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Index Iran

Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%). [1]

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Apas (āpas) is the Avestan language term for "the waters", which, in its innumerable aggregate states, is represented by the Apas, the hypostases of the waters.

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Aban (month)

Aban (آبان) is the eighth month of the Iranian calendar.

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Abbas I of Persia

Shāh Abbās the Great or Shāh Abbās I of Persia (شاه عباس بزرگ; 27 January 157119 January 1629) was the 5th Safavid Shah (king) of Iran, and is generally considered the strongest ruler of the Safavid dynasty.

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Abbas Kiarostami

Abbas Kiarostami (عباس کیارستمی; 22 June 1940 – 4 July 2016) was an Iranian film director, screenwriter, poet, photographer and film producer.

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Abbasid Caliphate

The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Abdolhossein Sepanta

Abdolhossein Sepanta (عبدالحسین سپنتا) (June 4, 1907 – March 28, 1969) was a noted Iranian film director and producer.

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Abi and Rabi

Abi and Rabi (آبی و رابی Abi-o-Rabi) is a 1930 Iranian silent comedy film directed by Ovanes Ohanian and starring Ovanes Ohanian, Mohammad Khan Zarrabi, Gholamali Khan Sohrabi Fard, Mohammd Ali Ghotbi and Amir Arjmand.

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Abu Muslim

Abu Muslim Abd al-Rahman ibn Muslim al-Khorasani or al-Khurasani (أبو مسلم عبد الرحمن بن مسلم الخراساني born 718-19 or 723-27, died in 755), born Behzādān Pūr-i Vandād Hormoz (بهزادان پور ونداد هرمزد), was a Persian general in service of the Abbasid dynasty, who led the Abbasid Revolution that toppled the Umayyad dynasty.

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Academy Awards

The Academy Awards, also known as the Oscars, are a set of 24 awards for artistic and technical merit in the American film industry, given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), to recognize excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership.

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Achaemenid architecture

Achaemenid architecture (Persian: معماری هخامنشیان) includes all architectural achievements of the Achaemenid Persians manifesting in construction of spectacular cities used for governance and inhabitation (Persepolis, Susa, Ecbatana), temples made for worship and social gatherings (such as Zoroastrian temples), and mausoleums erected in honor of fallen kings (such as the burial tomb of Cyrus the Great).

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Achaemenid Empire

The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.

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Achomi language

Achomi (Ajami or Achami) (Larestani: اَچُمی), also known as Ajami, Lari or Larestani (Persian: لارستانی), is an Iranian language spoken in the south of Iran, mostly in Fars Province by Achomi people, a Shia and Sunni Persian ethnic group Cities that speak this dialect include Lar, Juyom, Evaz, Gerash, Khonj, Bastak, Khour, Kowreh, Fedagh, along with many others.

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AFC Asian Cup

The AFC Asian Cup is an international association football tournament run by the Asian Football Confederation (AFC).

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Afghan refugees

Afghan refugees are nationals of Afghanistan who left their country as a result of major wars or persecution.

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Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar

Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar (translit; 14 March 1742 – 17 June 1797), also known by his regnal name of Agha Mohammad Shah (آقا محمد شاه), was the founder of the Qajar dynasty of Iran, ruling from 1789 to 1797 as king (shah).

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Agriculture in Iran

Roughly one-third of Iran's total surface area is suited for farmland, but because of poor soil and lack of adequate water distribution in many areas, most of it is not under cultivation.

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Ahmad Azari Qomi

Grand Ayatollah Ahmad Azari-Qomi-Bigdeli (1925–1999) was an Iranian cleric.

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Ahura Mazda

Ahura Mazda (also known as Ohrmazd, Ahuramazda, Hourmazd, Hormazd, Harzoo and Hurmuz) is the Avestan name for the creator and sole God of Zoroastrianism, the old Iranian religion that spread across the Middle East, before ultimately being relegated to small minorities after the Muslim conquest of Iran.

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Ahvaz (or Ahwaz; translit) is a city in the southwest of Iran and the capital of Khuzestan province.

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Ahwazi Arabs

Ahwazi Arabs are an Arab community in Iran which resides mostly in the resource rich Khuzestan Province in southwestern Iran, bordering Iraq.

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Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani

Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani (Akbar Hāshemī Rafsanjānī or Hashemi Bahramani; 25 August 1934 – 8 January 2017) was an influential Iranian politician, writer and one of the founding fathers of the Islamic Republic who was the fourth President of Iran from 3 August 1989 until 3 August 1997.

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Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī (Chorasmian/ابوریحان بیرونی Abū Rayḥān Bērōnī; New Persian: Abū Rayḥān Bīrūnī) (973–1050), known as Al-Biruni (البيروني) in English, was an IranianD.J. Boilot, "Al-Biruni (Beruni), Abu'l Rayhan Muhammad b. Ahmad", in Encyclopaedia of Islam (Leiden), New Ed., vol.1:1236–1238.

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Al-Monitor (المونيتور) is a media site launched in February 2012 by the Arab American entrepreneur Jamal Daniel and based in Washington, DC.

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The Alans (or Alani) were an Iranian nomadic pastoral people of antiquity.

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The Alborz (البرز), also spelled as Alburz, Elburz or Elborz, is a mountain range in northern Iran that stretches from the border of Azerbaijan along the western and entire southern coast of the Caspian Sea and finally runs northeast and merges into the Aladagh Mountains in the northern parts of Khorasan.

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Alborz Province

Alborz Province (استان البرز, Ostan-e Alborz) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran, centered in Karaj.

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Alexa Internet

Alexa Internet, Inc. is an American company based in California that provides commercial web traffic data and analytics.

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Alexander the Great

Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.

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Alfred Comyn Lyall

Sir Alfred Comyn Lyall, (4 January 1835 – 11 April 1911) was a British civil servant, literary historian and poet.

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Algebra (from Arabic "al-jabr", literally meaning "reunion of broken parts") is one of the broad parts of mathematics, together with number theory, geometry and analysis.

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Algiers Accords

The Algeria Declaration were a set of agreements between the United States and Iran to resolve the Iran hostage crisis, brokered by the Algerian government and signed in Algiers on January 19, 1981.

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Ali Javan

Ali Javan (Ali Javān; December 26, 1926 – September 12, 2016) was an Iranian-American physicist and inventor.

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Ali Khamenei

Sayyid Ali Hosseini Khamenei (سید علی حسینی خامنه‌ای,; born 17 July 1939) is a ''marja'' and the second and current Supreme Leader of Iran, in office since 1989.

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Ali Larijani

Ali Larijani (علی لاریجانی,; born 3 June 1957) is an Iranian conservative politician, philosopher and former military officer who has been Speaker of the Parliament of Iran since 2008.

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Allies of Iran

Many nations and organisations are considered to be allies of Iran.

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Allies of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).

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Ameretat (Amərətāt) is the Avestan language name of the Zoroastrian divinity/divine concept of immortality.

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American Islamic Congress

Founded late in 2001, the American Islamic Congress (AIC) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization based in the United States.

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Amir-Abbas Hoveyda

Amir-Abbas Hoveyda (Amīr `Abbās Hoveyda; 18 February 1919 – 7 April 1979) was an Iranian economist and politician who served as Prime Minister of Iran from 27 January 1965 to 7 August 1977.

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Amirkabir University of Technology

Amirkabir University of Technology (AUT) (Persian: دانشگاه صنعتی امیرکبیر Dāneshgāh-e San'ati-ye Amirkabir), formerly called the Tehran Polytechnic, is a public research university located in Tehran, Iran.

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Amu Darya

The Amu Darya, also called the Amu or Amo River, and historically known by its Latin name Oxus, is a major river in Central Asia.

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Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Ancient Iranian medicine

The practice and study of medicine in Persia has a long and prolific history.

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Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran

The Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran, also known as Anglo-Soviet invasion of Persia, was the invasion of the Imperial State of Iran during the Second World War by Soviet, British and other Commonwealth armed forces.

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Anīrân (Modern Persian, انیران) or Anērān (Middle Persian, 𐭠𐭭𐭩𐭥𐭠𐭭) is an ethno-linguistic term that signifies "non-Iranian" or "non-Iran" (non-Aryan).

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Anthony Cordesman

Anthony H. Cordesman (born August 1, 1939) holds the Arleigh A. Burke Chair in Strategy at the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) and is a national security analyst on a number of global conflicts.

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Antiquity (journal)

Antiquity is an academic journal dedicated to the subject of archaeology.

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An apricot is a fruit, or the tree that bears the fruit, of several species in the genus Prunus (stone fruits).

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Arabian Peninsula

The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.

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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arabic numerals

Arabic numerals, also called Hindu–Arabic numerals, are the ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, based on the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world today.

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Arabization or Arabisation (تعريب) describes either the conquest and/or colonization of a non-Arab area and growing Arab influence on non-Arab populations, causing a language shift by their gradual adoption of the Arabic language and/or their incorporation of Arab culture, Arab identity.

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Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.

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Aras (river)

The Aras or Araxes is a river flowing through Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran.

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Ardabil (اردبیل., اردبیل, also Romanized as Ardabīl and Ardebīl) is an ancient city in Iranian Azerbaijan.

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Ardeshir Irani

Khan Bahadur Ardeshir Irani (5 December 1886 – 14 October 1969); popularly known as Ardeshir Irani, was a writer, director, producer, actor, film distributor, film showman and cinematographer in the silent and sound eras of early Indian cinema.

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Aristocracy (Greek ἀριστοκρατία aristokratía, from ἄριστος aristos "excellent", and κράτος kratos "power") is a form of government that places strength in the hands of a small, privileged ruling class.

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Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.

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Armenian Apostolic Church

The Armenian Apostolic Church (translit) is the national church of the Armenian people.

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Armenian Genocide

The Armenian Genocide (Հայոց ցեղասպանություն, Hayots tseghaspanutyun), also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire.

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Armenian language

The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.

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Armenian Monastic Ensembles of Iran

The Armenian Monastic Ensembles of Iran, located in the West Azerbaijan and East Azerbaijan provinces in Iran, is an ensemble of three Armenian churches that were established during the period between the 7th and 14th centuries A.D. The edifices—the St. Thaddeus Monastery, the Saint Stepanos Monastery, and the Chapel of Dzordzor—have undergone many renovations.

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Armenian Nuclear Power Plant

The Armenian Nuclear Power Plant (ANPP), commonly known as the Metsamor Nuclear Power Plant, (Armenian: Մեծամորի ատոմային էլեկտրակայան) is the only nuclear power plant in the South Caucasus located 36 kilometers west of Yerevan.

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Armoured personnel carrier

An armoured personnel carrier (APC) is a type of armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) designed to transport infantry to the battlefield.

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Arran (Caucasus)

Arran (Middle Persian form), also known as Aran, Ardhan (in Parthian), Al-Ran (in Arabic), Aghvank and Alvank (in Armenian), (რანი-Ran-i) or Caucasian Albania (in Latin), was a geographical name used in ancient and medieval times to signify the territory which lies within the triangle of land, lowland in the east and mountainous in the west, formed by the junction of Kura and Aras rivers, including the highland and lowland Karabakh, Mil plain and parts of the Mughan plain, and in the pre-Islamic times, corresponded roughly to the territory of modern-day Republic of Azerbaijan.

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Arsacid dynasty of Armenia

The Arsacid dynasty, known natively as the Arshakuni dynasty (Արշակունի Aršakuni), ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from 54 to 428.

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Arsacid dynasty of Caucasian Albania

The Arsacid Dynasty was a dynasty of Parthian origin, which ruled the kingdom of Caucasian Albania from the 1st to the 5th century AD.

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Arsacid dynasty of Iberia

The Iberian Arsacids or Arshakiani (არშაკიანი), a branch of the Arsacid dynasty of Parthia, ruled the ancient Kingdom of Iberia (Kartli, eastern Georgia) from c. 189 until 284 AD.

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Arthur Upham Pope

Arthur Upham Pope (February 7, 1881 – September 3, 1969) was an American expert on Iranian art and the editor of the Survey of Persian Art. He was also a university professor of philosophy and aesthetics, archaeologist, photographer, political activist, museum director and planner, pianist, interior designer, and founder of an international scholarly organization.

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Artificial heart

An artificial heart is a device that replaces the heart.

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"Aryan" is a term that was used as a self-designation by Indo-Iranian people.

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Asghar Farhadi

Asghar Farhadi (اصغر فرهادی; born 7 May 1972) is an Iranian film director and screenwriter.

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Asha (also arta; Avestan: aša/arta) is a concept of cardinal importance.

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Ashura (عاشوراء, colloquially:; عاشورا; عاشورا; Azerbaijani and Turkish: Aşura Günü or Day of Remembrance), and in Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago 'Hussay' or Hosay, is the tenth day of Muharram in the Islamic calendar.

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Asian Games

The Asian Games, also known as Asiad, is a continental multi-sport event held every four years among athletes from all over Asia.

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Asian Men's Volleyball Championship

The Asian Men's Volleyball Championship is an international volleyball competition in Asia and Oceania contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of Asian Volleyball Confederation (AVC), the sport's continent governing body.

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Asiatic cheetah

The Asiatic cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus venaticus), also known as Iranian cheetah, is a Critically Endangered cheetah subspecies surviving today only in Iran.

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Asiatic lion

The Asiatic lion (Panthera leo leo) is a lion population in Gujarat, India.

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Assembly of Experts

The Assembly of Experts (Majles-e Khobregān-e Rahbari) —also translated as the Assembly of Experts of the Leadership or as the Council of Experts— is the deliberative body empowered to designate and dismiss the Supreme Leader of Iran.

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Associate degree

An associate degree (or associate's degree) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study intended to usually last two years or more.

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Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.

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Assyrian Church of the East

The Assyrian Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܖ̈ܝܐ ʻĒdtā d-Madenḥā d-Ātorāyē), officially the Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East (ʻEdtā Qaddīštā wa-Šlīḥāitā Qātolīqī d-Madenḥā d-Ātorāyē), is an Eastern Christian Church that follows the traditional christology and ecclesiology of the historical Church of the East.

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Assyrian genocide

The Assyrian genocide (also known as Sayfo or Seyfo, "Sword"; ܩܛܠܥܡܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ or ܣܝܦܐ) refers to the mass slaughter of the Assyrian population of the Ottoman Empire and those in neighbouring Persia by Ottoman troops during the First World War, in conjunction with the Armenian and Greek genocides.

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Assyrian Neo-Aramaic

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (ܣܘܪܝܬ, sūrët), or just simply Assyrian, is a Neo-Aramaic language within the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family.

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Assyrians in Iran

Assyrians in Iran (آشوریان ایران), are an ethnoreligious and linguistic minority in present-day Iran.

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Astrological sign

In Western astrology, astrological signs are the twelve 30° sectors of the ecliptic, starting at the vernal equinox (one of the intersections of the ecliptic with the celestial equator), also known as the First Point of Aries.

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Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.

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Astyages (spelled by Herodotus as Ἀστυάγης Astyages; by Ctesias as Astyigas; by Diodorus as Aspadas; Babylonian: Ištumegu) was the last king of the Median Empire, r. 585–550 BCE, the son of Cyaxares; he was dethroned in 550 BCE by Cyrus the Great.

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Atar (Avestan ātar) is the Zoroastrian concept of holy fire, sometimes described in abstract terms as "burning and unburning fire" or "visible and invisible fire" (Mirza, 1987:389).

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Athenaeus of Naucratis (Ἀθήναιος Nαυκρατίτης or Nαυκράτιος, Athēnaios Naukratitēs or Naukratios; Athenaeus Naucratita) was a Greek rhetorician and grammarian, flourishing about the end of the 2nd and beginning of the 3rd century AD.

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An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).

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The avant-garde (from French, "advance guard" or "vanguard", literally "fore-guard") are people or works that are experimental, radical, or unorthodox with respect to art, culture, or society.

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The Avesta is the primary collection of religious texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in the otherwise unrecorded Avestan language.

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Avestan, also known historically as Zend, is a language known only from its use as the language of Zoroastrian scripture (the Avesta), from which it derives its name.

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Avicenna (also Ibn Sīnā or Abu Ali Sina; ابن سینا; – June 1037) was a Persian polymath who is regarded as one of the most significant physicians, astronomers, thinkers and writers of the Islamic Golden Age.

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Azadi Sport Complex

The Āzādi Sport Complex (مجموعه ورزشی آزادی) formerly known as Āryāmehr Sport Complex (مجموعه ورزشی آریامهر) is the national sports complex of Iran based in Tehran.

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Azadi Tower

The Azadi Tower (برج آزادی,; "Freedom Tower"), formerly known as the Shahyad Tower (برج شهیاد,; "Shah's Memorial Tower"), is a monument located at Azadi Square, in Tehran, Iran.

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Azar (آذر) is the ninth month of the Iranian calendar.

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No description.

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Azerbaijan (Iran)

Azerbaijan or Azarbaijan (آذربایجان Āzarbāijān; آذربایجان Azərbaycan), also known as Iranian Azerbaijan, is a historical region in northwestern Iran that borders Iraq, Turkey, the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan.

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Azerbaijan People's Government

The Azerbaijan People's Government (APG; Azərbaycan Milli Hökuməti, حکومت خودمختار آذربایجان, Азербайджанское народное правительство, Azerbajdzhanskoe narodnoe pravitel'stvo) was a short-lived unrecognized secessionist state in northern Iran from November 1945 to December 1946.

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Azerbaijani language

Azerbaijani or Azeri, also referred to as Azeri Turkic or Azeri Turkish, is a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Azerbaijanis, who are concentrated mainly in Transcaucasia and Iranian Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan).

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Azerbaijanis or Azeris (Azərbaycanlılar آذربایجانلیلار, Azərilər آذریلر), also known as Azerbaijani Turks (Azərbaycan türkləri آذربایجان تورکلری), are a Turkic ethnic group living mainly in the Iranian region of Azerbaijan and the sovereign (former Soviet) Republic of Azerbaijan.

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Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.

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Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).

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Babylonian captivity

The Babylonian captivity or Babylonian exile is the period in Jewish history during which a number of people from the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylonia.

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Bachelor's degree

A bachelor's degree (from Middle Latin baccalaureus) or baccalaureate (from Modern Latin baccalaureatus) is an undergraduate academic degree awarded by colleges and universities upon completion of a course of study lasting three to seven years (depending on institution and academic discipline).

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Bahá'í Faith in Iran

The Bahá'í Faith in Iran is the country's second-largest religion after Islam and the birthplace of the three central figures of the religion – The Báb, Bahá'u'lláh and `Abdu'l-Bahá.

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Bahman (بهمن) is the eleventh and penultimate month of the Iranian calendar.

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Bahram Beyzai

Bahrām Beyzāie (also spelt Bahrām Beizai, Bahrām Beyzaie, بهرام بیضائی., born 26 December 1938) is a theatre and cinema director, as well as a screenwriter.

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A bakhsh (بخش) is a type of administrative division of Iran.

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Bakhtiari people

The Bakhtiari (بختیاری) are a southwestern Iranian tribe, and a subgroup of the Lurs.

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The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.

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Ballet is a type of performance dance that originated during the Italian Renaissance in the 15th century and later developed into a concert dance form in France and Russia.

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Ballistic missile

A ballistic missile follows a ballistic trajectory to deliver one or more warheads on a predetermined target.

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Baloch people

The Baloch or Baluch (Balochi) are a people who live mainly in the Balochistan region of the southeastern-most edge of the Iranian plateau in Pakistan, Iran, and Afghanistan, as well as in the Arabian Peninsula.

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Balochi language

Balochi (بلؤچی, transliteration: balòči) is the principal language of the Baloch people spoken primarily in Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan.

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Bamshad (in Persian: بامشاد) was one of the four most famous and skilled musicians (with Barbad, Nagisa (Nakisa), and Ramtin) who lived in the Persian Sassanid dynasty when Xusro Parviz was in power (591-628).

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Barbad (بربد) or Barbad-ī MarvaziBorhan-e Ghate', By Mohammad Hossein ibn-khalaf Tabrizi (باربد جهرمی / باربد / باربذ) was a Persian musician of the Sassanid era, who lived during the rule of Khosrau II, 590 to 628.

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Barbat (lute)

The barbat (بربط) or barbud was a lute of Central Asian or Greater Iranian or Persian origin.

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The Basij (بسيج, lit. "The Mobilization"), Niruyeh Moghavemat Basij (نیروی مقاومت بسیج, "Mobilisation Resistance Force"), full name Sāzmān-e Basij-e Mostaz'afin (سازمان بسیج مستضعفین, "The Organization for Mobilization of the Oppressed"), is one of the five forces of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps.

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Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.

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Bastani Sonnati

Bastani Sonnati (meaning "traditional ice cream") (بستنی سنتی), or simply Bastani, is an Iranian ice cream made from milk, eggs, sugar, rose water, saffron, vanilla, and pistachios.

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Battle of Issus

The Battle of Issus occurred in southern Anatolia, on November 5, 333 BC between the Hellenic League led by Alexander the Great and the Achaemenid Empire, led by Darius III, in the second great battle of Alexander's conquest of Asia.

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Battle of Krtsanisi

The Battle of Krtsanisi (კრწანისის ბრძოლა, k'rts'anisis brdzola) was fought between the Qajars of Iran and the Georgian armies of the Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti and Kingdom of Imereti at the place of Krtsanisi near Tbilisi, Georgia, from September 8 to September 11, 1795, as part of Qajar Emperor Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar's war in response to King Heraclius II of Georgia’s alliance with the Russian Empire.

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Bazaar of Tabriz

The Bazaar of Tabriz (بازار تبریز, also Romanized as Bāzār-e Tabriz) is a historical market situated in the city center of Tabriz, Iran.

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BBC News Online

BBC News Online is the website of BBC News, the division of the BBC responsible for newsgathering and production.

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Bears are carnivoran mammals of the family Ursidae.

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Behistun Inscription

The Behistun Inscription (also Bisotun, Bistun or Bisutun; بیستون, Old Persian: Bagastana, meaning "the place of god") is a multilingual inscription and large rock relief on a cliff at Mount Behistun in the Kermanshah Province of Iran, near the city of Kermanshah in western Iran.

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Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.

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Berlin International Film Festival

The Berlin International Film Festival (Internationale Filmfestspiele Berlin), usually called the Berlinale, is a film festival held annually in Berlin, Germany.

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Birth rate

The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 in a population in a year or period.

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Black Sea

The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.

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Blue Mosque, Tabriz

The Blue Mosque (گؤی مسجید., Goy Masjed; مسجد کبود, Masjed-e Kabūd) is a famous historic mosque in Tabriz, Iran.

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A bonfire is a large but controlled outdoor fire, used either for informal disposal of burnable waste material or as part of a celebration.

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Bonyads (بنیاد "Foundation") are charitable trusts in Iran that play a major role in Iran's non-petroleum economy, controlling an estimated 20% of Iran's GDP, and channeling revenues to groups supporting the Islamic Republic.

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Borani is an Iranian appetizer made with yogurt and other ingredients.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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A brouhaha, from French brouhaha, is a state of social agitation when a minor incident gets out of control, sometimes referred to as an uproar or hubbub.

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Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.

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Bundahishn, meaning "Primal Creation", is the name traditionally given to an encyclopediaic collection of Zoroastrian cosmogony and cosmology written in Book Pahlavi.

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Bushehr, or Bushire (بوشهر; also Romanised as Būshehr, Bouchehr, Buschir and Busehr; also Bandar Bushehr (بندر بوشهر), also Romanised as Bandar Būshehr and Bandar-e Būshehr; previously known as Beh Ardasher, Antiochia in Persis (Greek: Αντιόχεια της Περσίδος) and Bukht Ardashir), is the capital city of Bushehr Province, Iran.

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Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant

The Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant (نیروگاه اتمی بوشهر) is a nuclear power plant in Iran southeast of the city of Bushehr, between the fishing villages of Halileh and Bandargeh along the Persian Gulf.

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Buyid dynasty

The Buyid dynasty or the Buyids (آل بویه Āl-e Buye), also known as Buwaihids, Bowayhids, Buyahids, or Buyyids, was an Iranian Shia dynasty of Daylamite origin.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628

The Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 was the final and most devastating of the series of wars fought between the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire and the Sasanian Empire of Iran.

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Byzantine–Sasanian wars

The Byzantine–Sassanid wars, also known as the Irano-Byzantine wars refers to a series of conflicts between the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire and the Sassanian Empire of Persia.

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Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary (unofficially Cambridge English Dictionary or Cambridge Dictionary, abbreviated CALD) was first published in 1995 under the name Cambridge International Dictionary of English, by the Cambridge University Press.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Cambyses I

Cambyses I or Cambyses the Elder (via Latin from Greek Καμβύσης, from Old Persian Kambūǰiya, Aramaic Knbwzy) was king of Anshan from c. 580 to 559 BC and the father of Cyrus the Great (Cyrus II), younger son of Cyrus I, and brother of Arukku.

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A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back.

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Cannes Film Festival

The Cannes Festival (Festival de Cannes), named until 2002 as the International Film Festival (Festival international du film) and known in English as the Cannes Film Festival, is an annual film festival held in Cannes, France, which previews new films of all genres, including documentaries from all around the world.

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Carrot juice

Carrot juice is juice produced from carrots.

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Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests

The Caspian Hyrcanian Mixed Forests ecoregion, in the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests biome, is an area of lush lowland and montane forests covering about near the southern shores of the Caspian Sea of Iran and Azerbaijan.

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Caspian Sea

The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.

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Caspian tiger

The Caspian tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is an extinct tiger population.

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Casualties of the Iranian Revolution

Observers differ on how many people died during the Iranian Revolution.

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Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.

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The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.

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Caucasus Mountains

The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system in West Asia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea in the Caucasus region.

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Caviar (less often, caviare) is a delicacy consisting of salt-cured roe of the Acipenseridae family.

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Central Asia

Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran

The Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran (CBI; Bank Markazi-ye Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān, also known as Bank Markazi) is the central bank of Iran.

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Central Intelligence Agency

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).

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Chaharshanbe Suri

Chaharshanbe Suri (Čahār-šanba(-e)-sūrī; usually pronounced) is an Iranian festival celebrated on the eve of the last Wednesday before Nowruz (the Iranian New Year's day).

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Chaldean Catholic Church

The Chaldean Catholic Church (ܥܕܬܐ ܟܠܕܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝܬܐ, ʿīdtha kaldetha qāthuliqetha; Arabic: الكنيسة الكلدانية al-Kanīsa al-kaldāniyya; translation) is an Eastern Catholic particular church (sui juris) in full communion with the Holy See and the rest of the Catholic Church, with the Chaldean Patriarchate having been originally formed out of the Church of the East in 1552.

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Chang (instrument)

The chang (چنگ) is a Persian musical instrument similar to harp.

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Chapar Khaneh

"Chapar Khaneh" (چاپارخانه,, courier-house) is a Persian term for the postal service used during the Achaemenid era.

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A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit).

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Chief Justice of Iran

The Chief Justice of Iran is the head of the Judicial system of Iran (Head of Judiciary) and is responsible for its administration and supervision.

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Children's rights

Children's rights are the human rights of children with particular attention to the rights of special protection and care afforded to minors.

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Chinese culture

Chinese culture is one of the world's oldest cultures, originating thousands of years ago.

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Chogha Bonut

Chogha Bonut (Persian Choghā bonut) is an archaeological site in south-western Iran, located in the Khuzistan Province.

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Chogha Golan

Chogha Golan is an aceramic Neolithic archaeological site in the foothills of the Zagros Mountains in Iran, about from the right bank of the Konjan Cham River.

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Chogha Mish

Tappeh-ye Choghā Mīsh (Persian language; چغامیش čoġā mīš) dating back to 6800 BC, is the site of a Chalcolithic settlement in Western Iran, located in the Khuzistan Province on the Susiana Plain.

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ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Christianity in Iran

Christianity has a long history in Iran, dating back to the early years of the faith, and pre-dating Islam.

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Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christopher Whatley

Christopher Allan Whatley, OBE, FRHistS, FRSE is a well-known and widely published Scottish historian.

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The Cimmerians (also Kimmerians; Greek: Κιμμέριοι, Kimmérioi) were an ancient people, who appeared about 1000 BC and are mentioned later in 8th century BC in Assyrian records.

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Circassian genocide

The Circassian genocide was the Russian Empire's ethnic cleansing, killing, forced migration, and expulsion of the majority of the Circassians from their historical homeland Circassia, which roughly encompassed the major part of the North Caucasus and the northeast shore of the Black Sea.

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Circassian languages

Circassian, also known as Cherkess, is a subdivision of the Northwest Caucasian language family.

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Circassians in Iran

The Circassians in Iran (East Circassian and West Circassian: Адыгэхэр Къажэрей, Adyghexer Kŭazhéreĭ; چرکس های ایران) are an ethnic minority in Iran.

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City and Village Councils of Iran

City and Village Councils are local councils which are elected by public vote in all cities and villages throughout Iran.

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Civil calendar

The civil calendar is the calendar, or possibly one of several calendars, used within a country for civil, official or administrative purposes.

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Civilian casualties

Civilian casualties occurs in a general sense, when civilians are killed or injured by non-civilians, mostly law enforcement officers, military personnel, or criminals such as terrorists and bank robbers.

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A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.

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Classical Anatolia

Anatolia, also known by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is considered to be the westernmost extent of Asia.

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Clergy are some of the main and important formal leaders within certain religions.

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Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.

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Cloning is the process of producing genetically identical individuals of an organism either naturally or artificially.

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).

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Collective security

Collective security can be understood as a security arrangement, political, regional, or global, in which each state in the system accepts that the security of one is the concern of all, and therefore commits to a collective response to threats to, and breaches to peace.

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College-preparatory school

A college-preparatory school (shortened to preparatory school, prep school, or college prep) is a type of secondary school.

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Collins English Dictionary

The Collins English Dictionary is a printed and online dictionary of English.

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Columbia University Press

Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.

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Common fig

Ficus carica is an Asian species of flowering plant in the mulberry family, known as the common fig (or just the fig).

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The common people, also known as the common man, commoners, or the masses, are the ordinary people in a community or nation who lack any significant social status, especially those who are members of neither royalty, nobility, the clergy, nor any member of the aristocracy.

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Communications in Iran

Iran’s telecommunications industry is almost entirely state-owned, dominated by the Telecommunication Company of Iran (TCI).

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Concession (contract)

A concession or concession agreement is a grant of rights, land or property by a government, local authority, corporation, individual or other legal entity.

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Consolidation of the Iranian Revolution

The consolidation of the Iranian Revolution refers to a turbulent process of Islamic Republic stabilization, following the completion of the revolution.

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Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran

The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran was adopted by referendum on 2 and 3 December 1979, and went into force replacing the Constitution of 1906.

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Constitutional monarchy

A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.

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Corruption in Iran

Corruption is a serious problem in Iran, being widespread, mostly in the government.

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Counties of Iran

The counties of Iran, called shahrestan (شهرستان), are administrative divisions of larger provinces (ostan).

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Critically endangered

A critically endangered (CR) species is one which has been categorized by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild.

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Ctesiphon (Κτησιφῶν; from Parthian or Middle Persian: tyspwn or tysfwn) was an ancient city located on the eastern bank of the Tigris, and about southeast of present-day Baghdad.

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Cubic metre

The cubic metre (in British English and international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures) or cubic meter (in American English) is the SI derived unit of volume.

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Cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is a widely cultivated plant in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae.

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Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and Tourism Organization of Iran

Iran Cultural Heritage, Handcraft and Tourism Organization (سازمان میراث فرهنگی، صنایع دستی و گردشگری ایران) is an educational and research institution overseeing numerous associated museum complexes throughout Iran.

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Culture of Africa

The culture of Africa is varied and manifold, consisting of a mixture of countries with various tribes that each have their own unique characteristics from the continent of Africa.

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Culture of ancient Rome

The culture of ancient Rome existed throughout almost 1200-year history of the civilization of Ancient Rome.

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Culture of India

The culture of India refers collectively to the thousands of distinct and unique cultures of all religions and communities present in India.

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Cumrun Vafa

Cumrun Vafa (کامران وفا; born 1960) is an Iranian-American string theorist from Harvard University, which he first joined as a Harvard Junior Fellow.

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A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.

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Cyaxares (Κυαξάρης; 𐎢𐎺𐎧𐏁𐎫𐎼; translit; Avestan: Huxšaθra "Good Ruler"; Akkadian: Umakištar; Old Phrygian: ksuwaksaros; r. 625–585 BC) was the third and most capable king of Media, according to Herodotus, with a far greater military reputation than his father Phraortes or grandfather Deioces.

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The Cyropaedia, sometimes spelled Cyropedia, is a largely fictional biography of Cyrus the Great the founder of Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire.

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Cyrus Cylinder

The Cyrus Cylinder (Ostovane-ye Kūrosh) or Cyrus Charter (منشور کوروش) is an ancient clay cylinder, now broken into several pieces, on which is written a declaration in Akkadian cuneiform script in the name of Persia's Achaemenid king Cyrus the Great.

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Cyrus the Great

Cyrus II of Persia (𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 Kūruš; New Persian: کوروش Kuruš;; c. 600 – 530 BC), commonly known as Cyrus the Great  and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire.

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The daf (دف daf; دُفْ duf) is a large Middle Eastern frame drum used in popular and classical music.

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The Republic of Dagestan (Респу́блика Дагеста́н), or simply Dagestan (or; Дагеста́н), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia, located in the North Caucasus region.

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Darius I

Darius I (Old Persian: Dārayava(h)uš, New Persian: rtl Dāryuš;; c. 550–486 BCE) was the fourth king of the Persian Achaemenid Empire.

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Darius III

Darius III (c. 380 – July 330 BC), originally named Artashata and called Codomannus by the Greeks, was the last king of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia from 336 BC to 330 BC.

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Dariush Mehrjui

Dariush Mehrju'i (داریوش مهرجویی, born on 8 December 1939 in Tehran, also spelled as Mehrjui, Mehrjoui, and Mehrjuyi) is an Iranian director, screenwriter, producer, film editor and a member of the Iranian Academy of the Arts.

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Darya Dadvar

Daryā Dādvar (دريا دادور., born in Mashhad, Iran) is an accomplished Iranian soprano soloist and composer living in Paris, France.

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Dasht-e Kavir

Dasht-e Kavir (دشت كوير, 'Low Plains' in classical Persian, from khwar (low), and dasht (plain), flatland), also known as Kavir-e Namak ('salty lowlands') and the Great Salt Desert, is a large desert lying in the middle of the Iranian plateau.

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Dasht-e Lut

The Lut Desert, widely referred to as Dasht-e Lut (دشت لوت, "Emptiness Plain"), is a large salt desert located in the provinces of Kerman and Sistan and Baluchestan, Iran.

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A dayereh (or doyra, dojra, dajre, doira, dajreja, daire) is a medium-sized frame drum with jingles, used to accompany both popular and classical music in Bukharan Jews, Iran (Persia), Azerbaijan (known as qaval), the Caucasus, the Balkans, and many Central Asian countries such as Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.

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De facto

In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.

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Deccan sultanates

The Deccan Sultanates were five dynasties that ruled late medieval Indian kingdoms, namely, Bijapur, Golkonda, Ahmadnagar, Bidar, and Berar in south-western India.

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Deioces or Dia—oku was the founder and the first shah as well as priest of the Median government.

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The Deipnosophistae is an early 3rd-century AD Greek work (Δειπνοσοφισταί, Deipnosophistaí, lit. "The Dinner Sophists/Philosophers/Experts") by the Greco-Egyptian author Athenaeus of Naucratis.

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Demographics of Iran

Iran's population increased dramatically during the later half of the 20th century, reaching about 80 million by 2016.

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A demonym (δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place.

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The Dēnkard (Middle Persian pronunciation) or Dēnkart (Middle Persian: "Acts of Religion") is a 10th-century compendium of the Mazdaen Zoroastrian beliefs and customs.

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Department of Environment (Iran)

The Iranian Department of Environment is a governmental organization, under the supervision of the president, that is responsible for matters related to safeguarding the environment.

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A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.

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Desert climate

The Desert climate (in the Köppen climate classification BWh and BWk, sometimes also BWn), also known as an arid climate, is a climate in which precipitation is too low to sustain any vegetation at all, or at most a very scanty shrub, and does not meet the criteria to be classified as a polar climate.

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Deterrence theory

Deterrence theory gained increased prominence as a military strategy during the Cold War with regard to the use of nuclear weapons.

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Dey (month)

|- style.

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Director of National Intelligence

The Director of National Intelligence (DNI) is the United States government Cabinet-level official—subject to the authority, direction, and control of the President of the United States—required by the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 to.

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A disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these.

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Dizin (دیزین) is the largest Iranian ski resorts.

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Doctor of Philosophy

A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD or Ph.D.; Latin Philosophiae doctor) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries.

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Domestic tourism

Domestic tourism is tourism involving residents of one country traveling only within that country.

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The donkey or ass (Equus africanus asinus) is a domesticated member of the horse family, Equidae.

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Dover Publications

Dover Publications, also known as Dover Books, is an American book publisher founded in 1941 by Hayward Cirker and his wife, Blanche.

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Downpour (film)

Downpour (رگبار, translit. Ragbar) is Bahram Bayzai's first feature film in black and white made in 1971.

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Drainage basin

A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.

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The dutar (also dotar or doutar; دوتار; дутор; Duttar; dutor;; Дутар) is a traditional long-necked two-stringed lute found in Iran and Central Asia.

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E-commerce is the activity of buying or selling of products on online services or over the Internet.

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Eagle is the common name for many large birds of prey of the family Accipitridae.

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Early Islamic philosophy

Early Islamic philosophy or classical Islamic philosophy is a period of intense philosophical development beginning in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar (early 9th century CE) and lasting until the 6th century AH (late 12th century CE).

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East Asia

East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.

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East Azerbaijan Province

East Azerbaijan Province (استان آذربایجان شرقی Āzarbāijān-e Sharqi; شرقی آذربایجان اوستانی) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.

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Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, also called Pascha (Greek, Latin) or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary 30 AD.

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Eastern Europe

Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.

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Economic Cooperation Organization

The Economic Cooperation Organization or ECO is a Eurasian political and economic intergovernmental organization which was founded in 1985 in Tehran by the leaders of Iran, Pakistan and Turkey.

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Economy of Iran

The economy of Iran is a mixed and transition economy with a large public sector.

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Education in Iran

Education in Iran is centralized and divided into K-12 education plus higher education.

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Edward Witten

Edward Witten (born August 26, 1951) is an American theoretical physicist and professor of mathematical physics at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey.

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Eggplant (Solanum melongena) or aubergine is a species of nightshade grown for its edible fruit.

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Ehsan Yarshater

Ehsan Yarshater (احسان يارشاطر, born April 3, 1920) is the founder and director of The Center for Iranian Studies, and Hagop Kevorkian Professor Emeritus of Iranian Studies at Columbia University.

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Eid al-Fitr

Eid al-Fitr (عيد الفطر) is an important religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting (sawm).

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Elam (Elamite: haltamti, Sumerian: NIM.MAki) was an ancient Pre-Iranian civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq.

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Elamite cuneiform

Elamite cuneiform was a logo-syllabic script used to write the Elamite language.

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Electric guitar

An electric guitar is a guitar that uses one or more pickups to convert the vibration of its strings into electrical signals.

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Electric power

Electric power is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit.

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Microsoft Encarta was a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation from 1993 to 2009.

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Encyclopaedia of Islam

The Encyclopaedia of Islam (EI) is an encyclopaedia of the academic discipline of Islamic studies published by Brill.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Encyclopædia Iranica

Encyclopædia Iranica is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times.

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Enriched uranium

Enriched uranium is a type of uranium in which the percent composition of uranium-235 has been increased through the process of isotope separation.

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Epic poetry

An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.

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An eponym is a person, place, or thing after whom or after which something is named, or believed to be named.

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An equinox is commonly regarded as the moment the plane (extended indefinitely in all directions) of Earth's equator passes through the center of the Sun, which occurs twice each year, around 20 March and 22-23 September.

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|- style.

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Etemad or Etemaad (in Persian اعتماد lit. Trust; correct transcription: ettemād, because in pronunciation the letter "t" is duplicated) is a reformist newspaper in Iran that is published in Tehran.

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Ethnolinguistics (sometimes called cultural linguistics) is a field of linguistics that studies the relationship between language and culture and how different ethnic groups perceive the world.

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Ettela'at (اطلاعات lit. Information) is a Persian language daily newspaper published in Iran.

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Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.

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Eurasian lynx

The Eurasian lynx (Lynx lynx) is a medium-sized wild cat native to Siberia, Central, Eastern, and Southern Asia, Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.

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Eurasian Steppe

The Eurasian Steppe, also called the Great Steppe or the steppes, is the vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia in the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Execution of Imam Khomeini's Order

The Execution of Imam Khomeini's Order (EIKO), (ستاد اجرایی فرمان امام, Setade Ejraiye Farmane Emam), also known as the Executive Headquarters of Imam's Directive, is a parastatal in the Islamic Republic of Iran, under direct control of the Supreme Leader of Iran.

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Expediency Discernment Council

The Expediency Discernment Council of the System (مجمع تشخیص مصلحت نظام Majma' Taškhīs Maṣlaḥat Nezām) is an administrative assembly appointed by the Supreme Leader and was created upon the revision to the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran on 6 February 1988.

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Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service company based in Menlo Park, California.

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Fajr-3 (missile)

The Iranian-made Fajr-3 (فجر-۳, meaning "dawn") is believed to be a medium-range ballistic missile with an unknown range (estimated 2,000 km, 1,250 miles).

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Falak-ol-Aflak Castle

Falak-ol-Aflak Castle (in دژ شاپورخواست Dež-e Shāpūr-Khwāst, in ancient times known as Dežbār as well as Shāpūr-Khwāst) is a castle situated on the top of a large hill with the same name within the city of Khorramabad, the regional capital of Lorestan province, Iran.

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Falcons are birds of prey in the genus Falco, which includes about 40 species.

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Fall of Babylon

The Fall of Babylon denotes the end of the Neo-Babylonian Empire after it was conquered by the Achaemenid Empire in 539 BCE.

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Faloodeh (فالوده Fālūde) or Paloodeh (پالوده Pālūde) is an Iranian cold dessert popularly known as "Persian noodle dessert" in the Western countries.

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Fars Province

Pars Province (استان پارس, Ostān-e Pārs) also known as Fars (Persian: فارس) or Persia in the Greek sources in historical context, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran and known as the cultural capital of the country.

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Farvardin (فروردین) is the first month of the Solar Hijri calendar, the official calendar of Iran.

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Fateh-110 (فاتح-۱۱۰, "conqueror") is a single-stage solid-propellant, surface-to-surface missile with at least a 200 km range, and it is produced domestically within Iran by the Aerospace Industries Organization, including the solid fuel propellant.

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Federal Research Division

The Federal Research Division (FRD) is the research and analysis unit of the United States Library of Congress.

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Abu ʾl-Qasim Firdowsi Tusi (c. 940–1020), or Ferdowsi (also transliterated as Firdawsi, Firdusi, Firdosi, Firdausi) was a Persian poet and the author of Shahnameh ("Book of Kings"), which is the world's longest epic poem created by a single poet, and the national epic of Greater Iran.

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FIBA Asia Cup

The FIBA Asia Cup (formerly FIBA Asia Championship) is an international basketball tournament which takes place every four years between men's national teams of Asia and Oceania.

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Fields Medal

The Fields Medal is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematicians under 40 years of age at the International Congress of the International Mathematical Union (IMU), a meeting that takes place every four years.

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FIFA World Rankings

The FIFA World Ranking is a ranking system for men's national teams in association football, currently led by Germany.

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Fighter aircraft

A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground targets.

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Financial Tribune

Financial Tribune is a non-governmental newspaper in Iran opened in 2014.

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Fire Temple of Amol

The Fire Temple of Amol, also known as Atashkadeh Amol or Amol Atash Kadeh), is a temple in Amol, Mazandaran, Iran. It related to the period Sassanid (226- 651 CE) antiquity building. Has been vestigial damaged over time. The indigenous story told, Muhammad ibn Mahmud Amuli body is buried in this place.

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A firecracker (cracker, noise maker, banger, or bunger) is a small explosive device primarily designed to produce a large amount of noise, especially in the form of a loud bang; any visual effect is incidental to this goal.

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Fireworks are a class of low explosive pyrotechnic devices used for aesthetic and entertainment purposes.

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FIVB World Rankings

The FIVB World Ranking is a ranking system for men's and women's national teams in volleyball.

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In computing, floating point operations per second (FLOPS, flops or flop/s) is a measure of computer performance, useful in fields of scientific computations that require floating-point calculations.

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Food and Agriculture Organization

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.

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Football in Iran

Football is the most popular sport in Iran, with wrestling and volleyball as close contenders.

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Foreign involvement in the Syrian Civil War

Foreign involvement in the Syrian Civil War refers to political, military and operational support to parties involved in the ongoing conflict in Syria that began in March 2011, as well as active foreign involvement.

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Foreign-exchange reserves

Foreign-exchange reserves (also called forex reserves or FX reserves) is money or other assets held by a central bank or other monetary authority so that it can pay if need be its liabilities, such as the currency issued by the central bank, as well as the various bank reserves deposited with the central bank by the government and other financial institutions.

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Fossil fuel

A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.

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Foxes are small-to-medium-sized, omnivorous mammals belonging to several genera of the family Canidae.

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France 24

France 24 (pronounced "France vingt-quatre") is a state-owned 24-hour international news and current affairs television network based in Paris.

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Franklin D. Roosevelt

Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.

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Fravashi (fravaši) is the Avestan language term for the Zoroastrian concept of a personal spirit of an individual, whether dead, living, and yet-unborn.

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Free market

In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.

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Freestyle wrestling

Freestyle wrestling is a style of amateur wrestling that is practiced throughout the world.

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Fuzzy set

In mathematics, fuzzy sets (aka uncertain sets) are somewhat like sets whose elements have degrees of membership.

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Ganj Par

Ganj Par (گنج پر) is a Lower Paleolithic site located in the Gilan province in northern Iran.

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Gas laser

A gas laser is a laser in which an electric current is discharged through a gas to produce coherent light.

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Gas to liquids

Gas to liquids (GTL) is a refinery process to convert natural gas or other gaseous hydrocarbons into longer-chain hydrocarbons, such as gasoline or diesel fuel.

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The Gathas (are 17 Avestan hymns believed to have been composed by Zarathusthra (Zoroaster) himself. They form the core of the Zoroastrian liturgy (the Yasna). They are arranged in five different modes or metres. The Avestan term gāθā ("hymn", but also "mode, metre") is cognate with Sanskrit gāthā (गाथा), both from the Indo-Iranian root **gaH- "to sing".

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A gazelle is any of many antelope species in the genus Gazella or formerly considered to belong to it.

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GCE Advanced Level

The A Level (Advanced Level) is a subject-based qualification conferred as part of the General Certificate of Education, as well as a school leaving qualification offered by the educational bodies in the United Kingdom and the educational authorities of British Crown dependencies to students completing secondary or pre-university education.

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General Certificate of Education

The General Certificate of Education (GCE) is a subject specific family of academic qualifications that awarding bodies in England, Wales, Northern Ireland, Crown dependencies and a few Commonwealth countries, notably Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Malaysia and Singapore, confer on students.

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Genghis Khan

Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.

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The Geographica (Ancient Greek: Γεωγραφικά Geōgraphiká), or Geography, is an encyclopedia of geographical knowledge, consisting of 17 'books', written in Greek by Strabo, an educated citizen of the Roman Empire of Greek descent.

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Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.

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George Braziller

George Braziller (February 12, 1916 – March 16, 2017) was an American book publisher and the founder of George Braziller, Inc., a firm known for its literary and artistic books and its publication of foreign authors.

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Georges Roux

Georges Raymond Nicolas Albert Roux (November 16, 1914 – August 12, 1999) was a French writer, author of the popular history books about the Ancient Near East, Ancient Iraq and La Mésopotamie.

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Georgia (country)

Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.

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Georgian language

Georgian (ქართული ენა, translit.) is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians.

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The Georgians or Kartvelians (tr) are a nation and Caucasian ethnic group native to Georgia.

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Geostrategy, a subfield of geopolitics, is a type of foreign policy guided principally by geographical factors as they inform, constrain, or affect political and military planning.

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The Ghaznavid dynasty (غزنویان ġaznaviyān) was a Persianate Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin, at their greatest extent ruling large parts of Iran, Afghanistan, much of Transoxiana and the northwest Indian subcontinent from 977 to 1186.

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Gilaki language

The Gilaki language (گیلکی Giləki) is a Caspian language, and a member of the northwestern Iranian language branch, spoken in Iran's Gīlān Province.

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The Gilaki people or Gilaks (Gilaki: گیلک Gilək) are an Iranian people native to the northern Iran province of Gilan and are one of the main ethnic groups residing in the northern parts of Iran.

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Gilan Province

Gilan Province (اُستان گیلان, Ostān-e Gīlān, also Latinized as Guilan) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.

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Global Competitiveness Report

The Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) is a yearly report published by the World Economic Forum.

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Glycated hemoglobin

Glycated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c, A1C, or Hb1c; sometimes also referred to as being Hb1c or HGBA1C) is a form of hemoglobin that is measured primarily to identify the three-month average plasma glucose concentration.

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The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.

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Golden Globe Award

Golden Globe Awards are accolades bestowed by the 93 members of the Hollywood Foreign Press Association beginning in January 1944, recognizing excellence in film and television, both domestic and foreign.

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Golden jackal

The golden jackal (Canis aureus) is a wolf-like canid that is native to Southeast Europe, Southwest Asia, South Asia, and regions of Southeast Asia.

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Golestan Palace

The Golestan Palace (کاخ گلستان, Kākh-e Golestān) is the former royal Qajar complex in Iran's capital city, Tehran.

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Good and evil

In religion, ethics, philosophy, and psychology "good and evil" is a very common dichotomy.

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Google Search

Google Search, commonly referred to as Google Web Search or simply Google, is a web search engine developed by Google.

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Gray wolf

The gray wolf (Canis lupus), also known as the timber wolf,Paquet, P. & Carbyn, L. W. (2003).

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Greater Iran

Greater Iran (ایران بزرگ) is a term used to refer to the regions of the Caucasus, West Asia, Central Asia, and parts of South Asia that have significant Iranian cultural influence due to having been either long historically ruled by the various imperial dynasties of Persian Empire (such as those of the Medes, Achaemenids, Parthians, Sassanians, Samanids, Safavids, and Afsharids and the Qajars), having considerable aspects of Persian culture due to extensive contact with the various imperial dynasties of Iran (e.g., those regions and peoples in the North Caucasus that were not under direct Iranian rule), or are simply nowadays still inhabited by a significant amount of Iranic peoples who patronize their respective cultures (as it goes for the western parts of South Asia, Bahrain and Tajikistan).

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Greater Khorasan

Khorasan (Middle Persian: Xwarāsān; خراسان Xorāsān), sometimes called Greater Khorasan, is a historical region lying in northeast of Greater Persia, including part of Central Asia and Afghanistan.

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Greco-Persian Wars

The Greco-Persian Wars (also often called the Persian Wars) were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire of Persia and Greek city-states that started in 499 BC and lasted until 449 BC.

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No description.

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The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.

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Gregorian calendar

The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world.

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Grolier is one of the largest U.S. publishers of general encyclopedias, including The Book of Knowledge (1910), The New Book of Knowledge (1966), The New Book of Popular Science (1972), Encyclopedia Americana (1945), Academic American Encyclopedia (1980), and numerous incarnations of a CD-ROM encyclopedia (1986–2003).

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Group of 15

The Group of 15 (G-15)The adopts the "G-15" orthography (with a hyphen) in order to distinguish an abbreviated reference to this group -- contrasts with other similarly named entities.

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Group of 24

The Group of 24 (G24), a chapter of the G-77, was established in 1971 to coordinate the positions of developing countries on international monetary and development finance issues and to ensure that their interests were adequately represented in negotiations on international monetary matters.

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Group of 77

The Group of 77 (G77) at the United Nations is a coalition of developing nations, designed to promote its members' collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the United Nations.

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Guardian Council

The Guardian Council of the Constitution (شورای نگهبان قانون اساسی, Shūra-ye negahbān-e qānūn-e āsāsī) is an appointed and constitutionally mandated 12-member council that wields considerable power and influence in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

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Guilford Press

Guilford Publications, Inc. is a New York City-based independent publisher founded in 1973 that specializes in publishing books, journals, and DVDs in psychology, psychiatry, the behavioral sciences, education, and geography.

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Gulf Cooperation Council

The Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (مجلس التعاون لدول الخليج العربية), originally (and still colloquially) known as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC, مجلس التعاون الخليجي), is a regional intergovernmental political and economic union consisting of all Arab states of the Persian Gulf except Iraq.

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Gulf of Oman

The Gulf of Oman or Sea of Oman (خليج عُمان khalīj ʿUmān; دریای عمان daryāye ʿUmān) is a strait (and not an actual gulf) that connects the Arabian Sea with the Strait of Hormuz, which then runs to the Persian Gulf.

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Gusans (գուսան; Parthian for poet-musician or minstrel) were creative and performing artists - singers, instrumentalists, dancers, storytellers, and professional folk actors in public theaters of Parthia and ancient and medieval Armenia.

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Haaretz (הארץ) (lit. "The Land ", originally Ḥadashot Ha'aretz – חדשות הארץ, – "News of the Land ") is an Israeli newspaper.

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Khwāja Shams-ud-Dīn Muḥammad Ḥāfeẓ-e Shīrāzī (خواجه شمس‌‌الدین محمد حافظ شیرازی), known by his pen name Hafez (حافظ Ḥāfeẓ 'the memorizer; the (safe) keeper'; 1315-1390) and as "Hafiz", was a Persian poet who "lauded the joys of love and wine but also targeted religious hypocrisy." His collected works are regarded as a pinnacle of Persian literature and are often found in the homes of people in the Persian speaking world, who learn his poems by heart and still use them as proverbs and sayings.

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Haim Synagogue

The Haim Synagogue (کنیسای حییم; בית הכנסת חַיִּים) is an Orthodox synagogue in Tehran, Iran.

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Hamshahri (همشهری, "Fellow citizen") is a major national Iranian Persian-language newspaper.

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The Hanafi (حنفي) school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).

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The Hanbali school (المذهب الحنبلي) is one of the four traditional Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh).

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Hanukkah (חֲנֻכָּה, Tiberian:, usually spelled rtl, pronounced in Modern Hebrew, or in Yiddish; a transliteration also romanized as Chanukah or Ḥanukah) is a Jewish holiday commemorating the rededication of the Holy Temple (the Second Temple) in Jerusalem at the time of the Maccabean Revolt against the Seleucid Empire.

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The harp is a stringed musical instrument that has a number of individual strings running at an angle to its soundboard; the strings are plucked with the fingers.

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Harvard University Press

Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.

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Hassan Rouhani

Hassan Rouhani (حسن روحانی,, Standard Persian:; born Hassan Fereydoun (حسن فریدون) on 12 November 1948) is an Iranian politician serving as the current and seventh President of Iran since 3 August 2013.

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Haurvatat (haurvatāt) is the Avestan language word for the Zoroastrian concept of "wholeness" or "perfection." In post-Gathic Zoroastrianism, Haurvatat was the Amesha Spenta associated with water (cf. apo), prosperity, and health.

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Heena Sidhu

Heena Sidhu (born 29 August 1989) is an Indian sport shooter.

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A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors.

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Hellenistic art

Hellenistic art is the art of the period in classical antiquity generally taken to begin with the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and end with the conquest of the Greek world by the Romans, a process well underway by 146 BCE, when the Greek mainland was taken, and essentially ending in 31 BCE with the conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt following the Battle of Actium.

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Hellenistic period

The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.

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Henry David Thoreau

Henry David Thoreau (see name pronunciation; July 12, 1817 – May 6, 1862) was an American essayist, poet, philosopher, abolitionist, naturalist, tax resister, development critic, surveyor, and historian.

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Henry Miers Elliot

Sir Henry Miers Elliot KCB (1 March 1808 – 30 December 1853) was an English civil servant and historian who worked with the East India Company in India for 26 years.

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Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.

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Hezbollah (pronounced; حزب الله, literally "Party of Allah" or "Party of God")—also transliterated Hizbullah, Hizballah, etc.

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High school diploma

A high school diploma is a North American academic school leaving qualification awarded upon high school graduation.

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A hijab (حجاب, or (dialectal)) is a veil worn by some Muslim women in the presence of any male outside of their immediate family, which usually covers the head and chest.

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Hiking is the preferred term, in Canada and the United States, for a long, vigorous walk, usually on trails (footpaths), in the countryside, while the word walking is used for shorter, particularly urban walks.

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Hindu Kush

The Hindu Kush, also known in Ancient Greek as the Caucasus Indicus (Καύκασος Ινδικός) or Paropamisadae (Παροπαμισάδαι), in Pashto and Persian as, Hindu Kush is an mountain range that stretches near the Afghan-Pakistan border,, Quote: "The Hindu Kush mountains run along the Afghan border with the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan".

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History of Asian art

The history of Asian art or Eastern art, includes a vast range of influences from various cultures and religions.

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History of Islam

The history of Islam concerns the political, social,economic and cultural developments of the Islamic civilization.

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History of the Jews in Iran

The beginnings of Jewish history in Iran date back to late biblical times.

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Hoot (torpedo)

The Hoot (حوت; Whale) is an Iranian supercavitation torpedo claimed to travel at approximately, several times faster than a conventional torpedo.

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Hormuz Island

Hormuz Island (جزیره هرمز Jazireh-ye Hormoz), also spelled Hormoz, is an Iranian island in the Persian Gulf.

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The horse (Equus ferus caballus) is one of two extant subspecies of ''Equus ferus''.

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Hotak dynasty

The Hotak dynasty (د هوتکيانو ټولواکمني) was an Afghan monarchy of the Ghilji Pashtuns, established in April 1709 by Mirwais Hotak after leading a successful revolution against their declining Persian Safavid overlords in the region of Loy Kandahar ("Greater Kandahar") in what is now southern Afghanistan.

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Hulagu Khan

Hulagu Khan, also known as Hülegü or Hulegu (ᠬᠦᠯᠡᠭᠦ|translit.

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Human rights

Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.

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Human rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran

The state of human rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran has been criticized both by Iranians and international human right activists, writers, and NGOs.

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Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.

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I.B. Tauris

I.B. Tauris (usually typeset as I.B.Tauris) was an independent publishing house with offices in London and New York City.

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The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate (ایلخانان, Ilxānān; Хүлэгийн улс, Hu’legīn Uls), was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu.

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Imam Reza shrine

The Imam Reza shrine (حرم امام رضا) in Mashhad, Iran is a complex which contains the mausoleum of Imam Reza, the eighth Imam of Twelver Shiites.

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Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.

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Indus River

The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.

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In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.

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Instagram is a photo and video-sharing social networking service owned by Facebook, Inc. It was created by Kevin Systrom and Mike Krieger, and launched in October 2010 exclusively on iOS.

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Institute for the Intellectual Development of Children and Young Adults

Institute for the Intellectual Development of Children and Young Adults (IIDCYA, كانون پرورش فكری كودكان و نوجوانان., Kanoon-e Parvaresh-e Fekri-e Koodakan va Nojavanan, better known as Kanoon) is an Iranian institution with a wide range of cultural and artistic activities in the field of mental and cultural development for children and young adults.

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Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics

Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics (IBB) is a research institute in Iran founded in 1976 to conduct research in biological sciences and related fields.

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Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.

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Intangible cultural heritage

An intangible cultural heritage (ICH) is a practice, representation, expression, knowledge, or skill, as well as the instruments, objects, artefacts, and cultural spaces that are considered by UNESCO to be part of a place's cultural heritage.

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International Atomic Energy Agency

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.

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International Baccalaureate

The International Baccalaureate (IB), formerly known as the International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO), is an international educational foundation headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland and founded in 1968.

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International Bank for Reconstruction and Development

The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) is an international financial institution that offers loans to middle-income developing countries.

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International Development Association

The International Development Association (IDA) is an international financial institution which offers concessional loans and grants to the world's poorest developing countries.

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International Finance Corporation

The International Finance Corporation (IFC) is an international financial institution that offers investment, advisory, and asset-management services to encourage private-sector development in developing countries.

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International Institute for Strategic Studies

The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) is a British research institute (or think tank) in the area of international affairs.

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International Labour Organization

The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour problems, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all.

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International Maritime Organization

The International Maritime Organization (IMO), known as the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) until 1982, is a specialised agency of the United Nations responsible for regulating shipping.

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International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.

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International Union for Conservation of Nature

The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.

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The International Criminal Police Organization (Organisation internationale de police criminelle; ICPO-INTERPOL), more commonly known as Interpol, is an international organization that facilitates international police cooperation.

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Ionian Revolt

The Ionian Revolt, and associated revolts in Aeolis, Doris, Cyprus and Caria, were military rebellions by several Greek regions of Asia Minor against Persian rule, lasting from 499 BC to 493 BC.

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Iran (newspaper)

Iran (ایران) is the official daily newspaper of the government of Iran.

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Iran (word)

The modern Persian name of Iran (ایران) derives immediately from 3rd-century Sassanian Middle Persian (Pahlavi spelling: ʼyrʼn), where it initially meant "of the Iranians", but soon also acquired a geographical connotation in the sense of "(lands inhabited by) Iranians".

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Iran and weapons of mass destruction

Iran, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is not known to currently possess weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and has signed treaties repudiating the possession of weapons of mass destruction including the Biological Weapons Convention, the Chemical Weapons Convention, and the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT).

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Iran at the Olympics

Iran, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, first participated at the Olympic Games in 1948, and has sent athletes to compete in every Summer Olympic Games since then, except for 1980 and 1984 due to boycotts.

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Iran crisis of 1946

The Iran crisis of 1946, also known as the Azerbaijan Crisis (translit.: Qaʾilih Âzarbâyjân), followed the end of World War II and stemmed from the Soviet Union's refusal to relinquish occupied Iranian territory, despite repeated assurances.

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Iran hostage crisis

The Iran hostage crisis was a diplomatic standoff between Iran and the United States of America.

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Iran hostage crisis negotiations

The Iran hostage crisis negotiations were negotiations in 1980 and 1981 between the United States Government and the Iranian Government to end the Iranian hostage crisis.

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Iran men's national volleyball team

The Iran Men's National Volleyball Team is the national men's volleyball team of Iran.

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Iran national basketball team

The Iranian national basketball team is controlled by the IR Iran Basketball Federation.

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Iran national football team

The Iran national football team (Tīm-e Melli-e Fūtbāl-e Īrān), also known as Team Melli (lit), represents Iran in international football competitions and is governed by the Iran Football Federation.

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Iran national freestyle wrestling athletes

Iran national amateur freestyle wrestling athletes represents Iran in regional, continental, and world tournaments and matches sanctioned by the United World Wrestling (UWW).

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Iran Standard Time

Iran Standard Time (IRST) or Iran Time (IT) is the time zone used in Iran.

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Iran–Iraq War

The Iran–Iraq War was an armed conflict between Iran and Iraq, beginning on 22 September 1980, when Iraq invaded Iran, and ending on 20 August 1988, when Iran accepted the UN-brokered ceasefire.

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Iran–Israel relations

Iranian–Israeli relations can be divided into four major phases: the period from 1947–53, the friendly period during the era of the Pahlavi dynasty, the worsening period from the 1979 Iranian Revolution to 1990, and finally the hostility since the end of the First Gulf War.

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Iran–Saudi Arabia relations

Iran and Saudi Arabia have no diplomatic relations following an attack on the Saudi Embassy in Tehran in 2016.

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Iran–Syria relations

Syria and Iran are strategic allies.

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Iran–United States relations

As of 2018, there are no formal diplomatic relations between Iran and the United States.

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Iranian Americans

Iranian Americans or Persian Americans are U.S. citizens who are of Iranian ancestry or who hold Iranian citizenship.

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Iranian Arabs

Iranian Arabs (عرب‌های ايران Arabhāye Irān) refers to the citizens or residents of Iran who are ethnically Arab.

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Iranian architecture

Iranian architecture or Persian architecture (Persian:مهرازى ایرانی) is the architecture of Iran and parts of the rest of West Asia, the Caucasus and Central Asia.

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Iranian Armenians

Iranian-Armenians (իրանահայեր iranahayer) also known as Persian-Armenians (պարսկահայեր parskahayer), are Iranians of Armenian ethnicity who may speak Armenian as their first language.

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Iranian Azerbaijanis

Iranian Azerbaijanis (ایران آذربایجانلیلاری – İran azərbaycanlıları), also known as Iranian Azeris, Iranian Turks, Persian Turks, Azeri Turks, Azerbaijani Turks or Persian Azerbaijanis, are Iranians of Azerbaijani ethnicity who speak the Azerbaijani language as their first language.

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Iranian calendars

The Iranian calendars (گاه‌شماری ایرانی Gâhshomâriye Irâni) are a succession of calendars invented or used for over two millennia in Iran (Persia).

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Iranian constitutional referendum, 1989

A constitutional referendum was held in Iran on 28 July 1989, alongside presidential elections.

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Iranian constitutional referendum, December 1979

A constitutional referendum was held in Iran on 2 and 3 December 1979.

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Iranian Constitutional Revolution

The Persian Constitutional Revolution (مشروطیت Mashrūtiyyat, or انقلاب مشروطه Enghelāb-e Mashrūteh), also known as the Constitutional Revolution of Iran, took place between 1905 and 1911.

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Iranian Cultural Revolution

The Cultural Revolution (1980–1983) (انقلاب فرهنگی.) was a period following the Iranian Revolution, when the academia of Iran was purged of Western and non-Islamic influences (even traditionalist unpolitical Islamic doctrines) to bring it in line with the revolutionary and Political Islam.

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Iranian diaspora

Iranians abroad or Iranian diaspora are Iranian people living outside Iran and their children born abroad.

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Iranian folklore

Iranian folklore encompasses the folk traditions that have evolved in Iran.

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Iranian frigate Jamaran

Jamaran is lead ship of the Iranian s launched in early 2010 in Bandar-e-Abbas, Iran.

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Iranian Georgians

Iranian Georgians (ირანის ქართველები; گرجی‌های ایران) are Iranian citizens who are ethnically Georgian, and are an ethnic group living in Iran.

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Iranian Green Movement

The Iranian Green Movement (جنبش سبز ایران), also known as the Persian Awakening or Persian Spring by the western media, refers to a political movement that arose after the 2009 Iranian presidential election, in which protesters demanded the removal of Mahmoud Ahmadinejad from office.

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Iranian hip hop

Iranian hip hop, also referred to as Persian hip hop, refers to hip hop music developed in Iran.

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Iranian Intermezzo

The term Iranian Intermezzo represents a period in history which saw the rise of various native Iranian Muslim dynasties in the Iranian plateau.

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Iranian Islamic Republic Day

Iranian Islamic Republic Day (روز جمهوری اسلامی) is Farvardin 12 that known as Ruz e Jomhuri ye Eslāmi.

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Iranian Islamic Republic referendum, March 1979

A referendum on creating an Islamic Republic was held in Iran on 30 and 31 March 1979.

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Iranian labor law

Iranian labor law describes the rules of employment in Iran.

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Iranian languages

The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of the Indo-Iranian languages in the Indo-European language family.

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Iranian modern and contemporary art

A cursory glance at the history of art reveals that social, political and economic conditions have always played a major role in the emergence of new artistic currents and styles.

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Iranian mythology

Iranian mythology or Iranic mythology may involve in the mythology of Iranian peoples, a branch of Indo-Europeans.

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Iranian National Ballet Company

The Iranian National Ballet Company (سازمان باله ملی ایران) was Iran's only state ballet institution until the Islamic revolution of 1979 and also the most known and recognized of all dance companies in the Middle East.

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Iranian nationalism

Iranian nationalism refers to nationalism among the people of Iran and individuals whose national identity is Iranian.

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Iranian peoples

The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.

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Iranian philosophy

Iranian philosophy (Persian:فلسفه ایرانی) or Persian philosophy can be traced back as far as to Old Iranian philosophical traditions and thoughts which originated in ancient Indo-Iranian roots and were considerably influenced by Zarathustra's teachings.

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Iranian Plateau

The Iranian Plateau or the Persian Plateau is a geological formation in Western Asia and Central Asia.

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Iranian pop music

Iranian pop music refers to pop music originated in Iran, with songs mainly in Persian and other regional languages of the country.

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Iranian presidential election, 2005

Iran's ninth presidential election took place in two rounds, the first on 17 June 2005, the run-off on 24 June.

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Iranian presidential election, 2009

Iran's tenth presidential election was held on 12 June 2009, with incumbent Mahmoud Ahmadinejad running against three challengers.

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Iranian Reformists

The Iranian reformists (Eslâh-Talabân) are a political faction in Iran that support former President Mohammad Khatami's plans to change the Iranian political system to include more freedom and democracy.

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Iranian religions

Iranian religions are religions which originated in Greater Iran.

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Iranian Revolution

The Iranian Revolution (Enqelāb-e Iran; also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution), Iran Chamber.

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Iranian rial

The Iranian rial (ریال ایران Riâl Irân; ISO 4217 code IRR) is the currency of Iran.

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Iranian rock

Iranian rock refers to rock music produced by Iranian artists.

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Iranian subsidy reform plan

The Iranian targeted subsidy plan (طرح هدفمندسازی یارانه‌ها), also known as the subsidy reform plan, was passed by the Iranian Parliament on January 5, 2010.

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Iranian University Entrance Exam

The Iranian University Entrance Exam, simply known as Konkour (Persian: کنکور; from the French Concours), is a standardized test used as one of the means to gain admission to higher education in Iran.

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Iranian.com is a website that hosts blogs, news, and commentaries by and for the Iranian diaspora.

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Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.

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IRIB World Service

IRIB World Service, a.k.a. Pars Today is the official international broadcasting radio network of Iran.

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Iron people

The Iron (IPA) /ɪ.ɹɔːn/) are a subgroup of the Ossetians. They speak the Iron dialect, one of the two main dialects of the Ossetian language. The majority of Irons belong to the Eastern Orthodox Church, with a Uatsdin and Muslim minority.

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Irreligion in Iran

Irreligion in Iran is marginalized and by official 2011 census 265,899 persons didn't state any religion (0.3% of total population).

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Isfahan (Esfahān), historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan, Esfahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, located about south of Tehran.

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Isfahan City Center

Isfahan City Center is a large commercial and entertainment complex in Isfahan, Iran.

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Isfahan Province

Isfahan province (Ostāne Esfahan), also transliterated as Esfahan, Espahan, Isfahan, or Isphahan, is one of the thirty-one provinces of Iran.

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IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Islam in Iran

The Islamic conquest of Persia (637–651) led to the end of the Sasanian Empire and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Persia.

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Islamic architecture

Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of both secular and religious styles from the early history of Islam to the present day.

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Islamic calendar

The Islamic, Muslim, or Hijri calendar (التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī) is a lunar calendar consisting of 12 months in a year of 354 or 355 days.

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Islamic Consultative Assembly

The Islamic Consultative Assembly (Majles-e Showrā-ye Eslāmī), also called the Iranian Parliament, the Iranian Majlis (or Majles, مجلس), is the national legislative body of Iran.

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Islamic Development Bank

The Islamic Development Bank (IDB) (Arabic: البنك الإسلامي للتنمية) is a multilateral development financing institution located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

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Islamic Golden Age

The Islamic Golden Age is the era in the history of Islam, traditionally dated from the 8th century to the 14th century, during which much of the historically Islamic world was ruled by various caliphates, and science, economic development and cultural works flourished.

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Islamic literature

Islamic literature is literature written with an Islamic perspective, in any language.

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Islamic republic

An Islamic republic is the name given to several states that are officially ruled by Islamic laws, including the Islamic Republics of Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan, and Mauritania.

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Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force

The Islamic Republic of Iran Air Force (IRIAF; نیروی هوایی ارتش جمهوری اسلامی ایران) is the aviation branch of the Islamic Republic of Iran Army.

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Islamic Republic of Iran Army

The Islamic Republic of Iran Army (ارتش جمهوری اسلامی ایران), acronymed AJA (آجا), simply known as the Iranian Army or Artesh (Arteš), is the "conventional military of Iran" and part of Armed Forces of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

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Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting

The Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB) (صدا و سيمای جمهوری اسلامی ايران, Sedā va Sīmā-ye Jomhūri-ye Eslāmi-ye Īrān, lit. Voice and Vision of the Islamic Republic of Iran), formerly called National Iranian Radio and Television until the Iranian revolution of 1979, is an Iranian media corporation which hold the monopoly of domestic radio and television services in Iran, is also among the largest media organizations in Asian and Pacific region, and a regular member of Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union.

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Islamic Republic of Iran Navy

The Navy of Islamic Republic of Iran Army (نیروی دریایی ارتش جمهوری اسلامی ایران) acronymed NEDAJA (نداجا), is the naval warfare service branch of Iran's regular military, the Islamic Republic of Iran Army (''Artesh'').

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Islamic Revolutionary Court

Islamic Revolutionary Court (also Revolutionary Tribunal, Dadgah-ha-e EnqelabBakhash, Shaul, Reign of the Ayatollahs, Basic Books, 1984, p.59-61) is a special system of courts in the Islamic Republic of Iran designed to try those suspected of crimes such as smuggling, blaspheming, inciting violence or trying to overthrow the Islamic government.

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Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps

The Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) (lit or Sepâh for short) is a branch of Iran's Armed Forces founded after 1979 Revolution on 22 April 1979 by order of Ayatollah Khomeini.IISS Military Balance 2006, Routledge for the IISS, London, 2006, p. 187 Whereas the regular military (or Artesh) defends Iran's borders and maintains internal order, according to the Iranian constitution, the Revolutionary Guard (pasdaran) is intended to protect the country's Islamic Republic system. The Revolutionary Guards state that their role in protecting the Islamic system is preventing foreign interference as well as coups by the military or "deviant movements". The Revolutionary Guards have roughly 125,000 military personnel including ground, aerospace and naval forces. Its naval forces are now the primary forces tasked with operational control of the Persian Gulf. GlobalBearings.net, 15 December 2011. It also controls the paramilitary Basij militia which has about 90,000 active personnel.Abrahamian, Ervand, History of Modern Iran, Columbia University Press, 2008 pp. 175–76 Its media arm is Sepah News. Since its origin as an ideologically driven militia, the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution has taken a greater role in nearly every aspect of Iranian society. Its expanded social, political, military and economic role under President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad's administration—especially during the 2009 presidential election and post-election suppression of protest—has led many Western analysts to argue that its political power has surpassed even that of the Shia clerical system. The Chief Commander of the Guardians since 2007 is Mohammad Ali Jafari, who was preceded by Yahya Rahim Safavi from 1997.

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Islamization of Iran

The Islamization of Iran occurred as a result of the Muslim conquest of Persia.

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Ismail I

Ismail I (Esmāʿīl,; July 17, 1487 – May 23, 1524), also known as Shah Ismail I (شاه اسماعیل), was the founder of the Safavid dynasty, ruling from 1501 to 23 May 1524 as Shah of Iran (Persia).

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Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Israeli–Palestinian conflict

The Israeli–Palestinian conflict (Ha'Sikhsukh Ha'Yisraeli-Falestini; al-Niza'a al-Filastini-al-Israili) is the ongoing struggle between Israelis and Palestinians that began in the mid-20th century.

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iUniverse, founded in October 1999, is a self-publishing company in Bloomington, Indiana, U.S.Kevin Abourezk, Lincoln Journal Star, January 22, 2008.

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J. B. Bury

John Bagnell Bury, (16 October 1861 – 1 June 1927) was an Irish historian, classical scholar, Medieval Roman historian and philologist.

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Jafar Panahi

Jafar Panahi (جعفر پناهی; born 11 July 1960) is an Iranian film director, screenwriter, and film editor, commonly identified with the Iranian New Wave film movement.

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Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.

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Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.

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Jimmy Carter

James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981.

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Jiroft culture

A "Jiroft culture" has been postulated as an early Bronze Age (late 3rd millennium BC) archaeological culture, located in the territory of present-day Balochistan and Kermān Provinces of Iran.

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Jizya or jizyah (جزية; جزيه) is a per capita yearly tax historically levied on non-Muslim subjects, called the dhimma, permanently residing in Muslim lands governed by Islamic law.

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Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.

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Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action

The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA; barnāmeye jāme‘e eqdāme moshtarak, acronym: برجام BARJAM), known commonly as the Iran nuclear deal or Iran deal, is an agreement on the nuclear program of Iran reached in Vienna on 14 July 2015 between Iran, the P5+1 (the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council—China, France, Russia, United Kingdom, United States—plus Germany), and the European Union.

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Jolfa County

Jolfa County (شهرستان جلفا) is a county in East Azerbaijan Province in Iran.

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Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.

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Joseph Stalin

Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.

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Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.

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Judicial system of Iran

A nationwide judicial system in Iran was first implemented and established by Abdolhossein Teymourtash under Reza Shah, with further changes during the second Pahlavi era.

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Jungle Movement of Gilan

The Jangal (Jungle) Movement, in Gilan, was a rebellion against the monarchist rule of the Qajar central government of Iran.

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Mohammad Ghaffari (محمد غفاری.), better known as Kamal-ol-Molk (کمال‌المُلک), was an Iranian painter and part of the Ghaffari family in Kashan.

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The kamancheh (also kamānche or kamāncha) (کمانچه) is an Iranian bowed string instrument, used also in Armenian, Azerbaijani, Turkish and Kurdish music and related to the rebab, the historical ancestor of the kamancheh and also to the bowed Byzantine lyra, ancestor of the European violin family.

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Karaj (کرج) is the capital of Alborz Province, Iran, and effectively a suburb of Tehran.

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Karim Khan Zand

Mohammad Karim Khan Zand (Mohammad Karīm Khān-e Zand), better known as Karim Khan Zand (کریم خان زند), was the founder of the Zand Dynasty and the Shah of Iran, ruling from 1751 to 1779.

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The karnay is a long trumpet with a mouthpiece.

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Kashafrud Basin is an archaeological site in Iran, known for the Lower Palaeolithic artifacts collected there; these are the oldest-known evidence for human occupation of Iran., There are some collections of simple core and flake stone artifacts collected by C. Thibault in 1974-75.

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Kashan (کاشان, also Romanized as: Kāshān) is a city in Isfahan province, Iran.

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Kashk e bademjan

Kashk e bademjan (Persian: کشک بادمجان) is an Iranian, Azerbaijani and Turkish dish that literally translates as “kashk and eggplant”.

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Kayhan (کيهان, The Cosmos) is a newspaper in Iran.

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K–12 (spoken as "k twelve", "k through twelve", or "k to twelve"), for kindergarten to 12th grade, indicates the sum of primary and secondary education in several nations, including India, the United States, Canada, Ecuador, South Korea, Turkey, Philippines, Egypt, Australia, Afghanistan, and Iran for publicly supported school grades prior to college.

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Kebabs (also kabobs or kababs) are various cooked meat dishes, with their origins in Middle Eastern cuisine.

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Khanates of the Caucasus

The Khanates of the Caucasus, or Azerbaijani khanates or Persian khanates, or Iranian khanates, were various provinces and principalities established by Persia (Iran) on their territories in the Caucasus (modern-day Azerbaijan Republic, Armenia, Georgia and Dagestan) from the late Safavid to the Qajar dynasty.

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Khordad (خرداد) is the third month of the Iranian calendar.

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Khoresh (خورش) is a generic term for stew dishes in the Iranian cuisine.

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Khosrow II

Khosrow II (Chosroes II in classical sources; Middle Persian: Husrō(y)), entitled "Aparvēz" ("The Victorious"), also Khusraw Parvēz (New Persian: خسرو پرویز), was the last great king of the Sasanian Empire, reigning from 590 to 628.

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Khosrow Sinai

Khosrow Sinai (خسرو سینایی., born 19 January 1941 in Sari, Iran) is an Iranian film director.

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Khoy (خوی; خوی; also Romanized as Khoy and Khoi), is a city and capital of Khoy County, West Azerbaijan Province, Iran.

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Khuzestan Province

Khuzestan Province (استان خوزستان Ostān-e Khūzestān, محافظة خوزستان Muḥāfaẓa Khūzistān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.

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Khuzestani Arabic

Khuzestani Arabic is a dialect of Gelet (Southern) Mesopotamian Arabic spoken by the Iranian Arabs in Khuzestan Province of Iran.

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Khwarazmian dynasty

The Khwarazmian dynasty (also known as the Khwarezmid dynasty, the Anushtegin dynasty, the dynasty of Khwarazm Shahs, and other spelling variants; from ("Kings of Khwarezmia") was a PersianateC. E. Bosworth:. In Encyclopaedia Iranica, online ed., 2009: "Little specific is known about the internal functioning of the Khwarazmian state, but its bureaucracy, directed as it was by Persian officials, must have followed the Saljuq model. This is the impression gained from the various Khwarazmian chancery and financial documents preserved in the collections of enšāʾdocuments and epistles from this period. The authors of at least three of these collections—Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ (d. 1182-83 or 1187-88), with his two collections of rasāʾel, and Bahāʾ-al-Din Baḡdādi, compiler of the important Ketāb al-tawaṣṣol elā al-tarassol—were heads of the Khwarazmian chancery. The Khwarazmshahs had viziers as their chief executives, on the traditional pattern, and only as the dynasty approached its end did ʿAlāʾ-al-Din Moḥammad in ca. 615/1218 divide up the office amongst six commissioners (wakildārs; see Kafesoğlu, pp. 5-8, 17; Horst, pp. 10-12, 25, and passim). Nor is much specifically known of court life in Gorgānj under the Khwarazmshahs, but they had, like other rulers of their age, their court eulogists, and as well as being a noted stylist, Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ also had a considerable reputation as a poet in Persian." Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin. The dynasty ruled large parts of Central Asia and Iran during the High Middle Ages, in the approximate period of 1077 to 1231, first as vassals of the Seljuqs and Qara-Khitan, and later as independent rulers, up until the Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia in the 13th century. The dynasty was founded by commander Anush Tigin Gharchai, a former Turkish slave of the Seljuq sultans, who was appointed as governor of Khwarezm. His son, Qutb ad-Din Muhammad I, became the first hereditary Shah of Khwarezm.Encyclopædia Britannica, "Khwarezm-Shah-Dynasty",.

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Kianoush Rostami

Kianoush Rostami (کیانوش رستمی, born 23 July 1991) is an Iranian Olympic weightlifter.

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Killed in action

Killed in action (KIA) is a casualty classification generally used by militaries to describe the deaths of their own combatants at the hands of hostile forces.

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Kimia Alizadeh

Kimia Alizadeh Zonoozi (کیمیا علیزاده زنوزی, born July 10, 1998) is an Iranian Taekwondo athlete.

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Kingdom of Pontus

The Kingdom of Pontus or Pontic Empire was a state founded by the Persian Mithridatic dynasty,http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/pontus which may have been directly related to Darius the Great and the Achaemenid dynasty.

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Kowsar (or Kosar) is a medium-range, land-based anti-ship missile made by Iran.

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Kshatra Vairya

Kshatra Vairya (also Šahrewar, and Xšaθra(an etymon of Kshetra in the Avestan language).

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Kul-e Farah

Kul-e Farah (or "Kul-e Fara") is the site of six Elamite rock reliefs that are located in a gorge on the plain's east side.

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Kura–Araxes culture

The Kura–Araxes culture or the early trans-Caucasian culture was a civilization that existed from about 4000 BC until about 2000 BC, which has traditionally been regarded as the date of its end; in some locations it may have disappeared as early as 2600 or 2700 BC.

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Kurdish languages

Kurdish (Kurdî) is a continuum of Northwestern Iranian languages spoken by the Kurds in Western Asia.

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Kurdistan Province

Kurdistan Province (استان کردستان, Ostān-e Kordestān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.

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The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).

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Kurds in Iran

Kurds in Iran refers to people born in or residing in Iran who are of Kurdish origin.

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A Kus (Persian کوس kūs) is a large-sized ancient Persian kettledrum, similar to the timpani.

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Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.

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A layperson (also layman or laywoman) is a person who is not qualified in a given profession and/or does not have specific knowledge of a certain subject.

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Laki language

Laki (لەکی; Lekî) is a speech variety that is either considered an independent Iranian language,, a dialect of Lurish or a dialect of Southern Kurdish.

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Laleh Bakhtiar

Laleh Mehree Bakhtiar (July 29, 1938, in New York City, United States) is an Iranian-American Muslim author, translator and clinical psychologist.

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Languages of the Caucasus

The Caucasian languages are a large and extremely varied array of languages spoken by more than ten million people in and around the Caucasus Mountains, which lie between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.

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Launch pad

A launch pad is an above-ground platform from which a rocket-powered missile or space vehicle is vertically launched.

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Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.

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The Lend-Lease policy, formally titled An Act to Promote the Defense of the United States, was an American program to defeat Germany, Japan and Italy by distributing food, oil, and materiel between 1941 and August 1945.

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Lent (Latin: Quadragesima: Fortieth) is a solemn religious observance in the Christian liturgical calendar that begins on Ash Wednesday and ends approximately six weeks later, before Easter Sunday.

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The leopard (Panthera pardus) is one of the five species in the genus Panthera, a member of the Felidae.

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The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.

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Lezgins (лезгияр, lezgiyar, Russian: лезгины, lezginy; Azerbaijani: "Ləzgilər"; also called Lezgins, Lezgi, Lezgis, Lezgs, Lezgin) are a Northeast Caucasian ethnic group native predominantly to southern Dagestan and northeastern Azerbaijan and who speak the Lezgian language.

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Library of Congress

The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.

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A libretto is the text used in, or intended for, an extended musical work such as an opera, operetta, masque, oratorio, cantata or musical.

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Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.

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Liquid fuel

Liquid fuels are combustible or energy-generating molecules that can be harnessed to create mechanical energy, usually producing kinetic energy; they also must take the shape of their container.

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List of ancient Iranian peoples

This list of ancient Iranian peoples or ancient Iranic peoples includes names of Indo-European peoples speaking Iranian languages or otherwise considered Iranian in sources from the late 1st millennium BC to the early 2nd millennium AD.

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List of contemporary Iranian scientists, scholars, and engineers

The following is a list of notable Iranian scholars, scientists and engineers around the world from the contemporary period.

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List of countries and dependencies by area

This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.

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List of countries and dependencies by population

This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population.

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List of countries by GDP (PPP)

This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP (PPP).

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List of countries by natural gas production

This is a list of countries by natural gas production based on statistics from the International Energy Agency.

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List of countries by number of Internet users

Below is a sortable list of countries by number of Internet users as of 2016.

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List of ethnic groups known as "Iranian Turks"

The term "Iranian Turks" typically applies to the Iranian Azerbaijanis, the largest Turkic group found in Iran.

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List of famines

This is a selective list of known major famines, ordered by date.

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List of Iran-related topics

This is a list of topics related to Iran (Persia) and Persian culture.

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List of largest shopping malls

This is a complete list of the world's largest shopping malls based on their gross leasable area.

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List of newspapers in Iran

The first Iranian newspapers appeared in the mid-19th century during the reign of Nasir al Din Shah.

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List of power stations in Iran

By 2012, Iran had roughly 400 power plant units.

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List of Prime Ministers of Iran

This is a list of Prime Ministers of Iran from the creation of the office in 1906 during the Persian Constitutional Revolution, until 1989 when the post was abolished after the constitutional referendum.

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List of Speakers of the Parliament of Iran

Following is a list of Speakers of the Parliament of Iran, from the Persian Constitutional Revolution to present.

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List of World Heritage Sites in Iran

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Heritage Sites are places of importance to cultural or natural heritage as described in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, established in 1972.

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Lonely Planet

Lonely Planet is the largest travel guide book publisher in the world.

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Lor Girl

Lor Girl (دخترِ لُر; Romanized as Dokhtar-e Lor), also known as The Iran of Yesterday and the Iran of Today, was the first sound film ever to be produced in the Persian language.

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Lorestan Province

Lorestan Province (استان لرستان, also written Luristan, Lurestan, or Loristan), is a province of western Iran in the Zagros Mountains.

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Loris Tjeknavorian

Loris Haykasi Tjeknavorian (also spelled Cheknavarian, Լորիս Ճգնավորյան; لوریس چکناواریان., born 13 October 1937 in Borujerd) is an Iranian Armenian composer and conductor.

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Los Angeles Times

The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.

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Lotfi A. Zadeh

Lotfi Aliasker Zadeh (Lütfəli Rəhim oğlu Ələsgərzadə; لطفی علی‌عسگرزاده; February 4, 1921 – September 6, 2017) was a mathematician, computer scientist, electrical engineer, artificial intelligence researcher and professor emeritus of computer science at the University of California, Berkeley.

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Lower Paleolithic

The Lower Paleolithic (or Lower Palaeolithic) is the earliest subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age.

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Luri language

Luri or Lurish (Luri: لۊری) is a Western Iranian language continuum spoken by the Lurs in Western Asia.

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Lurs (also Lors, Lurish: لورَل, Persian:لُرها) are an Iranian people living mainly in western and south-western Iran.

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Lydia (Assyrian: Luddu; Λυδία, Lydía; Lidya) was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir.

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Macedonia (ancient kingdom)

Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.

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Mahmoud Ahmadinejad

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad (Mahmūd Ahmadinezhād, born Mahmoud Sabbaghian (Sabbāghyān) on 28 October 1956) is an Iranian politician who was the sixth President of Iran from 2005 to 2013.

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Maklavan (ماکلوان, also Romanized as Mākalān) is a city and capital of Sardar-e Jangal District, in Fuman County, Gilan Province, Iran.

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Maku, Iran

Maku (ماكو, ماكي - Makı; also Romanized as Mākū) is a city in the West Azerbaijan Province, Iran & the capital of Maku County.

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The (مالكي) school is one of the four major madhhab of Islamic jurisprudence within Sunni Islam.

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Mamluk (Arabic: مملوك mamlūk (singular), مماليك mamālīk (plural), meaning "property", also transliterated as mamlouk, mamluq, mamluke, mameluk, mameluke, mamaluke or marmeluke) is an Arabic designation for slaves.

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Mandaeans (aṣ-Ṣābi'a al-Mandā'iyūn) are an ethnoreligious group indigenous to the alluvial plain of southern Mesopotamia and are followers of Mandaeism, a Gnostic religion.

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Mandane of Media

Mandana of Media was a princess of Media and, later, the Queen consort of Cambyses I of Anshan and mother of Cyrus the Great, ruler of Persia's Achaemenid Empire.

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Manichaeism (in Modern Persian آیین مانی Āyin-e Māni) was a major religious movement that was founded by the Iranian prophet Mani (in مانی, Syriac: ܡܐܢܝ, Latin: Manichaeus or Manes from Μάνης; 216–276) in the Sasanian Empire.

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March equinox

The March equinox or Northward equinox is the equinox on the Earth when the subsolar point appears to leave the southern hemisphere and cross the celestial equator, heading northward as seen from Earth.

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Marcos Grigorian

Marcos Grigorian (Մարկոս Գրիգորեան; مارکو گريگوريان; December 5, 1925 – August 27, 2007) was a notable Iranian-Armenian artist and a pioneer of Iranian modern art.

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A marionette is a puppet controlled from above using wires or strings depending on regional variations.

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Markazi Province

Markazi Province (fa, Ostān-e Markazi) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.

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Maryam Mirzakhani

Maryam Mirzakhani (مریم میرزاخانی,; 12 May 1977 – 14 July 2017) was an Iranian http://mmirzakhani.com/biography/ mathematician and a professor of mathematics at Stanford University.

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Mashhad (مشهد), also spelled Mashad or Meshad, is the second most populous city in Iran and the capital of Razavi Khorasan Province.

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Masoud Kimiai

Masoud Kimiai or Masoud Kimiaei (مسعود کیمیایی., born 29 July 1941 in Tehran) is an Iranian director, screenwriter and producer.

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Master's degree

A master's degree (from Latin magister) is an academic degree awarded by universities or colleges upon completion of a course of study demonstrating mastery or a high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice.

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Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity

The Proclamation of Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity was made by the Director-General of UNESCO starting in 2001 to raise awareness of intangible cultural heritage and encourage local communities to protect them and the local people who sustain these forms of cultural expressions.

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Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

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Mawlā (مَوْلًى), plural mawālī (مَوَالِي), is a polysemous Arabic word, whose meaning varied in different periods and contexts.

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Mazandaran Province

Mazandaran Province, (استان مازندران Ostān-e Māzandarān/Ostân-e Mâzandarân), is an Iranian province located along the southern coast of the Caspian Sea and in the adjacent Central Alborz mountain range, in central-northern Iran.

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Mazanderani language

Mazanderani (مازندرانی), also Tabari (تبری), is an Iranian language of the Northwestern branch, spoken mainly in Iran's Mazandaran, Tehran, Alborz, Semnan and Golestan provinces.

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Mazanderani people

The Mazanderani people (مازرون; مردم مازندرانی) or Tabari people (تپورون; مردم تبری) are an Iranian peopleAcademic American Encyclopedia By Grolier Incorporated, page 294 whose homeland is the North of Iran (Tabaristan).

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The Medes (Old Persian Māda-, Μῆδοι, מָדַי) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (northwestern Iran) and who spoke the Median language. At around 1100 to 1000 BC, they inhabited the mountainous area of northwestern Iran and the northeastern and eastern region of Mesopotamia and located in the Hamadan (Ecbatana) region. Their emergence in Iran is thought to have occurred between 800 BC and 700 BC, and in the 7th century the whole of western Iran and some other territories were under Median rule. Its precise geographical extent remains unknown. A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also ancient Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is unknown. The Medes had an ancient Iranian religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zoroaster spread into western Iran.

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Medicine in the medieval Islamic world

In the history of medicine, Islamic medicine is the science of medicine developed in the Islamic Golden Age, and written in Arabic, the lingua franca of Islamic civilization.

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Medieval art

The medieval art of the Western world covers a vast scope of time and place, over 1000 years of art in Europe, and at times the Middle East and North Africa.

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Mehr (month)

Mehr (مهر) is the seventh month of the Iranian calendar.

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Mehr News Agency

The Mehr News Agency (MNA; Xabâr-gozâri Mehr; "Affection News Agency") is an Iranian news agency headquartered in Tehran, owned by the Islamic Ideology Dissemination Organization (IIDO).

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Mehregān (مهرگان or Jašn-e Mehr جشن مهر Mithra Festival) is a Zoroastrian and Persian festival celebrated to honor the yazata Mithra (Mehr), which is responsible for friendship, affection and love.

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Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.

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Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large-scale structures.

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Middle East

The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).

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Middle Eastern theatre of World War I

The Middle Eastern theatre of World War I saw action between 29 October 1914 and 30 October 1918.

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Middle Paleolithic

The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Middle Persian

Middle Persian is the Middle Iranian language or ethnolect of southwestern Iran that during the Sasanian Empire (224–654) became a prestige dialect and so came to be spoken in other regions of the empire as well.

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Middle Platonism

Middle Platonism is the modern name given to a stage in the development of Platonic philosophy, lasting from about 90 BC – when Antiochus of Ascalon rejected the scepticism of the New Academy – until the development of Neoplatonism under Plotinus in the 3rd century.

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Middle power

In international relations, a middle power is a sovereign state that is not a superpower nor a great power, but still has large or moderate influence and international recognition.

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The Mihranids were an Iranian family which ruled several regions of Caucasus from 330 to 821.

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Military of the Ottoman Empire

The history of the military of the Ottoman Empire can be divided in five main periods.

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Mining in Iran

Mining in Iran is underdeveloped, yet the country is one of the most important mineral producers in the world, ranked among 15 major mineral-rich countries, holding some 68 types of minerals, 37 billion tonnes of proven reserves and more than 57 billion tonnes of potential reserves worth $770 billion in 2014.

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Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance

The Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance (وزارت فرهنگ و ارشاد اسلامی also known as Ershad ارشاد) is the ministry of Culture of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

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Ministry of Education (Iran)

The Ministry of Education (وزارت آموزش و پرورش ایران) established in 1964, is an Iranian government body responsible for the oversight of K-12 education in Iran.

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Ministry of Industries and Mines (Iran)

Ministry of Industries and Mines of Iran (Wezārate Sannāye wa Maādene Irān), is the main organ of Iranian Government in charge of the regulation and implementation of policies applicable to industrial and mine sectors.

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Ministry of Interior (Iran)

The Ministry of Interior (وزارت کشور) of the Islamic Republic of Iran is in charge of performing, supervising and reporting elections, policing, and other responsibilities related to an interior ministry.

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Ministry of Science, Research and Technology (Iran)

The Ministry of Science, Research and Technology (MSRT) is the government ministry of science, research and technology in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

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Minoo Khaleghi

Minoo Khaleghi (مینو خالقی) is an Iranian jurist and reformist activist.

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Minority Rights Group International

Minority Rights Group International (MRG) is an international human rights organisation founded with the objective of working to secure rights for ethnic, national, religious and linguistic minorities and indigenous peoples around the world.

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Mir-Hossein Mousavi

Mir-Hossein Mousavi Khameneh (Mīr-Hoseyn Mūsavī Khāmené,; born 2 March 1942) is an Iranian reformist politician, artist and architect who served as the seventy-ninth and last Prime Minister of Iran from 1981 to 1989.

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Mirza Ebrahim Khan Akkas Bashi

Mirza Ebrahim Khan Rahmani (Akkas Bashi) (1874–1915) was the royal photographer of Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar, the king of Persia.

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Mirza Ebrahim Khan Sahhafbashi

Mirza Ebrahim Khan Sahhafbashi was a pioneering Iranian photographer and cinematographer.

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Mirza Ghassemi

Mirza Ghassemi (Persian: میرزاقاسمی, Mirzā-Ghāsemi) is an Iranian appetizer or main based on tandoori or grilled aubergine (eggplant), distinct to the Northern Iran and Caspian Sea region.

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Mirza Kuchik Khan

Mīrzā Kūchak Khān (میرزا کوچی خان, میرزا كوچک خان) (common alternative spellings Kouchek, Koochek, Kuchak, Kuchek, Kouchak, Koochak, Kuçek) (1880 - December 2, 1921) was an early twentieth century revolutionary, a Gilani Nationalist and the president of the Republic Of Gilan.

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In modern language, a missile is a guided self-propelled system, as opposed to an unguided self-propelled munition, referred to as a rocket (although these too can also be guided).

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Missing in action

Missing in action (MIA) is a casualty classification assigned to combatants, military chaplains, combat medics, and prisoners of war who are reported missing during wartime or ceasefire.

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Mithra (𐬀𐬭𐬚𐬌𐬨 Miθra, 𐎷𐎰𐎼 Miça, New Persian: Mehr) is the Zoroastrian angelic divinity (yazata) of Covenant, Light, and Oath.

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Mixed economy

A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system blending elements of market economies with elements of planned economies, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise.

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Mixed nuts

Mixed nuts are a snack food consisting of any mixture of mechanically or manually combined nuts.

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Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar

Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar (محمدعلی شاه قاجار) (21 June 1872 – 5 April 1925, Sanremo, Italy) was the sixth king of the Qajar Dynasty and Shah of Persia (Iran) from 8 January 1907 to 16 July 1909.

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Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf

Mohammad Bagher Ghalibaf (محمدباقر قالیباف, born 23 August 1961) is an Iranian conservative politician and former military officer who held office as the Mayor of Tehran from 2005 to 2017.

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Mohammad Khatami

Seyyed Mohammad Khatami (سید محمد خاتمی,; born 14 October 1943) is an Iranian scholar, Shia theologian, and reformist politician.

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Mohammad Mosaddegh

Mohammad Mosaddegh (محمد مصدق;; 16 June 1882 – 5 March 1967) was an Iranian politician.

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Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi (Mohammad Reza Pahlavi,; 26 October 1919 – 27 July 1980), also known as Mohammad Reza Shah (Mohammad Rezā Šāh), was the last Shah of Iran from 16 September 1941 until his overthrow by the Iranian Revolution on 11 February 1979.

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Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact

The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.

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Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia

The Mongol conquest of Khwarezmia from 1219 to 1221 marked the beginning of the Mongol conquest of the Islamic states.

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Mongol Empire

The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.

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Mongol invasions and conquests

Mongol invasions and conquests took place throughout the 13th century, resulting in the vast Mongol Empire, which by 1300 covered much of Asia and Eastern Europe.

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Mordad (مرداد) is the fifth month of the Iranian calendar.

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Motif (visual arts)

In art and iconography, a motif is an element of an image.

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Mount Damavand

Mount Damavand (دماوند), a potentially active volcano, is a stratovolcano which is the highest peak in Iran and the highest volcano in Asia; the Kunlun Volcanic Group in Tibet is higher than Damāvand, but are not considered to be volcanic mountains.

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Mountain range

A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground.

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Mountaineering is the sport of mountain climbing.

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Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar

Mozaffar ad-Din Shah Qajar, (مظفرالدین شاه قاجار, Mozaffar Ŝāh-e Qājār,; 23 March 1853 – 3 January 1907) was the fifth Qajar king of Persia (Iran), reigning from 1896 until his death in 1907.

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Mughal Empire

The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.

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Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi

There is some confusion in the literature on whether al-Khwārizmī's full name is ابو عبد الله محمد بن موسى الخوارزمي or ابو جعفر محمد بن موسی الخوارزمی.

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Muslim conquest of Persia

The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran, led to the end of the Sasanian Empire of Persia in 651 and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Iran (Persia).

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Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line

The Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line (دانشجویان مسلمان پیرو خط امام Dânešjuyân Mosalmân Piru Xatt Emâm), also called the Muslim Students of the Imam Khomeini Line, was an Iranian student group that occupied the U.S. embassy in Tehran on 4 November 1979.

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Muslim world

The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the unified Islamic community (Ummah), consisting of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam, or to societies where Islam is practiced.

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Nabopolassar (cuneiform: dAG.IBILA.URU3 Akkadian: Nabû-apla-uṣur; 658 BC – 605 BC) was a Chaldean king of Babylonia and a central figure in the fall of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.

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Nader Shah

Nader Shah Afshar (نادر شاه افشار; also known as Nader Qoli Beyg نادر قلی بیگ or Tahmāsp Qoli Khan تهماسپ قلی خان) (August 1688 – 19 June 1747) was one of the most powerful Iranian rulers in the history of the nation, ruling as Shah of Persia (Iran) from 1736 to 1747 when he was assassinated during a rebellion.

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Nader Shah's invasion of the Mughal Empire

Emperor Nader Shah, the Shah of Persia (1736–47) and the founder of the Afsharid dynasty of Persia, invaded the Mughal Empire, eventually attacking Delhi in March 1739.

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Nader's Dagestan campaign

Nader's Dagestan campaign, refers to the campaigns conducted by the Persian Empire (under the Safavid and Afsharid dynasty) under the ruling king Nader Shah between the years 1741 and 1743 in order to fully subjugate the Dagestan region in the North Caucasus Area.

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Nagisa (harpist)

Nagisa (from Persian negin,(Negin-Sa) alternately Nakisa) was a master harpist and composer of the royal court of King Khosrau II of Persia (died 628 AD).

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Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic

The Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic (Naxçıvan Muxtar Respublikası) is a landlocked exclave of the Republic of Azerbaijan.

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Nanotechnology ("nanotech") is manipulation of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale.

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The naqqāra, nagara or nagada is a Middle Eastern drum with a rounded back and a hide head, usually played in pairs.

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Naqsh-e Jahan Square

Naqsh-e Jahan Square (میدان نقش جهان Maidān-e Naqsh-e Jahān; trans: "Image of the World Square"), also known as Meidan Emam, is a square situated at the center of Isfahan city, Iran.

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Naqsh-e Rustam

Naqsh-e Rustam (نقش رستم) is an ancient necropolis located about 12 km northwest of Persepolis, in Fars Province, Iran, with a group of ancient Iranian rock reliefs cut into the cliff, from both the Achaemenid and Sassanid periods.

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Naser al-Din Shah Qajar

Naser al-Din Shah Qajar (16 July 1831 – 1 May 1896) (ناصرالدین شاه قاجار), also Nassereddin Shah Qajar, was the King of Persia from 5 September 1848 to 1 May 1896 when he was assassinated.

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Nasir al-Din al-Tusi

Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hasan al-Tūsī (محمد بن محمد بن حسن طوسی‎ 18 February 1201 – 26 June 1274), better known as Nasir al-Din Tusi (نصیر الدین طوسی; or simply Tusi in the West), was a Persian polymath, architect, philosopher, physician, scientist, and theologian.

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Nasser Taghvai

Nāsser Taghvai (also spelt Nāser Taghvāee, ناصر تقوایی., born 1941) is an Iranian film director and screenwriter.

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National Anthem of the Islamic Republic of Iran

The "National Anthem of the Islamic Republic of Iran" (Sorude Melliye Jomhuriye Eslâmiye Irân) was composed by Hassan Riyahi, with words written by Aiadan Maroni.

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National Development Fund of Iran

The National Development Fund of Iran (NDFI) (صندوق توسعه ملی) is Iran's sovereign wealth fund.

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National epic

A national epic is an epic poem or a literary work of epic scope which seeks or is believed to capture and express the essence or spirit of a particular nation; not necessarily a nation state, but at least an ethnic or linguistic group with aspirations to independence or autonomy.

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National Olympic Committee of the Islamic Republic of Iran

National Olympic Committee of the Islamic Republic of Iran is a sports governing body situated in Tehran, Iran.

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National security

National security refers to the security of a nation state, including its citizens, economy, and institutions, and is regarded as a duty of government.

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National sport

A national sport is considered to be an intrinsic part of the culture of a nation.

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Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.

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Nationalization of the Iranian oil industry

The nationalization of the Iran oil industry movement (ملی شدن صنعت نفت) was a movement in the Iranian parliament (Majlis) to nationalize Iran's oil industry.

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Natural gas reserves in Iran

According to the Iran Petroleum Ministry, the proved natural gas reserves of Iran are about or about 17.8% of world's total reserves, of which 33% are as associated gas and 67% is in non associated gas fields.

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Naucratis or Naukratis (Ναύκρατις, "Naval Victory"; Egyptian:Piemro) was a city of Ancient Egypt, on the Canopic branch of the Nile river, and 45 mi (72 km) southeast of the open sea and Alexandria.

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Nazí Paikidze

Nazí Paikidze, sometimes also referred to as Paikidze-Barnes, (ნაზი პაიკიძე; Нази Нодаровна Паикидзе-Барнс;, born 27 October 1993) is a Georgian American chess player who holds the FIDE titles of International Master (IM) and Woman Grandmaster (WGM).

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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NBC News

NBC News is the news division of the American broadcast television network NBC, formerly known as the National Broadcasting Company when it was founded on radio.

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Neanderthals (also; also Neanderthal Man, taxonomically Homo neanderthalensis or Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) are an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo, who lived in Eurasia during at least 430,000 to 38,000 years ago.

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Neo-Aramaic languages

The Neo-Aramaic or Modern Aramaic languages are varieties of the Semitic Aramaic, that are spoken vernaculars from the medieval to modern era that evolved out of Imperial Aramaic via Middle Aramaic dialects, around AD 1200 (conventional date).

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Neo-Babylonian Empire

The Neo-Babylonian Empire (also Second Babylonian Empire) was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 626 BC and ended in 539 BC.

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New America (organization)

New America, formerly the New America Foundation, is a non-partisan think tank in the United States.

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New Julfa

New Julfa (نو جلفا – Now Jolfā, جلفای نو – Jolfā ye Now; Նոր Ջուղա – Nor Jugha) is the Armenian quarter of Isfahan, Iran, located along the south bank of the Zayande River.

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New world order (politics)

The term "new world order" has been used to refer to any new period of history evidencing a dramatic change in world political thought and the balance of power.

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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The ney (نی / نای), is an end-blown flute that figures prominently in Middle Eastern music.

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Nizami Ganjavi

Nizami Ganjavi (translit) (1141–1209), Nizami Ganje'i, Nizami, or Nezāmi, whose formal name was Jamal ad-Dīn Abū Muḥammad Ilyās ibn-Yūsuf ibn-Zakkī,Mo'in, Muhammad(2006), "Tahlil-i Haft Paykar-i Nezami", Tehran.: p. 2: Some commentators have mentioned his name as “Ilyas the son of Yusuf the son of Zakki the son of Mua’yyad” while others have mentioned that Mu’ayyad is a title for Zakki. Mohammad Moin, rejects the first interpretation claiming that if it were to mean 'Zakki son of Muayyad' it should have been read as 'Zakki i Muayyad' where izafe (-i-) shows the son-parent relationship but here it is 'Zakki Muayyad' and Zakki ends in silence/stop and there is no izafe (-i-). Some may argue that izafe is dropped due to meter constraints but dropping parenthood izafe is very strange and rare. So it is possible that Muayyad was a sobriquet for Zaki or part of his name (like Muayyad al-Din Zaki). This is supported by the fact that later biographers also state Yusuf was the son of Mu’ayyad was a 12th-century Persian Sunni Muslim poet. Nezāmi is considered the greatest romantic epic poet in Persian literature, who brought a colloquial and realistic style to the Persian epic. excerpt: Greatest romantic epic poet in Persian Literature, who brought a colloquial and realistic style to the Persian epic..... Nezami is admired in Persian-speaking lands for his originality and clarity of style, though his love of language for its own sake and of philosophical and scientific learning makes his work difficult for the average reader. His heritage is widely appreciated and shared by Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Iran, the Kurdistan region and Tajikistan.

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Non-Aligned Movement

The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.

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North America

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.

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North Caucasus

The North Caucasus (p) or Ciscaucasia is the northern part of the Caucasus region between the Sea of Azov and Black Sea on the west and the Caspian Sea on the east, within European Russia.

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Northern Hemisphere

The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is north of the Equator.

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Nowruz (نوروز,; literally "new day") is the name of the Iranian New Year, also known as the Persian New Year, which is celebrated worldwide by various ethno-linguistic groups as the beginning of the New Year.

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Nuclear fuel cycle

The nuclear fuel cycle, also called nuclear fuel chain, is the progression of nuclear fuel through a series of differing stages.

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Nuclear power plant

A nuclear power plant or nuclear power station is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor.

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Nuclear program of Iran

The nuclear program of Iran has included several research sites, two uranium mines, a research reactor, and uranium processing facilities that include three known uranium enrichment plants.

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Numerical digit

A numerical digit is a single symbol (such as "2" or "5") used alone, or in combinations (such as "25"), to represent numbers (such as the number 25) according to some positional numeral systems.

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Official language

An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.

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Oil reserves

Oil reserves denote the amount of crude oil that can be technically recovered at a cost that is financially feasible at the present price of oil.

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Oil reserves in Iran

Proved oil reserves in Iran, according to its government, rank fourth largest in the world at approximately as of 2013, although it ranks third if Canadian reserves of unconventional oil are excluded.

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Oil well

An oil well is a boring in the Earth that is designed to bring petroleum oil hydrocarbons to the surface.

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Old Persian

Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages (the other being Avestan).

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Olympic weightlifting

Weightlifting, also called '''Olympic-style weightlifting''', or Olympic weightlifting, is an athletic discipline in the modern Olympic programme in which the athlete attempts a maximum-weight single lift of a barbell loaded with weight plates.

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Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.

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Omar Khayyam

Omar Khayyam (عمر خیّام; 18 May 1048 – 4 December 1131) was a Persian mathematician, astronomer, and poet.

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In cuisine, an omelette or omelet is a dish made from beaten eggs fried with butter or oil in a frying pan (without stirring as in scrambled egg).

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Omid (امید, meaning "Hope") was Iran's first domestically made satellite.

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The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC,, or OPEP in several other languages) is an intergovernmental organization of nations, founded in 1960 in Baghdad by the first five members (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela), and headquartered since 1965 in Vienna, Austria.

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Opera (English plural: operas; Italian plural: opere) is a form of theatre in which music has a leading role and the parts are taken by singers.

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Operation Barbarossa

Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.

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Operation Eagle Claw

Operation Eagle Claw, known as Operation Tabas (عملیات طبس) in Iran, was a United States Armed Forces operation ordered by U.S. President Jimmy Carter to attempt to end the Iran hostage crisis by rescuing 52 embassy staff held captive at the Embassy of the United States, Tehran on 24 April 1980.

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Opis (Akkadian Upî or Upija; Ὦπις) was an ancient Babylonian city near the Tigris, not far from modern Baghdad.

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Ordibehesht (اردیبهشت) is the second month of the Solar Hijri calendar, the official calendar of Iran and Afghanistan.

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Organisation of Islamic Cooperation

The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; منظمة التعاون الإسلامي; Organisation de la coopération islamique) is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.3 billion as of 2009 with 47 countries being Muslim Majority countries.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Ottoman–Persian wars

The Ottoman-Persian Wars or Ottoman-Iranian Wars were a series a wars between Ottoman Empire and the Safavid, Afsharid, Zand, and Qajar dynasties of Iran (Persia) through the 16th–19th centuries.

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The oud (عود) is a short-neck lute-type, pear-shaped stringed instrument (a chordophone in the Hornbostel-Sachs classification of instruments) with 11 or 13 strings grouped in 5 or 6 courses, commonly used in Egyptian, Syrian, Palestinian, Lebanese, Iraqi, Arabian, Jewish, Persian, Greek, Armenian, Turkish, Azerbaijani, North African (Chaabi, Classical, and Spanish Andalusian), Somali, and various other forms of Middle Eastern and North African music.

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Outline of Iran

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Iran: Iran – sovereign country located in Southwest Asia and the Middle East.

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Ovanes Ohanian

Ovanes Ohanian (October 1896 – 1960) was an Armenian-Iranian filmmaker, inventor, founder, doctor, scientist with PhD in medicine, film, science and languages.

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Oxford English Dictionary

The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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The P5+1 refers to the UN Security Council's five permanent members (the P5); namely China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States; plus Germany.

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Paeonia (kingdom)

In antiquity, Paeonia or Paionia (Παιονία) was the land and kingdom of the Paeonians (Παίονες).

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Pahlavi dynasty

The Pahlavi dynasty (دودمان پهلوی) was the ruling house of the imperial state of Iran from 1925 until 1979, when the 2,500 years of continuous Persian monarchy was overthrown and abolished as a result of the Iranian Revolution.

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Pahlevani and zoorkhaneh rituals

Pahlevāni and zoorkhāneh rituals is the name inscribed by UNESCO for varzesh-e pahlavāni (آیین پهلوانی و زورخانه‌ای, "heroic sport") or varzesh-e bāstāni (ورزش باستانی; varzeš-e bāstānī, "ancient sport"), a traditional system of athletics originally used to train warriors in Iran and adjacent lands.

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Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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Palestinian territories

Palestinian territories and occupied Palestinian territories (OPT or oPt) are terms often used to describe the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) and the Gaza Strip, which are occupied or otherwise under the control of Israel.

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Palme d'Or

The Palme d'Or (Golden Palm) is the highest prize awarded at the Cannes Film Festival.

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Parmenion (also Parmenio; Παρμενίων; c. 400 – Ecbatana, 330 BC) was an ancient Macedonian general in the service of Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great.

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Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.

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Parthian art

Parthian art was Iranian art made during the Parthian Empire from 247 BC to 224 AD, based in the Near East.

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Parthian Empire

The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.

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Parthian language

The Parthian language, also known as Arsacid Pahlavi and Pahlawānīg, is a now-extinct ancient Northwestern Iranian language spoken in Parthia, a region of northeastern ancient Iran.

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Partridges are medium-sized non-migratory gamebirds, with a wide native distribution throughout the Old World, including Europe, Asia, and parts of Africa.

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Parviz Mahmoud

Parviz Mahmoud (1910 – 1996) was an Iranian composer and conductor.

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Pasargadae (from Πασαργάδαι, from Old Persian Pāθra-gadā, "protective club" or "strong club"; Modern Persian: پاسارگاد Pāsārgād) was the capital of the Achaemenid Empire under Cyrus the Great who had issued its construction (559–530 BC); it was also the location of his tomb.

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Passover or Pesach (from Hebrew Pesah, Pesakh) is a major, biblically derived Jewish holiday.

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Peoples of the Caucasus

This article deals with the various ethnic groups inhabiting the Caucasus region.

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Persecution of Bahá'ís

Persecution of Bahá'ís occurs in various countries, especially in Iran, where the Bahá'í Faith originated and the location of one of the largest Bahá'í populations in the world.

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Persepolis (𐎱𐎠𐎼𐎿) was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire.

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Persian art

Persian art or Iranian art has one of the richest art heritages in world history and has been strong in many media including architecture, painting, weaving, pottery, calligraphy, metalworking and sculpture.

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Persian calligraphy

Persian calligraphy (Persian:خوشنویسی فارسی) or Iranian calligraphy (Persian:خوشنویسی ایرانی) is the calligraphy of the Persian language.

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Persian Campaign

The Persian Campaign or Invasion of Persia also known as Invasion of Iran (اشغال ایران در جنگ جهانی اول) was a series of engagements in Iranian Azerbaijan and western Iran (Persia) involving the forces of the Ottoman Empire against those of the British Empire and Russian Empire, and also involving local population elements, beginning in December 1914 and ending with the Armistice of Mudros on October 30, 1918 as part of Middle Eastern theatre of World War I.

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Persian carpet

A Persian carpet or Persian rug (Persian: قالی ايرانى qālī-ye īranī),Savory, R., Carpets,(Encyclopaedia Iranica); accessed January 30, 2007.

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Persian Constitution of 1906

The Persia Constitution of 1906 (قانون اساسی مشروطه 1906), was the first constitution of Persia (Iran) that resulted from the Persian Constitutional Revolution and it was written by Hassan Pirnia, Hossein Pirnia, and Ismail Mumtaz, among others.

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Persian Corridor

The Persian Corridor was a supply route through Iran into Soviet Azerbaijan by which British aid and American Lend-Lease supplies were transferred to the Soviet Union during World War II.

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Persian Cossack Brigade

The Persian Cossack Brigade or Iranian Cossack Brigade (Berīgād-e qazzāq) was a Cossack-style cavalry unit formed in 1879 in Persia (modern Iran).

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Persian dialects in Khuzestan

There are a number of Khuzestani Persian dialects and accents unique to the province of Khuzestan in southwestern Iran.

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Persian famine of 1917–1919

The Great Persian famine of 1917–1919 was a period of widespread mass starvation and disease in Persia (Iran) under rule of Qajar dynasty during World War I. So far, few historians have worked on the famine that took place in the occupied territory of the country that declared neutrality, making it an understudied subject.

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Persian Gulf

The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.

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Persian Jews

Persian Jews or Iranian Jews (جهودان ایرانی, יהודים פרסים) are Jews historically associated with the Persian Empire, whose successor state is Iran.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Persian leopard

The Persian leopard (Panthera pardus tulliana syn. P. p. ciscaucasica and P. p. saxicolor) is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List; the population is estimated at fewer than 871–1,290 mature individuals and considered declining.

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Persian literature

Persian literature (ادبیات فارسی adabiyāt-e fārsi), comprises oral compositions and written texts in the Persian language and it is one of the world's oldest literatures.

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Persian miniature

A Persian miniature (Persian:نگارگری ایرانی) is a small painting on paper, whether a book illustration or a separate work of art intended to be kept in an album of such works called a muraqqa.

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Persian people

The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.

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Persian pottery

Persian pottery or Iranian pottery refers to the pottery works made by the artists of Persia (Iran) and its history goes back to early Neolithic Age (7th millennium BCE).

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Persian Revolt

The Persian Revolt, as it is known, was the first time the unified province of ancient Persis, after voluntary submission to the Assyrians and Medes two times earlier, declared its independence, and commenced its revolution as it later separated from the Median Empire.

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Persianization or persification is a sociological process of cultural change in which something becomes "Persianate".

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Persis (Περσίς), better known as Persia (Parsa; پارس, Pars), or "Persia proper", was originally a name of a region near the Zagros mountains at Lake Urmia.

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Petroleum industry in Iran

For the economic effects refer to Economy of Iran. Iran is an energy superpower and the Petroleum industry in Iran plays an important part in it.

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Pheasants are birds of several genera within the subfamily Phasianinae, of the family Phasianidae in the order Galliformes.

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Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.

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Pickled cucumber

A pickled cucumber (commonly known as a pickle in the United States and Canada and a gherkin in Britain, Ireland, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand) is a cucumber that has been pickled in a brine, vinegar, or other solution and left to ferment for a period of time, by either immersing the cucumbers in an acidic solution or through souring by lacto-fermentation.

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A picnic is a meal taken outdoors (''al fresco'') as part of an excursion – ideally in scenic surroundings, such as a park, lakeside, or other place affording an interesting view, or else in conjunction with a public event such as preceding an open-air theatre performance, and usually in summer.

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Pilaf or pilau is a dish in which rice is cooked in a seasoned broth.

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A pilgrimage is a journey or search of moral or spiritual significance.

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The pistachio (Pistacia vera), a member of the cashew family, is a small tree originating from Central Asia and the Middle East.

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In geography, a plain is a flat, sweeping landmass that generally does not change much in elevation.

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Planned economy

A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.

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In geology and physical geography a plateau (or; plural plateaus or plateaux),is also called a high plain or a tableland, it is an area of a highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain that is raised significantly above the surrounding area, often with one or more sides with steep slopes.

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Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.

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Polo is a team sport played on horseback.

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The pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree in the family Lythraceae that grows between tall.

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President of Iran

The President of Iran (Persian: رییس‌جمهور ایران Rayis Jomhur-e Irān) is the head of state of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

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Presidential system

A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.

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Press TV

Press TV (stylised as PRESSTV) is a 24-hour English- and French-language news and documentary network affiliated with Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB).

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Prime Minister of Iran

The Prime Minister of Iran was a political post in Iran that had existed during several different periods of time starting with the Qajar era (when the country was internationally known as Persia) until its most recent revival from 1979 to 1989 following the Iranian Revolution.

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Privatization in Iran

--> According to the Fourth Five-Year Economic Development Plan (2005–2010), the Privatization Organization of Iran affiliated with the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Finance is in charge of setting prices and ceding shares to the general public and on the Tehran Stock Exchange.

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Proto-Indo-European language

Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.

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Proto-Indo-European religion

Proto-Indo-European religion is the belief system adhered to by the Proto-Indo-Europeans.

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The Proto-Indo-Europeans were the prehistoric people of Eurasia who spoke Proto-Indo-European (PIE), the ancestor of the Indo-European languages according to linguistic reconstruction.

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Proto-Indo-Iranian religion

Proto-Indo-Iranian religion means the religion of the Indo-Iranian peoples prior to the earliest Hindu and Zoroastrian scriptures.

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Proto-Iranian language

Proto-Iranian, or Proto-Iranic, is the reconstructed proto-language of the Iranian languages branch of Indo-European language family and thus the ancestor of the Iranian languages such as Pashto, Persian, Sogdian, Zazaki, Ossetian, Mazandarani, Kurdish and others.

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Provinces of Iran

Iran is subdivided into thirty-one provinces (استان Ostān, plural استان‌ها Ostānhā), each governed from a local center, usually the largest local city, which is called the capital (Persian: مرکز, markaz) of that province.

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Proxy server

In computer networks, a proxy server is a server (a computer system or an application) that acts as an intermediary for requests from clients seeking resources from other servers.

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Prunus cerasus

Prunus cerasus (sour cherry, tart cherry, or dwarf cherry) is a species of Prunus in the subgenus Cerasus (cherries), native to much of Europe and southwest Asia.

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Puppetry is a form of theatre or performance that involves the manipulation of puppets – inanimate objects, often resembling some type of human or animal figure, that are animated or manipulated by a human called a puppeteer.

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Purchasing power parity

Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.

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Purim (Hebrew: Pûrîm "lots", from the word pur, related to Akkadian: pūru) is a Jewish holiday that commemorates the saving of the Jewish people from Haman, who was planning to kill all the Jews.

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Qajar dynasty

The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; script Qacarlar) was an IranianAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3 royal dynasty of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.

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Qanun (instrument)

The kanun, ganoun or kanoon (qānūn;kanonaki; קָנוֹן, qanon; fa, qānūn; kanun; k’anon; qanun) is a string instrument played either solo, or more often as part of an ensemble, in much of the Middle East, Maghreb, West Africa, Central Asia, and southeastern regions of Europe.

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Qashqai language

Qashqai (قاشقای ديلى, also spelled Qashqay, Kashkai, Kashkay, Qašqāʾī,, by Michael Knüppel, by Gerhard Doerfer and Qashqa'i) is an Oghuz Turkic language spoken by the Qashqai people, an ethnic group living mainly in the Fars Province of southern Iran.

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Qashqai people

Qashqai (pronounced; also spelled Qashqa'i, Qashqay, Kashkai, Kashkay, Qashqayı, Gashgai, Gashgay, in Persian: قشقایی) is a conglomeration of clans in Iran consisting of mostly Turkic peoples but also Lurs, Kurds, and Arabs.

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Qavam House

Qavam House (also widely called "Narenjestan e Ghavam") is a traditional and historical house in Shiraz, Iran.

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Qeysar (film)

Qeysar (قیصر, meaning "Caesar") is a 1969 film by Iranian filmmaker Masoud Kimiai.

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Qom (قم) is the eighth largest city in Iran.

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The quince (Cydonia oblonga) is the sole member of the genus Cydonia in the family Rosaceae (which also contains apples and pears, among other fruits).

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Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi

Qotb al-Din Mahmoud b. Zia al-Din Mas'ud b. Mosleh Shirazi (1236—1311) (قطب‌الدین محمود بن ضیاالدین مسعود بن مصلح شیرازی) was a 13th-century Iranian polymath and poet who made contributions to astronomy, mathematics, medicine, physics, music theory, philosophy and Sufism.

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Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.

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Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (RFE/RL) is a broadcasting organization that broadcasts and reports news, information, and analysis to countries in Eastern Europe, Central Asia and the Middle East where it says that "the free flow of information is either banned by government authorities or not fully developed".

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Radiocarbon dating

Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.

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Ramadan (رمضان,;In Arabic phonology, it can be, depending on the region. also known as Ramazan, romanized as Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (Sawm) to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief.

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Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary

Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.

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Rashidun Caliphate

The Rashidun Caliphate (اَلْخِلَافَةُ ٱلرَّاشِدَةُ) (632–661) was the first of the four major caliphates established after the death of the Islamic Prophet Muhammad.

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Razavi Khorasan Province

Razavi Khorasan Province (استان خراسان رضوی, Ostâne Xorâsâne Razavi) is a province located in northeastern Iran.

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Realism (arts)

Realism, sometimes called naturalism, in the arts is generally the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, or implausible, exotic, and supernatural elements.

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In economics, a recession is a business cycle contraction which results in a general slowdown in economic activity.

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A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition).

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Regional power

In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region.

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Regions of Iran

Iran has been divided into regions in a number of different ways historically.

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Repatriation is the process of returning an asset, an item of symbolic value or a person - voluntarily or forcibly - to its owner or their place of origin or citizenship.

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Representative democracy

Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.

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Republic of Artsakh

The Republic of Artsakh (Արցախի Հանրապետություն Arts'akhi Hanrapetut'yun), or simply Artsakh, commonly known by its former name of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic between 1991 and 2017, is a state with limited recognition in the South Caucasus internationally recognized as part of Azerbaijan.

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Republic of Macedonia

Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Republic of Mahabad

The Republic of Mahabad (کۆماری مەھاباد; جمهوری مهاباد) was a short-lived Kurdish self-governing state in present-day Iran, from 22 January to 15 December 1946.

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Republicanism is an ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty.

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Resalat (newspaper)

Resalat (lit) is a conservative daily newspaper in Iran.

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Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.

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Reza Shah

Reza Shah Pahlavi (رضا شاه پهلوی;; 15 March 1878 – 26 July 1944) was the Shah of Iran from 15 December 1925 until he was forced to abdicate by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran on 16 September 1941.

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Richard Foltz

Richard Foltz (born 1961) is a Canadian scholar of American origin.

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Richard N. Frye

Richard Nelson Frye (January 10, 1920 – March 27, 2014) was an American scholar of Iranian and Central Asian Studies, and Aga Khan Professor Emeritus of Iranian Studies at Harvard University.

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Rock climbing

Rock climbing is an activity in which participants climb up, down or across natural rock formations or artificial rock walls.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Roman–Parthian Wars

The Roman–Parthian Wars (66 BC – 217 AD) were a series of conflicts between the Parthian Empire and the Roman Republic and Roman Empire.

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Roman–Persian Wars

The Roman–Persian Wars were a series of conflicts between states of the Greco-Roman world and two successive Iranian empires: the Parthian and the Sasanian.

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Romesh Chunder Dutt

Romesh Chunder Dutt, CIE (রমেশচন্দ্র দত্ত) (August 13, 1848 – November 30, 1909) was an Indian civil servant, economic historian, writer, and translator of Ramayana and Mahabharata.

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Ronald Reagan

Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.

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Rose water

Rose water (گلاب; golāb) is a flavoured water made by steeping rose petals in water.

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Rostam and Sohrab

The tragedy of Rostam and Sohrab forms part of the 10th-century Persian epic Shahnameh by the Persian poet Ferdowsi.

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Rostam and Sohrab (opera)

Rostam and Sohrab is an opera by Loris Tjeknavorian.

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Roudaki Hall

The Roudaki Hall (تالار رودکی – Tālār e Rudaki), officially the Vahdat Hall (تالار وحدت – Tālār e Vahdat), is a performing arts complex in Tehran, Iran.

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Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Royal Road

The Royal Road was an ancient highway, part of the Silk Road and the Uttara Path built in ancient South Asia and Central Asia, reorganized and rebuilt by the Persian king Darius the Great (Darius I) of the first (Achaemenid) Persian Empire in the 5th century BCE.

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Royan Institute

Royan Institute is an Iranian clinical, research and educational institute dedicated to biomedical, translational and clinical researches, stem cell research and infertility treatment.

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The rud (رود) is a Persian stringed musical instrument.

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Ruhollah Khaleqi

Rūhollāh Khāleqi (1906 in Kerman, Iran – 12 November 1965 in Salzburg, Austria) (روح‌الله خالقی, Ruhollâh Xâleqi), also spelled as Khaleghi, was a prominent Iranian musician, composer, conductor and author.

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Ruhollah Khomeini

Sayyid Ruhollah Mūsavi Khomeini (سید روح‌الله موسوی خمینی; 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989), known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini, was an Iranian Shia Islam religious leader and politician.

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Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Rūmī (جلال‌الدین محمد رومی), also known as Jalāl ad-Dīn Muhammad Balkhī (جلال‌الدین محمد بلخى), Mevlânâ/Mawlānā (مولانا, "our master"), Mevlevî/Mawlawī (مولوی, "my master"), and more popularly simply as Rumi (30 September 1207 – 17 December 1273), was a 13th-century PersianRitter, H.; Bausani, A. "ḎJ̲alāl al-Dīn Rūmī b. Bahāʾ al-Dīn Sulṭān al-ʿulamāʾ Walad b. Ḥusayn b. Aḥmad Ḵh̲aṭībī." Encyclopaedia of Islam.

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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Russo-Persian War (1804–13)

The 1804–1813 Russo-Persian War, was one of the many wars between the Persian Empire and Imperial Russia, and began like many of their wars as a territorial dispute.

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Russo-Persian War (1826–1828)

The Russo-Persian War of 1826–28 was the last major military conflict between the Russian Empire and Iran.

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Russo-Persian Wars

The Russo-Persian Wars or Russo-Iranian Wars were a series of wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Persian Empire between the 17th and 19th centuries.

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Saadi Shirazi

Abū-Muhammad Muslih al-Dīn bin Abdallāh Shīrāzī (ابومحمد مصلح‌الدین بن عبدالله شیرازی), better known by his pen-name Saadi (سعدی Saʿdī()), also known as Saadi of Shiraz (سعدی شیرازی Saadi Shirazi), was a major Persian poet and literary of the medieval period.

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Sabzi khordan

Sabzi khordan (سبزی خوردن) or kanachi (կանաչի) is a common side dish in Iranian and Armenian cuisines, which may be served with any meal, consisted of any combination of a set of fresh herbs (سبزی sabzi) and raw vegetables.

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Sadeh (سده also transliterated as Sade), is an Iranian festival that dates back to the first Persian Empire, Achaemenid Empire.

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Sadeq Larijani

Sadeq Ardeshir Larijani (صادق اردشیر لاریجانی; born 12 March 1961), more known as Amoli Larijani (آملی لاریجانی), is an Iranian cleric, conservative politician and the current and fifth head of the judicial system of Iran after the 1979 revolution.

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Safavid art

Safavid art is the art of the Persian Safavid dynasty from 1501 to 1722, in present-day Iran and Caucasia.

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Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam

The Safavid conversion of Iran from Sunni Islam to Shia Islam took place roughly over the 16th through 18th centuries and made Iran the spiritual bastion of Shia Islam.

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Safavid dynasty

The Safavid dynasty (دودمان صفوی Dudmān e Safavi) was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history.

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Saffarid dynasty

The Saffarid dynasty (سلسله صفاریان) was a Muslim Persianate dynasty from Sistan that ruled over parts of eastern Iran, with its capital at Zaranj (a city now in southwestern Afghanistan).

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Safir (rocket)

The Safir (سفیر, meaning "ambassador") is the first Iranian expendable launch vehicle that is able to place a satellite in orbit.

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Saint Stepanos Monastery

The Saint Stepanos Monastery (Սուրբ Ստեփանոս վանք,; کلیسای سن استپانوس), also known in Armenian as Maghardavank (Մաղարդավանք), is an Armenian monastery located about 15 km northwest of the city of Julfa in the province of East Azarbaijan, northwestern Iran.

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Salmas (Salmās, Azerbaijani: Sālmās; Romanized as Salmās and Salamas) is the capital of Salmas County, WA (West Azerbaijan Province), Iran.

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Salt lake

A salt lake or saline lake is a landlocked body of water that has a concentration of salts (typically sodium chloride) and other dissolved minerals significantly higher than most lakes (often defined as at least three grams of salt per litre).

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Samanid Empire

The Samanid Empire (سامانیان, Sāmāniyān), also known as the Samanian Empire, Samanid dynasty, Samanid Emirate, or simply Samanids, was a Sunni Iranian empire, ruling from 819 to 999.

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Samuel Rahbar

Samuel Rahbar (May 12, 1929 - November 10, 2012) was an Iranian scientist who discovered the linkage between diabetes and HbA1C, a form of hemoglobin used primarily to identify plasma glucose concentration over time.

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Sanctions against Iran

Following the Iranian Revolution of 1979 and the resulting hostage crisis, the United States imposed an asset freeze and trade embargo against Iran.

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The santur (also santūr, santour, santoor) (سنتور) is a hammered dulcimer of Persian/Iranic origins.

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Sarkash is the least renowned of the three most influential musicians of the Sassanids.

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Sasanian art

Sasanian art, or Sassanid art, was produced under the Sasanian Empire which ruled from the 3rd to 7th centuries AD, before the Muslim conquest of Persia was completed around 651.

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Sasanian Empire

The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.

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Sasanian music

Sasanian music refers to the golden age of Persian music that occurred under the reign of the Sasanian dynasty.

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The SAT is a standardized test widely used for college admissions in the United States.

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In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.

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Satellite dish

A satellite dish is a dish-shaped type of parabolic antenna designed to receive or transmit information by radio waves to or from a communication satellite.

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Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.

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SAVAK (ساواک, short for سازمان اطلاعات و امنیت کشور Sāzemān-e Ettelā'āt va Amniyat-e Keshvar, literally "Organization of National Intelligence and Security") was the secret police, domestic security and intelligence service of Pahlavi dynasty.

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SCImago Journal Rank

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR indicator) is a measure of scientific influence of scholarly journals that accounts for both the number of citations received by a journal and the importance or prestige of the journals where such citations come from.

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Scythian art

Scythian art is art, primarily decorative objects, such as jewellery, produced by the nomadic tribes in the area known to the ancient Greeks as Scythia, which was centred on the Pontic-Caspian steppe and ranged from modern Kazakhstan to the Baltic coast of modern Poland and to Georgia.

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or Scyths (from Greek Σκύθαι, in Indo-Persian context also Saka), were a group of Iranian people, known as the Eurasian nomads, who inhabited the western and central Eurasian steppes from about the 9th century BC until about the 1st century BC.

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Second Temple

The Second Temple (בֵּית־הַמִּקְדָּשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי, Beit HaMikdash HaSheni) was the Jewish Holy Temple which stood on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem during the Second Temple period, between 516 BCE and 70 CE.

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Secular state

A secular state is an idea pertaining to secularism, whereby a state is or purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion nor irreligion.

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Sejil, or Sejjil, (سجیل, a Quranic word meaning "baked clay", see Surat al-Fil) is a family of Iranian solid-fueled medium range ballistic missiles.

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Seleucid Empire

The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.

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Seljuk Empire

The Seljuk Empire (also spelled Seljuq) (آل سلجوق) was a medieval Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qiniq branch of Oghuz Turks.

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Seljuq dynasty

The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs (آل سلجوق Al-e Saljuq), was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia.

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Semi-arid climate

A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.

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Semnani languages

The Semnani languages are a group of Northwestern Iranian languages, spoken in Semnan province of Iran that share many linguistic features and structures with Caspian languages.

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The Setar (سه‌تار, from, meaning "three" and, meaning "string") is an Iranian musical instrument.

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Shadow play

Shadow play, also known as shadow puppetry, is an ancient form of storytelling and entertainment which uses flat articulated cut-out figures (shadow puppets) which are held between a source of light and a translucent screen or scrim.

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The Shafi‘i (شافعي, alternative spelling Shafei) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam.

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Shah Mosque

The Shah Mosque (مسجد شاه), also known as Royal Mosque or Imam Mosque after the Iranian Revolution, is a mosque in Isfahan, Iran, standing in south side of Naghsh-e Jahan Square.

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The Shahab-3 (Ŝahāb 3; shahâb means "meteor") is a medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) developed by Iran and based on the North Korean Nodong-1.

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The Shahnameh, also transliterated as Shahnama (شاهنامه, "The Book of Kings"), is a long epic poem written by the Persian poet Ferdowsi between c. 977 and 1010 CE and is the national epic of Greater Iran.

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Shahr-e Sukhteh

Shahr-e Sūkhté (شهرِ سوخته, meaning " Burnt City"), also spelled as Shahr-e Sukhteh and Shahr-i Shōkhta, is an archaeological site of a sizable Bronze Age urban settlement, associated with the Jiroft culture.

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Shahrivar (شهریور) is the sixth month of the Iranian calendar.

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Shargh ("شرق" lit. "East") is the most popular reformist newspaper in Iran.

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Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.

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Sharif University of Technology

Sharif University of Technology (SUT, دانشگاه صنعتی شریف) is a public research university in Tehran, Iran and is widely considered to be the nation's leading institution for engineering and physical science disciplines.

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Shatt al-Arab

Arvand Rud (اَروَندرود, Swift River) or Shatt al-Arab (شط العرب, River of the Arabs) is a river of some 200 km (120 mi) in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al-Qurnah in the Basra Governorate of southern Iraq.

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Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.

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Shemshak (ski resort)

Shemshak is a ski resort situated to the north-east of Tehran in the Alborz mountain range.

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Shia Islam

Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.

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Shikand-gumanig Vizar

Shikand-gumanig Vizar (also called Shikand-gumanik Vichar) is a Zoroastrian theology book of 9th century Iran, written by Mardan-Farrukh.

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Shiraz (fa, Šīrāz) is the fifth-most-populous city of Iran and the capital of Fars Province (Old Persian as Pars).

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Shirazi salad

Shirazi salad (سالاد شیرازی salad shirāzi) is a popular traditional Iranian salad that originated from and is named after Shiraz in Southern Iran.

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Shirvan (from translit; Şirvan; Tat: Şirvan), also spelled as Sharvān, Shirwan, Shervan, Sherwan and Šervān, is a historical region in the eastern Caucasus, known by this name in both Islamic and modern times.

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Shirz Canyon

The Shirz Canyon (تنگه شیرز) is a canyon of geotouristic importance, located 45 kilometers northeast of Kuhdasht, the capital of Kuhdasht County, in the province of Lurestan, western Iran.

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Shu'ubiyyah (الشعوبية) refers to the response by non-Arab Muslims to the privileged status of Arabs within the Ummah.

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The Allahverdi Khan Bridge (پل الله‌وردی‌خان), popularly known as Si-o-se-pol (lit), is one of the eleven bridges in Isfahan, Iran.

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Simon & Schuster

Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.

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Sistan and Baluchestan Province

Sistan and Baluchestan Province (Sistàn o Balòčestàn)(استان سيستان و بلوچستان, Ostān-e Sīstān-o Balūchestān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.

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Siyâvoš (in سياووش), from Avestan Syâvaršan, is a major figure in Ferdowsi's epic, the Shahnameh.

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Sizdah Be-dar

Sizdah Bedar (سیزده‌بدر –), (lit. Thirteen Outdoor) also known as Nature's Day (روز طبیعت|rtl.

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Skiing can be a means of transport, a recreational activity or a competitive winter sport in which the participant uses skis to glide on snow.

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Snowboarding is a recreational activity and Olympic and Paralympic sport that involves descending a snow-covered slope while standing on a snowboard attached to a rider's feet.

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Social justice

Social justice is a concept of fair and just relations between the individual and society.

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Social networking service

A social networking service (also social networking site, SNS or social media) is a web application that people use to build social networks or social relations with other people who share similar personal or career interests, activities, backgrounds or real-life connections.

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Social security

Social security is "any government system that provides monetary assistance to people with an inadequate or no income." Social security is enshrined in Article 22 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states: Everyone, as a member of society, has the right to social security and is entitled to realization, through national effort and international co-operation and in accordance with the organization and resources of each State, of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality.

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Solar Hijri calendar

The Solar Hijri calendar (gāh-shomāri-ye hejri-ye khorshidi; لمريز لېږدیز کلیز), also called the Solar Hejri calendar or Shamsi Hijri calendar, and abbreviated as SH, is the official calendar of Iran and Afghanistan.

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Solar power

Solar power is the conversion of energy from sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV), indirectly using concentrated solar power, or a combination.

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The sornā or Sarnā (Persianسورنا, سُرنا sornā, also سورنای, سُرنای sornāy, also Surna and Zurna) is an ancient Iranian woodwind instrument.

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Soup is a primarily liquid food, generally served warm or hot (but may be cool or cold), that is made by combining ingredients of meat or vegetables with stock, juice, water, or another liquid.

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South Asia

South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.

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Sovereign state

A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction.

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Special Clerical Court

Special Clerical Court, or Special Court for Clerics (دادگاه ویژه روحانیت) is an Iranian court system for examining transgressions within the clerical establishment.

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Spenta Armaiti

In Zoroastrianism, Spənta Ārmaiti (Avestan for "creative Harmony" and later "holy devotion") is one of the Amesha Spentas, the six creative or divine manifestations of Wisdom and Ahura Mazda.

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Stanley Lane-Poole

Stanley Edward Lane-Poole (18 December 1854 – 29 December 1931) was a British orientalist and archaeologist.

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State of Palestine

Palestine (فلسطين), officially the State of Palestine (دولة فلسطين), is a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East claiming the West Bank (bordering Israel and Jordan) and Gaza Strip (bordering Israel and Egypt) with East Jerusalem as the designated capital, although its administrative center is currently located in Ramallah.

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State ownership

State ownership (also called public ownership and government ownership) is the ownership of an industry, asset, or enterprise by the state or a public body representing a community as opposed to an individual or private party.

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State religion

A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.

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Statue, National Museum of Iran 2401

The Statue of Parthian Noble Man, National Museum of Iran 2401 is one of the main surviving works of Parthian art.

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Stem cell

Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.

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A stew is a combination of solid food ingredients that have been cooked in liquid and served in the resultant gravy.

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The craft of stonemasonry (or stonecraft) involves creating buildings, structures, and sculpture using stone from the earth, and is one of the oldest trades in human history.

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Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked wading birds with long, stout bills.

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Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.

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Strait of Hormuz

The Strait of Hormuz (تنگه هرمز Tangeye Hormoz) is a strait between the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.

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String theory

In physics, string theory is a theoretical framework in which the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings.

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A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.

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The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.

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Sultan Amir Ahmad Bathhouse

Sultan Amir Ahmad Bathhouse (Hammam-e Sultan Amir Ahmad), also known as the Qasemi Bathhouse, is a traditional Iranian public bathhouse in Kashan, Iran.

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Sultan Husayn

Sultan Husayn (also known as Soltan Hosayn and Soltan Hosein), (October 1668 – November 1726) (شاه سلطان حسین) reigned 1694–1722; was a Safavid Shah of Iran (Persia).

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Sultanate of Rum

The Sultanate of Rûm (also known as the Rûm sultanate (سلجوقیان روم, Saljuqiyān-e Rum), Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate, Sultanate of Iconium, Anatolian Seljuk State (Anadolu Selçuklu Devleti) or Turkey Seljuk State (Türkiye Selçuklu Devleti)) was a Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim state established in the parts of Anatolia which had been conquered from the Byzantine Empire by the Seljuk Empire, which was established by the Seljuk Turks.

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In political science, sultanism is a form of authoritarian government characterized by the extreme personal presence of the ruler in all elements of governance.

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Summer solstice

The summer solstice (or estival solstice), also known as midsummer, occurs when one of the Earth's poles has its maximum tilt toward the Sun.

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Sunni Islam

Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.

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Supreme Leader of Iran

The Supreme Leader of Iran (rahbar-e mo'azzam-e irān), also called the Supreme Leader of the Islamic Revolution (رهبر معظم انقلاب اسلامی), officially in Iran, called the Supreme Leadership Authority (مقام معظم رهبری), is the head of state and highest ranking political and religious authority in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

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Surena (robot)

Surena (Surenā) is a series of Iranian humanoid robots, named after the Parthian General Surena.

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Susa (fa Šuš;; שׁוּשָׁן Šušān; Greek: Σοῦσα; ܫܘܫ Šuš; Old Persian Çūšā) was an ancient city of the Proto-Elamite, Elamite, First Persian Empire, Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian empires of Iran, and one of the most important cities of the Ancient Near East.

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Suzerainty (and) is a back-formation from the late 18th-century word suzerain, meaning upper-sovereign, derived from the French sus (meaning above) + -erain (from souverain, meaning sovereign).

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Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.

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Syrian Civil War

The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.

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Ta'zieh or Ta'zïye or Ta'zīya or Tazīa or Ta'ziyeh, (تعزية, تعزیه, تعزیہ) means comfort, condolence or expression of grief.

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Tablet (magazine)

Tablet is an American Jewish online magazine founded in 2009 by Jewish non-profit Nextbook.

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Tabriz (تبریز; تبریز) is the most populated city in Iranian Azerbaijan, one of the historical capitals of Iran and the present capital of East Azerbaijan province.

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The Tachara, or the Tachar Château, also referred to as the Palace of Darius the Great, was the exclusive building of Darius I at Persepolis, Iran.

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Tahirid dynasty

The Tahirid dynasty (طاهریان, Tâhiriyân) was a dynasty, of PersianThe Tahirids and Saffarids, C.E. Bosworth, The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol.

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Tahmina (تَهمينه, Тахмина, various other transcriptions like Tahmeena, Tehmina, Tahmineh, Takhmina) is a female character in the story Rostam and Sohrab, part of the 10th-century Persian epic of Shahnameh.

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The Takbīr (تَكْبِير), also transliterated Tekbir or Takbeer, is the Arabic phrase (الله أكبر), usually translated as "God is greatest".

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Talysh language

The Talysh language (Talışi / Толыши / تالشه زَوُن) is a Northwestern Iranian language spoken in the northern regions of the Iranian provinces of Gilan and Ardabil and the southern regions of the Republic of Azerbaijan.

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Talysh people

Talysh (also Talishi, Taleshi or Talyshi) are an IranianGarnik Asatrian & Habib Borjian (2005.). Talish and the Talashis (State of Research).

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The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.

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The terms Tanbur, Tanbūr, Tanbura, Tambur, Tambura or Tanboor can refer to various long-necked, string instruments originating in Mesopotamia, Southern or Central Asia.

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A tank is an armoured fighting vehicle designed for front-line combat, with heavy firepower, strong armour, tracks and a powerful engine providing good battlefield maneuverability.

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Taq Bostan

Taq-e Bostan (طاق بستان, تاقوەسان) means "Arch of the Garden" or "Arch made by stone" is a site with a series of large rock reliefs from the era of Sassanid Empire of Persia (Iran), carved around 4th century AD.

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Taq Kasra

Tāq Kasrā, also transcribed as Taq-i Kisra, Taq-e Kesra, (طاق کسری) and Ayvān-e Kasrā (ایوانِ کسری); meaning Iwan of Khosrow) are names given to the remains of a ca. 3rd–6th century Sasanian Persian monument, which is sometimes called the Archway of Ctesiphon. It is located near the modern town of Salman Pak, Iraq. It is the only visible remaining structure of the ancient city of Ctesiphon. The archway is considered a landmark in the history of architecture, and is the largest single-span vault of unreinforced brickwork in the world.

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Tar (string instrument)

Tar (تار; tar) is an Iranian.

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Tarbiat Modares University

Tarbiat Modares University (دانشگاه تربیت مدرس Dāneshgāh-e Tarbiyat Modares, lit. "Professor Training University") is an exclusively graduate university with its main campus in Tehran, Iran.

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Tasnim News Agency

Tasnim News Agency is a private news agency in Iran launched in 2012.

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Taste of Cherry

Taste of Cherry (طعم گيلاس..., Ta’m-e gīlās...) is a 1997 film by the Iranian filmmaker Abbas Kiarostami.

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Tati language (Iran)

The Tati language (Tati: تاتی زبون, Tâti Zobun) is a Northwestern Iranian language which is closely related to the Talysh language, Mazandarani and Gilaki languages spoken by the Tat people of Iran.

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Taxation in Iran

The fiscal year begins on March 21 and ends on March 20 of the next year according to Iranian calendar.

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Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.

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Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.

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Tehran Conference

The Tehran Conference (codenamed Eureka) was a strategy meeting of Joseph Stalin, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Winston Churchill from 28 November to 1 December 1943, after the Anglo-Soviet Invasion of Iran.

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Tehran Symphony Orchestra

The Tehran Symphony Orchestra (TSO, ارکستر سمفونیک تهران), founded in 1933, is Iran's oldest and largest symphony orchestra.

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Tehran Times

Tehran Times began in 1979 as a foreign-language newspaper to air the voice of the Islamic Revolution.

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Tehran University of Medical Sciences

Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) (دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تهران) is the largest, "most distinguished", and most highly-ranked medical university of Iran.

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Telecommunication Company of Iran

Telecommunication Company of Iran, or TCI (شرکت مخابرات ایران) is the fixed-line incumbent operator in Iran offering services in fixed telephony, DSL and data services for both residential and business customers, all throughout the country.

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Telegram (service)

Telegram is a cloud-based instant messaging and voice over IP service developed by Telegram Messenger LLP, a privately held company registered in London, United Kingdom, founded by the Russian entrepreneur Pavel Durov.

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Telephone numbers in Iran

All telephone numbers are 11 numbers long (initial 0 plus ten numbers).

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Temple of Anahita, Kangavar

The Anahita Temple (معبد آناهیتا or پرستشگاه‌ آناهیتا) is the name of one of two archaeological sites in Iran popularly thought to have been attributed to the ancient deity Anahita.

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The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language

The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is an American dictionary of English published by Boston publisher Houghton Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969.

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The Atlantic

The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.

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The Cow (film)

The Cow (گاو, Gāv or Gav) is a 1969 Iranian film directed by Dariush Mehrjui, written by Gholam-Hossein Saedi based on his own play and novel, and starring Ezzatolah Entezami as Masht Hassan.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy

The Oxford Dictionary of Philosophy (1994; second edition 2008; third edition 2016) is a dictionary of philosophy by Simon Blackburn, published by Oxford University Press.

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The Wall Street Journal

The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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The World Factbook

The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.

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Theocracy is a form of government in which a deity is the source from which all authority derives.

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Thrace (Modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakiya; Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east.

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Time (magazine)

Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.

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Timeline of first orbital launches by country

This is a timeline of first orbital launches by country.

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Timur (تیمور Temūr, Chagatai: Temür; 9 April 1336 – 18 February 1405), historically known as Amir Timur and Tamerlane (تيمور لنگ Temūr(-i) Lang, "Timur the Lame"), was a Turco-Mongol conqueror.

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Timurid Empire

The Timurid Empire (تیموریان, Timuriyān), self-designated as Gurkani (گورکانیان, Gurkāniyān), was a PersianateB.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in Encyclopaedia of Islam, Online Edition, 2006 Turco-Mongol empire comprising modern-day Iran, the Caucasus, Mesopotamia, Afghanistan, much of Central Asia, as well as parts of contemporary India, Pakistan, Syria and Turkey. The empire was founded by Timur (also known as Tamerlane), a warlord of Turco-Mongol lineage, who established the empire between 1370 and his death in 1405. He envisioned himself as the great restorer of the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan and, while not descended from Genghis, regarded himself as Genghis's heir and associated much with the Borjigin. The ruling Timurid dynasty, or Timurids, lost most of Persia to the Aq Qoyunlu confederation in 1467, but members of the dynasty continued to rule smaller states, sometimes known as Timurid emirates, in Central Asia and parts of India. In the 16th century, Babur, a Timurid prince from Ferghana (modern Uzbekistan), invaded Kabulistan (modern Afghanistan) and established a small kingdom there, and from there 20 years later he invaded India to establish the Mughal Empire.

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Tir (month)

Tir (تیر) is the fourth month of the Iranian calendar.

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Tirgan (تیرگان, Tirgān), is a mid summer Iranian festival, celebrated annually on Tir 13 (July 2, 3, or 4).

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Tishtrya (Tištrya) or Roozahang is the Avestan language name of a Zoroastrian benevolent divinity associated with life-bringing rainfall and fertility.

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Tochal Complex

Tochal Complex consists of many recreational and sports facilities located in Velenjak, north of Tehran.

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Tofy Mussivand

Tofigh Mussivand (Lurish: Tufi Mussivend, Persian:توفیق موسیوند), born c. 1943 in Varkaneh, Hamadan Province, Iran) is an Iranian-Canadianhttp://www.ottawaheart.ca/content_documents/Tofy-Mussivand-CV.pdf medical engineer who invented an Artificial Cardiac Pump, a device that pumps blood and takes over the function of breathing during a heart surgery. He is currently Professor of Surgery and Engineering at the University of Ottawa and Carleton University; Chair and Director, Cardiovascular Devices Division of the University of Ottawa Heart Institute (UOHI); and Medical Devices Program of both the University of Ottawa and Carleton University. He is an honorary member of the Iranian Academy of Medical Sciences. Mussivand was born to Lurish Iranian parents in the village of Varkaneh in Hamedan. Before leaving Varkaneh to study at Tehran, he was a goat herder. He studied engineering at Tehran University and University of Alberta. He has worked for the Canadian government, crown corporations, and the private sector. Mussivand went on to receive his doctorate in Medical Engineering and Medical Sciences at the University of Akron and Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine. Thereafter, Mussivand joined the Cleveland Clinic Hospital and Research Foundation. In 1989, Mussivand returned to Canada. The Artificial Cardiac Pump temporarily takes over the function of breathing and pumping blood for a patient. It has two parts, the pump and the aerator. Cardiac pumps are most often used in heart surgery, so that a patient's heart can be disconnected from the body for longer than the twenty minutes or so it takes for a prepared patient to die.

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The tompak (official Persian name) (تنپک, تنبک, دنبک، تمپک), also tombak, donbak, dombak or zarb (ضَرب or ضرب) in Afghanistan zer baghali (زیر بغلی), is a goblet drum from Persia (ancient Iran).

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Torshi (Aramaic:ܡܟ̇ܠܠArabic: مخلل mukhallal, Persian: ترشى torshi; Kurdish: ترشى Tirşîn, tirşî, trshin; turşu; τουρσί toursi; туршия turshiya; Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian: turšija/туршија; Albanian: turshi Hebrew: חמוצים, khamusim) are the pickled vegetables of the cuisines of many Balkan and Middle East countries.

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Transcaucasia (Закавказье), or the South Caucasus, is a geographical region in the vicinity of the southern Caucasus Mountains on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.

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Transport in Iran

Iran has a long paved road system linking most of its towns and all of its cities.

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Travel visa

A visa (from the Latin charta visa, meaning "paper which has been seen") is a conditional authorization granted by a country to a foreigner, allowing them to enter, remain within, or to leave that country.

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A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations.

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Treaty of Constantinople (1724)

The Treaty of Constantinople (Константинопольский договор) Russo-Ottoman Treaty or Treaty of the Partition of Persia (Iran Mukasemenamesi) was a treaty concluded on 24 June 1724 between the Ottoman Empire and the Russian Empire, dividing large portions of the territory of mutually neighbouring Safavid Iran between them.

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Treaty of Georgievsk

The Treaty of Georgievsk (Георгиевский трактат, Georgievskiy traktat; გეორგიევსკის ტრაქტატი, georgievskis trakt'at'i) was a bilateral treaty concluded between the Russian Empire and the east Georgian kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti on July 24, 1783.

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Treaty of Gulistan

The Treaty of Gulistan (Гюлистанский договор; عهدنامه گلستان) was a peace treaty concluded between Imperial Russia and Persia (modern day Iran) on 24 October 1813 in the village of Gulistan (in modern-day Goranboy Rayon of Azerbaijan) as a result of the first full-scale Russo-Persian War, lasting from 1804 to 1813.

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Treaty of Turkmenchay

The Treaty of Turkmenchay (Туркманчайский договор, عهدنامه ترکمنچای) was an agreement between Persia (Iran) and the Russian Empire, which concluded the Russo-Persian War (1826–28). It was signed on 10 February 1828 in Torkamanchay, Iran. By the treaty, Persia ceded to Russia control of several areas in the South Caucasus: the Erivan Khanate, the Nakhchivan Khanate, and the remainder of the Talysh Khanate. The boundary between Russian and Persia was set at the Aras River. These territories comprise modern-day Armenia, the southern parts of the modern-day Republic of Azerbaijan, Nakhchivan, as well as Iğdır Province (now part of Turkey). The treaty was signed for Persia by Crown Prince Abbas Mirza and Allah-Yar Khan Asaf al-Daula, chancellor to Shah Fath Ali (of the Qajar Dynasty), and for Russia by General Ivan Paskievich. Like the 1813 Treaty of Gulistan, this treaty was imposed by Russia, following military victory over Persia. Paskievich threatened to occupy Tehran in five days unless the treaty was signed. By this final treaty of 1828 and the 1813 Gulistan treaty, Russia had finalised conquering all the Caucasus territories from Iran, comprising modern-day Dagestan, eastern Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia, all which had formed part of its very concept for centuries. The area to the North of the river Aras, amongst which the territory of the contemporary nations of Georgia, Azerbaijan, Armenia and the North Caucasian Republic of Dagestan were Iranian territory until they were occupied by Russia in the course of the 19th century. As a further direct result and consequence of the two treaties, the formerly Iranian territories became now part of Russia for around the next 180 years, except Dagestan, which has remained a Russian possession ever since. Out of the greater part of the territory, three separate nations would be formed through the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, namely Georgia, Azerbaijan and Armenia.

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Triumph of Tehran

The Triumph of Tehran (Persian: فتح تهران fath-e tehrān) refers to the entrance of the pro-constitutionalists in Tehran on 13 July 1909, which led Mohammad Ali Shah Qajar to seek refuge at the Russian legation in Tehran, before he would be sent in exile.

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Turco-Persian tradition

The composite Turco-Persian tradition, Turko-Persia in historical perspective, Cambridge University Press, 1991 refers to a distinctive culture that arose in the 9th and 10th centuries (AD) in Khorasan and Transoxiana (present-day Afghanistan, Iran, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, minor parts of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan).

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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Turkic languages

The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).

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Turkic peoples

The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.

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Turkic tribal confederations

The Turkic term oğuz or oğur (in z- and r-Turkic, respectively) is a historical term for "military division, clan, or tribe" among the Turkic peoples.

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Turkmen language

Turkmen (Türkmençe, türkmen dili; Түркменче, түркмен дили; تۆرکمن دﻴﻠی,تۆرکمنچه) is an official language of Turkmenistan.

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Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.

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The Turkmens (Türkmenler, Түркменлер, IPA) are a nation and Turkic ethnic group native to Central Asia, primarily the Turkmen nation state of Turkmenistan.

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Twelver (translit; شیعه دوازده‌امامی) or Imamiyyah (إمامية) is the largest branch of Shia Islam.

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Tzatziki (from the Turkish word cacık), is a sauce served with grilled meats or as a dip.

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Umayyad Caliphate

The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.

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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.

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In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.

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Unitary state

A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.

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United Arab Emirates

The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations programme with the mandate to protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, and assist in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.

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United Nations Security Council

The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.

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United Nations Security Council Resolution 1929

United Nations Security Council Resolution 1929, adopted on 9 June 2010, after recalling resolutions 1696 (2006), 1737 (2006), 1747 (2007), 1803 (2008), 1835 (2008) and 1887 (2009) concerning the topics of Iran and non-proliferation, the Council noted that Iran had failed to comply with previous Security Council resolutions concerning its nuclear program and imposed further sanctions on the country.

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United Nations Security Council Resolution 598

United Nations Security Council resolution 598 S/RES/0598 (1987), (UNSC resolution 598) adopted unanimously on 20 July 1987, after recalling Resolution 582 and 588, called for an immediate ceasefire between Iran and Iraq and the repatriation of prisoners of war, and for both sides to withdraw to the international border.

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United States Army Center of Military History

The United States Army Center of Military History (CMH) is a directorate within the Office of the Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army.

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United States Government Publishing Office

The United States Government Publishing Office (GPO) (formerly the Government Printing Office) is an agency of the legislative branch of the United States federal government.

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Universal suffrage

The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.

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University of Bern

The University of Bern (Universität Bern, Université de Berne, Universitas Bernensis) is a university in the Swiss capital of Bern and was founded in 1834.

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University of Tehran

The University of Tehran (دانشگاه تهران), also known as Tehran University and UT, is Iran's oldest modern university.

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Unmanned aerial vehicle

An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone, is an aircraft without a human pilot aboard.

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Uranium hexafluoride

Uranium hexafluoride, referred to as "hex" in the nuclear industry, is a compound used in the uranium enrichment process that produces fuel for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons.

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Urartu, which corresponds to the biblical mountains of Ararat, is the name of a geographical region commonly used as the exonym for the Iron Age kingdom also known by the modern rendition of its endonym, the Kingdom of Van, centered around Lake Van in the Armenian Highlands.

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Urmia (Urmiya, اورمیه; ܐܘܪܡܝܐ; ارومیه (Variously transliterated as Oroumieh, Oroumiyeh, Orūmīyeh and Urūmiyeh); Ûrmiye, ورمێ) is the largest city in West Azerbaijan Province of Iran and the capital of Urmia County.

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Vafa–Witten theorem

In theoretical physics, the Vafa–Witten theorem, named after Cumrun Vafa and Edward Witten, is a theorem that shows that vector-like global symmetries (those that transform as expected under reflections) such as isospin and baryon number in vector-like gauge theories like QCD cannot be spontanteously broken as long as the theta angle is zero.

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The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.

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Venice Film Festival

The Venice Film Festival or Venice International Film Festival (Mostra Internazionale d'Arte Cinematografica della Biennale di Venezia, "International Exhibition of Cinematographic Art of the Venice Biennale") is the oldest film festival in the world and one of the "Big Three" film festivals, alongside the Cannes Film Festival and Berlin International Film Festival.

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Vermicelli (lit. "little worms") is a traditional type of pasta round in section similar to spaghetti.

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Views on the nuclear program of Iran

Views on the nuclear program of Iran vary greatly, as the nuclear program of Iran is a very contentious geopolitical issue.

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Vincent Arthur Smith

Vincent Arthur Smith,, (1848–1920) was a British Indologist and art historian.

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Virtual private network

A virtual private network (VPN) extends a private network across a public network, and enables users to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if their computing devices were directly connected to the private network.

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Vohu Manah

Vohu Manah (vōhu-mánāh) is the Avestan language term for a Zoroastrian concept, generally translated as "Good Purpose", "Good Mind", or "Good Thought", referring to the good moral state of mind that enables an individual to accomplish his duties.

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Voice of America

Voice of America (VOA) is a U.S. government-funded international radio broadcast source that serves as the United States federal government's official institution for non-military, external broadcasting.

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A walnut is the nut of any tree of the genus Juglans (Family Juglandaceae), particularly the Persian or English walnut, Juglans regia.

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Warwasi is a Paleolithic rockshelter site located at north of Kermanshah in western Iran.

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Washington Jewish Week

Washington Jewish Week (WJW) is an independent community weekly newspaper whose logo reads, "Serving the nation's capital and the greater Washington Jewish community since 1930.", retrieved March 3, 2011.

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Water buffalo

The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) or domestic Asian water buffalo is a large bovid originating in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and China.

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Citrullus lanatus is a plant species in the family Cucurbitaceae, a vine-like (scrambler and trailer) flowering plant originally from Africa.

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Webometrics Ranking of World Universities

The Webometrics Ranking of World Universities, also known as Ranking Web of Universities, is a ranking system for the world's universities based on a composite indicator that takes into account both the volume of the Web contents (number of web pages and files) and the visibility and impact of these web publications according to the number of external inlinks (site citations) they received.

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Western Asia

Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.

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Western Caucasus

The Western Caucasus is a western region of the Caucasus in Southern Russia, extending from the Black Sea to Mount Elbrus.

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Western Europe

Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.

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Western world

The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.

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White Revolution

The White Revolution (انقلاب سفید Enqelāb-e Sefid) or the Shah and People Revolution (انقلاب شاه و مردم Enqelāb-e Shāh va Mardom) was a far-reaching series of reforms in Iran launched in 1963 by Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and lasted until 1978.

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Wild boar

The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine,Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.

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William Wilson Hunter

Sir William Wilson Hunter KCSI CIE (15 July 1840 – 6 February 1900) was a Scottish historian, statistician, a compiler and a member of the Indian Civil Service.

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Winston Churchill

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.

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Winter solstice

The winter solstice (or hibernal solstice), also known as midwinter, is an astronomical phenomenon marking the day with the shortest period of daylight and the longest night of the year.

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Women's rights in Iran

In the Annals of history dating back to the great Achaemenid Empire (2000 – 550 BCE), women in Iran have, for the most part, been subordinate to men.

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World Bank

The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.

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World government

World government or global government is the notion of a common political authority for all of humanity, yielding a global government and a single state that exercises authority over the entire Earth.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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World Heritage site

A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.

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World peace

World peace, or peace on Earth, is the concept of an ideal state of happiness, freedom and peace within and among all people and nations on earth.

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World Scientific

World Scientific Publishing is an academic publisher of scientific, technical, and medical books and journals headquartered in Singapore.

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World Trade Organization

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Xenophon of Athens (Ξενοφῶν,, Xenophōn; – 354 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, historian, soldier, mercenary, and student of Socrates.

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Xerxes I

Xerxes I (𐎧𐏁𐎹𐎠𐎼𐏁𐎠 x-š-y-a-r-š-a Xšayaṛša "ruling over heroes", Greek Ξέρξης; 519–465 BC), called Xerxes the Great, was the fourth king of kings of the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia.

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Yafteh is an Upper Paleolithic cave located at the foot of Yafteh Mountain in the Zagros Mountains range, located northwest of Khoramabad in western Zagros, Lorestan Province of western Iran.

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Yahoo! is a web services provider headquartered in Sunnyvale, California and wholly owned by Verizon Communications through Oath Inc..

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Yaldā Night

Shab-e Yalda ("Yalda night" شب یلدا) or Shab-e Chelleh ("night of forty", شب چله) is an Iranian festival celebrated on the "longest and darkest night of the year," Yalda is a winter solstice celebration, that is, in the night of the Northern Hemisphere's winter solstice.

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The Yarsan or Ahl-e Haqq (Kurdish:, Yarsan, اهل حق Ahl-e Haqq "People of Truth"), is a syncretic religion founded by Sultan Sahak in the late 14th century in western Iran.

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The Yazidis, or Yezidis (Êzidî), are a Kurdish-speaking people, indigenous to a region of northern Mesopotamia (known natively as Ezidkhan) who are strictly endogamous.

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Yogurt, yoghurt, or yoghourt (or; from yoğurt; other spellings listed below) is a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk.

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Zagros Mountains

The Zagros Mountains (کوه‌های زاگرس; چیاکانی زاگرۆس) form the largest mountain range in Iran, Iraq and southeastern Turkey.

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Zaidiyyah or Zaidism (الزيدية az-zaydiyya, adjective form Zaidi or Zaydi) is one of the Shia sects closest in terms of theology to Hanafi Sunni Islam.

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Zand dynasty

The Zand dynasty (سلسله زندیه) was an Iranian dynasty of Lak a branch of Lurs origin founded by Karim Khan Zand that initially ruled southern and central Iran in the 18th century.

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Zayandeh River Culture

Zayandeh River Culture (تمدن زاینده رود, literally "Zāyandé-Rūd Civilization") is a hypothetical pre-historic culture that is theorized to have flourished around the Zayandeh River in Iran in the 6th millennium BC.

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Zelzal (زلزال-۱, meaning "Earthquake") is a series of artillery rockets developed by Iran.

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Zoroaster (from Greek Ζωροάστρης Zōroastrēs), also known as Zarathustra (𐬰𐬀𐬭𐬀𐬚𐬎𐬱𐬙𐬭𐬀 Zaraθuštra), Zarathushtra Spitama or Ashu Zarathushtra, was an ancient Iranian-speaking prophet whose teachings and innovations on the religious traditions of ancient Iranian-speaking peoples developed into the religion of Zoroastrianism.

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Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.

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Zoroastrians in Iran

Zoroastrians are the oldest religious community of Iran.

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The zurna (also called surnay, birbynė, lettish horn, zurla, surla, sornai, dili tuiduk, zournas, or zurma), is a wind instrument played in central Eurasia, ranging from the Balkans to Central Asia.

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.ir is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Iran.

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0 (zero) is both a number and the numerical digit used to represent that number in numerals.

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1 (one, also called unit, unity, and (multiplicative) identity) is a number, numeral, and glyph.

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1921 Persian coup d'état

1921 Persian coup d'état, known in Iran as 3 Esfand coup d'état (کودتای ۳ اسفند ۱۲۹۹), refers to several major events in Persia (Iran) in 1921, which eventually led to the establishment of the Pahlavi dynasty as the ruling house of the country in 1925.

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1953 Iranian coup d'état

The 1953 Iranian coup d'état, known in Iran as the 28 Mordad coup d'état (کودتای ۲۸ مرداد), was the overthrow of the democratically elected Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh in favour of strengthening the monarchical rule of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi on 19 August 1953, orchestrated by the United Kingdom (under the name "Operation Boot") and the United States (under the name TPAJAX Project or "Operation Ajax").

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1963 demonstrations in Iran

The demonstrations of June 5 and 6, also called the events of June 1963 or (using the Iranian calendar) the 15 Khordad uprising (تظاهرات پانزده خرداد), were protests in Iran against the arrest of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini after his denouncement of Iranian Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and Israel.

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1973 oil crisis

The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo.

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1974 Asian Games

The 7th Asian Games (بازی‌های آسیایی ۱۹۷۴) were held from September 1 to 16, 1974, in Tehran, Iran.

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1979 Khuzestan insurgency

The 1979 Khuzestan uprising was one of the nationwide uprisings in Iran, which erupted in the aftermath of the Iranian Revolution.

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1979 Kurdish rebellion in Iran

The 1979 Kurdish rebellion in Iran erupted in mid-March 1979, some two months after the completion of the Iranian Revolution.

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1st Iranian Majlis

The 1st Iranian Majlis was a legislative assembly from Oct 7,1906, to June 23, 1908.

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2 (two) is a number, numeral, and glyph.

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2009 Iranian presidential election protests

Protests against the 2009 Iranian presidential election results (اعتراضات علیه نتایج انتخابات ریاست جمهوری سال ۱۳۸۸) (a disputed victory by Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad), in support of opposition candidates Mir-Hossein Mousavi and Mehdi Karroubi, occurred in major cities nationwide from 2009 into early 2010.

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2016 Summer Olympics

The 2016 Summer Olympics (Jogos Olímpicos de Verão de 2016), officially known as the Games of the XXXI Olympiad and commonly known as Rio 2016, was an international multi-sport event that was held from 5 to 21 August 2016 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, with preliminary events in some sports beginning on 3 August.

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24th parallel north

The 24th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 24 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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3 (three) is a number, numeral, and glyph.

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4 (four) is a number, numeral, and glyph.

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40th parallel north

The 40th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 40 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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44th meridian east

The meridian 44° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Asia, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

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5 (five) is a number, numeral, and glyph.

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6 (six) is the natural number following 5 and preceding 7.

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64th meridian east

The meridian 64° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

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7 (seven) is the natural number following 6 and preceding 8.

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8 (eight) is the natural number following 7 and preceding 9.

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9 (nine) is the natural number following and preceding.

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Redirects here:

Historical Names of Iran, Historical names of Iran, I.R of Iran, I.R. Iran, I.R. of Iran, I.R.Iran, IR Iran, IR of Iran, IRAN, IRan, ISO 3166-1:IR, Iran (Islamic Republic of), Iran (Persia), Iran blockade, Iran consumption expenditure, Iran, Islamic Rep., Iran, Islamic Republic Of, Iran, Islamic Republic of, Iranian Republic, Irañ, Irán, Irân, Irãn, Irān, Islamic Govermnet of Iran, Islamic Iran, Islamic Republic of Iran, Islamic Republic of Persia, Islamic State of Iran, Islamic republic of Iran, Jomhuri Ye Islami Ye Iran, Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Iran, Jomhuri-ye Eslāmi-ye Irān, Jomhūrī-ye Eslāmī-ye Īrān, La Perse, Naval blockade of iran, PERSIA, Parsia, Persia, Persia (Iran), Persian State of Iran, Republic of Iran, Shi'ite Republic of Iran, Shia Republic of Iran, The Islamic Republic of Iran, إيران, ایران, جمهوری اسلامی ايران, جمهوری اسلامی ایران.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iran

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