132 relations: A Mathematical Theory of Communication, Addison-Wesley, Address space, Alphanumeric, Analytical Engine, Barcode, Basile Bouchon, Baud, Binary number, Bit blit, Bit numbering, Bit-length, Biting, Bitmap, Bitstream, Bitwise operation, Bubble memory, Byte, Byte (magazine), Capacitor, Cathode ray tube, Central processing unit, Character (computing), Charles Babbage, Classical mechanics, Claude Shannon, Communication, Communications of the ACM, Computer, Computer architecture, Computer hardware, Computer program, Computing, Credit card, Data storage, Delay line memory, Disk storage, DNA, Drum memory, Dynamic random-access memory, E (mathematical constant), Electric charge, Electric current, Electrical network, Electrical polarity, Electricity, Elevator, Entropy (information theory), Exabyte, Ferromagnetism, ..., Flip-flop (electronics), Fred Brooks, Gerrit Blaauw, Hartley (unit), Herman Hollerith, IBM, IBM 7030 Stretch, IBM System/360, IEC 60027, IEEE 1541-2002, IEEE Std 260.1-2004, IEEE Transactions on Computers, Information, Information theory, Integer (computer science), International Electrotechnical Commission, International System of Units, Irradiance, ISO/IEC 80000, John Tukey, Joseph Marie Jacquard, Kilo-, Kilobit, Konrad Zuse, Logarithm, Logic level, Lossless compression, Magnetic core, Magnetic storage, Magnetic stripe card, Magnetic tape, Magnetic-core memory, Magnetism, McGraw-Hill Education, Morse code, Nat (unit), Natural logarithm, Numerical digit, Octet (computing), Optical disc, Parallel communication, Photolithography, Portmanteau, Primitive data type, Programmable logic array, Punched card, Punched tape, Quantum computing, Quantum mechanics, Quantum superposition, Qubit, Ralph Hartley, Rapid transit, Read-only memory, Relay, S&P Global, Science (journal), Semiconductor memory, Semyon Korsakov, Serial binary adder, Serial communication, Shannon (unit), Sign (mathematics), State (computer science), Switch, Telephone exchange, Teletype Corporation, Ternary numeral system, Ticker tape, Traffic light, Transistor–transistor logic, Truth value, Units of information, UTF-8, Vacuum tube, Value (computer science), Vannevar Bush, Voltage, Werner Buchholz, Word (computer architecture), Yotta-, Yottabit. Expand index (82 more) »

## A Mathematical Theory of Communication

"A Mathematical Theory of Communication" is an article by mathematician Claude E. Shannon published in Bell System Technical Journal in 1948.

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## Addison-Wesley

Addison-Wesley is a publisher of textbooks and computer literature.

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## Address space

In computing, an address space defines a range of discrete addresses, each of which may correspond to a network host, peripheral device, disk sector, a memory cell or other logical or physical entity.

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## Alphanumeric

Alphanumeric is a combination of alphabetic and numeric characters, and is used to describe the collection of Latin letters and Arabic digits or a text constructed from this collection.

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## Analytical Engine

The Analytical Engine was a proposed mechanical general-purpose computer designed by English mathematician and computer pioneer Charles Babbage.

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## Barcode

A barcode (also bar code) is an optical, machine-readable, representation of data; the data usually describes something about the object that carries the barcode.

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## Basile Bouchon

Basile Bouchon was a textile worker in the silk center in Lyon who invented a way to control a loom with a perforated paper tape in 1725.

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## Baud

In telecommunication and electronics, baud (symbol: Bd) is a common measure of the speed of communication over a data channel.

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## Binary number

In mathematics and digital electronics, a binary number is a number expressed in the base-2 numeral system or binary numeral system, which uses only two symbols: typically 0 (zero) and 1 (one).

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## Bit blit

Bit blit (also written BITBLT, BIT BLT, BitBLT, Bit BLT, Bit Blt etc., which stands for bit block transfer) is a data operation commonly used in computer graphics in which several bitmaps are combined into one using a boolean function.

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## Bit numbering

In computing, bit numbering (or sometimes bit endianness) is the convention used to identify the bit positions in a binary number or a container for such a value.

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## Bit-length

Bit-length is the number of binary digits, called bits, necessary to represent an integer in the binary number system.

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## Biting

Biting is a common behaviour which involves the opening and closing of the jaw found in many animals.

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## Bitmap

In computing, a bitmap is a mapping from some domain (for example, a range of integers) to bits.

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## Bitstream

A bitstream (or bit stream), also known as binary sequence, is a sequence of bits.

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## Bitwise operation

In digital computer programming, a bitwise operation operates on one or more bit patterns or binary numerals at the level of their individual bits.

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## Bubble memory

Bubble memory is a type of non-volatile computer memory that uses a thin film of a magnetic material to hold small magnetized areas, known as bubbles or domains, each storing one bit of data.

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## Byte

The byte is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bits, representing a binary number.

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## Byte (magazine)

Byte was an American microcomputer magazine, influential in the late 1970s and throughout the 1980s because of its wide-ranging editorial coverage.

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## Capacitor

A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores potential energy in an electric field.

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## Cathode ray tube

The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, and is used to display images.

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## Central processing unit

A central processing unit (CPU) is the electronic circuitry within a computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetic, logical, control and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.

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## Character (computing)

In computer and machine-based telecommunications terminology, a character is a unit of information that roughly corresponds to a grapheme, grapheme-like unit, or symbol, such as in an alphabet or syllabary in the written form of a natural language.

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## Charles Babbage

Charles Babbage (26 December 1791 – 18 October 1871) was an English polymath.

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## Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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## Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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## Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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## Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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## Classical mechanics

Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies.

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## Claude Shannon

Claude Elwood Shannon (April 30, 1916 – February 24, 2001) was an American mathematician, electrical engineer, and cryptographer known as "the father of information theory".

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## Communication

Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.

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## Communications of the ACM

Communications of the ACM is the monthly journal of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM).

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## Computer

A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.

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## Computer architecture

In computer engineering, computer architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of computer systems.

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## Computer hardware

Computer hardware includes the physical parts or components of a computer, such as the central processing unit, monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphic card, sound card and motherboard.

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## Computer program

A computer program is a collection of instructions for performing a specific task that is designed to solve a specific class of problems.

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## Computing

Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computers.

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## Credit card

A credit card is a payment card issued to users (cardholders) to enable the cardholder to pay a merchant for goods and services based on the cardholder's promise to the card issuer to pay them for the amounts so paid plus the other agreed charges.

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## Data storage

Data storage is the recording (storing) of information (data) in a storage medium.

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## Delay line memory

Delay line memory is a form of computer memory, now obsolete, that was used on some of the earliest digital computers.

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## Disk storage

Disk storage (also sometimes called drive storage) is a general category of storage mechanisms where data is recorded by various electronic, magnetic, optical, or mechanical changes to a surface layer of one or more rotating disks.

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## DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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## Drum memory

Drum memory was a magnetic data storage device invented by Gustav Tauschek in 1932 in Austria.

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## Dynamic random-access memory

Dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) is a type of random access semiconductor memory that stores each bit of data in a separate tiny capacitor within an integrated circuit.

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## E (mathematical constant)

The number is a mathematical constant, approximately equal to 2.71828, which appears in many different settings throughout mathematics.

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## Electric charge

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.

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## Electric current

An electric current is a flow of electric charge.

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## Electrical network

An electrical network is an interconnection of electrical components (e.g. batteries, resistors, inductors, capacitors, switches) or a model of such an interconnection, consisting of electrical elements (e.g. voltage sources, current sources, resistances, inductances, capacitances).

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## Electrical polarity

Electrical polarity is a term used throughout industries and fields that involve electricity.

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## Electricity

Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.

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## Elevator

An elevator (US and Canada) or lift (UK, Australia, Ireland, New Zealand, and South Africa, Nigeria) is a type of vertical transportation that moves people or goods between floors (levels, decks) of a building, vessel, or other structure.

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## Entropy (information theory)

Information entropy is the average rate at which information is produced by a stochastic source of data.

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## Exabyte

The exabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.

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## Ferromagnetism

Ferromagnetism is the basic mechanism by which certain materials (such as iron) form permanent magnets, or are attracted to magnets.

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## Flip-flop (electronics)

In electronics, a flip-flop or latch is a circuit that has two stable states and can be used to store state information.

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## Fred Brooks

Frederick Phillips "Fred" Brooks Jr. (born April 19, 1931) is an American computer architect, software engineer, and computer scientist, best known for managing the development of IBM's System/360 family of computers and the OS/360 software support package, then later writing candidly about the process in his seminal book The Mythical Man-Month.

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## Gerrit Blaauw

Gerrit Anne (Gerry) Blaauw (July 17, 1924 - March 21, 2018) was a Dutch computer scientist, known as one of the principal designers of the IBM System/360 line of computers, together with Fred Brooks, Gene Amdahl, and others.

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## Hartley (unit)

The hartley (symbol Hart), also called a ban, or a dit (short for decimal digit), is a logarithmic unit which measures information or entropy, based on base 10 logarithms and powers of 10, rather than the powers of 2 and base 2 logarithms which define the bit, or shannon.

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## Herman Hollerith

Herman Hollerith (February 29, 1860 – November 17, 1929) was an American inventor who developed an electromechanical punched card tabulator to assist in summarizing information and, later, accounting.

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## IBM

The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.

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## IBM 7030 Stretch

The IBM 7030, also known as Stretch, was IBM's first transistorized supercomputer.

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## IBM System/360

The IBM System/360 (S/360) is a family of mainframe computer systems that was announced by IBM on April 7, 1964, and delivered between 1965 and 1978.

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## IEC 60027

IEC 60027 (formerly IEC 27) is a technical international standard for letter symbols published by the International Electrotechnical Commission, comprising the following parts.

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## IEEE 1541-2002

IEEE 1541-2002 is a standard issued in 2002 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) concerning the use of prefixes for binary multiples of units of measurement related to digital electronics and computing.

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## IEEE Std 260.1-2004

IEEE Standard IEEE Std 260.1-2004 provides standard letter symbols for units of measurement for use in all applications in multiple contexts.

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## IEEE Transactions on Computers

IEEE Transactions on Computers is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering all aspects of computer design.

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## Information

Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.

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## Information theory

Information theory studies the quantification, storage, and communication of information.

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## Integer (computer science)

In computer science, an integer is a datum of integral data type, a data type that represents some range of mathematical integers.

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## International Electrotechnical Commission

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC; in French: Commission électrotechnique internationale) is an international standards organization that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies – collectively known as "electrotechnology".

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## International System of Units

The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.

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## Irradiance

In radiometry, irradiance is the radiant flux (power) received by a surface per unit area.

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## ISO/IEC 80000

ISO 80000 or IEC 80000 is an international standard promulgated jointly by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).

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## John Tukey

John Wilder Tukey (June 16, 1915 – July 26, 2000) was an American mathematician best known for development of the FFT algorithm and box plot.

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## Joseph Marie Jacquard

Joseph Marie Charles dit (called or nicknamed) Jacquard (7 July 1752 – 7 August 1834), was a French weaver and merchant.

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## Kilo-

Kilo is a decimal unit prefix in the metric system denoting multiplication by one thousand (103).

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## Kilobit

The kilobit is a multiple of the unit bit for digital information or computer storage.

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## Konrad Zuse

Konrad Zuse (22 June 1910 – 18 December 1995) was a German civil engineer, inventor and computer pioneer.

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## Logarithm

In mathematics, the logarithm is the inverse function to exponentiation.

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## Logic level

In digital circuits, a logic level is one of a finite number of states that a digital signal can inhabit.

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## Lossless compression

Lossless compression is a class of data compression algorithms that allows the original data to be perfectly reconstructed from the compressed data.

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## Magnetic core

A magnetic core is a piece of magnetic material with a high magnetic permeability used to confine and guide magnetic fields in electrical, electromechanical and magnetic devices such as electromagnets, transformers, electric motors, generators, inductors, magnetic recording heads, and magnetic assemblies.

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## Magnetic storage

Magnetic storage or magnetic recording is the storage of data on a magnetized medium.

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## Magnetic stripe card

A magnetic stripe card is a type of card capable of storing data by modifying the magnetism of tiny iron-based magnetic particles on a band of magnetic material on the card.

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## Magnetic tape

Magnetic tape is a medium for magnetic recording, made of a thin, magnetizable coating on a long, narrow strip of plastic film.

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## Magnetic-core memory

Magnetic-core memory was the predominant form of random-access computer memory for 20 years between about 1955 and 1975.

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## Magnetism

Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields.

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## McGraw-Hill Education

McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.

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## Morse code

Morse code is a method of transmitting text information as a series of on-off tones, lights, or clicks that can be directly understood by a skilled listener or observer without special equipment.

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## Nat (unit)

The natural unit of information (symbol: nat), sometimes also nit or nepit, is a unit of information or entropy, based on natural logarithms and powers of ''e'', rather than the powers of 2 and base 2 logarithms, which define the bit.

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## Natural logarithm

The natural logarithm of a number is its logarithm to the base of the mathematical constant ''e'', where e is an irrational and transcendental number approximately equal to.

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## New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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## New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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## New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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## Numerical digit

A numerical digit is a single symbol (such as "2" or "5") used alone, or in combinations (such as "25"), to represent numbers (such as the number 25) according to some positional numeral systems.

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## Octet (computing)

The octet is a unit of digital information in computing and telecommunications that consists of eight bits.

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## Optical disc

In computing and optical disc recording technologies, an optical disc (OD) is a flat, usually circular disc which encodes binary data (bits) in the form of pits (binary value of 0 or off, due to lack of reflection when read) and lands (binary value of 1 or on, due to a reflection when read) on a special material (often aluminium) on one of its flat surfaces.

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## Parallel communication

In data transmission, parallel communication is a method of conveying multiple binary digits (bits) simultaneously.

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## Photolithography

Photolithography, also termed optical lithography or UV lithography, is a process used in microfabrication to pattern parts of a thin film or the bulk of a substrate.

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## Portmanteau

A portmanteau or portmanteau word is a linguistic blend of words,, p. 644 in which parts of multiple words or their phones (sounds) are combined into a new word, as in smog, coined by blending smoke and fog, or motel, from motor and hotel.

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## Primitive data type

In computer science, primitive data type is either of the following.

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## Programmable logic array

A programmable logic array (PLA) is a kind of programmable logic device used to implement combinational logic circuits.

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## Punched card

A punched card or punch card is a piece of stiff paper that can be used to contain digital data represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions.

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## Punched tape

Punched tape or perforated paper tape is a form of data storage, consisting of a long strip of paper in which holes are punched to store data.

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## Quantum computing

Quantum computing is computing using quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement.

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## Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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## Quantum superposition

Quantum superposition is a fundamental principle of quantum mechanics.

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## Qubit

In quantum computing, a qubit or quantum bit (sometimes qbit) is a unit of quantum information—the quantum analogue of the classical binary bit.

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## Ralph Hartley

Ralph Vinton Lyon Hartley (November 30, 1888 – May 1, 1970) was an electronics researcher.

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## Rapid transit

Rapid transit or mass rapid transit, also known as heavy rail, metro, MRT, subway, tube, U-Bahn or underground, is a type of high-capacity public transport generally found in urban areas.

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## Read-only memory

Read-only memory (ROM) is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices.

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## Relay

A relay is an electrically operated switch.

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## S&P Global

S&P Global Inc. (prior to April 2016 McGraw Hill Financial, Inc., and prior to 2013 McGraw Hill Companies) is an American publicly traded corporation headquartered in New York City.

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## Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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## Semiconductor memory

Semiconductor memory is a digital electronic data storage device, often used as computer memory, implemented with semiconductor electronic devices on an integrated circuit (IC).

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## Semyon Korsakov

Semyon Nikolaevich Korsakov (Семён Николаевич Корсаков, Semyon Nikolayevich Korsakov) (January 14, 1787 – December 1, 1853 OS) was a Russian government official, noted both as a homeopath and an inventor who was involved with an early version of information technology.

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## Serial binary adder

The serial binary adder or bit-serial adder is a digital circuit that performs binary addition bit by bit.

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## Serial communication

In telecommunication and data transmission, serial communication is the process of sending data one bit at a time, sequentially, over a communication channel or computer bus.

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## Shannon (unit)

The shannon (symbol: Sh), more commonly known as the bit, is a unit of information and of entropy defined by IEC 80000-13.

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## Sign (mathematics)

In mathematics, the concept of sign originates from the property of every non-zero real number of being positive or negative.

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## State (computer science)

In information technology and computer science, a program is described as stateful if it is designed to remember preceding events or user interactions; the remembered information is called the state of the system.

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## Switch

In electrical engineering, a switch is an electrical component that can "make" or "break" an electrical circuit, interrupting the current or diverting it from one conductor to another.

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## Telephone exchange

A telephone exchange is a telecommunications system used in the public switched telephone network or in large enterprises.

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## Teletype Corporation

The Teletype Corporation, a part of American Telephone and Telegraph Company's Western Electric manufacturing arm since 1930, came into being in 1928 when the Morkrum-Kleinschmidt Company changed its name to the name of its trademark equipment.

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## Ternary numeral system

The ternary numeral system (also called base 3) has three as its base.

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## Ticker tape

Ticker tape was the earliest digital electronic communications medium, transmitting stock price information over telegraph lines, in use between around 1870 through 1970.

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## Traffic light

Traffic lights, also known as traffic signals, traffic lamps, traffic semaphore, signal lights, stop lights, robots (in South Africa and most of Africa), and traffic control signals (in technical parlance), are signalling devices positioned at road intersections, pedestrian crossings, and other locations to control flows of traffic.

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## Transistor–transistor logic

Transistor–transistor logic (TTL) is a logic family built from bipolar junction transistors.

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## Truth value

In logic and mathematics, a truth value, sometimes called a logical value, is a value indicating the relation of a proposition to truth.

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## Units of information

In computing and telecommunications, a unit of information is the capacity of some standard data storage system or communication channel, used to measure the capacities of other systems and channels.

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## UTF-8

UTF-8 is a variable width character encoding capable of encoding all 1,112,064 valid code points in Unicode using one to four 8-bit bytes.

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## Vacuum tube

In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container.

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## Value (computer science)

In computer science, a value is the representation of some entity that can be manipulated by a program.

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## Vannevar Bush

Vannevar Bush (March 11, 1890 – June 28, 1974) was an American engineer, inventor and science administrator, who during World War II headed the U.S. Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), through which almost all wartime military R&D was carried out, including initiation and early administration of the Manhattan Project.

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## Voltage

Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.

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## Werner Buchholz

Werner Buchholz (born 24 October 1922 in Detmold, Germany) is a noted American computer scientist.

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## Word (computer architecture)

In computing, a word is the natural unit of data used by a particular processor design.

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## Yotta-

Yotta is the largest decimal unit prefix in the metric system, denoting a factor of 1024 or; that is, one million million million million, or one septillion.

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## Yottabit

The yottabit is a multiple of the unit bit for digital information or computer storage.

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## 2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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## 2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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## Redirects here:

0 or 1, 1 or 0, Bigit, Bigit (computing), Binary Digit, Binary Digits, Binary bits, Binary digit, Binary digits, Binit, Binit (computing), Bit (computing), Bit (information), Bit (unit), Bit of information, Bit pattern, Bits (computing), Data bits, Millibit.

## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bit