279 relations: A Christmas Carol (2009 film), A Scanner Darkly (film), Academy Award for Best Animated Feature, Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film, Academy Awards, Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, Action League Now!, Africa Movie Academy Award for Best Animation, Akira (1988 film), Aladdin (1992 Disney film), Aleksandr Petrov (animator), Analog device, Android (robot), Angry Kid, Animal Farm (1954 film), Animated cartoon, Animation department, Animator, Animatronics, Anime, Annie Award, Annie Award for Best Animated Feature, Annie Award for Best Animated Short Subject, Annie Award for Best Animated Television Production, Appleseed Ex Machina, Architectural animation, Armature (computer animation), Armature (sculpture), Arthur Melbourne-Cooper, Asia Pacific Screen Award for Best Animated Feature Film, Asia Pacific Screen Awards, Audio-Animatronics, Avar (animation variable), Émile Cohl, BAFTA Award for Best Animated Film, Beauty and the Beast (1991 film), Beowulf (2007 film), Berthold Bartosch, Beta movement, Bouncing ball, Brickfilm, Bruce Bickford (animator), Burt Gillett, Carl Koch (director), César Award for Best Animated Film, Cel, Cel shading, Character animation, Charcoal, Charles-Émile Reynaud, ..., Chicken Run, Chromolithography, Ciné si, Cinemagraph, Cinematography, Clay animation, Computer animation, Computer-generated imagery, Contrast (vision), Coraline (film), Corpse Bride, Cutout animation, Czechoslovakia, Demoscene, Digital media, Digital video, Dimensions of Dialogue, Disney Animation: The Illusion of Life, Dragonslayer (1981 film), Drawn-on-film animation, DreamWorks, Earl Hurd, Edwin S. Porter, El Apóstol, European Film Award for Best Animated Feature Film, European Film Awards, Fantasmagorie (1908 film), Fantastic Planet, Feature film, Film, Film genre, Film stock, Filmation, Filmmaking, Fire and Ice (1983 film), First-person shooter, Flash animation, Flip book, Flowers and Trees, Four-quadrant movie, Futurama, George Pal, Gerald McBoing-Boing, Gertie the Dinosaur, GIF, Go motion, Golden Rooster Award for Best Animation, Goya Award for Best Animated Film, Graphic animation, Greek language, Gross margin, Gumby, Hanna-Barbera, Heavy Metal (film), How to Train Your Dragon (film), Humorous Phases of Funny Faces, Hydraulic engineering, In a Heartbeat (film), Independent animation, Industrial Light & Magic, International Animated Film Association, International Tournée of Animation, Internet, Interpolation, Iran, J. Stuart Blackton, Jan Švankmajer, Japan Academy Prize for Animation of the Year, Jason and the Argonauts (1963 film), Jiří Trnka, John Randolph Bray, King Kong (1933 film), Kochadaiiyaan, Koko the Clown, Ladislas Starevich, Laika (company), Lego, Len Lye, Light, Limited animation, List of Disney theatrical animated features, List of films with live action and animation, Little Nemo (1911 film), Lost film, Lotte Reiniger, Machinima, Magic lantern, Maquette, Marginal cost, Matte (filmmaking), Max Fleischer, Mechatronics, Medium (website), Mio Mao, MIT Press, Model animation, Model sheet, Monty Python's Flying Circus, Morph (animation), Morphing, Motion blur, Motion capture, Motion graphic design, Motion graphics, Multi-sketch, Musée Grévin, National Film Award for Best Animated Film, Negative (photography), Nocturna (film), Norman McLaren, Object animation, Oil paint, Onion skinning, Osmosis Jones, Outline of film, Pacific Data Images, Paint-on-glass animation, Paleolithic, Paperman, Phenakistiscope, Phi phenomenon, Phil Tippett, Pinocchio (1940 film), Pinscreen animation, Piotr Dumała, Pixar, Pixilation, Plasticine, Polygon mesh, PowerPoint animation, Praxinoscope, Principal photography, Puppet, Puppetoon, Puppetry, Quake (video game), Raster graphics, Ray Harryhausen, Robot Chicken, Robotics, Rostrum camera, Rotoscoping, Sand animation, Scanimate, Segundo de Chomón, Shadow play, Shahr-e Sukhteh, Short film, Shrek, Silhouette animation, Skyland, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937 film), Society for Animation Studies, South Park, Space Jam, Special effect, Spirited Away, Stan Brakhage, Stick figure, Still photography, Stop motion, Storyboard, Storyboard artist, Strata-cut animation, Stroboscope, SUNY Press, Take, Tale of Tales (1979 film), Technicolor, Television, Terry Gilliam, Terrytoons, Théâtre Optique, The Adventures of Mark Twain (1985 film), The Adventures of Prince Achmed, The Adventures of Tintin (film), The Animator's Survival Kit, The Empire Strikes Back, The Flowers of Evil (manga), The Huckleberry Hound Show, The Illusionist (2010 film), The Iron Giant, The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild, The Legend of Zelda: The Wind Waker, The Lion King, The Little Mermaid (1989 film), The Lord of the Rings (1978 film), The Magic Behind the Voices, The Nightmare Before Christmas, The Polar Express (film), The Prince of Egypt, The Secret Adventures of Tom Thumb, The Secret of Kells, The Secret of NIMH, The Tale of the Fox, The Trap Door, The Triplets of Belleville, The Walt Disney Company, Tom Terrific, Toy Story, Tradigital art, Traditional animation, University of Central Arkansas, Up (2009 film), UPA (animation studio), Vanity Fair (magazine), Vector graphics, Video, Video game, Waking Life, Wallace & Gromit: The Curse of the Were-Rabbit, Wallace and Gromit, Walt Disney, Walt Disney Animation Studios, Walt Disney Imagineering, Warner Bros. Cartoons, Weimar Republic, Who Framed Roger Rabbit, William Kentridge, Willis H. O'Brien, Winsor McCay, Wire-frame model, Yellow Submarine (film), YouTube, Zoetrope, 12 basic principles of animation, 2D computer graphics, 3D computer graphics, 5th Academy Awards. Expand index (229 more) » « Shrink index
A Christmas Carol is a 2009 American 3D computer animated motion-capture dark fantasy film written, co-produced, and directed by Robert Zemeckis.
A Scanner Darkly is a 2006 American animated science-fiction thriller film directed by Richard Linklater, based on the novel of the same name by Philip K. Dick.
The Academy Awards are given each year by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS or the Academy) for the best films and achievements of the previous year.
The Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film is an award given by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) as part of the Academy Awards annually since the 5th Academy Awards, covering the year 1931–32, to the present.
The Academy Awards, also known as the Oscars, are a set of 24 awards for artistic and technical merit in the American film industry, given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), to recognize excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership.
The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS (often pronounced as am-pas), also known as simply the Academy) is a professional honorary organization with the stated goal of advancing the arts and sciences of motion pictures.
Action League Now! (also known as Action League Now!: The Series when spun-off into its own television series) is an American stop motion animated children's television series that was originally part of All That and then KaBlam! on Nickelodeon, and was later spun off into its own show that premiered on Nickelodeon on November 25, 2001, and ending its run on February 10, 2002.
The Africa Movie Academy Award for Best Animation is an annual merit by the Africa Film Academy to reward the best animated films for the year.
Akira (Japanese: アキラ Hepburn: Akira) is a 1988 Japanese animated post-apocalyptic science fiction film directed by Katsuhiro Otomo, produced by Ryōhei Suzuki and Shunzō Katō, and written by Otomo and Izo Hashimoto, based on Otomo's manga of the same name.
Aladdin is a 1992 American animated musical romantic comedy fantasy adventure film produced by Walt Disney Feature Animation and released by Walt Disney Pictures.
Aleksandr Konstantinovich Petrov (also Alexander or Alexandre) (Александр Константинович Петров) (born 17 July 1957 in Prechistoye, Yaroslavl Oblast) is a Russian animator and animation director.
Analog device is usually a combination of both analog machine and analog media that can together measure, record, reproduce, or broadcast continuous information, for example, the almost infinite number of grades of transparency, voltage, resistance, rotation, or pressure.
An android is a humanoid robot or synthetic organism designed to look and act like a human, especially one with a body having a flesh-like resemblance.
Angry Kid is an English 1-minute short live action and stop motion animated comedy television series created, directed, written, and designed by Darren Walsh (who also provides the voice of the title character) and produced by Aardman Animations for Series 1 and 2 and by Mr Morris Productions for Series 3.
Animal Farm is a 1954 British-American adult animated drama film by Halas and Batchelor, based on the book Animal Farm by George Orwell.
An animated cartoon is a film for the cinema, television or computer screen, which is made using sequential drawings, as opposed to animation in general, which include films made using clay, puppets, 3-D modeling and other means.
Animation departments are also called Animation Production wherein this production usually obliged to create animations to a film or any kinds of material that use animation for media.
An animator is an artist who creates multiple images, known as frames, which give an illusion of movement called animation when displayed in rapid sequence.
Animatronics refers to the use of robotic devices to emulate a human or an animal, or bring lifelike characteristics to an otherwise inanimate object.
Anime is a style of hand-drawn and computer animation originating in, and commonly associated with, Japan.
The Annie Award is an American award for accomplishments in animation.
The Annie Award for Best Animated Feature is an Annie Award introduced in 1992, awarded annually to the best animated feature film.
The Annie Award for Best Animated Short Subject is an Annie Award given annually to the best animated short film.
The Annie Award for Best Animated Television Production is an Annie Award, awarded annually to the best animated television show.
Appleseed Ex Machina, also known as in the original version, is a 2007 Japanese animated CG science fiction film and is the sequel to the 2004 ''Appleseed'' film, similarly directed by Shinji Aramaki, and was produced by Hong Kong director and producer John Woo.
Architectural animation is a short architectural movie created on a computer.
An armature is the name of the kinematic chains used in computer animation to simulate the motions of virtual human or animal characters.
In sculpture, an armature is a framework around which the sculpture is built.
Arthur Melbourne Cooper (15 April 1874 – 28 November 1961) was a British photographer and early filmmaker best known for his pioneering work in stop-motion animation.
The winners and nominees of the Asia Pacific Screen Award for Best Animated Feature Film are.
The Asia Pacific Screen Awards (APSA) is an international cultural initiative of the Brisbane City Council, Australia, to honor and promote the films, actors, directors, and cultures of the Asia-Pacific region to a global audience and to realize the objectives of UNESCO to promote and preserve the respective cultures through the influential medium of film.
Audio-Animatronics (Animatronics, AA) is the registered trademark for a form of robotics animation created by Walt Disney Imagineering for shows and attractions at Disney theme parks, and subsequently expanded on and used by other companies.
An avar or animation variable (or hinge) is a variable controlling the position of part of an animated object, such as a character.
Émile Cohl (January 4, 1857 – January 20, 1938), born Émile Eugène Jean Louis Courtet, was a French caricaturist of the largely forgotten Incoherent Movement, cartoonist, and animator, called "The Father of the Animated Cartoon" and "The Oldest Parisian".
This is a list of the winners and nominees of the BAFTA Award for Best Animated Film.
Beauty and the Beast is a 1991 American animated musical romantic fantasy film produced by Walt Disney Feature Animation and released by Walt Disney Pictures.
Beowulf is a 2007 British-American 3D animated epic fantasy film directed by Robert Zemeckis and written by Neil Gaiman and Roger Avary, based on the Old English epic poem of the same name.
Berthold Bartosch (29 December 1893 – 13 November 1968) was a film-maker, born in Polaun, in the Bohemia region of Austria-Hungary (now part of the Czech Republic).
Beta movement is an optical illusion, first described by Max Wertheimer in 1912, whereby a series of static images on a screen creates the illusion of a smoothly flowing scene.
The physics of a bouncing ball concerns the physical behaviour of bouncing balls, particularly its motion before, during, and after impact against the surface of another body.
A Brickfilm is a film made using Lego bricks, or other similar plastic construction toys.
Bruce Bickford (born in Seattle, February 11, 1947) is a maker of animated films who works primarily in clay animation.
Burton F. Gillett (October 15, 1891 - December 28, 1971) was a director of animated films.
Carl Koch or Karl Koch (30 July 1892 in Nümbrecht, Germany – 1 December 1963 in Barnet, England) was a German film director and writer with many secondary credits including collaborations with his wife Lotte Reiniger, the animator of The Adventures of Prince Achmed (1926).
The César Award for Best Animated Film is awarded annually by the Académie des Arts et Techniques du Cinéma since 2011.
A cel, short for celluloid, is a transparent sheet on which objects are drawn or painted for traditional, hand-drawn animation.
Cel shading or toon shading is a type of non-photorealistic rendering designed to make 3-D computer graphics appear to be flat by using less shading color instead of a shade gradient or tints and shades.
Character animation is a specialized area of the animation process, which involves bringing animated s to life.
Charcoal is the lightweight black carbon and ash residue hydrocarbon produced by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances.
Charles-Émile Reynaud (8 December 1844 – 9 January 1918) was a French inventor, responsible for the praxinoscope (an animation device patented in 1877 that improved on the zoetrope) and the first projected animated films.
Chicken Run is a 2000 stop motion animated comedy film produced by the British studio Aardman Animations.
Chromolithography is a unique method for making multi-colour prints.
Ciné si (Cinema If) is a 1989 French silhouette animation television series conceived, written and directed by Michel Ocelot and realised at La Fabrique, consisting of short fairy tale and retro-future stories performed by the same animated "actors".
Cinemagraphs are still photographs in which a minor and repeated movement occurs, forming a video clip.
Cinematography (also called Direction of Photography) is the science or art of motion-picture photography by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as film stock.
Clay animation or claymation, sometimes plasticine animation, is one of many forms of stop motion animation.
Computer animation is the process used for generating animated images.
Computer-generated imagery (CGI) is the application of computer graphics to create or contribute to images in art, printed media, video games, films, television programs, shorts, commercials, videos, and simulators.
Contrast is the difference in luminance or colour that makes an object (or its representation in an image or display) distinguishable.
Coraline is a 2009 American 3D stop-motion dark fantasy horror film based on Neil Gaiman's 2002 novel of the same name.
Corpse Bride is a 2005 British-American stop-motion animated musical fantasy film directed by Mike Johnson and Tim Burton with a screenplay by John August, Caroline Thompson and Pamela Pettler based on characters created by Burton and Carlos Grangel.
Cutout animation is a form of stop-motion animation using flat characters, props and backgrounds cut from materials such as paper, card, stiff fabric or even photographs.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
The demoscene is an international computer art subculture focused on producing demos: self-contained, sometimes extremely small, computer programs that produce audio-visual presentations.
Digital media are any media that are encoded in machine-readable formats.
Digital video is an electronic representation of moving visual images (video) in the form of encoded digital data.
Dimensions of Dialogue (Možnosti dialogu) is a 1982 Czechoslovak animated short film directed by Jan Švankmajer.
Disney Animation: The Illusion of Life (576 p.) is a book by Ollie Johnston and Frank Thomas, two of the key animators at Disney during the Golden Age of animation.
Dragonslayer is a 1981 American fantasy film directed by Matthew Robbins, from a screenplay he co-wrote with Hal Barwood.
Drawn-on-film animation, also known as direct animation or animation without camera, is an animation technique where footage is produced by creating the images directly on film stock, as opposed to any other form of animation where the images or objects are photographed frame by frame with an animation camera.
DreamWorks Pictures (also known as DreamWorks SKG or DreamWorks Studios, commonly referred to as DreamWorks) is an American film production label of Amblin Partners.
Earl Hurd (September 14, 1880 – September 28, 1940) was a pioneering American animator and film director.
Edwin Stanton Porter (April 21, 1870 – April 30, 1941) was an American film pioneer, most famous as a producer, director, studio manager and cinematographer with the Edison Manufacturing Company and the Famous Players Film Company.
El Apóstol (Spanish: "The Apostle") was a 1917 Argentine animated film utilizing cutout animation, and the world's first animated feature film.
European Film Award for Best Animated Feature Film has been awarded annually since 2009 by the European Film Academy.
The European Film Awards have been presented annually since 1988 by the European Film Academy to recognize excellence in European cinematic achievements.
Fantasmagorie is a 1908 French animated film by Émile Cohl.
Fantastic Planet (La Planète sauvage, Divoká planeta, lit. The Wild Planet) is a 1973 animated science fiction film directed by René Laloux and written by Laloux and Roland Topor.
A feature film is a film (also called a motion picture or movie) with a running time long enough to be considered the principal or sole film to fill a program.
A film, also called a movie, motion picture, moving pícture, theatrical film, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images.
A film genre is a motion picture category based on similarities in either the narrative elements or the emotional response to the film (namely, serious, comic, etc.). Most theories of film genre are borrowed from literary genre criticism.
Film stock is an analog medium that is used for recording motion pictures or animation.
Filmation Associates was a production company that produced animation and live-action programming for television from 1963 to 1989.
Filmmaking (or, in an academic context, film production) is the process of making a film, generally in the sense of films intended for extensive theatrical exhibition.
Fire and Ice is a 1983 American epic high fantasy adventure film directed by Ralph Bakshi.
First-person shooter (FPS) is a video game genre centered around gun and other weapon-based combat in a first-person perspective; that is, the player experiences the action through the eyes of the protagonist.
Adobe Flash animation or Adobe Flash cartoon is an animated film that is created with the Adobe Flash platform or similar animation software and often distributed in the SWF file format.
A flip book or flick book is a book with a series of pictures that vary gradually from one page to the next, so that when the pages are turned rapidly, the pictures appear to animate by simulating motion or some other change.
Flowers and Trees is a 1932 Silly Symphonies cartoon produced by Walt Disney, directed by Burt Gillett, and released to theatres by United Artists on July 30, 1932.
In the Hollywood movie industry, a four-quadrant movie is one which appeals to all four major demographic "quadrants" of the moviegoing audience: both male and female, and both over- and under-25s.
Futurama is an American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening for the Fox Broadcasting Company.
George Pal (born György Pál Marczincsak; February 1, 1908 – May 2, 1980) was a Hungarian-American animator, film director and producer, principally associated with the fantasy and science-fiction genres.
Gerald McBoing-Boing is an animated short film produced by United Productions of America (UPA) and given wide release by Columbia Pictures on November 2, 1950.
Gertie the Dinosaur is a 1914 animated short film by American cartoonist and animator Winsor McCay.
The Graphics Interchange Format, better known by its acronym GIF, is a bitmap image format that was developed by a team at the bulletin board service (BBS) provider CompuServe led by American computer scientist Steve Wilhite on June 15, 1987.
Go motion is a variation of stop motion animation which incorporates motion blur into each frame involving motion.
The Golden Rooster Award for Best Animation (中国电影金鸡奖最佳美术片) is a category of competition of the Golden Rooster Awards.
The Goya Award for Best Picture (Spanish: Premio Goya a la mejor película animada) is one of the Goya Awards, Spain's principal national film awards.
Graphic animation is a variation of stop motion (and possibly more conceptually associated with traditional flat cel animation and paper drawing animation, but still technically qualifying as stop motion) consisting of the animation of photographs (in whole or in parts) and other non-drawn flat visual graphic material, such as newspaper and magazine clippings.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Gross margin is the difference between revenue and cost of goods sold (COGS) divided by revenue.
Gumby is an American clay animation franchise, centered on a green clay humanoid character created and modeled by Art Clokey.
Hanna-Barbera Productions, Inc. (simply known as Hanna-Barbera and also referred to as H-B Enterprises, H-B Production Company and Hanna-Barbera Cartoons, Inc.) was an American animation studio that served as a division of Warner Bros. Animation until it was absorbed by them.
Heavy Metal is a 1981 Canadian-American adult animated sci-fi-fantasy film directed by Gerald Potterton, produced by Ivan Reitman and Leonard Mogel, who also was the publisher of Heavy Metal magazine, which was the basis for the film, and starring the voices of Rodger Bumpass, Jackie Burroughs, John Candy, Joe Flaherty, Don Francks, Martin Lavut, Marilyn Lightstone, Eugene Levy, Alice Playten, Harold Ramis, Percy Rodriguez, Susan Roman, Richard Romanus, August Schellenberg, John Vernon, and Zal Yanovsky.
How to Train Your Dragon is a 2010 American 3D computer-animated action fantasy film produced by DreamWorks Animation and distributed by Paramount Pictures.
Humorous Phases of Funny Faces is a 1906 short silent animated cartoon directed by James Stuart Blackton and generally regarded by film historians as the first animated film recorded on standard picture film.
Hydraulic engineering as a sub-discipline of civil engineering is concerned with the flow and conveyance of fluids, principally water and sewage.
In a Heartbeat is a 2017 computer-animated short film produced by Ringling College of Art and Design.
Independent animation is animated short cartoons and feature films produced outside the professional Hollywood animation industry.
Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) is an American motion picture visual effects company that was founded in May 1975 by George Lucas.
The International Animated Film Association (French: Association Internationale du Film d'Animation, ASIFA) is an international non-profit organization founded in 1960 in Annecy, France, by the best known animation artists of the time such as the Canadian animator, Norman McLaren.
The International Tournée of Animation was an annual touring program of animated films selected and assembled from films from many countries around the world and which existed from about 1970 to the late 1980s.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
In the mathematical field of numerical analysis, interpolation is a method of constructing new data points within the range of a discrete set of known data points.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
James Stuart Blackton (January 5, 1875 – August 13, 1941) was a British-American film producer and director of the silent era.
Jan Švankmajer (born 4 September 1934) is a Czech filmmaker and artist whose work spans several media.
The of the Japan Academy Prize is one of the annual Awards given by the Nippon Academy-sho association (Japan Academy Prize Association).
Jason and the Argonauts (working title Jason and the Golden Fleece) is a 1963 independently made Anglo-American fantasy film based upon Greek mythology, produced by Charles H. Schneer, directed by Don Chaffey, that stars Todd Armstrong, Nancy Kovack, Honor Blackman, and Gary Raymond.
Jiří Trnka (24 February 1912 – 30 December 1969) was a Czech puppet-maker, illustrator, motion-picture animator and film director.
John Randolph Bray (August 25, 1879 – October 10, 1978) was an American animator.
King Kong is a 1933 American NR pre-Code monster adventure film directed and produced by Merian C. Cooper and Ernest B. Schoedsack.
Kochadaiiyaan (English: The king with a long, curly mane) is a 2014 Indian Tamil language motion capture computer animated historical action drama film written by K. S. Ravikumar and directed by Soundarya R. Ashwin.
Koko the Clown is an animated character created by animation pioneer Max Fleischer.
Ladislav Starevich (Владисла́в Алекса́ндрович Старе́вич, Władysław Starewicz; August 8, 1882 – February 26, 1965) was a Polish-Russian stop-motion animator notable as the author of the first puppet-animated film The Beautiful Lukanida (1912).
Laika Entertainment, LLC, or simply Laika, is an American stop-motion animation studio specializing in feature films, commercial content for all media, music videos and short films.
Lego (stylized as LEGO) is a line of plastic construction toys that are manufactured by The Lego Group, a privately held company based in Billund, Denmark.
Leonard Charles Huia Lye (5 July 1901 – 15 May 1980), was a Christchurch, New Zealand-born artist known primarily for his experimental films and kinetic sculpture.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Limited animation is a process in the overall technique of traditional animation of creating animated cartoons that does not redraw entire frames but variably reuses common parts between frames.
This list of theatrical animated feature films consists of animated films produced or released by The Walt Disney Studios, the film division of The Walt Disney Company.
This is a list of films with live action and animation, films that combine live action and animated elements, typically interacting.
Little Nemo, also known as Winsor McCay: The Famous Cartoonist of the N.Y. Herald and His Moving Comics, is a 1911 silent animated short film by American cartoonist Winsor McCay.
A lost film is a feature or short film that is no longer known to exist in any studio archives, private collections, or public archives, such as the U.S. Library of Congress.
Charlotte "Lotte" Reiniger (2 June 1899 – 19 June 1981) was a German film director and the foremost pioneer of silhouette animation.
Machinima is the use of real-time computer graphics engines to create a cinematic production.
The magic lantern, also known by its Latin name lanterna magica, is an early type of image projector employing pictures painted, printed or produced photographically on transparent plates (usually made of glass), one or more lenses, and a light source.
A maquette (French word for scale model, sometimes referred to by the Italian names plastico or modello) is a small scale model or rough draft of an unfinished sculpture.
In economics, marginal cost is the change in the opportunity cost that arises when the quantity produced is incremented by one unit, that is, it is the cost of producing one more unit of a good.
Mattes are used in photography and special effects filmmaking to combine two or more image elements into a single, final image.
Max Fleischer (born Majer Fleischer;; July 19, 1883 – September 25, 1972) was a Polish-American animator, inventor, film director and producer.
Mechatronics is a multidisciplinary field of science that includes a combination of mechanical engineering, electronics, computer engineering, telecommunications engineering, systems engineering and control engineering.
Medium is an online publishing platform developed by Evan Williams, and launched in August 2012.
Mio Mao (pronounced me-o mow), also known as Mio and Mao, is an Italian stop motion children's TV show created by Francesco Misseri in the 1970s, produced using Claymation animation.
The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).
Model animation is a form of stop motion animation designed to merge with live action footage to create the illusion of a real-world fantasy sequence.
In animation, a model sheet, also known as a character board, character sheet, character study or simply a study, is a document used to help standardize the appearance, poses, and gestures of an animated character.
Monty Python’s Flying Circus (known during the final series as just Monty Python) is a British sketch comedy series created by the comedy group Monty Python and broadcast by the BBC from 1969 to 1974.
Morph and his friend Chas is a series of clay stop-motion comedy animations, named after the main character.
Morphing is a special effect in motion pictures and animations that changes (or morphs) one image or shape into another through a seamless transition.
Motion blur is the apparent streaking of moving objects in a photograph or a sequence of frames, such as a film or animation.
Motion capture (Mo-cap for short) is the process of recording the movement of objects or people.
Motion graphic design is a subset of graphic design in that it uses graphic design principles in a filmmaking or video production context (or other temporally evolving visual medium) through the use of animation or filmic techniques.
Motion graphics are pieces of digital footage or animation which create the illusion of motion or rotation, and are usually combined with audio for use in multimedia projects.
Multi-sketch is an animation method of story-telling where a sequence of hand-drawn sketches are created simultaneously while narrating it with voice.
The Musée Grévin is a wax museum in Paris located on the Grands Boulevards in the 9th arrondissement on the right bank of the Seine, at 10, Boulevard Montmartre, Paris, France.
The National Film Award for Best Animated Film is one of the National Film Awards presented annually by the Directorate of Film Festivals, the organisation set up by Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, India.
In photography, a negative is an image, usually on a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film, in which the lightest areas of the photographed subject appear darkest and the darkest areas appear lightest.
Nocturna is a 2007 Spanish-French animated fantasy film directed by Adrià García and Víctor Maldonado.
Norman McLaren, (11 April 1914 – 27 January 1987) was a Scottish Canadian animator, director and producer known for his work for the National Film Board of Canada (NFB).
Object animation is a form of stop motion animation that involves the animated movements of any non-drawn objects such as toys, blocks, dolls, etc.
Oil paint is a type of slow-drying paint that consists of particles of pigment suspended in a drying oil, commonly linseed oil.
Onion skinning is a 2D computer graphics term for a technique used in creating animated cartoons and editing movies to see several frames at once.
Osmosis Jones is a 2001 American live-action/animated action comedy adventure film with animated scenes directed by Tom Sito and Piet Kroon and live-action scenes directed by the Farrelly brothers.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to film: Film – refers to motion pictures as individual projects and to the field in general.
Pacific Data Images (PDI) was an American computer animation production company that was bought by DreamWorks SKG in 2000.
Paint-on-glass animation is a technique for making animated films by manipulating slow-drying oil paints on sheets of glass.
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.
Paperman is a 2012 American black-and-white computer-cel animated romantic comedy short film produced by Walt Disney Animation Studios and directed by John Kahrs.
The phénakisticope (better known as phenakistiscope or the later misspelling phenakistoscope) was the first widespread animation device that created a fluid illusion of motion.
The phi phenomenon is the optical illusion of perceiving a series of still images, when viewed in rapid succession, as continuous motion.
Phil Tippett (born September 27, 1951 in Berkeley, California) is an American movie director and Oscar and Emmy Award-winning visual effects supervisor and producer, who specializes in creature design, stop-motion and computerized character animation.
Pinocchio is a 1940 American animated musical fantasy film produced by Walt Disney Productions and based on the Italian children's novel The Adventures of Pinocchio by Carlo Collodi.
Pinscreen animation makes use of a screen filled with movable pins, which can be moved in or out by pressing an object onto the screen.
Piotr Dumala (born 9 July 1956 in Warsaw) is a Polish film director and animator.
Pixar Animation Studios, commonly referred to as Pixar, is an American computer animation movie studio based in Emeryville, California that is a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios, owned by The Walt Disney Company.
Pixilation (from pixilated) is a stop motion technique where live actors are used as a frame-by-frame subject in an animated film, by repeatedly posing while one or more frame is taken and changing pose slightly before the next frame or frames.
Plasticine, a brand of modelling clay, is a putty-like modelling material made from calcium salts, petroleum jelly and aliphatic acids.
A polygon mesh is a collection of, s and s that defines the shape of a polyhedral object in 3D computer graphics and solid modeling.
PowerPoint animation is a form of animation which uses Microsoft PowerPoint and similar programs to create a game or movie.
The praxinoscope was an animation device, the successor to the zoetrope.
Film production on location in Newark, New Jersey, April 2004. Principal photography is the phase of film production in which the movie is filmed, with actors on set and cameras rolling, as distinct from pre-production and post-production.
A puppet is an object, often resembling a human, animal or mythical figure, that is animated or manipulated by a person called a puppeteer.
Puppetoon animation is a type of replacement animation, which is itself a type of stop-motion animation.
Puppetry is a form of theatre or performance that involves the manipulation of puppets – inanimate objects, often resembling some type of human or animal figure, that are animated or manipulated by a human called a puppeteer.
Quake is a first-person shooter video game, developed by id Software and published by GT Interactive in 1996.
In computer graphics, a raster graphics or bitmap image is a dot matrix data structure that represents a generally rectangular grid of pixels (points of color), viewable via a monitor, paper, or other display medium.
Raymond Frederick Harryhausen (June 29, 1920 – May 7, 2013) was an American-British artist, designer, visual effects creator, writer and producer who created a form of stop-motion model animation known as "Dynamation".
Robot Chicken is an American stop motion sketch comedy television series, created and executive produced for Adult Swim by Seth Green and Matthew Senreich along with co-head writers Douglas Goldstein and Tom Root.
Robotics is an interdisciplinary branch of engineering and science that includes mechanical engineering, electronics engineering, computer science, and others.
A rostrum camera is a specially designed camera used in television production and filmmaking to animate a still picture or object.
Rotoscoping is an animation technique that animators use to trace over motion picture footage, frame by frame, to produce realistic action.
Sand animation is the manipulation of sand to create animation.
Scanimate is the name for an analog computer animation (video synthesizer) system developed from the late 1960s to the 1980s by Computer Image Corporation of Denver, Colorado.
Segundo Víctor Aurelio Chomón y Ruiz (also Chomont or Chaumont,; 17 October 1871 – 2 May 1929) was a pioneering Spanish film director, cinematographer and screenwriter.
Shadow play, also known as shadow puppetry, is an ancient form of storytelling and entertainment which uses flat articulated cut-out figures (shadow puppets) which are held between a source of light and a translucent screen or scrim.
Shahr-e Sūkhté (شهرِ سوخته, meaning " Burnt City"), also spelled as Shahr-e Sukhteh and Shahr-i Shōkhta, is an archaeological site of a sizable Bronze Age urban settlement, associated with the Jiroft culture.
A short film is any motion picture not long enough to be considered a feature film.
Shrek is a 2001 American computer animated fantasy comedy film loosely based on the 1990 fairytale picture book of the same name by William Steig.
Silhouette animation is animation in which the characters are only visible as black silhouettes.
Skyland (full French title: "Skyland, Le Nouveau Monde", or "Skyland, The New World"), is a CGI animated series developed in France in partnership with Canada and Luxembourg for television channels France 2, Teletoon, Nicktoons, ABC and CITV.
Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs is a 1937 American animated musical fantasy film produced by Walt Disney Productions and originally released by RKO Radio Pictures.
The Society for Animation Studies (SAS) is an international learned society dedicated to the study of animation history and theory.
South Park is an American adult animated sitcom created by Trey Parker and Matt Stone and developed by Brian Graden for the Comedy Central television network.
Space Jam is a 1996 American live-action/animated sports comedy film starring basketball player Michael Jordan and featuring the Looney Tunes cartoon characters.
Special effects (often abbreviated as SFX, SPFX, or simply FX) are illusions or visual tricks used in the film, television, theatre, video game and simulator industries to simulate the imagined events in a story or virtual world.
is a 2001 Japanese animated fantasy film written and directed by Hayao Miyazaki, animated by Studio Ghibli for Tokuma Shoten, Nippon Television Network, Dentsu, Buena Vista Home Entertainment, Tohokushinsha Film and Mitsubishi and distributed by Toho.
James Stanley Brakhage (January 14, 1933 – March 9, 2003), better known as Stan Brakhage, was an American non-narrative filmmaker.
A stick figure is a very simple drawing of a person or animal, composed of a few lines, curves, and dots.
Still photography is the practice of making non-moving photographs, as distinct from motion picture photography (cinematography).
Stop motion is an animated-film making technique in which objects are physically manipulated in small increments between individually photographed frames so that they appear to exhibit independent motion when the series of frames is played back as a fast sequence.
A storyboard is a graphic organizer in the form of illustrations or images displayed in sequence for the purpose of pre-visualizing a motion picture, animation, motion graphic or interactive media sequence.
A storyboard artist (sometimes called a story artist or visualizer) creates storyboards for advertising agencies and film productions.
Strata-cut animation, also spelled stratcut or straticut, is a form of clay animation, itself one of many forms of stop motion animation.
A stroboscope also known as a strobe, is an instrument used to make a cyclically moving object appear to be slow-moving, or stationary.
The State University of New York Press (or SUNY Press), is a university press and a Center for Scholarly Communication.
A take is a single continuous recorded performance.
Tale of Tales (Сказка сказок, Skazka skazok) is a 1979 Soviet/Russian animated film directed by Yuri Norstein and produced by the Soyuzmultfilm studio in Moscow.
Technicolor is a series of color motion picture processes, the first version dating from 1916, and followed by improved versions over several decades.
Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.
Terrence Vance Gilliam (born 22 November 1940) is an American-born British screenwriter, film director, animator, actor, comedian and member of the Monty Python comedy troupe.
Terrytoons was a studio in New Rochelle, New York, that produced animated cartoons for theatrical release from 1930–1971.
The Théâtre Optique (Optical Theatre) was an animated moving picture system invented by Émile Reynaud and patented in 1888.
The Adventures of Mark Twain (released in the United Kingdom as Comet Quest) is a 1985 American stop motion claymation animated fantasy film directed by Will Vinton.
The Adventures of Prince Achmed (Die Abenteuer des Prinzen Achmed) is a 1926 German animated fairytale film by Lotte Reiniger.
The Adventures of Tintin, known as The Adventures of Tintin: The Secret of the Unicorn outside North America, is a 2011 3D motion capture computer-animated mystery adventure film based on The Adventures of Tintin, the comics series by Belgian cartoonist Hergé.
The Animator's Survival Kit: A Manual of Methods, Principles, and Formulas for Classical, Computer, Games, Stop Motion, and Internet Animators is a book by award-winning animator and director Richard Williams, about various aspects of animation.
The Empire Strikes Back (also known as Star Wars: Episode V – The Empire Strikes Back) is a 1980 American epic space opera film directed by Irvin Kershner.
is a Japanese manga series written and illustrated by Shūzō Oshimi.
The Huckleberry Hound Show is a 1958 syndicated animated series and the second from the Hanna-Barbera studios following The Ruff and Reddy Show, sponsored by Kellogg's.
The Illusionist (L'Illusionniste) is a 2010 French-British animated film directed by Sylvain Chomet.
The Iron Giant is a 1999 American animated science fiction film using both traditional animation and computer animation, produced by Warner Bros. Feature Animation and directed by Brad Bird in his directorial debut.
The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild is an action-adventure game developed and published by Nintendo.
The Legend of Zelda: The Wind Waker is an action-adventure game developed and published by Nintendo for the GameCube home video game console.
The Lion King is a 1994 American animated epic musical film produced by Walt Disney Feature Animation and released by Walt Disney Pictures.
The Little Mermaid is a 1989 American animated musical fantasy film produced by Walt Disney Feature Animation and released by Walt Disney Pictures.
The Lord of the Rings is a 1978 American-British-Spanish animated high fantasy film directed by Ralph Bakshi.
The Magic Behind the Voices: A Who's Who of Cartoon Voice Actors is a 367-page book by Tim Lawson and Alisa Persons, chronicling the artistic achievements and history of cartoon voice actors from the past and the present.
The Nightmare Before Christmas (also known as Tim Burton's The Nightmare Before Christmas) is a 1993 American stop-motion animated musical dark fantasy film directed by Henry Selick, and produced and conceived by Tim Burton.
The Polar Express is a 2004 American 3D computer-animated film based on the 1985 children's book of the same name by Chris Van Allsburg, who also served as one of the executive producers on the film.
The Prince of Egypt is a 1998 American animated epic musical film and the first traditional animated film produced and released by DreamWorks.
The Secret Adventures of Tom Thumb is a 1993 surrealist horror mystery stop-motion animated film directed, written, shot and edited by Dave Borthwick, produced by Bolexbrothers studio and funded by Richard Hutchinson, BBC, La Sept and Manga Entertainment, which also distributed the film on video.
The Secret of Kells is a 2009 French-Belgian-Irish animated fantasy film animated by Cartoon Saloon that premiered on 8 February 2009 at the 59th Berlin International Film Festival.
The Secret of NIMH is a 1982 American animated dark fantasy science fiction adventure film directed by Don Bluth in his directorial debut.
The Tale of the Fox (Le Roman de Renard, Reinecke Fuchs) was stop-motion animation pioneer Ladislas Starevich's first fully animated feature film.
The Trap Door is a British animated television series, originally shown in the United Kingdom in 1984.
The Triplets of Belleville (Les Triplettes de Belleville) is a 2003 animated comedy film written and directed by Sylvain Chomet.
The Walt Disney Company, commonly known as Disney, is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate, headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California.
Tom Terrific was an early animated series on American television, presented as part of the Captain Kangaroo children's television show.
Toy Story is a 1995 American computer-animated buddy comedy adventure film produced by Pixar Animation Studios for Walt Disney Pictures.
Tradigital art is art (including animation) that combines both traditional and computer-based techniques to create an image.
Traditional animation (or classical animation, cel animation or hand-drawn animation) is an animation technique in which each frame is drawn by hand on a physical medium.
The University of Central Arkansas (often referred to as Central Arkansas or UCA) is a public research university in Conway, Arkansas.
Up is a 2009 American 3D computer-animated comedy-drama adventure film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures.
United Productions of America, better known as UPA, was an American animation studio active from the 1940s through the 1970s.
Vanity Fair is a magazine of popular culture, fashion, and current affairs published by Condé Nast in the United States.
Vector graphics are computer graphics images that are defined in terms of 2D points, which are connected by lines and curves to form polygons and other shapes.
Video is an electronic medium for the recording, copying, playback, broadcasting, and display of moving visual media.
A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device such as a TV screen or computer monitor.
Waking Life is a 2001 American adult animated docufiction film, directed by Richard Linklater.
Wallace & Gromit: The Curse of the Were-Rabbit is a 2005 stop-motion animated comedy film produced by Aardman Animations in partnership with DreamWorks Animation.
Wallace and Gromit is a British clay animation comedy series created by Nick Park of Aardman Animations.
Walter Elias Disney (December 5, 1901December 15, 1966) was an American entrepreneur, animator, voice actor and film producer.
Walt Disney Animation Studios (WDAS), also referred to as Disney Animation, headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California, is an American animation studio that creates animated feature films, short films, and television specials for The Walt Disney Company.
Walt Disney Imagineering Research & Development, Inc. is the research and development arm of The Walt Disney Company, responsible for the creation, design, and construction of Disney theme parks and attractions worldwide.
The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.
Who Framed Roger Rabbit is a 1988 American live-action/animated fantasy film directed by Robert Zemeckis, produced by Frank Marshall and Robert Watts, and written by Jeffrey Price and Peter S. Seaman.
William Kentridge (born 28 April 1955) is a South African artist best known for his prints, drawings, and animated films.
Willis Harold O'Brien (March 2, 1886 – November 8, 1962) was an American motion picture special effects and stop-motion animation pioneer, who according to ASIFA-Hollywood "was responsible for some of the best-known images in cinema history," and is best remembered for his work on The Lost World (1925), King Kong (1933) and Mighty Joe Young (1949), for which he won the 1950 Academy Award for Best Visual Effects.
Zenas Winsor McCay (– 1934) was an American cartoonist and animator.
A wire-frame model is a visual presentation of a 3-dimensional (3D) or physical object used in 3D computer graphics.
Yellow Submarine (also known as The Beatles: Yellow Submarine) is a 1968 British animated musical fantasy comedy film inspired by the music of the Beatles, directed by animation producer George Dunning, and produced by United Artists and King Features Syndicate.
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California.
A zoetrope is one of several pre-film animation devices that produce the illusion of motion by displaying a sequence of drawings or photographs showing progressive phases of that motion.
Disney's Twelve Basic Principles of Animation were introduced by the Disney animators Ollie Johnston and Frank Thomas in their 1981 book The Illusion of Life: Disney Animation.
2D computer graphics is the computer-based generation of digital images—mostly from two-dimensional models (such as 2D geometric models, text, and digital images) and by techniques specific to them.
3D computer graphics or three-dimensional computer graphics, (in contrast to 2D computer graphics) are graphics that use a three-dimensional representation of geometric data (often Cartesian) that is stored in the computer for the purposes of performing calculations and rendering 2D images.
The 5th Academy Awards were conducted by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences on November 18, 1932, at a ceremony held at The Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, California.
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