98 relations: Abdus Salam, Antiparticle, ATLAS experiment, Atom, Atomic nucleus, Baryon number, Beta decay, Beta particle, Bose–Einstein statistics, Boson, Branching fraction, Bubble chamber, Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa matrix, Carlo Rubbia, CERN, Charge (physics), Charm (quantum number), Chirality (physics), Cobalt-60, Color charge, Color confinement, Compact Muon Solenoid, Coupling constant, Down quark, Elastic scattering, Electric charge, Electromagnetism, Electroweak interaction, Elementary charge, Elementary particle, Fermi's interaction, Fermion, Feynman diagram, Flavour (particle physics), Force carrier, Gargamelle, Gauge boson, Gauge theory, Gluon, Goldstone boson, Grand Unified Theory, Graviton, Gravity, Hadron, Half-life, Higgs boson, Higgs mechanism, Iron, José Leite Lopes, Lepton, ..., List of particles, Mass, Mathematical formulation of the Standard Model, Momentum, Neutral current, Neutral particle, Neutrino, Nobel Foundation, Nobel Prize, Nobel Prize in Physics, Nuclear transmutation, Particle accelerator, Particle physics, Photon, Physicist, Pierre Darriulat, Proton, Quantum electrodynamics, Quark, Radioactive decay, Relativistic Breit–Wigner distribution, Sensor, Sheldon Lee Glashow, Simon van der Meer, Spin (physics), Spontaneous symmetry breaking, Standard Model, Steven Weinberg, Stochastic cooling, Strange quark, Strangeness, Strong interaction, Super Proton Synchrotron, Top quark, Truly neutral particle, UA1 experiment, UA2 experiment, Unitary matrix, Up quark, Vacuum expectation value, Vector boson, W′ and Z′ bosons, Weak interaction, Weak isospin, Weinberg angle, X and Y bosons, ZZ diboson, 1964 PRL symmetry breaking papers. Expand index (48 more) »

## Abdus Salam

Mohammad Abdus Salam Salam adopted the forename "Mohammad" in 1974 in response to the anti-Ahmadiyya decrees in Pakistan, similarly he grew his beard.

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## Antiparticle

In particle physics, every type of particle has an associated antiparticle with the same mass but with opposite physical charges (such as electric charge).

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## ATLAS experiment

ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) is one of the seven particle detector experiments constructed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a particle accelerator at CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research) in Switzerland.

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## Atom

An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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## Atomic nucleus

The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.

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## Baryon number

In particle physics, the baryon number is a strictly conserved additive quantum number of a system.

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## Beta decay

In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.

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## Beta particle

A beta particle, also called beta ray or beta radiation, (symbol β) is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted by the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus during the process of beta decay.

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## Bose–Einstein statistics

In quantum statistics, Bose–Einstein statistics (or more colloquially B–E statistics) is one of two possible ways in which a collection of non-interacting indistinguishable particles may occupy a set of available discrete energy states, at thermodynamic equilibrium.

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## Boson

In quantum mechanics, a boson is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics.

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## Branching fraction

In particle physics and nuclear physics, the branching fraction (or branching ratio) for a decay is the fraction of particles which decay by an individual decay mode with respect to the total number of particles which decay.

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## Bubble chamber

A bubble chamber is a vessel filled with a superheated transparent liquid (most often liquid hydrogen) used to detect electrically charged particles moving through it.

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## Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa matrix

In the Standard Model of particle physics, the Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa matrix, CKM matrix, quark mixing matrix, or KM matrix is a unitary matrix which contains information on the strength of flavour-changing weak decays.

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## Carlo Rubbia

Carlo Rubbia, (born 31 March 1934) is an Italian particle physicist and inventor who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1984 with Simon van der Meer for work leading to the discovery of the W and Z particles at CERN.

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## CERN

The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.

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## Charge (physics)

In physics, a charge may refer to one of many different quantities, such as the electric charge in electromagnetism or the color charge in quantum chromodynamics.

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## Charm (quantum number)

Charm (symbol C) is a flavour quantum number representing the difference between the number of charm quarks and charm antiquarks that are present in a particle: By convention, the sign of flavour quantum numbers agree with the sign of the electric charge carried by the quark of corresponding flavour.

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## Chirality (physics)

A chiral phenomenon is one that is not identical to its mirror image (see the article on mathematical chirality).

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## Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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## Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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## Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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## Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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## Cobalt-60

Cobalt-60,, is a synthetic radioactive isotope of cobalt with a half-life of 5.2714 years.

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## Color charge

Color charge is a property of quarks and gluons that is related to the particles' strong interactions in the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD).

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## Color confinement

In quantum chromodynamics (QCD), color confinement, often simply called confinement, is the phenomenon that color charged particles (such as quarks and gluons) cannot be isolated, and therefore cannot be directly observed in normal conditions below the Hagedorn temperature of approximately 2 trillion kelvin (corresponding to energies of approximately 130–140 MeV per particle).

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## Compact Muon Solenoid

The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment is one of two large general-purpose particle physics detectors built on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Switzerland and France.

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## Coupling constant

In physics, a coupling constant or gauge coupling parameter is a number that determines the strength of the force exerted in an interaction.

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## Down quark

The down quark or d quark (symbol: d) is the second-lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle, and a major constituent of matter.

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## Elastic scattering

Elastic scattering is a form of particle scattering in scattering theory, nuclear physics and particle physics.

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## Electric charge

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.

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## Electromagnetism

Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.

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## Electroweak interaction

In particle physics, the electroweak interaction is the unified description of two of the four known fundamental interactions of nature: electromagnetism and the weak interaction.

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## Elementary charge

The elementary charge, usually denoted as or sometimes, is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the magnitude of the electric charge carried by a single electron, which has charge.

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## Elementary particle

In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle with no substructure, thus not composed of other particles.

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## Fermi's interaction

In particle physics, Fermi's interaction (also the Fermi theory of beta decay) is an explanation of the beta decay, proposed by Enrico Fermi in 1933.

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## Fermion

In particle physics, a fermion is a particle that follows Fermi–Dirac statistics.

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## Feynman diagram

In theoretical physics, Feynman diagrams are pictorial representations of the mathematical expressions describing the behavior of subatomic particles.

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## Flavour (particle physics)

In particle physics, flavour or flavor refers to the species of an elementary particle.

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## Force carrier

In particle physics, force carriers or messenger particles or intermediate particles are particles that give rise to forces between other particles.

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## Gargamelle

Gargamelle was a heavy liquid bubble chamber detector in operation at CERN between 1970 and 1979.

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## Gauge boson

In particle physics, a gauge boson is a force carrier, a bosonic particle that carries any of the fundamental interactions of nature, commonly called forces.

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## Gauge theory

In physics, a gauge theory is a type of field theory in which the Lagrangian is invariant under certain Lie groups of local transformations.

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## Gluon

A gluon is an elementary particle that acts as the exchange particle (or gauge boson) for the strong force between quarks.

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## Goldstone boson

In particle and condensed matter physics, Goldstone bosons or Nambu–Goldstone bosons (NGBs) are bosons that appear necessarily in models exhibiting spontaneous breakdown of continuous symmetries.

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## Grand Unified Theory

A Grand Unified Theory (GUT) is a model in particle physics in which, at high energy, the three gauge interactions of the Standard Model which define the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, or forces, are merged into one single force.

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## Graviton

In theories of quantum gravity, the graviton is the hypothetical elementary particle that mediates the force of gravity.

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## Gravity

Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

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## Hadron

In particle physics, a hadron (ἁδρός, hadrós, "stout, thick") is a composite particle made of quarks held together by the strong force in a similar way as molecules are held together by the electromagnetic force.

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## Half-life

Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.

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## Higgs boson

The Higgs boson is an elementary particle in the Standard Model of particle physics.

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## Higgs mechanism

In the Standard Model of particle physics, the Higgs mechanism is essential to explain the generation mechanism of the property "mass" for gauge bosons.

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## Iron

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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## José Leite Lopes

José Leite Lopes (October 28, 1918 – June 12, 2006), noted Brazilian theoretical physicist in the field of quantum field theory and particle physics.

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## Lepton

In particle physics, a lepton is an elementary particle of half-integer spin (spin) that does not undergo strong interactions.

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## List of particles

This article includes a list of the different types of atomic- and sub-atomic particles found or hypothesized to exist in the whole of the universe categorized by type.

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## Mass

Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.

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## Mathematical formulation of the Standard Model

This article describes the mathematics of the Standard Model of particle physics, a gauge quantum field theory containing the internal symmetries of the unitary product group.

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## Momentum

In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.

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## Neutral current

Weak neutral current interactions are one of the ways in which subatomic particles can interact by means of the weak force.

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## Neutral particle

In physics, a neutral particle is a particle with no electric charge.

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## Neutrino

A neutrino (denoted by the Greek letter ν) is a fermion (an elementary particle with half-integer spin) that interacts only via the weak subatomic force and gravity.

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## New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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## New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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## New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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## Nobel Foundation

The Nobel Foundation (Nobelstiftelsen) is a private institution founded on 29 June 1900 to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes.

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## Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.

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## Nobel Prize in Physics

The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.

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## Nuclear transmutation

Nuclear transmutation is the conversion of one chemical element or an isotope into another chemical element.

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## Particle accelerator

A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.

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## Particle physics

Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.

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## Photon

The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

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## Physicist

A physicist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe.

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## Pierre Darriulat

Pierre Darriulat (born 17 February 1938) is a French experimental particle physicist.

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## Proton

| magnetic_moment.

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## Quantum electrodynamics

In particle physics, quantum electrodynamics (QED) is the relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics.

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## Quark

A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.

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## Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.

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## Relativistic Breit–Wigner distribution

The relativistic Breit–Wigner distribution (after the 1936 nuclear resonance formula of Gregory Breit and Eugene Wigner) is a continuous probability distribution with the following probability density function, See (page 98 onwards) for a discussion of the widths of particles in the PYTHIA manual.

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## Sensor

In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor.

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## Sheldon Lee Glashow

Sheldon Lee Glashow (born December 5, 1932) is a Nobel Prize winning American theoretical physicist.

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## Simon van der Meer

Simon van der Meer (24 November 19254 March 2011) was a Dutch particle accelerator physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1984 with Carlo Rubbia for contributions to the CERN project which led to the discovery of the W and Z particles, two of the most fundamental constituents of matter.

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## Spin (physics)

In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.

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## Spontaneous symmetry breaking

Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a spontaneous process of symmetry breaking, by which a physical system in a symmetric state ends up in an asymmetric state.

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## Standard Model

The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.

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## Steven Weinberg

Steven Weinberg (born May 3, 1933) is an American theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate in Physics for his contributions with Abdus Salam and Sheldon Glashow to the unification of the weak force and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles.

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## Stochastic cooling

Stochastic cooling is a form of particle beam cooling.

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## Strange quark

The strange quark or s quark (from its symbol, s) is the third lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle.

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## Strangeness

In particle physics, strangeness ("S") is a property of particles, expressed as a quantum number, for describing decay of particles in strong and electromagnetic interactions which occur in a short period of time.

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## Strong interaction

In particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force (also called the strong force or nuclear strong force), and is one of the four known fundamental interactions, with the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction, and gravitation.

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## Super Proton Synchrotron

The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is a particle accelerator of the synchrotron type at CERN.

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## Top quark

The top quark, also known as the t quark (symbol: t) or truth quark, is the most massive of all observed elementary particles.

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## Truly neutral particle

In particle physics, a truly neutral particle is a subatomic particle with all its charges equal to zero.

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## UA1 experiment

The UA1 experiment (an abbreviation of Underground Area 1) was a high-energy physics experiment that ran at CERN's Proton-Antiproton Collider (SpS), a modification of the one-beam Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS).

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## UA2 experiment

The Underground Area 2 (UA2) experiment was a high-energy physics experiment at the Proton-Antiproton Collider (SpS) — a modification of the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) — at CERN.

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## Unitary matrix

In mathematics, a complex square matrix is unitary if its conjugate transpose is also its inverse—that is, if where is the identity matrix.

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## Up quark

The up quark or u quark (symbol: u) is the lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle, and a major constituent of matter.

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## Vacuum expectation value

In quantum field theory the vacuum expectation value (also called condensate or simply VEV) of an operator is its average, expected value in the vacuum.

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## Vector boson

In particle physics, a vector boson is a boson with the spin equal to 1.

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## W′ and Z′ bosons

In particle physics, W′ and Z′ bosons (or W-prime and Z-prime bosons) refer to hypothetical gauge bosons that arise from extensions of the electroweak symmetry of the Standard Model.

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## Weak interaction

In particle physics, the weak interaction (the weak force or weak nuclear force) is the mechanism of interaction between sub-atomic particles that causes radioactive decay and thus plays an essential role in nuclear fission.

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## Weak isospin

In particle physics, weak isospin is a quantum number relating to the weak interaction, and parallels the idea of isospin under the strong interaction.

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## Weinberg angle

The Weinberg angle or weak mixing angle is a parameter in the Weinberg–Salam theory of the electroweak interaction, part of the Standard Model of particle physics, and is usually denoted as.

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## X and Y bosons

In particle physics, the X and Y bosons (sometimes collectively called "X bosons") are hypothetical elementary particles analogous to the W and Z bosons, but corresponding to a new type of force predicted by the Georgi–Glashow model, a grand unified theory.

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## ZZ diboson

ZZ dibosons are rare pairs of Z bosons.

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## 1964 PRL symmetry breaking papers

The 1964 PRL symmetry breaking papers were written by three teams who proposed related but different approaches to explain how mass could arise in local gauge theories.

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## 2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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## 2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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## Redirects here:

The W and Z Particles, W & Z bosons, W Boson, W Minus, W Minus Boson, W Plus, W Plus Boson, W and Z Bosons, W and Z boson, W and Z particles, W boson, W particle, W particles, W+, W-, W-Boson, W-Minus, W-Particle, W-Plus, W-boson, W-minus, W-particle, W-plus, Weak Gauge Bosons, Weak boson, Weak bosons, Weak gauge boson, Weakon, Z Particle, Z Zero, Z Zero Boson, Z boson, Z bosons, Z naught, Z particle, Z particles, Z-Boson, Z-Particle, Z-boson, Z-naught, Z-particle, Z-zero, Zero boson.

## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W_and_Z_bosons