98 relations: Abdus Salam, Antiparticle, ATLAS experiment, Atom, Atomic nucleus, Baryon number, Beta decay, Beta particle, Bose–Einstein statistics, Boson, Branching fraction, Bubble chamber, Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa matrix, Carlo Rubbia, CERN, Charge (physics), Charm (quantum number), Chirality (physics), Cobalt-60, Color charge, Color confinement, Compact Muon Solenoid, Coupling constant, Down quark, Elastic scattering, Electric charge, Electromagnetism, Electroweak interaction, Elementary charge, Elementary particle, Fermi's interaction, Fermion, Feynman diagram, Flavour (particle physics), Force carrier, Gargamelle, Gauge boson, Gauge theory, Gluon, Goldstone boson, Grand Unified Theory, Graviton, Gravity, Hadron, Half-life, Higgs boson, Higgs mechanism, Iron, José Leite Lopes, Lepton, ..., List of particles, Mass, Mathematical formulation of the Standard Model, Momentum, Neutral current, Neutral particle, Neutrino, Nobel Foundation, Nobel Prize, Nobel Prize in Physics, Nuclear transmutation, Particle accelerator, Particle physics, Photon, Physicist, Pierre Darriulat, Proton, Quantum electrodynamics, Quark, Radioactive decay, Relativistic Breit–Wigner distribution, Sensor, Sheldon Lee Glashow, Simon van der Meer, Spin (physics), Spontaneous symmetry breaking, Standard Model, Steven Weinberg, Stochastic cooling, Strange quark, Strangeness, Strong interaction, Super Proton Synchrotron, Top quark, Truly neutral particle, UA1 experiment, UA2 experiment, Unitary matrix, Up quark, Vacuum expectation value, Vector boson, W′ and Z′ bosons, Weak interaction, Weak isospin, Weinberg angle, X and Y bosons, ZZ diboson, 1964 PRL symmetry breaking papers. Expand index (48 more) » « Shrink index
Mohammad Abdus Salam Salam adopted the forename "Mohammad" in 1974 in response to the anti-Ahmadiyya decrees in Pakistan, similarly he grew his beard.
In particle physics, every type of particle has an associated antiparticle with the same mass but with opposite physical charges (such as electric charge).
ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) is one of the seven particle detector experiments constructed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a particle accelerator at CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research) in Switzerland.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
In particle physics, the baryon number is a strictly conserved additive quantum number of a system.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
A beta particle, also called beta ray or beta radiation, (symbol β) is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted by the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus during the process of beta decay.
In quantum statistics, Bose–Einstein statistics (or more colloquially B–E statistics) is one of two possible ways in which a collection of non-interacting indistinguishable particles may occupy a set of available discrete energy states, at thermodynamic equilibrium.
In quantum mechanics, a boson is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics.
In particle physics and nuclear physics, the branching fraction (or branching ratio) for a decay is the fraction of particles which decay by an individual decay mode with respect to the total number of particles which decay.
A bubble chamber is a vessel filled with a superheated transparent liquid (most often liquid hydrogen) used to detect electrically charged particles moving through it.
In the Standard Model of particle physics, the Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa matrix, CKM matrix, quark mixing matrix, or KM matrix is a unitary matrix which contains information on the strength of flavour-changing weak decays.
Carlo Rubbia, (born 31 March 1934) is an Italian particle physicist and inventor who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1984 with Simon van der Meer for work leading to the discovery of the W and Z particles at CERN.
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.
In physics, a charge may refer to one of many different quantities, such as the electric charge in electromagnetism or the color charge in quantum chromodynamics.
Charm (symbol C) is a flavour quantum number representing the difference between the number of charm quarks and charm antiquarks that are present in a particle: By convention, the sign of flavour quantum numbers agree with the sign of the electric charge carried by the quark of corresponding flavour.
A chiral phenomenon is one that is not identical to its mirror image (see the article on mathematical chirality).
Cobalt-60,, is a synthetic radioactive isotope of cobalt with a half-life of 5.2714 years.
Color charge is a property of quarks and gluons that is related to the particles' strong interactions in the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD).
In quantum chromodynamics (QCD), color confinement, often simply called confinement, is the phenomenon that color charged particles (such as quarks and gluons) cannot be isolated, and therefore cannot be directly observed in normal conditions below the Hagedorn temperature of approximately 2 trillion kelvin (corresponding to energies of approximately 130–140 MeV per particle).
The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment is one of two large general-purpose particle physics detectors built on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Switzerland and France.
In physics, a coupling constant or gauge coupling parameter is a number that determines the strength of the force exerted in an interaction.
The down quark or d quark (symbol: d) is the second-lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle, and a major constituent of matter.
Elastic scattering is a form of particle scattering in scattering theory, nuclear physics and particle physics.
Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
In particle physics, the electroweak interaction is the unified description of two of the four known fundamental interactions of nature: electromagnetism and the weak interaction.
The elementary charge, usually denoted as or sometimes, is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the magnitude of the electric charge carried by a single electron, which has charge.
In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle with no substructure, thus not composed of other particles.
In particle physics, Fermi's interaction (also the Fermi theory of beta decay) is an explanation of the beta decay, proposed by Enrico Fermi in 1933.
In particle physics, a fermion is a particle that follows Fermi–Dirac statistics.
In theoretical physics, Feynman diagrams are pictorial representations of the mathematical expressions describing the behavior of subatomic particles.
In particle physics, flavour or flavor refers to the species of an elementary particle.
In particle physics, force carriers or messenger particles or intermediate particles are particles that give rise to forces between other particles.
Gargamelle was a heavy liquid bubble chamber detector in operation at CERN between 1970 and 1979.
In particle physics, a gauge boson is a force carrier, a bosonic particle that carries any of the fundamental interactions of nature, commonly called forces.
In physics, a gauge theory is a type of field theory in which the Lagrangian is invariant under certain Lie groups of local transformations.
A gluon is an elementary particle that acts as the exchange particle (or gauge boson) for the strong force between quarks.
In particle and condensed matter physics, Goldstone bosons or Nambu–Goldstone bosons (NGBs) are bosons that appear necessarily in models exhibiting spontaneous breakdown of continuous symmetries.
A Grand Unified Theory (GUT) is a model in particle physics in which, at high energy, the three gauge interactions of the Standard Model which define the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, or forces, are merged into one single force.
In theories of quantum gravity, the graviton is the hypothetical elementary particle that mediates the force of gravity.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
In particle physics, a hadron (ἁδρός, hadrós, "stout, thick") is a composite particle made of quarks held together by the strong force in a similar way as molecules are held together by the electromagnetic force.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
The Higgs boson is an elementary particle in the Standard Model of particle physics.
In the Standard Model of particle physics, the Higgs mechanism is essential to explain the generation mechanism of the property "mass" for gauge bosons.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
José Leite Lopes (October 28, 1918 – June 12, 2006), noted Brazilian theoretical physicist in the field of quantum field theory and particle physics.
In particle physics, a lepton is an elementary particle of half-integer spin (spin) that does not undergo strong interactions.
This article includes a list of the different types of atomic- and sub-atomic particles found or hypothesized to exist in the whole of the universe categorized by type.
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
This article describes the mathematics of the Standard Model of particle physics, a gauge quantum field theory containing the internal symmetries of the unitary product group.
In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.
Weak neutral current interactions are one of the ways in which subatomic particles can interact by means of the weak force.
In physics, a neutral particle is a particle with no electric charge.
A neutrino (denoted by the Greek letter ν) is a fermion (an elementary particle with half-integer spin) that interacts only via the weak subatomic force and gravity.
The Nobel Foundation (Nobelstiftelsen) is a private institution founded on 29 June 1900 to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes.
The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.
The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.
Nuclear transmutation is the conversion of one chemical element or an isotope into another chemical element.
A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.
Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
A physicist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe.
Pierre Darriulat (born 17 February 1938) is a French experimental particle physicist.
In particle physics, quantum electrodynamics (QED) is the relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics.
A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
The relativistic Breit–Wigner distribution (after the 1936 nuclear resonance formula of Gregory Breit and Eugene Wigner) is a continuous probability distribution with the following probability density function, See (page 98 onwards) for a discussion of the widths of particles in the PYTHIA manual.
In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor.
Sheldon Lee Glashow (born December 5, 1932) is a Nobel Prize winning American theoretical physicist.
Simon van der Meer (24 November 19254 March 2011) was a Dutch particle accelerator physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1984 with Carlo Rubbia for contributions to the CERN project which led to the discovery of the W and Z particles, two of the most fundamental constituents of matter.
In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.
Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a spontaneous process of symmetry breaking, by which a physical system in a symmetric state ends up in an asymmetric state.
The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.
Steven Weinberg (born May 3, 1933) is an American theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate in Physics for his contributions with Abdus Salam and Sheldon Glashow to the unification of the weak force and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles.
Stochastic cooling is a form of particle beam cooling.
The strange quark or s quark (from its symbol, s) is the third lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle.
In particle physics, strangeness ("S") is a property of particles, expressed as a quantum number, for describing decay of particles in strong and electromagnetic interactions which occur in a short period of time.
In particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force (also called the strong force or nuclear strong force), and is one of the four known fundamental interactions, with the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction, and gravitation.
The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is a particle accelerator of the synchrotron type at CERN.
The top quark, also known as the t quark (symbol: t) or truth quark, is the most massive of all observed elementary particles.
In particle physics, a truly neutral particle is a subatomic particle with all its charges equal to zero.
The UA1 experiment (an abbreviation of Underground Area 1) was a high-energy physics experiment that ran at CERN's Proton-Antiproton Collider (SpS), a modification of the one-beam Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS).
The Underground Area 2 (UA2) experiment was a high-energy physics experiment at the Proton-Antiproton Collider (SpS) — a modification of the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) — at CERN.
In mathematics, a complex square matrix is unitary if its conjugate transpose is also its inverse—that is, if where is the identity matrix.
The up quark or u quark (symbol: u) is the lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle, and a major constituent of matter.
In quantum field theory the vacuum expectation value (also called condensate or simply VEV) of an operator is its average, expected value in the vacuum.
In particle physics, a vector boson is a boson with the spin equal to 1.
In particle physics, W′ and Z′ bosons (or W-prime and Z-prime bosons) refer to hypothetical gauge bosons that arise from extensions of the electroweak symmetry of the Standard Model.
In particle physics, the weak interaction (the weak force or weak nuclear force) is the mechanism of interaction between sub-atomic particles that causes radioactive decay and thus plays an essential role in nuclear fission.
In particle physics, weak isospin is a quantum number relating to the weak interaction, and parallels the idea of isospin under the strong interaction.
The Weinberg angle or weak mixing angle is a parameter in the Weinberg–Salam theory of the electroweak interaction, part of the Standard Model of particle physics, and is usually denoted as.
In particle physics, the X and Y bosons (sometimes collectively called "X bosons") are hypothetical elementary particles analogous to the W and Z bosons, but corresponding to a new type of force predicted by the Georgi–Glashow model, a grand unified theory.
ZZ dibosons are rare pairs of Z bosons.
The 1964 PRL symmetry breaking papers were written by three teams who proposed related but different approaches to explain how mass could arise in local gauge theories.
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