The abacus (plural abaci or abacuses), also called a counting frame, is a calculating tool that was in use in Europe, China and Russia, centuries before the adoption of the written Hindu–Arabic numeral system.
Ada is a structured, statically typed, imperative, and object-oriented high-level computer programming language, extended from Pascal and other languages.
ALGOL 68 (short for Algorithmic Language 1968) is an imperative computer programming language that was conceived as a successor to the ALGOL 60 programming language, designed with the goal of a much wider scope of application and more rigorously defined syntax and semantics.
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.
The Allied military radiotelephone spelling alphabets were created beginning prior to World War I and evolved separately in the United States and Great Britain (and separately among each countries' separate military services), until being merged during World War II.
ANSI escape sequences are a standard for in-band signaling to control the cursor location, color, and other options on video text terminals.
Sir Arthur Charles Clarke (16 December 1917 – 19 March 2008) was a British science fiction writer, science writer and futurist, inventor, undersea explorer, and television series host.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
An assembly (or assembler) language, often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language, in which there is a very strong (but often not one-to-one) correspondence between the assembly program statements and the architecture's machine code instructions.
Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI) is a research management corporation that builds and operates facilities for the research community.
AT&T Corp., originally the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, is the subsidiary of AT&T that provides voice, video, data, and Internet telecommunications and professional services to businesses, consumers, and government agencies.
The Bailey–Borwein–Plouffe formula (BBP formula) is a spigot algorithm for computing the nth binary digit of the mathematical constant pi using base-16 representation.
Base32 is one of several base 32 transfer encodings using a 32-character subset of the twenty-six letters A–Z and ten digits 0–9.
Base58 is a group of binary-to-text encoding schemes used to represent large integers as alphanumeric text, introduced by Satoshi Nakamoto for use with Bitcoin.
Base64 is a group of similar binary-to-text encoding schemes that represent binary data in an ASCII string format by translating it into a radix-64 representation.
BASIC (an acronym for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages whose design philosophy emphasizes ease of use.
BBC BASIC is a programming language, developed in 1981 as a native programming language for the MOS Technology 6502 based Acorn BBC Micro home/personal computer.
The Bendix Aviation Corporation was a manufacturer of aircraft parts based from 1929 to 1960 in Los Angeles, California.
The Bendix G-15 computer was introduced in 1956 by the Bendix Corporation, Computer Division, Los Angeles, California.
The Bibi-binary system for numeric notation (in French système Bibi-binaire, or abbreviated "système Bibi") is a hexadecimal numeral system first described in 1968 by singer/mathematician Robert "Boby" Lapointe (1922–1972).
A binary code represents text, computer processor instructions, or any other data using a two-symbol system.
In mathematics and digital electronics, a binary number is a number expressed in the base-2 numeral system or binary numeral system, which uses only two symbols: typically 0 (zero) and 1 (one).
A binary-to-text encoding is encoding of data in plain text.
The bit (a portmanteau of binary digit) is a basic unit of information used in computing and digital communications.
In digital computer programming, a bitwise operation operates on one or more bit patterns or binary numerals at the level of their individual bits.
Robert (Boby) Lapointe (16 April 1922 – 29 June 1972) was a French actor and singer, noted for his humorous texts, alliterations and plays on words.
The Bourne shell (sh) is a shell, or command-line interpreter, for computer operating systems.
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory located in Upton, New York, on Long Island, and was formally established in 1947 at the site of Camp Upton, a former U.S. Army base.
The byte is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bits, representing a binary number.
C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
C# (/si: ʃɑːrp/) is a multi-paradigm programming language encompassing strong typing, imperative, declarative, functional, generic, object-oriented (class-based), and component-oriented programming disciplines.
C++ ("see plus plus") is a general-purpose programming language.
C99 (previously known as C9X) is an informal name for ISO/IEC 9899:1999, a past version of the C programming language standard.
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation of a document written in a markup language like HTML.
A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.
Character encoding is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of encoding system.
Chinese units of measurement, known in Chinese as the shìzhì ("market system"), are the traditional units of measurement of the Han Chinese.
In geometry, the circumference (from Latin circumferentia, meaning "carrying around") of a circle is the (linear) distance around it.
Classical compounds and neoclassical compounds are compound words composed from combining forms (which act as affixes or stems) derived from classical Latin or ancient Greek roots.
COBOL (an acronym for "common business-oriented language") is a compiled English-like computer programming language designed for business use.
Commodore BASIC, also known as PET BASIC, is the dialect of the BASIC programming language used in Commodore International's 8-bit home computer line, stretching from the PET of 1977 to the C128 of 1985.
Common Lisp (CL) is a dialect of the Lisp programming language, published in ANSI standard document ANSI INCITS 226-1994 (R2004) (formerly X3.226-1994 (R1999)).
Communications of the ACM is the monthly journal of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM).
Compute!, often stylized as COMPUTE!, was an American home computer magazine that was published from 1979 to 1994.
Computers and Typesetting is a 5-volume set of books by Donald Knuth published in 1986 describing the TeX and Metafont systems for digital typography.
Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computers.
CTAN (an acronym for "Comprehensive TeX Archive Network") is the authoritative place where TeX related material and software can be found for download.
In geometry, a cube is a three-dimensional solid object bounded by six square faces, facets or sides, with three meeting at each vertex.
A cyclic number is an integer in which cyclic permutations of the digits are successive multiples of the number.
D is an object-oriented, imperative, multi-paradigm system programming language created by Walter Bright of Digital Mars and released in 2001.
The decimal numeral system (also called base-ten positional numeral system, and occasionally called denary) is the standard system for denoting integer and non-integer numbers.
In geometry, a diagonal is a line segment joining two vertices of a polygon or polyhedron, when those vertices are not on the same edge.
In geometry, a diameter of a circle is any straight line segment that passes through the center of the circle and whose endpoints lie on the circle.
A digit is one of several most distal parts of a limb, such as fingers or toes, present in many vertebrates.
Donald Ervin Knuth (born January 10, 1938) is an American computer scientist, mathematician, and professor emeritus at Stanford University.
A dozen (commonly abbreviated doz or dz) is a grouping of twelve.
The duodecimal system (also known as base 12 or dozenal) is a positional notation numeral system using twelve as its base.
The number is a mathematical constant, approximately equal to 2.71828, which appears in many different settings throughout mathematics.
Elektronika B3-34 (Cyrillic: Электроника Б3-34) was a Soviet programmable calculator.
In computing and telecommunication, an escape character is a character which invokes an alternative interpretation on subsequent characters in a character sequence.
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
The Euler–Mascheroni constant (also called Euler's constant) is a mathematical constant recurring in analysis and number theory, usually denoted by the lowercase Greek letter gamma.
The euro sign (€) is the currency sign used for the euro, the official currency of the Eurozone in the European Union (EU).
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
In computing, floating-point arithmetic is arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation so as to support a trade-off between range and precision.
A floating-point unit (FPU, colloquially a math coprocessor) is a part of a computer system specially designed to carry out operations on floating point numbers.
Forth is an imperative stack-based computer programming language and environment originally designed by Charles "Chuck" Moore.
FreeBASIC is a multiplatform, free/open source (GPL) BASIC compiler for Microsoft Windows, protected-mode MS-DOS (DOS extender), Linux, FreeBSD and Xbox.
GameMaker Studio (formerly Animo until 1999, Game Maker until 2011, GameMaker until 2012, and GameMaker: Studio until 2017) is a cross-platform game engine developed by YoYo Games.
Godot is a 2D and 3D cross-platform compatible game engine released as open source software under the MIT license.
In mathematics, two quantities are in the golden ratio if their ratio is the same as the ratio of their sum to the larger of the two quantities.
The graphical user interface (GUI), is a type of user interface that allows users to interact with electronic devices through graphical icons and visual indicators such as secondary notation, instead of text-based user interfaces, typed command labels or text navigation.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
In English and related languages, several terms involving the words "great" or "gross" (possibly, from grosse thick) relate to numbers involving multiples of exponents of twelve (dozen).
In mathematics, the harmonic series is the divergent infinite series: Its name derives from the concept of overtones, or harmonics in music: the wavelengths of the overtones of a vibrating string are,,, etc., of the string's fundamental wavelength.
In computing, a hex dump is a hexadecimal view (on screen or paper) of computer data, from RAM or from a file or storage device.
A hex editor (or binary file editor or byte editor) is a type of computer program that allows for manipulation of the fundamental binary data that constitutes a computer file.
Hexadecimal time is the representation of the time of day as a hexadecimal number in the interval.
In computing, a hextet is a sixteen-bit aggregation, or four nibbles.
IBM i is an operating system that runs on IBM Power Systems and on IBM PureSystems.
The IBM System i is IBM's previous generation of midrange computer systems for IBM i users, and was subsequently replaced by the IBM Power Systems in April 2008.
IBM Z is a family name used by IBM for all of its mainframe computers from the Z900 on.
The IEEE Standard for Floating-Point Arithmetic (IEEE 754) is a technical standard for floating-point computation established in 1985 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).
IEEE 754-2008 (previously known as IEEE 754r) was published in August 2008 and is a significant revision to, and replaces, the IEEE 754-1985 floating point standard.
The ILLIAC I (Illinois Automatic Computer), a pioneering computer built in 1952 by the University of Illinois, was the first computer built and owned entirely by a US educational institution.
International scientific vocabulary (ISV) comprises scientific and specialized words whose language of origin may or may not be certain, but which are in current use in several modern languages (that is, translingually).
Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is the fourth version of the Internet Protocol (IP).
An Internet Protocol Version 6 address (IPv6 address) is a numerical label that is used to identify a network interface of a computer or a network node participating in an IPv6 computer network.
In mathematics, the irrational numbers are all the real numbers which are not rational numbers, the latter being the numbers constructed from ratios (or fractions) of integers.
Java is a general-purpose computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
Job Control Language (JCL) is a name for scripting languages used on IBM mainframe operating systems to instruct the system on how to run a batch job or start a subsystem.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The LGP-30, standing for Librascope General Purpose and then Librascope General Precision, was an early off-the-shelf computer.
Locomotive Basic is a proprietary dialect of the BASIC programming language written by Locomotive Software used only on the Amstrad CPC (where it was built-in on ROM).
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
Microsoft BASIC is the foundation product of the Microsoft company.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) is an Internet standard that extends the format of email to support.
Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική Γλώσσα "Neo-Hellenic", historically and colloquially also known as Ρωμαίικα "Romaic" or "Roman", and Γραικικά "Greek") refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era.
The MOS Technology 6502 (typically "sixty-five-oh-two" or "six-five-oh-two") William Mensch and the moderator both pronounce the 6502 microprocessor as "sixty-five-oh-two".
Motorola, Inc. was an American multinational telecommunications company founded on September 25, 1928, based in Schaumburg, Illinois.
MSX BASIC is a dialect of the BASIC programming language.
The NATO phonetic alphabet, officially denoted as the International Radiotelephony Spelling Alphabet, and also commonly known as the ICAO phonetic alphabet, and in a variation also known officially as the ITU phonetic alphabet and figure code, is the most widely used radiotelephone spelling alphabet.
The natural logarithm of a number is its logarithm to the base of the mathematical constant ''e'', where e is an irrational and transcendental number approximately equal to.
is a Japanese multinational provider of information technology (IT) services and products, headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan.
In computing, a nibble (occasionally nybble or nyble to match the spelling of byte) is a four-bit aggregation, or half an octet.
A numeral system (or system of numeration) is a writing system for expressing numbers; that is, a mathematical notation for representing numbers of a given set, using digits or other symbols in a consistent manner.
A numeric character reference (NCR) is a common markup construct used in SGML and SGML-derived markup languages such as HTML and XML.
A numeric keypad, number pad, numpad, or ten key, is the palm-sized, 17-key section of a standard computer keyboard, usually on the far right.
Object Pascal refers to a branch of object-oriented derivatives of Pascal, mostly known as the primary programming language of Delphi.
The octal numeral system, or oct for short, is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7.
An overline, overscore, or overbar, is a typographical feature of a horizontal line drawn immediately above the text.
Parametron is a logic circuit element invented by Eiichi Goto in 1954.
Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, which Niklaus Wirth designed in 1968–69 and published in 1970, as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring. It is named in honor of the French mathematician, philosopher and physicist Blaise Pascal. Pascal was developed on the pattern of the ALGOL 60 language. Wirth had already developed several improvements to this language as part of the ALGOL X proposals, but these were not accepted and Pascal was developed separately and released in 1970. A derivative known as Object Pascal designed for object-oriented programming was developed in 1985; this was used by Apple Computer and Borland in the late 1980s and later developed into Delphi on the Microsoft Windows platform. Extensions to the Pascal concepts led to the Pascal-like languages Modula-2 and Oberon.
Percent-encoding, also known as URL encoding, is a mechanism for encoding information in a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) under certain circumstances.
The number is a mathematical constant.
In digital imaging, a pixel, pel, dots, or picture element is a physical point in a raster image, or the smallest addressable element in an all points addressable display device; so it is the smallest controllable element of a picture represented on the screen.
PL/I (Programming Language One, pronounced) is a procedural, imperative computer programming language designed for scientific, engineering, business and system programming uses.
Positional notation or place-value notation is a method of representing or encoding numbers.
The Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX) is a family of standards specified by the IEEE Computer Society for maintaining compatibility between operating systems.
PostScript (PS) is a page description language in the electronic publishing and desktop publishing business.
In mathematics, a power of two is a number of the form where is an integer, i.e. the result of exponentiation with number two as the base and integer as the exponent.
PowerShell is a task automation and configuration management framework from Microsoft, consisting of a command-line shell and associated scripting language.
A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that cannot be formed by multiplying two smaller natural numbers.
Printf format string refers to a control parameter used by a class of functions in the input/output libraries of C and many other programming languages.
In computer architecture, a processor register is a quickly accessible location available to a computer's central processing unit (CPU).
Programmable calculators are calculators that can automatically carry out a sequence of operations under control of a stored program, much like a computer.
In mathematics, the Prouhet–Thue–Morse constant, named for Eugène Prouhet, Axel Thue, and Marston Morse, is the number—denoted by \tau—whose binary expansion.01101001100101101001011001101001...
Python is an interpreted high-level programming language for general-purpose programming.
Quaternary is the base- numeral system.
Microsoft QuickBASIC (also QB) is an Integrated Development Environment (or IDE) and compiler for the BASIC programming language that was developed by Microsoft.
Quoted-Printable, or QP encoding, is an encoding using printable ASCII characters (alphanumeric and the equals sign.
In mathematical numeral systems, the radix or base is the number of unique digits, including zero, used to represent numbers in a positional numeral system.
In mathematics, a rational number is any number that can be expressed as the quotient or fraction of two integers, a numerator and a non-zero denominator.
In Euclidean plane geometry, a rectangle is a quadrilateral with four right angles.
A repeating or recurring decimal is decimal representation of a number whose digits are periodic (repeating its values at regular intervals) and the infinitely-repeated portion is not zero.
Royal McBee was the computer manufacturing and retail division of Royal Typewriter which sold and serviced early computers RPC-4000 and RPC-9000.
Scientific notation (also referred to as scientific form or standard index form, or standard form in the UK) is a way of expressing numbers that are too big or too small to be conveniently written in decimal form.
A seven-segment display (SSD), or seven-segment indicator, is a form of electronic display device for displaying decimal numerals that is an alternative to the more complex dot matrix displays.
Sexagesimal (base 60) is a numeral system with sixty as its base.
In computing, signedness is a property of data types representing numbers in computer programs.
The Single UNIX Specification (SUS) is the collective name of a family of standards for computer operating systems, compliance with which is required to qualify for using the "UNIX" trademark.
Smalltalk is an object-oriented, dynamically typed, reflective programming language.
In geometry, a square is a regular quadrilateral, which means that it has four equal sides and four equal angles (90-degree angles, or (100-gradian angles or right angles). It can also be defined as a rectangle in which two adjacent sides have equal length. A square with vertices ABCD would be denoted.
In mathematics, a square number or perfect square is an integer that is the square of an integer; in other words, it is the product of some integer with itself.
The square root of 2, or the (1/2)th power of 2, written in mathematics as or, is the positive algebraic number that, when multiplied by itself, gives the number 2.
The square root of 3 is the positive real number that, when multiplied by itself, gives the number 3.
The square root of 5 is the positive real number that, when multiplied by itself, gives the prime number 5.
The suanpan, also spelled suan pan or souanpan) is an abacus of Chinese origin first described in a 190 CE book of the Eastern Han Dynasty, namely Supplementary Notes on the Art of Figures written by Xu Yue. However, the exact design of this suanpan is not known. Usually, a suanpan is about 20 cm (8 in) tall and it comes in various widths depending on the application. It usually has more than seven rods. There are two beads on each rod in the upper deck and five beads on each rod in the bottom deck. This configuration is used for both decimal and hexadecimal computation. The beads are usually rounded and made of a hardwood. The beads are counted by moving them up or down towards the beam. The suanpan can be reset to the starting position instantly by a quick jerk around the horizontal axis to spin all the beads away from the horizontal beam at the center. Suanpans can be used for functions other than counting. Unlike the simple counting board used in elementary schools, very efficient suanpan techniques have been developed to do multiplication, division, addition, subtraction, square root and cube root operations at high speed. The modern suanpan has 4+1 beads, colored beads to indicate position and a clear-all button. When the clear-all button is pressed, two mechanical levers push the top row beads to the top position and the bottom row beads to the bottom position, thus clearing all numbers to zero. This replaces clearing the beads by hand, or quickly rotating the suanpan around its horizontal center line to clear the beads by centrifugal force.
The SWAC (Standards Western Automatic Computer) was an early electronic digital computer built in 1950 by the U.S. National Bureau of Standards (NBS) in Los Angeles, California.
Tael (at the OED Online.) or tahil can refer to any one of several weight measures of the Far East.
Texas Instruments Inc. (TI) is an American technology company that designs and manufactures semiconductors and various integrated circuits, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally.
The Art of Computer Programming (sometimes known by its initials TAOCP) is a comprehensive monograph written by Donald Knuth that covers many kinds of programming algorithms and their analysis.
The TI-89 and the TI-89 Titanium are graphing calculators developed by Texas Instruments (TI).
Transaction Processing Facility (TPF) is an IBM real-time operating system for mainframe computers descended from the IBM System/360 family, including zSeries and System z9.
Two's complement is a mathematical operation on binary numbers, best known for its role in computing as a method of signed number representation.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a string of characters designed for unambiguous identification of resources and extensibility via the URI scheme.
A universally unique identifier (UUID) is a 128-bit number used to identify information in computer systems.
The University of Illinois Urbana–Champaign (also known as U of I, Illinois, or colloquially as the University of Illinois or UIUC) is a public research university in the U.S. state of Illinois and the flagship institution of the University of Illinois System.
A Unix-like (sometimes referred to as UN*X or *nix) operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification.
A Uniform Resource Locator (URL), colloquially termed a web address, is a reference to a web resource that specifies its location on a computer network and a mechanism for retrieving it.
Verilog, standardized as IEEE 1364, is a hardware description language (HDL) used to model electronic systems.
VHDL (VHSIC Hardware Description Language) is a hardware description language used in electronic design automation to describe digital and mixed-signal systems such as field-programmable gate arrays and integrated circuits.
The vigesimal or base 20 numeral system is based on twenty (in the same way in which the decimal numeral system is based on ten).
Visual Basic is a third-generation event-driven programming language and integrated development environment (IDE) from Microsoft for its Component Object Model (COM) programming model first released in 1991 and declared legacy during 2008.
z/VSE (Virtual Storage Extended) is an operating system for IBM mainframe computers, the latest one in the DOS/360 lineage, which originated in 1965.
Web colors are colors used in displaying web pages, and the methods for describing and specifying those colors.
Windows Calculator is a software calculator included in all versions of Windows.
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the main international standards organization for the World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or W3).
The X Window System (X11, or shortened to simply X) is a windowing system for bitmap displays, common on UNIX-like computer operating systems.
Extensible Hypertext Markup Language (XHTML) is part of the family of XML markup languages.
In computing, Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable.
z/OS is a 64-bit operating system for IBM mainframes, produced by IBM.
z/VM is the current version in IBM's VM family of virtual machine operating systems.
1728 is the natural number following 1727 and preceding 1729.
2 (two) is a number, numeral, and glyph.
20 (twenty) is the natural number following 19 and preceding 21.
The 7400 series of transistor–transistor logic (TTL) integrated circuits are the most popular family of TTL integrated circuit logic.
0x (prefix), A (digit), B (digit), Base 16, Base-16, Base16, C (digit), D (digit), E (digit), F (digit), HEX (calculator mode), Hex digit, Hex numeral system, Hex system, Hexadecimal digit, Hexadecimal exponential notation, Hexadecimal floating-point constant, Hexadecimal floating-point literal, Hexadecimal format, Hexadecimal notation, Hexadecimal number, Hexadecimal numeral system, Hexadecimal representation, Hexadecimal system, Hexadecimals, Hexdecimal, Hexdecimal numbering system, Hexidecimal, Hexidecimals, Sedenary, Senidenary, Sexadecimal, Sexadecimal language, Sexadecimal notation, Sexidecimal, \x.