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# Binary-coded decimal

In computing and electronic systems, binary-coded decimal (BCD) is a class of binary encodings of decimal numbers where each decimal digit is represented by a fixed number of bits, usually four or eight. [1]

115 relations: ACM SIGOPS, Ada (programming language), Adder (electronics), Addison-Wesley, Addition, Aiken code, Alphanumeric, Arithmetic underflow, ARM architecture, ASCII, Association for Computing Machinery, Atari 8-bit family, Backward compatibility, BCD (character encoding), Bi-quinary coded decimal, Big O notation, Binary number, BIOS, Bit, Bitwise operation, British Computer Society, Burroughs Corporation, Byte, C (programming language), Carl Hanser Verlag, Chen–Ho encoding, COBOL, Code page, Computing, David Van Nostrand, Decimal, Decimal computer, Densely packed decimal, Digital Equipment Corporation, Don't-care term, Double dabble, Dual-tone multi-frequency signaling, EBCDIC, Electronics, Endianness, ETH Zurich, Excess-3, Fixed-point arithmetic, Floating-point arithmetic, Fraction (mathematics), George Stibitz, Gottschalk v. Benson, Gray code, Half-carry flag, Hewlett-Packard, ... Expand index (65 more) »

## ACM SIGOPS

ACM SIGOPS is the Association for Computing Machinery's Special Interest Group on Operating Systems, an international community of students, faculty, researchers, and practitioners associated with research and development related to operating systems.

Ada is a structured, statically typed, imperative, and object-oriented high-level computer programming language, extended from Pascal and other languages.

Addison-Wesley is a publisher of textbooks and computer literature.

Addition (often signified by the plus symbol "+") is one of the four basic operations of arithmetic; the others are subtraction, multiplication and division.

## Aiken code

The Aiken code (also known as 2421 code) is a complementary binary-coded decimal (BCD) code.

## Alphanumeric

Alphanumeric is a combination of alphabetic and numeric characters, and is used to describe the collection of Latin letters and Arabic digits or a text constructed from this collection.

## Arithmetic underflow

The term arithmetic underflow (or "floating point underflow", or just "underflow") is a condition in a computer program where the result of a calculation is a number of smaller absolute value than the computer can actually represent in memory on its CPU.

## ARM architecture

ARM, previously Advanced RISC Machine, originally Acorn RISC Machine, is a family of reduced instruction set computing (RISC) architectures for computer processors, configured for various environments.

## ASCII

ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.

## Association for Computing Machinery

The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is an international learned society for computing.

## Atari 8-bit family

The Atari 8-bit family is a series of 8-bit home computers introduced by Atari, Inc. in 1979 and manufactured until 1992.

## Backward compatibility

Backward compatibility is a property of a system, product, or technology that allows for interoperability with an older legacy system, or with input designed for such a system, especially in telecommunications and computing.

## BCD (character encoding)

BCD ("Binary-Coded Decimal"), also called alphanumeric BCD, alphameric BCD, BCD Interchange Code, or BCDIC, is a family of representations of numerals, uppercase Latin letters, and some special and control characters as six-bit character codes.

## Bi-quinary coded decimal

Bi-quinary coded decimal is a numeral encoding scheme used in many abacuses and in some early computers, including the Colossus.

## Big O notation

Big O notation is a mathematical notation that describes the limiting behaviour of a function when the argument tends towards a particular value or infinity.

## Binary number

In mathematics and digital electronics, a binary number is a number expressed in the base-2 numeral system or binary numeral system, which uses only two symbols: typically 0 (zero) and 1 (one).

## BIOS

BIOS (an acronym for Basic Input/Output System and also known as the System BIOS, ROM BIOS or PC BIOS) is non-volatile firmware used to perform hardware initialization during the booting process (power-on startup), and to provide runtime services for operating systems and programs.

## Bit

The bit (a portmanteau of binary digit) is a basic unit of information used in computing and digital communications.

## Bitwise operation

In digital computer programming, a bitwise operation operates on one or more bit patterns or binary numerals at the level of their individual bits.

## British Computer Society

Sir Maurice Wilkes served as first President of BCS in 1957. The British Computer Society (BCS) is a professional body and a learned society that represents those working in Information Technology, both in the United Kingdom and internationally.

## Burroughs Corporation

The Burroughs Corporation was a major American manufacturer of business equipment.

## Byte

The byte is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bits, representing a binary number.

## C (programming language)

C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.

## Carl Hanser Verlag

The Carl Hanser Verlag was founded in 1928 by Carl Hanser in Munich and is one of the few medium-sized publishing companies in the German-speaking area still owned by the founding family.

## Chen–Ho encoding

Chen–Ho encoding is a memory-efficient alternate system of binary encoding for decimal digits.

## COBOL

COBOL (an acronym for "common business-oriented language") is a compiled English-like computer programming language designed for business use.

## Code page

In computing, a code page is a table of values that describes the character set used for encoding a particular set of characters, usually combined with a number of control characters.

## Computing

Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computers.

## David Van Nostrand

David Van Nostrand (December 5, 1811, New York City – June 14, 1886, New York City) was a New York City publisher.

## Decimal

The decimal numeral system (also called base-ten positional numeral system, and occasionally called denary) is the standard system for denoting integer and non-integer numbers.

## Decimal computer

Decimal computers are computers which can represent numbers and addresses in decimal as well as providing instructions to operate on those numbers and addresses directly in decimal, without conversion to a pure binary representation.

## Densely packed decimal

Densely packed decimal (DPD) is an efficient method for binary encoding decimal digits.

## Digital Equipment Corporation

Digital Equipment Corporation, also known as DEC and using the trademark Digital, was a major American company in the computer industry from the 1950s to the 1990s.

## Don't-care term

In digital logic, a don't-care term for a function is an input-sequence (a series of bits) for which the function output does not matter.

## Double dabble

In computer science, the double dabble algorithm is used to convert binary numbers into binary-coded decimal (BCD) notation.

## Dual-tone multi-frequency signaling

Dual-tone multi-frequency signaling (DTMF) is an in-band telecommunication signaling system using the voice-frequency band over telephone lines between telephone equipment and other communications devices and switching centers.

## EBCDIC

Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC) is an eight-bit character encoding used mainly on IBM mainframe and IBM midrange computer operating systems.

## Electronics

Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.

## Endianness

Endianness refers to the sequential order in which bytes are arranged into larger numerical values when stored in memory or when transmitted over digital links.

## ETH Zurich

ETH Zurich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich; Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich) is a science, technology, engineering and mathematics STEM university in the city of Zürich, Switzerland.

## Excess-3

Excess-3, 3-excess or 10-excess-3 binary code (often abbreviated as XS-3, 3XS or X3) or Stibitz code (after George Stibitz, who built a relay-based adding machine in 1937) is a self-complementary binary-coded decimal (BCD) code and numeral system.

## Fixed-point arithmetic

In computing, a fixed-point number representation is a real data type for a number that has a fixed number of digits after (and sometimes also before) the radix point (after the decimal point '.' in English decimal notation).

## Floating-point arithmetic

In computing, floating-point arithmetic is arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation so as to support a trade-off between range and precision.

## Fraction (mathematics)

A fraction (from Latin fractus, "broken") represents a part of a whole or, more generally, any number of equal parts.

## George Stibitz

George Robert Stibitz (April 30, 1904 – January 31, 1995) was a Bell Labs researcher internationally recognized as one of the fathers of the modern first digital computer.

## Gottschalk v. Benson

Gottschalk v. Benson, 409 U.S. 63 (1972), was a United States Supreme Court case in which the Court ruled that a process claim directed to a numerical algorithm, as such, was not patentable because "the patent would wholly pre-empt the mathematical formula and in practical effect would be a patent on the algorithm itself." That would be tantamount to allowing a patent on an abstract idea, contrary to precedent dating back to the middle of the 19th century.

## Gray code

The reflected binary code (RBC), also known just as reflected binary (RB) or Gray code after Frank Gray, is an ordering of the binary numeral system such that two successive values differ in only one bit (binary digit).

## Half-carry flag

A half-carry flag (also known as an auxiliary flag or decimal adjust flag) is a condition flag bit in the status register of many CPU families, such as the Intel 8080, Zilog Z80, the x86, and the Atmel AVR series, among others.

## Hewlett-Packard

The Hewlett-Packard Company (commonly referred to as HP) or shortened to Hewlett-Packard was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California.

In mathematics and computing, hexadecimal (also base, or hex) is a positional numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16.

## IBM

The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.

## IBM 1130

The IBM 1130 Computing System, introduced in 1965, was IBM's least expensive computer at that time.

## IBM 1400 series

The IBM 1400 series were second-generation (transistor) mid-range business decimal computers that IBM marketed in the early 1960s.

## IBM 1401

The IBM 1401 is a variable wordlength decimal computer that was announced by IBM on October 5, 1959.

## IBM 1620

The IBM 1620 was announced by IBM on October 21, 1959, and marketed as an inexpensive "scientific computer".

## IBM 1800 Data Acquisition and Control System

The IBM 1800 Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) was a process control variant of the IBM 1130 with two extra instructions (CMP and DCM), extra I/O capabilities, 'selector channel like' cycle-stealing capability and three hardware index registers.

## IBM 700/7000 series

The IBM 700/7000 series is a series of large-scale (mainframe) computer systems that were made by IBM through the 1950s and early 1960s.

## IBM 702

The IBM 702 was IBM's response to the UNIVAC&mdash;the first mainframe computer using magnetic tapes.

## IBM 7070

IBM 7070 was a decimal architecture intermediate data processing system that was introduced by IBM in 1958.

## IBM 7080

The IBM 7080 was a variable word length BCD transistor computer in the IBM 700/7000 series commercial architecture line, introduced in August 1961, that provided an upgrade path from the vacuum tube IBM 705 computer.

## IBM Db2

IBM Db2 contains database-server products developed by IBM.

## IBM Personal Computer/AT

The IBM Personal Computer AT, more commonly known as the IBM AT and also sometimes called the PC AT or PC/AT, was IBM's second-generation PC, designed around the 6 MHz Intel 80286 microprocessor and released in 1984 as System Unit 5170.

## IBM System/360

The IBM System/360 (S/360) is a family of mainframe computer systems that was announced by IBM on April 7, 1964, and delivered between 1965 and 1978.

## IEEE 754 revision

IEEE 754-2008 (previously known as IEEE 754r) was published in August 2008 and is a significant revision to, and replaces, the IEEE 754-1985 floating point standard.

## Infinity

Infinity (symbol) is a concept describing something without any bound or larger than any natural number.

## Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.

## Instruction set architecture

An instruction set architecture (ISA) is an abstract model of a computer.

## Integer overflow

In computer programming, an integer overflow occurs when an arithmetic operation attempts to create a numeric value that is outside of the range that can be represented with a given number of bits – either larger than the maximum or lower than the minimum representable value.

## Intel

Intel Corporation (stylized as intel) is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley.

## Intel BCD opcode

The Intel BCD opcodes are a set of x86 instructions that operates with BCD numbers.

## John Wiley & Sons

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.

## Logical shift

In computer science, a logical shift is a bitwise operation that shifts all the bits of its operand.

## Long mode

In the x86-64 computer architecture, long mode is the mode where a 64-bit operating system can access 64-bit instructions and registers.

In computer science, a mask is data that is used for bitwise operations, particularly in a bit field.

## Method of complements

In mathematics and computing, the method of complements is a technique used to subtract one number from another using only addition of positive numbers.

## MOS Technology 6502

The MOS Technology 6502 (typically "sixty-five-oh-two" or "six-five-oh-two") William Mensch and the moderator both pronounce the 6502 microprocessor as "sixty-five-oh-two".

## Motorola 6800

The 6800 ("sixty-eight hundred") is an 8-bit microprocessor designed and first manufactured by Motorola in 1974.

## Motorola 68000

The Motorola 68000 ("'sixty-eight-thousand'"; also called the m68k or Motorola 68k, "sixty-eight-kay") is a 16/32-bit CISC microprocessor, which implements a 32-bit instruction set, with 32-bit registers and 32-bit internal data bus, but with a 16-bit data ALU and two 16-bit arithmetic ALUs and a 16-bit external data bus, designed and marketed by Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector.

## Motorola 68000 series

The Motorola 68000 series (also termed 680x0, m68000, m68k, or 68k) is a family of 32-bit CISC microprocessors.

## Negative number

In mathematics, a negative number is a real number that is less than zero.

## Nibble

In computing, a nibble (occasionally nybble or nyble to match the spelling of byte) is a four-bit aggregation, or half an octet.

## Numerical digit

A numerical digit is a single symbol (such as "2" or "5") used alone, or in combinations (such as "25"), to represent numbers (such as the number 25) according to some positional numeral systems.

## Personal computer

A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.

## PL/I

PL/I (Programming Language One, pronounced) is a procedural, imperative computer programming language designed for scientific, engineering, business and system programming uses.

## PlayStation 3

The PlayStation 3 (PS3) is a home video game console developed by Sony Computer Entertainment.

## Positional notation

Positional notation or place-value notation is a method of representing or encoding numbers.

## POWER6

The POWER6 is a microprocessor developed by IBM that implemented the Power ISA v.2.03.

## Programmable calculator

Programmable calculators are calculators that can automatically carry out a sequence of operations under control of a stored program, much like a computer.

## Psion Organiser

The Psion Organiser was the brand name of a range of pocket computers developed by the British company Psion in the 1980s.

In mathematics and computing, a radix point (or radix character) is the symbol used in numerical representations to separate the integer part of a number (to the left of the radix point) from its fractional part (to the right of the radix point).

## Round-off error

A round-off error, also called rounding error, is the difference between the calculated approximation of a number and its exact mathematical value due to rounding.

## Rounding

Rounding a numerical value means replacing it by another value that is approximately equal but has a shorter, simpler, or more explicit representation; for example, replacing \$ with \$, or the fraction 312/937 with 1/3, or the expression with.

## RWTH Aachen University

RWTH Aachen University or Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule AachenRWTH is the abbreviation of Rheinisch-Westfälische Technische Hochschule, which translates into "Rheinish-Westphalian Technical University".

## SDS Sigma series

The SDS Sigma series is a series of computers that were introduced by Scientific Data Systems in 1966.

## Seven-segment display

A seven-segment display (SSD), or seven-segment indicator, is a form of electronic display device for displaying decimal numerals that is an alternative to the more complex dot matrix displays.

## Sign (mathematics)

In mathematics, the concept of sign originates from the property of every non-zero real number of being positive or negative.

## Signed overpunch

A signed overpunch is a code used to store the sign of a number by changing the last digit.

## Significand

The significand (also mantissa or coefficient) is part of a number in scientific notation or a floating-point number, consisting of its significant digits.

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

## Subtraction

Subtraction is an arithmetic operation that represents the operation of removing objects from a collection.

## Telephony

Telephony is the field of technology involving the development, application, and deployment of telecommunication services for the purpose of electronic transmission of voice, fax, or data, between distant parties.

## Texas Instruments

Texas Instruments Inc. (TI) is an American technology company that designs and manufactures semiconductors and various integrated circuits, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally.

## Time formatting and storage bugs

In computer science, time formatting and storage bugs are a class of software bugs which may cause time and date calculation or display to be improperly handled.

## Two's complement

Two's complement is a mathematical operation on binary numbers, best known for its role in computing as a method of signed number representation.

## Two-out-of-five code

In telecommunication, a two-out-of-five code is an m of n code that provides exactly ten possible combinations, and thus is popular for representing decimal digits using five bits.

## Typographical error

A typographical error (often shortened to typo), also called misprint, is a mistake made in the typing process (such as a spelling mistake) of printed material.

## Undefined (mathematics)

In mathematics, undefined has several different meanings, depending on the context.

## Unicode

Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.

## VAX

VAX is a discontinued instruction set architecture (ISA) developed by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) in the mid-1970s.

## Word (computer architecture)

In computing, a word is the natural unit of data used by a particular processor design.

## X86

x86 is a family of backward-compatible instruction set architectures based on the Intel 8086 CPU and its Intel 8088 variant.

## XML

In computing, Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable.

## Year 2000 problem

The Year 2000 problem, also known as the Y2K problem, the Millennium bug, the Y2K bug, or Y2K, is a class of computer bugs related to the formatting and storage of calendar data for dates beginning in the year 2000.

## 3GPP

The 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) is a collaboration between groups of telecommunications standards associations, known as the Organizational Partners.

## References

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