and velocity (\mathbf) that together with their time (epoch) (t\) uniquely determine the trajectory of the orbiting body in space.

## Parabola

In mathematics, a parabola is a plane curve which is mirror-symmetrical and is approximately U-shaped.

## Parabolic trajectory

In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics a parabolic trajectory is a Kepler orbit with the eccentricity equal to 1.

## Perihelion and aphelion

The perihelion of any orbit of a celestial body about the Sun is the point where the body comes nearest to the Sun.

## Perturbation (astronomy)

In astronomy, perturbation is the complex motion of a massive body subject to forces other than the gravitational attraction of a single other massive body.

## Planetesimal

Planetesimals are solid objects thought to exist in protoplanetary disks and in debris disks.

## Pluto

Pluto (minor planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune.

## Reduced mass

In physics, the reduced mass is the "effective" inertial mass appearing in the two-body problem of Newtonian mechanics.

## Saturn

Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.

## Semi-major and semi-minor axes

In geometry, the major axis of an ellipse is its longest diameter: a line segment that runs through the center and both foci, with ends at the widest points of the perimeter.

## Solar System

The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.

## Solstice

A solstice is an event occurring when the Sun appears to reach its most northerly or southerly excursion relative to the celestial equator on the celestial sphere.

## Specific orbital energy

In the gravitational two-body problem, the specific orbital energy \epsilon\,\! (or vis-viva energy) of two orbiting bodies is the constant sum of their mutual potential energy (\epsilon_p\,\!) and their total kinetic energy (\epsilon_k\,\!), divided by the reduced mass.

## Specific relative angular momentum

In celestial mechanics the specific relative angular momentum \vec plays a pivotal role in the analysis of the two-body problem.

## Standard gravitational parameter

In celestial mechanics, the standard gravitational parameter μ of a celestial body is the product of the gravitational constant G and the mass M of the body.

## Tidal locking

Tidal locking (also called gravitational locking or captured rotation) occurs when the long-term interaction between a pair of co-orbiting astronomical bodies drives the rotation rate of at least one of them into the state where there is no more net transfer of angular momentum between this body (e.g. a planet) and its orbit around the second body (e.g. a star); this condition of "no net transfer" must be satisfied over the course of one orbit around the second body.

## Titan (moon)

Titan is the largest moon of Saturn.

## Triton (moon)

Triton is the largest natural satellite of the planet Neptune, and the first Neptunian moon to be discovered.

## Two-body problem

In classical mechanics, the two-body problem is to determine the motion of two point particles that interact only with each other.

## Universe Today

Universe Today (UT) is a popular North American-based non-commercial space and astronomy news website.

## Uranus

Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun.

## Venus

Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.

## 10 Hygiea

10 Hygiea is the fourth-largest asteroid in the Solar System by volume and mass, and it is located in the asteroid belt.

## 2 Pallas

Pallas, minor-planet designation 2 Pallas, is the second asteroid to have been discovered (after Ceres), and is one of the largest asteroids in the Solar System.

## 3 Juno

Juno, minor-planet designation 3 Juno in the Minor Planet Center catalogue system, is an asteroid in the asteroid belt.

## 324 Bamberga

324 Bamberga is one of the largest asteroids in the asteroid belt.

## 4 Vesta

Vesta, minor-planet designation 4 Vesta, is one of the largest objects in the asteroid belt, with a mean diameter of.

## 90377 Sedna

90377 Sedna is a large minor planet in the outer reaches of the Solar System that was,, at a distance of about 86 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun, about three times as far as Neptune.

## References

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