A (named, plural As, A's, as, a's or aes) is the first letter and the first vowel of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
A (А а; italics: А а) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux).
ActionScript is an object-oriented programming language originally developed by Macromedia Inc. (later acquired by Adobe Systems).
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.
In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building software.
The Armenian alphabet (Հայոց գրեր Hayoc' grer or Հայոց այբուբեն Hayoc' aybowben; Eastern Armenian:; Western Armenian) is an alphabetical writing system used to write Armenian.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
In computer programming, an assertion is a statement that a predicate (Boolean-valued function, i.e. a true–false expression) is always true at that point in code execution.
The name Atom applies to a pair of related Web standards.
The Balinese script, natively known as Aksara Bali and Hanacaraka, is an alphabet used in the island of Bali, Indonesia, commonly for writing the Austronesian Balinese language, Old Javanese, and the liturgical language Sanskrit.
Base64 is a group of similar binary-to-text encoding schemes that represent binary data in an ASCII string format by translating it into a radix-64 representation.
Various binary formats have been proposed as compact representations for XML (Extensible Markup Language).
The C0 and C1 control code or control character sets define control codes for use in text by computer systems that use the ISO/IEC 2022 system of specifying control and graphic characters.
In computer programming, a callback, also known as a "call-after" function, is any executable code that is passed as an argument to other code, which is expected to call back (execute) the argument at a given time.
Canonical XML is a normal form of XML, intended to allow relatively simple comparison of pairs of XML documents for equivalence; for this purpose, the Canonical XML transformation removes non-meaningful differences between the documents.
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation of a document written in a markup language like HTML.
The term CDATA, meaning character data, is used for distinct, but related purposes in the markup languages SGML and XML.
The Cham alphabet is an abugida used to write Cham, an Austronesian language spoken by some 230,000 Chams in Vietnam and Cambodia.
Character encoding is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of encoding system.
Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
In telecommunication, a communication protocol is a system of rules that allow two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity.
This is a comparison of data serialization formats, various ways to convert complex objects to sequences of bits.
The following tables compare XML compatibility and support for a number of layout engines.
Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computers.
In computing and telecommunication, a control character or non-printing character is a code point (a number) in a character set, that does not represent a written symbol.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
Dan Connolly (born 1967) is an American computer scientist who was closely involved with the creation of the world-wide web as a member of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).
The Darwin Information Typing Architecture or Document Information Typing Architecture (DITA) is an XML data model for authoring and publishing.
In computer science, a data structure is a data organization and storage format that enables efficient access and modification.
In computer science and computer programming, a data type or simply type is a classification of data which tells the compiler or interpreter how the programmer intends to use the data.
A digital signature is a mathematical scheme for presenting the authenticity of digital messages or documents.
The Document Object Model (DOM) is a cross-platform and language-independent application programming interface that treats an HTML, XHTML, or XML document as a tree structure wherein each node is an object representing a part of the document.
Document Schema Definition Languages (DSDL) is a framework within which multiple validation tasks of different types can be applied to an XML document in order to achieve more complete validation results than just the application of a single technology.
A document type definition (DTD) is a set of markup declarations that define a document type for an SGML-family markup language (SGML, XML, HTML).
Draco (Δράκων, Drakōn; fl. c. 7th century BC) was the first recorded legislator of Athens in Ancient Greece.
Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code (EBCDIC) is an eight-bit character encoding used mainly on IBM mainframe and IBM midrange computer operating systems.
ECMAScript (or ES) is a trademarked scripting-language specification standardized by Ecma International in ECMA-262 and ISO/IEC 16262.
An electronic document is any electronic media content (other than computer programs or system files) that are intended to be used in either an electronic form or as printed output.
In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot.
An escape sequence is a series of characters used to change the state of computers and their attached peripheral devices, rather than to be displayed or printed as regular data bytes would be.
In computing, an event is an action or occurrence recognized by software, often originating asynchronously from the external environment, that may be handled by the software.
In computer programming, event-driven programming is a programming paradigm in which the flow of the program is determined by events such as user actions (mouse clicks, key presses), sensor outputs, or messages from other programs/threads.
Extensible Binary Meta Language (EBML) is a generalized file format for any kind of data, aiming to be a binary equivalent to XML.
Fast Infoset (or FI) is an international standard that specifies a binary encoding format for the XML Information Set (XML Infoset) as an alternative to the XML document format.
A file format is a standard way that information is encoded for storage in a computer file.
In programming language design, a first-class citizen (also type, object, entity, or value) in a given programming language is an entity which supports all the operations generally available to other entities.
FpML (Financial products Markup Language) is a business information exchange standard based on Extensible Markup Language (XML) that enables business-to-business over-the-counter (OTC) financial derivative transactions online by following W3C standards.
gSOAP is a C and C++ software development toolkit for SOAP/XML web services and generic XML data bindings.
Health Level-7 or HL7 refers to a set of international standards for transfer of clinical and administrative data between software applications used by various healthcare providers.
In orthography and typography, a homoglyph is one of two or more graphemes, characters, or glyphs with shapes that appear identical or very similar.
Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) is the standard markup language for creating web pages and web applications.
A human-readable medium or human-readable format is a representation of data or information that can be naturally read by humans.
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, and hypermedia information systems.
HyTime (Hypermedia/Time-based Structuring Language) is a markup language that is an application of SGML.
The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC; in French: Commission électrotechnique internationale) is an international standards organization that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies – collectively known as "electrotechnology".
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
ISO/IEC 8859 is a joint ISO and IEC series of standards for 8-bit character encodings.
In mathematics, an isomorphism (from the Ancient Greek: ἴσος isos "equal", and μορφή morphe "form" or "shape") is a homomorphism or morphism (i.e. a mathematical mapping) that can be reversed by an inverse morphism.
In object-oriented programming, the iterator pattern is a design pattern in which an iterator is used to traverse a container and access the container's elements.
iWork is an office suite of applications created by Apple Inc. for its macOS and iOS operating systems, and also available cross-platform through the iCloud website.
James Clark (23 February 1964) is the author of groff and expat, and has done much work with open-source software and XML.
Java is a general-purpose computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
Java Architecture for XML Binding (JAXB) is a software framework that allows Java developers to map Java classes to XML representations.
Jean Paoli is one of the inventors of XML.
John Woldemar Cowan is an American programmer known for work with XML and Unicode.
Jon Bosak led the creation of the XML specification at the W3C.
Keyhole Markup Language (KML) is an XML notation for expressing geographic annotation and visualization within Internet-based, two-dimensional maps and three-dimensional Earth browsers.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
In computing, a binding from a programming language to a library or operating system service is an application programming interface (API) providing glue code to use that library or service in a given programming language.
Language Integrated Query (LINQ, pronounced "link") is a Microsoft.NET Framework component that adds native data querying capabilities to.NET languages.
In computer science, lexical analysis, lexing or tokenization is the process of converting a sequence of characters (such as in a computer program or web page) into a sequence of tokens (strings with an assigned and thus identified meaning).
LibreOffice is a free and open source office suite, a project of The Document Foundation.
This is a list of XML schemas in use on the Internet sorted by purpose.
This is a list of XML markup languages.
Machine-readable data is data (or metadata) in a format that can be easily processed by a computer.
A macro (short for "macroinstruction", from Greek μακρός 'long') in computer science is a rule or pattern that specifies how a certain input sequence (often a sequence of characters) should be mapped to a replacement output sequence (also often a sequence of characters) according to a defined procedure.
In computer text processing, a markup language is a system for annotating a document in a way that is syntactically distinguishable from the text.
A media type (formerly known as MIME type) is a two-part identifier for file formats and format contents transmitted on the Internet.
Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
A method in object-oriented programming (OOP) is a procedure associated with a message and an object.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
Microsoft Office is a family of client software, server software, and services developed by Microsoft.
The Mortgage Industry Standards Maintenance Organization, (MISMO) is a US not-for-profit subsidiary of the Mortgage Bankers Association (MBA).
Mozilla (stylized as moz://a) is a free software community founded in 1998 by members of Netscape.
A naming collision is a circumstance where two or more identifiers in a given namespace or a given scope cannot be unambiguously resolved, and such unambiguous resolution is a requirement of the underlying system.
Netscape is a brand name associated with the development of the Netscape web browser.
A node is a basic unit used in computer science.
In word processing and digital typesetting, a non-breaking space (" "), also called no-break space, non-breakable space (NBSP), hard space, or fixed space, is a space character that prevents an automatic line break at its position.
The null character (also null terminator or null byte), abbreviated NUL, is a control character with the value zero.
A numeric character reference (NCR) is a common markup construct used in SGML and SGML-derived markup languages such as HTML and XML.
O'Reilly Media (formerly O'Reilly & Associates) is an American media company established by Tim O'Reilly that publishes books and Web sites and produces conferences on computer technology topics.
The Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) is a global nonprofit consortium that works on the development, convergence, and adoption of standards for security, Internet of Things, energy, content technologies, emergency management, and other areas.
In computer science, an object can be a variable, a data structure, a function, or a method, and as such, is a value in memory referenced by an identifier.
Office Open XML (also informally known as OOXML or Microsoft Open XML (MOX)) is a zipped, XML-based file format developed by Microsoft for representing spreadsheets, charts, presentations and word processing documents.
An open standard is a standard that is publicly available and has various rights to use associated with it, and may also have various properties of how it was designed (e.g. open process).
The Open Document Format for Office Applications (ODF), also known as OpenDocument, is a ZIP-compressed XML-based file format for spreadsheets, charts, presentations and word processing documents.
OpenOffice.org (OOo), commonly known as OpenOffice, is a discontinued open-source office suite.
The OpenTravel Alliance is a not-for-profit trade association, founded in 1999 by travel companies, with a primary focus on the creation of electronic message structures to facilitate communication between the disparate systems in the global travel industry, including the use of XML.
Perl is a family of two high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages, Perl 5 and Perl 6.
The Phoenician alphabet, called by convention the Proto-Canaanite alphabet for inscriptions older than around 1050 BC, is the oldest verified alphabet.
PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor (or simply PHP) is a server-side scripting language designed for Web development, but also used as a general-purpose programming language.
Pierre Genevès is a French computer scientist born in 1980.
In the Unicode standard, a plane is a continuous group of 65,536 (216) code points.
In computing, a plug-in (or plugin, add-in, addin, add-on, addon, or extension) is a software component that adds a specific feature to an existing computer program.
A Processing Instruction (PI) is an SGML and XML node type, which may occur anywhere in the document, intended to carry instructions to the application.
In standardization, a profile is a subset internal to a specification.
Publishing is the dissemination of literature, music, or information—the activity of making information available to the general public.
Python is an interpreted high-level programming language for general-purpose programming.
In computer science, a recursive descent parser is a kind of top-down parser built from a set of mutually recursive procedures (or a non-recursive equivalent) where each such procedure usually implements one of the productions of the grammar.
In Information theory, redundancy measures the fractional difference between the entropy of an ensemble, and its maximum possible value \log(|\mathcal_X|).
A regular expression, regex or regexp (sometimes called a rational expression) is, in theoretical computer science and formal language theory, a sequence of characters that define a search pattern.
In computing, RELAX NG (REgular LAnguage for XML Next Generation) is a schema language for XML - a RELAX NG schema specifies a pattern for the structure and content of an XML document.
The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a family of World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) specifications originally designed as a metadata data model.
Richard (Rick) Alan Jelliffe (born 1960) is an Australian programmer and standards activist (ISO, W3C, IETF), particularly associated with web standards, markup languages, internationalization and schema languages.
In computing, the robustness principle is a design guideline for software: The principle is also known as Postel's law, after Jon Postel, who wrote in an early specification of TCP: In other words, programs that send messages to other machines (or to other programs on the same machine) should conform completely to the specifications, but programs that receive messages should accept non-conformant input as long as the meaning is clear.
Routing is the process of selecting a path for traffic in a network, or between or across multiple networks.
RSS (Rich Site Summary; originally RDF Site Summary; often called Really Simple Syndication) is a type of web feed which allows users to access updates to online content in a standardized, computer-readable format.
In computing, s-expressions, sexprs or sexps (for "symbolic expression") are a notation for nested list (tree-structured) data, invented for and popularized by the programming language Lisp, which uses them for source code as well as data.
Scala is a general-purpose programming language providing support for functional programming and a strong static type system.
Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) is an XML-based vector image format for two-dimensional graphics with support for interactivity and animation.
In markup languages, Schematron is a rule-based validation language for making assertions about the presence or absence of patterns in XML trees.
In computer programming, self-documenting (or self-describing) source code and user interfaces follow naming conventions and structured programming conventions that enable use of the system without prior specific knowledge.
Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
In computer science, in the context of data storage, serialization is the process of translating data structures or object state into a format that can be stored (for example, in a file or memory buffer) or transmitted (for example, across a network connection link) and reconstructed later (possibly in a different computer environment).
A service-oriented architecture (SOA) is a style of software design where services are provided to the other components by application components, through a communication protocol over a network.
In the Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), an entity is a primitive data type, which associates a string with either a unique alias (such as a user-specified name) or an SGML reserved word (such as #DEFAULT).
SAX (Simple API for XML) is an event-driven online algorithm for parsing XML documents, with an API developed by the XML-DEV mailing list.
A skunkworks project is a project developed by a small and loosely structured group of people who research and develop a project primarily for the sake of radical innovation.
Smalltalk is an object-oriented, dynamically typed, reflective programming language.
SOAP (originally Simple Object Access Protocol) is a messaging protocol specification for exchanging structured information in the implementation of web services in computer networks.
In software, a feature has several definitions.
In writing, a space ( ) is a blank area that separates words, sentences, syllables (in syllabification) and other written or printed glyphs (characters).
The Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML; ISO 8879:1986) is a standard for defining generalized markup languages for documents.
Streaming API for XML (StAX) is an application programming interface (API) to read and write XML documents, originating from the Java programming language community.
Sun Microsystems, Inc. was an American company that sold computers, computer components, software, and information technology services and created the Java programming language, the Solaris operating system, ZFS, the Network File System (NFS), and SPARC.
Tag omission is an optional feature to minimize an SGML document.
The Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) is a text-centric community of practice in the academic field of digital humanities, operating continuously since the 1980s.
Timothy William Bray (born June 21, 1955) is a Canadian software developer and entrepreneur and one of the co-authors of the original XML specification.
In computer science, type safety is the extent to which a programming language discourages or prevents type errors.
In programming languages, a type system is a set of rules that assigns a property called type to the various constructs of a computer program, such as variables, expressions, functions or modules.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
UTF-16 (16-bit Unicode Transformation Format) is a character encoding capable of encoding all 1,112,064 valid code points of Unicode.
UTF-8 is a variable width character encoding capable of encoding all 1,112,064 valid code points in Unicode using one to four 8-bit bytes.
WAP Binary XML (WBXML) is a binary representation of XML.
The term web service is either.
A well-formed document in XML is a document that "adheres to the syntax rules specified by the XML 1.0 specification in that it must satisfy both physical and logical structures".
In web page design, and generally for all markup languages such as SGML, HTML, and XML, a well-formed element is one that is either a) opened and subsequently closed, or b) an empty element, which in that case must be terminated; and in either case which is properly nested so that it does not overlap with other elements. For example, in HTML: word is a well-formed element, while word is not, since the bold element is not closed. In XHTML, and XML, empty elements (elements that inherently have no content) are terminated by putting a slash at the end of the "opening" (only) tag, e.g.,,, etc. In HTML 4.01 and earlier, no slash is added to terminate the element. HTML5 does not require one, but it is often added for compatibility with XHTML and XML processing. In a well-formed document,.
A working group or working party is a group of experts working together to achieve specified goals.
The World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or the Web) is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and accessible via the Internet.
The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the main international standards organization for the World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or W3).
XHP is an augmentation of PHP and Hack developed at Facebook to allow XML syntax for the purpose of creating custom and reusable HTML elements.
Extensible Hypertext Markup Language (XHTML) is part of the family of XML markup languages.
XInclude is a generic mechanism for merging XML documents, by writing inclusion tags in the "main" document to automatically include other documents or parts thereof.
XML Linking Language, or XLink, is an XML markup language and W3C specification that provides methods for creating internal and external links within XML documents, and associating metadata with those links.
XML Base is a World Wide Web Consortium recommended facility for defining base URIs, for resolving relative URIs, in parts of XML documents.
XML data binding refers to a means of representing information in an XML document as a business object in computer memory.
An XML database is a data persistence software system that allows data to be specified, and sometimes stored, in XML format.
XML Encryption, also known as XML-Enc, is a specification, governed by a W3C recommendation, that defines how to encrypt the contents of an XML element.
XML Information Set (XML Infoset) is a W3C specification describing an abstract data model of an XML document in terms of a set of information items.
XML namespaces are used for providing uniquely named elements and attributes in an XML document.
The XML Protocol ("XMLP") is a standard being developed by the W3C XML Protocol Working Group to the following guidelines, outlined in the group's charter.
An XML schema is a description of a type of XML document, typically expressed in terms of constraints on the structure and content of documents of that type, above and beyond the basic syntactical constraints imposed by XML itself.
XSD (XML Schema Definition), a recommendation of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), specifies how to formally describe the elements in an Extensible Markup Language (XML) document.
XML Signature (also called XMLDSig, XML-DSig, XML-Sig) defines an XML syntax for digital signatures and is defined in the W3C recommendation.
XML validation is the process of checking a document written in XML (eXtensible Markup Language) to confirm that it is both well-formed and also "valid" in that it follows a defined structure.
Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) is a communication protocol for message-oriented middleware based on XML (Extensible Markup Language).
XPath (XML Path Language) is a query language for selecting nodes from an XML document.
XPointer is a system for addressing components of XML-based Internet media.
XQuery (XML Query) is a query and functional programming language that queries and transforms collections of structured and unstructured data, usually in the form of XML, text and with vendor-specific extensions for other data formats (JSON, binary, etc.). The language is developed by the XML Query working group of the W3C.
In computing, the term Extensible Stylesheet Language (XSL) is used to refer to a family of languages used to transform and render XML documents.
XSL-FO (XSL Formatting Objects) is a markup language for XML document formatting that is most often used to generate PDF files.
XSLT (Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations) is a language for transforming XML documents into other XML documents, or other formats such as HTML for web pages, plain text or XSL Formatting Objects, which may subsequently be converted to other formats, such as PDF, PostScript and PNG.
YAML (YAML Ain't Markup Language) is a human-readable data serialization language.
.NET Framework (pronounced dot net) is a software framework developed by Microsoft that runs primarily on Microsoft Windows.
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