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Ancient Greek

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The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. [1]

167 relations: Accusative case, Aeolic Greek, Alexander the Great, Alfred Rahlfs, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek dialects, Ancient Greek grammar, Ancient Greek literature, Ancient Greek philosophy, Ancient Macedonian language, Aorist, Apology (Plato), Arcadocypriot Greek, Archaic Greece, Aspirated consonant, Asterix, Athena Parthenos, Attic Greek, Augment (linguistics), Austria, Back vowel, Bilabial consonant, Binomial nomenclature, Bloomsbury Publishing, Boeotia, Book design, Boustrophedon, Capitalization, Classical antiquity, Classical Greece, Classics, Close vowel, Close-mid vowel, Croatia, Dative case, Debuccalization, Declension, Demotic Greek, Dental consonant, Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft, Diphthong, Dorian invasion, Dorians, Doric Greek, Dual (grammatical number), Elision, English passive voice, English words of Greek origin, Epic poetry, Exploring the Ancient Greek Language and Culture, ..., Federal Statistical Office of Germany, Fifth-century Athens, Fordham University Press, Fortition, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Future perfect, Future tense, Gemination, Genitive case, Germany, Glottal consonant, Grammar school, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical gender, Grammatical mood, Grammatical number, Grammatical person, Grammatical tense, Grassmann's law, Greece, Greek alphabet, Greek diacritics, Greek language, Gymnasium (school), Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone, Hebdomada Aenigmatum, Hellenic languages, Hellenistic period, Homer, Homeric Greek, Iliad, Imperative mood, Imperfect, Imperfective aspect, Independent school (United Kingdom), Indo-European languages, International Phonetic Alphabet, Ionic Greek, Iotacism, Italy, Jan Křesadlo, Katharevousa, Koine Greek, Laryngeal theory, Lateral consonant, Latin, Latinisation of names, Lesbos, Liceo classico, Linear B, List of Greek and Latin roots in English, List of Greek phrases, Lyceum, Medieval Greek, Mediterranean Sea, Modern Greek, Mycenaean Greek, Nasal consonant, Netherlands, Nominative case, Noun, Odyssey, Open vowel, Open-mid vowel, Optative mood, Pamphylian Greek, Parthenon, Perfective aspect, Phonotactics, Phrygian language, Pierre Chantraine, Pindar, Pitch-accent language, Plato, Pluperfect, Plural, Pluricentric language, Poetry, Pontic Greek, Present perfect, Present tense, Pronunciation of Ancient Greek in teaching, Proto-Greek language, Proto-Indo-European language, Punctuation, Realis mood, Reduplication, Renaissance, Rhotacism (sound change), Roundedness, Sappho, Semivowel, Septuagint, Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies, Sparta, Species, Stop consonant, Stress (linguistics), Subjunctive mood, Thracian language, Trabzon, Trill consonant, Tsakonian language, Turkey, United Kingdom, University, Varieties of Modern Greek, Velar consonant, Verb, Vocative case, Voice (grammar), Voice (phonetics), Voicelessness, Vowel length, Western world, Word divider. Expand index (117 more) »

Accusative case

The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.

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Aeolic Greek

In linguistics, Aeolic Greek (also Aeolian, Lesbian or Lesbic dialect) is the set of dialects of Ancient Greek spoken mainly in Boeotia (a region in Central Greece); Thessaly, in the Aegean island of Lesbos; and the Greek colonies of Aeolis in Anatolia and adjoining islands.

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Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.

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Alfred Rahlfs

Alfred Rahlfs (29 May 1865 – 8 April 1935) was a German Biblical scholar.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Ancient Greek dialects

Ancient Greek in classical antiquity, before the development of the κοινή (koiné) "common" language of Hellenism, was divided into several dialects.

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Ancient Greek grammar

Ancient Greek grammar is morphologically complex and preserves several features of Proto-Indo-European morphology.

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Ancient Greek literature

Ancient Greek literature refers to literature written in the Ancient Greek language from the earliest texts until the time of the Byzantine Empire.

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Ancient Greek philosophy

Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.

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Ancient Macedonian language

Ancient Macedonian, the language of the ancient Macedonians, either a dialect of Ancient Greek or a separate language closely related to Greek, was spoken in the kingdom of Macedonia during the 1st millennium BC and belongs to the Indo-European language family.

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Aorist

Aorist (abbreviated) verb forms usually express perfective aspect and refer to past events, similar to a preterite.

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Apology (Plato)

The Apology of Socrates (Ἀπολογία Σωκράτους, Apologia Sokratous; Latin: Apologia Socratis), by Plato, is the Socratic dialogue that presents the speech of legal self-defence, which Socrates presented at his trial for impiety and corruption, in 399 BC.

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Arcadocypriot Greek

Arcadocypriot, or southern Achaean, was an ancient Greek dialect spoken in Arcadia in the central Peloponnese and in Cyprus.

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Archaic Greece

Archaic Greece was the period in Greek history lasting from the eighth century BC to the second Persian invasion of Greece in 480 BC, following the Greek Dark Ages and succeeded by the Classical period.

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Aspirated consonant

In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.

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Asterix

Asterix or The Adventures of Asterix (Astérix or Astérix le Gaulois) is a series of French comics.

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Athena Parthenos

Athena Parthenos (Ἀθηνᾶ Παρθένος; literally, "Athena the Virgin") is a lost massive chryselephantine (gold and ivory) sculpture of the Greek goddess Athena, made by Phidias and his assistants and housed in the Parthenon in Athens.

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Attic Greek

Attic Greek is the Greek dialect of ancient Attica, including the city of Athens.

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Augment (linguistics)

In linguistics, the augment is a syllable added to the beginning of the word in certain Indo-European languages, most notably Greek, Armenian and Indo-Iranian languages such as Sanskrit, to form the past tenses.

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Austria

Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.

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Back vowel

A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.

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Bilabial consonant

In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.

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Binomial nomenclature

Binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system") also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages.

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Bloomsbury Publishing

Bloomsbury Publishing plc (formerly M.B.N.1 Limited and Bloomsbury Publishing Company Limited) is a British independent, worldwide publishing house of fiction and non-fiction.

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Boeotia

Boeotia, sometimes alternatively Latinised as Boiotia, or Beotia (Βοιωτία,,; modern transliteration Voiotía, also Viotía, formerly Cadmeis), is one of the regional units of Greece.

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Book design

Book design is the art of incorporating the content, style, format, design, and sequence of the various components and elements of a book into a coherent whole.

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Boustrophedon

Boustrophedon (βουστροφηδόν, "ox-turning" from βοῦς,, "ox", στροφή,, "turn" and the adverbial suffix -δόν, "like, in the manner of"; that is, turning like oxen in ploughing) is a kind of bi-directional text, mostly seen in ancient manuscripts and other inscriptions.

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Capitalization

Capitalisation, or capitalization,see spelling differences is writing a word with its first letter as a capital letter (upper-case letter) and the remaining letters in lower case in writing systems with a case distinction.

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Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

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Classical Greece

Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years (5th and 4th centuries BC) in Greek culture.

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Classics

Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity.

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Close vowel

A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.

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Close-mid vowel

A close-mid vowel (also mid-close vowel, high-mid vowel, mid-high vowel or half-close vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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Croatia

Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.

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Dative case

The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".

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Debuccalization

Debuccalization is a sound change in which an oral consonant loses its original place of articulation and moves it to the glottis (usually,, or). The pronunciation of a consonant as is sometimes called aspiration but in phonetics, aspiration is the burst of air accompanying a stop.

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Declension

In linguistics, declension is the changing of the form of a word to express it with a non-standard meaning, by way of some inflection, that is by marking the word with some change in pronunciation or by other information.

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Demotic Greek

Demotic Greek (δημοτική γλώσσα, "language of the people") or dimotiki is the modern vernacular form of the Greek language.

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Dental consonant

A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.

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Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft

The Deutsche Bibelgesellschaft ("German Bible Society") is a religious foundation regulated by public law.

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Diphthong

A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.

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Dorian invasion

The Dorian invasion is a concept devised by historians of Ancient Greece to explain the replacement of pre-classical dialects and traditions in southern Greece by the ones that prevailed in Classical Greece.

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Dorians

The Dorians (Δωριεῖς, Dōrieis, singular Δωριεύς, Dōrieus) were one of the four major ethnic groups among which the Hellenes (or Greeks) of Classical Greece considered themselves divided (along with the Aeolians, Achaeans, and Ionians).

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Doric Greek

Doric, or Dorian, was an Ancient Greek dialect.

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Dual (grammatical number)

Dual (abbreviated) is a grammatical number that some languages use in addition to singular and plural.

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Elision

In linguistics, an elision or deletion is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase.

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English passive voice

The passive voice is a grammatical "voice".

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English words of Greek origin

The Greek language has contributed to the English vocabulary in five main ways.

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Epic poetry

An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.

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Exploring the Ancient Greek Language and Culture

The Annual European Student Competition "Exploring the Ancient Greek Language and Culture" is an international competition held in Europe and in Mexico.

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Federal Statistical Office of Germany

The Federal Statistical Office (Statistisches Bundesamt, shortened Destatis) is a federal authority of Germany.

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Fifth-century Athens

Fifth-century Athens is the Greek city-state of Athens in the time from 480 BC-404 BC.

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Fordham University Press

The Fordham University Press is a publishing house, a division of Fordham University, that publishes primarily in the humanities and the social sciences.

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Fortition

Fortition is a consonantal change from a 'weak' sound to a 'strong' one, the opposite of the more common lenition.

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Fricative consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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Front vowel

A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.

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Future perfect

The future perfect is a verb form or construction used to describe an event that is expected or planned to happen before a time of reference in the future, such as will have finished in the English sentence "I will have finished by tomorrow." It is a grammatical combination of the future tense, or other marking of future time, and the perfect, a grammatical aspect that views an event as prior and completed.

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Future tense

In grammar, a future tense (abbreviated) is a verb form that generally marks the event described by the verb as not having happened yet, but expected to happen in the future.

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Gemination

Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.

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Genitive case

In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.

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Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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Glottal consonant

Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.

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Grammar school

A grammar school is one of several different types of school in the history of education in the United Kingdom and other English-speaking countries, originally a school teaching Latin, but more recently an academically-oriented secondary school, differentiated in recent years from less academic Secondary Modern Schools.

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Grammatical aspect

Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.

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Grammatical gender

In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.

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Grammatical mood

In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.

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Grammatical number

In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").

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Grammatical person

Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person).

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Grammatical tense

In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.

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Grassmann's law

Grassmann's law, named after its discoverer Hermann Grassmann, is a dissimilatory phonological process in Ancient Greek and Sanskrit which states that if an aspirated consonant is followed by another aspirated consonant in the next syllable, the first one loses the aspiration.

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Greece

No description.

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Greek alphabet

The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.

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Greek diacritics

Greek orthography has used a variety of diacritics starting in the Hellenistic period.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Gymnasium (school)

A gymnasium is a type of school with a strong emphasis on academic learning, and providing advanced secondary education in some parts of Europe comparable to British grammar schools, sixth form colleges and US preparatory high schools.

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Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone

Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone is a fantasy novel written by British author J. K. Rowling.

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Hebdomada Aenigmatum

Hebdomada Aenigmatum is the first magazine of crosswords in Latin.

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Hellenic languages

Hellenic is the branch of the Indo-European language family whose principal member is Greek.

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Hellenistic period

The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.

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Homer

Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.

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Homeric Greek

Homeric Greek is the form of the Greek language that was used by Homer in the Iliad and Odyssey and in the Homeric Hymns.

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Iliad

The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.

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Imperative mood

The imperative mood is a grammatical mood that forms a command or request.

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Imperfect

The imperfect (abbreviated) is a verb form, found in various languages, which combines past tense (reference to a past time) and imperfective aspect (reference to a continuing or repeated event or state).

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Imperfective aspect

The imperfective (abbreviated or more ambiguously) is a grammatical aspect used to describe a situation viewed with interior composition.

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Independent school (United Kingdom)

In the United Kingdom, independent schools (also private schools) are fee-paying private schools, governed by an elected board of governors and independent of many of the regulations and conditions that apply to state-funded schools.

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Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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International Phonetic Alphabet

The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.

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Ionic Greek

Ionic Greek was a subdialect of the Attic–Ionic or Eastern dialect group of Ancient Greek (see Greek dialects).

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Iotacism

Iotacism (ιωτακισμός, iotakismos) is the process by which a number of vowels and diphthongs in Ancient Greek converged in pronunciation so they all now sound like iota in Modern Greek.

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Italy

Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.

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Jan Křesadlo

Jan Křesadlo was the primary artistic pseudonym used by Václav Jaroslav Karel Pinkava (December 9, 1926 in Prague - August 13, 1995 in Colchester), a Czech psychologist who was also a prizewinning novelist and poet.

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Katharevousa

Katharevousa (Καθαρεύουσα,, literally "purifying ") is a conservative form of the Modern Greek language conceived in the early 19th century as a compromise between Ancient Greek and the Demotic Greek of the time.

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Koine Greek

Koine Greek,.

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Laryngeal theory

The laryngeal theory aims to produce greater regularity in the reconstruction of Proto-Indo-European (PIE) phonology than from the reconstruction that is produced by the comparative method.

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Lateral consonant

A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Latinisation of names

Latinisation or Latinization is the practice of rendering a non-Latin name (or word) in a Latin style.

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Lesbos

Lesbos (Λέσβος), or Lezbolar in Turkish sometimes referred to as Mytilene after its capital, is a Greek island located in the northeastern Aegean Sea.

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Liceo classico

Liceo classico (classical lyceum) is the oldest, public secondary school type in Italy.

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Linear B

Linear B is a syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek, the earliest attested form of Greek.

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List of Greek and Latin roots in English

The English language uses many Greek and Latin roots, stems, and prefixes.

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List of Greek phrases

(h)ē;ἢ τὰν ἢ ἐπὶ τᾶς A hoplite could not escape the field of battle unless he tossed away the heavy and cumbersome shield.

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Lyceum

The lyceum is a category of educational institution defined within the education system of many countries, mainly in Europe.

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Medieval Greek

Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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Modern Greek

Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική Γλώσσα "Neo-Hellenic", historically and colloquially also known as Ρωμαίικα "Romaic" or "Roman", and Γραικικά "Greek") refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era.

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Mycenaean Greek

Mycenaean Greek is the most ancient attested form of the Greek language, on the Greek mainland, Crete and Cyprus in Mycenaean Greece (16th to 12th centuries BC), before the hypothesised Dorian invasion, often cited as the terminus post quem for the coming of the Greek language to Greece.

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Nasal consonant

In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.

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Netherlands

The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.

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Nominative case

The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.

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Noun

A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.

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Odyssey

The Odyssey (Ὀδύσσεια Odýsseia, in Classical Attic) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer.

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Open vowel

An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.

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Open-mid vowel

An open-mid vowel (also mid-open vowel, low-mid vowel, mid-low vowel or half-open vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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Optative mood

The optative mood or (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood that indicates a wish or hope.

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Pamphylian Greek

Pamphylian is a little-attested and isolated dialect of Ancient Greek that was spoken in Pamphylia, on the southern coast of Asia Minor.

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Parthenon

The Parthenon (Παρθενών; Παρθενώνας, Parthenónas) is a former temple, on the Athenian Acropolis, Greece, dedicated to the goddess Athena, whom the people of Athens considered their patron.

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Perfective aspect

The perfective aspect (abbreviated), sometimes called the aoristic aspect, is a grammatical aspect used to describe an action viewed as a simple whole—a unit without interior composition.

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Phonotactics

Phonotactics (from Ancient Greek phōnḗ "voice, sound" and tacticós "having to do with arranging") is a branch of phonology that deals with restrictions in a language on the permissible combinations of phonemes.

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Phrygian language

The Phrygian language was the Indo-European language of the Phrygians, spoken in Asia Minor during Classical Antiquity (c. 8th century BCE to 5th century CE).

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Pierre Chantraine

Pierre Chantraine (15 September 1899 – 30 June 1974) was a French linguist.

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Pindar

Pindar (Πίνδαρος Pindaros,; Pindarus; c. 522 – c. 443 BC) was an Ancient Greek lyric poet from Thebes.

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Pitch-accent language

A pitch-accent language is a language that has word-accents—that is, where one syllable in a word or morpheme is more prominent than the others, but the accentuated syllable is indicated by a particular pitch contour (linguistic tones) rather than by stress.

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Plato

Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.

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Pluperfect

The pluperfect is a type of verb form, generally treated as one of the tenses in certain languages, used to refer to an action at a time earlier than a time in the past already referred to.

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Plural

The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.

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Pluricentric language

A pluricentric language or polycentric language is a language with several interacting codified standard versions, often corresponding to different countries.

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Poetry

Poetry (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.

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Pontic Greek

Pontic Greek (ποντιακά, pontiaká) is a Greek language originally spoken in the Pontus area on the southern shores of the Black Sea, northeastern Anatolia, the Eastern Turkish/Caucasus province of Kars, southern Georgia and today mainly in northern Greece.

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Present perfect

The present perfect is a grammatical combination of the present tense and perfect aspect that is used to express a past event that has present consequences.

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Present tense

The present tense (abbreviated or) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to locate a situation or event in present time.

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Pronunciation of Ancient Greek in teaching

Ancient Greek has been pronounced in various ways by those studying Ancient Greek literature in various times and places.

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Proto-Greek language

The Proto-Greek language (also known as Proto-Hellenic) is the assumed last common ancestor of all known varieties of Greek, including Mycenaean Greek, the subsequent ancient Greek dialects (i.e., Attic, Ionic, Aeolic, Doric, Ancient Macedonian and Arcadocypriot) and, ultimately, Koine, Byzantine and Modern Greek.

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Proto-Indo-European language

Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.

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Punctuation

Punctuation (formerly sometimes called pointing) is the use of spacing, conventional signs, and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and correct reading of handwritten and printed text, whether read silently or aloud.

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Realis mood

A realis mood (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood which is used principally to indicate that something is a statement of fact; in other words, to express what the speaker considers to be a known state of affairs, as in declarative sentences.

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Reduplication

Reduplication in linguistics is a morphological process in which the root or stem of a word (or part of it) or even the whole word is repeated exactly or with a slight change.

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Renaissance

The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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Rhotacism (sound change)

Rhotacism or rhotacization is a sound change that converts one consonant (usually a voiced alveolar consonant:,,, or) to a rhotic consonant in a certain environment.

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Roundedness

In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel.

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Sappho

Sappho (Aeolic Greek Ψαπφώ, Psappho; c. 630 – c. 570 BC) was an archaic Greek poet from the island of Lesbos.

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Semivowel

In phonetics and phonology, a semivowel or glide, also known as a non-syllabic vocoid, is a sound that is phonetically similar to a vowel sound but functions as the syllable boundary, rather than as the nucleus of a syllable.

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Septuagint

The Septuagint or LXX (from the septuāgintā literally "seventy"; sometimes called the Greek Old Testament) is the earliest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew.

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Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies

The Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies, known as the Hellenic Society, was founded in 1879 to advance the study of Greek language, literature, history, art and archaeology in the Ancient, Byzantine and Modern periods.

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Sparta

Sparta (Doric Greek: Σπάρτα, Spártā; Attic Greek: Σπάρτη, Spártē) was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece.

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Species

In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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Stress (linguistics)

In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.

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Subjunctive mood

The subjunctive is a grammatical mood (that is, a way of speaking that allows people to express their attitude toward what they are saying) found in many languages.

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Thracian language

The Thracian language was the Indo-European language spoken in ancient times in Southeast Europe by the Thracians, the northern neighbors of the Ancient Greeks.

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Trabzon

Trabzon, historically known as Trebizond, is a city on the Black Sea coast of northeastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province.

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Trill consonant

In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.

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Tsakonian language

Tsakonian (also Tsaconian, Tzakonian or Tsakonic; Tsakonian: τσακώνικα, α τσακώνικα γρούσσα; Greek: τσακώνικα) is a modern Hellenic language which is both highly divergent from other spoken varieties of Modern Greek and, from a philological standpoint, is also linguistically classified separately from them.

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Turkey

Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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University

A university (universitas, "a whole") is an institution of higher (or tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines.

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Varieties of Modern Greek

The linguistic varieties of Modern Greek can be classified along two principal dimensions.

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Velar consonant

Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).

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Verb

A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).

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Vocative case

The vocative case (abbreviated) is the case used for a noun that identifies a person (animal, object etc.) being addressed or occasionally the determiners of that noun.

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Voice (grammar)

In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or doer of the action, the verb is in the active voice.

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Voice (phonetics)

Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).

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Voicelessness

In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.

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Vowel length

In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.

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Western world

The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.

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Word divider

In punctuation, a word divider is a glyph that separates written words.

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Ancient Greek (to 1453), Ancient Greek Language, Ancient Greek language, Ancient Greek language (to 1453), Ancient Hellenic, Ancient greek, Ancient greek language, Classic Greek, Classical Greek, Classical Greek (language), Classical Greek language, Classical greek, Grec ancien, Hellenic Greek, ISO 639:grc, Neoclassical Greek, Old Greek language, ʽΕλληνικός, Ἑλληνική ἀρχαία.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Greek

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