98 relations: Abdus Salam, Antiparticle, ATLAS experiment, Atom, Atomic nucleus, Baryon number, Beta decay, Beta particle, Bose–Einstein statistics, Boson, Branching fraction, Bubble chamber, Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa matrix, Carlo Rubbia, CERN, Charge (physics), Charm (quantum number), Chirality (physics), Cobalt-60, Color charge, Color confinement, Compact Muon Solenoid, Coupling constant, Down quark, Elastic scattering, Electric charge, Electromagnetism, Electroweak interaction, Elementary charge, Elementary particle, Fermi's interaction, Fermion, Feynman diagram, Flavour (particle physics), Force carrier, Gargamelle, Gauge boson, Gauge theory, Gluon, Goldstone boson, Grand Unified Theory, Graviton, Gravity, Hadron, Half-life, Higgs boson, Higgs mechanism, Iron, José Leite Lopes, Lepton, ..., List of particles, Mass, Mathematical formulation of the Standard Model, Momentum, Neutral current, Neutral particle, Neutrino, Nobel Foundation, Nobel Prize, Nobel Prize in Physics, Nuclear transmutation, Particle accelerator, Particle physics, Photon, Physicist, Pierre Darriulat, Proton, Quantum electrodynamics, Quark, Radioactive decay, Relativistic Breit–Wigner distribution, Sensor, Sheldon Lee Glashow, Simon van der Meer, Spin (physics), Spontaneous symmetry breaking, Standard Model, Steven Weinberg, Stochastic cooling, Strange quark, Strangeness, Strong interaction, Super Proton Synchrotron, Top quark, Truly neutral particle, UA1 experiment, UA2 experiment, Unitary matrix, Up quark, Vacuum expectation value, Vector boson, W′ and Z′ bosons, Weak interaction, Weak isospin, Weinberg angle, X and Y bosons, ZZ diboson, 1964 PRL symmetry breaking papers. Expand index (48 more) »

## Abdus Salam

Mohammad Abdus Salam Salam adopted the forename "Mohammad" in 1974 in response to the anti-Ahmadiyya decrees in Pakistan, similarly he grew his beard.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Abdus Salam · See more »

## Antiparticle

In particle physics, every type of particle has an associated antiparticle with the same mass but with opposite physical charges (such as electric charge).

New!!: W and Z bosons and Antiparticle · See more »

## ATLAS experiment

ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS) is one of the seven particle detector experiments constructed at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a particle accelerator at CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research) in Switzerland.

New!!: W and Z bosons and ATLAS experiment · See more »

## Atom

An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Atom · See more »

## Atomic nucleus

The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Atomic nucleus · See more »

## Baryon number

In particle physics, the baryon number is a strictly conserved additive quantum number of a system.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Baryon number · See more »

## Beta decay

In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Beta decay · See more »

## Beta particle

A beta particle, also called beta ray or beta radiation, (symbol β) is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted by the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus during the process of beta decay.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Beta particle · See more »

## Bose–Einstein statistics

In quantum statistics, Bose–Einstein statistics (or more colloquially B–E statistics) is one of two possible ways in which a collection of non-interacting indistinguishable particles may occupy a set of available discrete energy states, at thermodynamic equilibrium.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Bose–Einstein statistics · See more »

## Boson

In quantum mechanics, a boson is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Boson · See more »

## Branching fraction

In particle physics and nuclear physics, the branching fraction (or branching ratio) for a decay is the fraction of particles which decay by an individual decay mode with respect to the total number of particles which decay.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Branching fraction · See more »

## Bubble chamber

A bubble chamber is a vessel filled with a superheated transparent liquid (most often liquid hydrogen) used to detect electrically charged particles moving through it.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Bubble chamber · See more »

## Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa matrix

In the Standard Model of particle physics, the Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa matrix, CKM matrix, quark mixing matrix, or KM matrix is a unitary matrix which contains information on the strength of flavour-changing weak decays.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa matrix · See more »

## Carlo Rubbia

Carlo Rubbia, (born 31 March 1934) is an Italian particle physicist and inventor who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1984 with Simon van der Meer for work leading to the discovery of the W and Z particles at CERN.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Carlo Rubbia · See more »

## CERN

The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.

New!!: W and Z bosons and CERN · See more »

## Charge (physics)

In physics, a charge may refer to one of many different quantities, such as the electric charge in electromagnetism or the color charge in quantum chromodynamics.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Charge (physics) · See more »

## Charm (quantum number)

Charm (symbol C) is a flavour quantum number representing the difference between the number of charm quarks and charm antiquarks that are present in a particle: By convention, the sign of flavour quantum numbers agree with the sign of the electric charge carried by the quark of corresponding flavour.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Charm (quantum number) · See more »

## Chirality (physics)

A chiral phenomenon is one that is not identical to its mirror image (see the article on mathematical chirality).

New!!: W and Z bosons and Chirality (physics) · See more »

## Cobalt-60

Cobalt-60,, is a synthetic radioactive isotope of cobalt with a half-life of 5.2714 years.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Cobalt-60 · See more »

## Color charge

Color charge is a property of quarks and gluons that is related to the particles' strong interactions in the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD).

New!!: W and Z bosons and Color charge · See more »

## Color confinement

In quantum chromodynamics (QCD), color confinement, often simply called confinement, is the phenomenon that color charged particles (such as quarks and gluons) cannot be isolated, and therefore cannot be directly observed in normal conditions below the Hagedorn temperature of approximately 2 trillion kelvin (corresponding to energies of approximately 130–140 MeV per particle).

New!!: W and Z bosons and Color confinement · See more »

## Compact Muon Solenoid

The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment is one of two large general-purpose particle physics detectors built on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Switzerland and France.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Compact Muon Solenoid · See more »

## Coupling constant

In physics, a coupling constant or gauge coupling parameter is a number that determines the strength of the force exerted in an interaction.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Coupling constant · See more »

## Down quark

The down quark or d quark (symbol: d) is the second-lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle, and a major constituent of matter.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Down quark · See more »

## Elastic scattering

Elastic scattering is a form of particle scattering in scattering theory, nuclear physics and particle physics.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Elastic scattering · See more »

## Electric charge

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Electric charge · See more »

## Electromagnetism

Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Electromagnetism · See more »

## Electroweak interaction

In particle physics, the electroweak interaction is the unified description of two of the four known fundamental interactions of nature: electromagnetism and the weak interaction.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Electroweak interaction · See more »

## Elementary charge

The elementary charge, usually denoted as or sometimes, is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the magnitude of the electric charge carried by a single electron, which has charge.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Elementary charge · See more »

## Elementary particle

In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle with no substructure, thus not composed of other particles.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Elementary particle · See more »

## Fermi's interaction

In particle physics, Fermi's interaction (also the Fermi theory of beta decay) is an explanation of the beta decay, proposed by Enrico Fermi in 1933.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Fermi's interaction · See more »

## Fermion

In particle physics, a fermion is a particle that follows Fermi–Dirac statistics.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Fermion · See more »

## Feynman diagram

In theoretical physics, Feynman diagrams are pictorial representations of the mathematical expressions describing the behavior of subatomic particles.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Feynman diagram · See more »

## Flavour (particle physics)

In particle physics, flavour or flavor refers to the species of an elementary particle.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Flavour (particle physics) · See more »

## Force carrier

In particle physics, force carriers or messenger particles or intermediate particles are particles that give rise to forces between other particles.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Force carrier · See more »

## Gargamelle

Gargamelle was a heavy liquid bubble chamber detector in operation at CERN between 1970 and 1979.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Gargamelle · See more »

## Gauge boson

In particle physics, a gauge boson is a force carrier, a bosonic particle that carries any of the fundamental interactions of nature, commonly called forces.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Gauge boson · See more »

## Gauge theory

In physics, a gauge theory is a type of field theory in which the Lagrangian is invariant under certain Lie groups of local transformations.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Gauge theory · See more »

## Gluon

A gluon is an elementary particle that acts as the exchange particle (or gauge boson) for the strong force between quarks.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Gluon · See more »

## Goldstone boson

In particle and condensed matter physics, Goldstone bosons or Nambu–Goldstone bosons (NGBs) are bosons that appear necessarily in models exhibiting spontaneous breakdown of continuous symmetries.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Goldstone boson · See more »

## Grand Unified Theory

A Grand Unified Theory (GUT) is a model in particle physics in which, at high energy, the three gauge interactions of the Standard Model which define the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, or forces, are merged into one single force.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Grand Unified Theory · See more »

## Graviton

In theories of quantum gravity, the graviton is the hypothetical elementary particle that mediates the force of gravity.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Graviton · See more »

## Gravity

Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Gravity · See more »

## Hadron

In particle physics, a hadron (ἁδρός, hadrós, "stout, thick") is a composite particle made of quarks held together by the strong force in a similar way as molecules are held together by the electromagnetic force.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Hadron · See more »

## Half-life

Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Half-life · See more »

## Higgs boson

The Higgs boson is an elementary particle in the Standard Model of particle physics.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Higgs boson · See more »

## Higgs mechanism

In the Standard Model of particle physics, the Higgs mechanism is essential to explain the generation mechanism of the property "mass" for gauge bosons.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Higgs mechanism · See more »

## Iron

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Iron · See more »

## José Leite Lopes

José Leite Lopes (October 28, 1918 – June 12, 2006), noted Brazilian theoretical physicist in the field of quantum field theory and particle physics.

New!!: W and Z bosons and José Leite Lopes · See more »

## Lepton

In particle physics, a lepton is an elementary particle of half-integer spin (spin) that does not undergo strong interactions.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Lepton · See more »

## List of particles

This article includes a list of the different types of atomic- and sub-atomic particles found or hypothesized to exist in the whole of the universe categorized by type.

New!!: W and Z bosons and List of particles · See more »

## Mass

Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Mass · See more »

## Mathematical formulation of the Standard Model

This article describes the mathematics of the Standard Model of particle physics, a gauge quantum field theory containing the internal symmetries of the unitary product group.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Mathematical formulation of the Standard Model · See more »

## Momentum

In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Momentum · See more »

## Neutral current

Weak neutral current interactions are one of the ways in which subatomic particles can interact by means of the weak force.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Neutral current · See more »

## Neutral particle

In physics, a neutral particle is a particle with no electric charge.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Neutral particle · See more »

## Neutrino

A neutrino (denoted by the Greek letter ν) is a fermion (an elementary particle with half-integer spin) that interacts only via the weak subatomic force and gravity.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Neutrino · See more »

## Nobel Foundation

The Nobel Foundation (Nobelstiftelsen) is a private institution founded on 29 June 1900 to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Nobel Foundation · See more »

## Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Nobel Prize · See more »

## Nobel Prize in Physics

The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Nobel Prize in Physics · See more »

## Nuclear transmutation

Nuclear transmutation is the conversion of one chemical element or an isotope into another chemical element.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Nuclear transmutation · See more »

## Particle accelerator

A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Particle accelerator · See more »

## Particle physics

Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Particle physics · See more »

## Photon

The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

New!!: W and Z bosons and Photon · See more »

## Physicist

A physicist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Physicist · See more »

## Pierre Darriulat

Pierre Darriulat (born 17 February 1938) is a French experimental particle physicist.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Pierre Darriulat · See more »

## Proton

| magnetic_moment.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Proton · See more »

## Quantum electrodynamics

In particle physics, quantum electrodynamics (QED) is the relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Quantum electrodynamics · See more »

## Quark

A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Quark · See more »

## Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Radioactive decay · See more »

## Relativistic Breit–Wigner distribution

The relativistic Breit–Wigner distribution (after the 1936 nuclear resonance formula of Gregory Breit and Eugene Wigner) is a continuous probability distribution with the following probability density function, See (page 98 onwards) for a discussion of the widths of particles in the PYTHIA manual.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Relativistic Breit–Wigner distribution · See more »

## Sensor

In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Sensor · See more »

## Sheldon Lee Glashow

Sheldon Lee Glashow (born December 5, 1932) is a Nobel Prize winning American theoretical physicist.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Sheldon Lee Glashow · See more »

## Simon van der Meer

Simon van der Meer (24 November 19254 March 2011) was a Dutch particle accelerator physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1984 with Carlo Rubbia for contributions to the CERN project which led to the discovery of the W and Z particles, two of the most fundamental constituents of matter.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Simon van der Meer · See more »

## Spin (physics)

In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Spin (physics) · See more »

## Spontaneous symmetry breaking

Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a spontaneous process of symmetry breaking, by which a physical system in a symmetric state ends up in an asymmetric state.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Spontaneous symmetry breaking · See more »

## Standard Model

The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Standard Model · See more »

## Steven Weinberg

Steven Weinberg (born May 3, 1933) is an American theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate in Physics for his contributions with Abdus Salam and Sheldon Glashow to the unification of the weak force and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Steven Weinberg · See more »

## Stochastic cooling

Stochastic cooling is a form of particle beam cooling.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Stochastic cooling · See more »

## Strange quark

The strange quark or s quark (from its symbol, s) is the third lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Strange quark · See more »

## Strangeness

In particle physics, strangeness ("S") is a property of particles, expressed as a quantum number, for describing decay of particles in strong and electromagnetic interactions which occur in a short period of time.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Strangeness · See more »

## Strong interaction

In particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force (also called the strong force or nuclear strong force), and is one of the four known fundamental interactions, with the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction, and gravitation.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Strong interaction · See more »

## Super Proton Synchrotron

The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is a particle accelerator of the synchrotron type at CERN.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Super Proton Synchrotron · See more »

## Top quark

The top quark, also known as the t quark (symbol: t) or truth quark, is the most massive of all observed elementary particles.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Top quark · See more »

## Truly neutral particle

In particle physics, a truly neutral particle is a subatomic particle with all its charges equal to zero.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Truly neutral particle · See more »

## UA1 experiment

The UA1 experiment (an abbreviation of Underground Area 1) was a high-energy physics experiment that ran at CERN's Proton-Antiproton Collider (SpS), a modification of the one-beam Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS).

New!!: W and Z bosons and UA1 experiment · See more »

## UA2 experiment

The Underground Area 2 (UA2) experiment was a high-energy physics experiment at the Proton-Antiproton Collider (SpS) — a modification of the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) — at CERN.

New!!: W and Z bosons and UA2 experiment · See more »

## Unitary matrix

In mathematics, a complex square matrix is unitary if its conjugate transpose is also its inverse—that is, if where is the identity matrix.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Unitary matrix · See more »

## Up quark

The up quark or u quark (symbol: u) is the lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle, and a major constituent of matter.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Up quark · See more »

## Vacuum expectation value

In quantum field theory the vacuum expectation value (also called condensate or simply VEV) of an operator is its average, expected value in the vacuum.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Vacuum expectation value · See more »

## Vector boson

In particle physics, a vector boson is a boson with the spin equal to 1.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Vector boson · See more »

## W′ and Z′ bosons

In particle physics, W′ and Z′ bosons (or W-prime and Z-prime bosons) refer to hypothetical gauge bosons that arise from extensions of the electroweak symmetry of the Standard Model.

New!!: W and Z bosons and W′ and Z′ bosons · See more »

## Weak interaction

In particle physics, the weak interaction (the weak force or weak nuclear force) is the mechanism of interaction between sub-atomic particles that causes radioactive decay and thus plays an essential role in nuclear fission.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Weak interaction · See more »

## Weak isospin

In particle physics, weak isospin is a quantum number relating to the weak interaction, and parallels the idea of isospin under the strong interaction.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Weak isospin · See more »

## Weinberg angle

The Weinberg angle or weak mixing angle is a parameter in the Weinberg–Salam theory of the electroweak interaction, part of the Standard Model of particle physics, and is usually denoted as.

New!!: W and Z bosons and Weinberg angle · See more »

## X and Y bosons

In particle physics, the X and Y bosons (sometimes collectively called "X bosons") are hypothetical elementary particles analogous to the W and Z bosons, but corresponding to a new type of force predicted by the Georgi–Glashow model, a grand unified theory.

New!!: W and Z bosons and X and Y bosons · See more »

## ZZ diboson

ZZ dibosons are rare pairs of Z bosons.

New!!: W and Z bosons and ZZ diboson · See more »

## 1964 PRL symmetry breaking papers

The 1964 PRL symmetry breaking papers were written by three teams who proposed related but different approaches to explain how mass could arise in local gauge theories.

New!!: W and Z bosons and 1964 PRL symmetry breaking papers · See more »

## Redirects here:

The W and Z Particles, W & Z bosons, W Boson, W Minus, W Minus Boson, W Plus, W Plus Boson, W and Z Bosons, W and Z boson, W and Z particles, W boson, W particle, W particles, W+, W-, W-Boson, W-Minus, W-Particle, W-Plus, W-boson, W-minus, W-particle, W-plus, Weak Gauge Bosons, Weak boson, Weak bosons, Weak gauge boson, Weakon, Z Particle, Z Zero, Z Zero Boson, Z boson, Z bosons, Z naught, Z particle, Z particles, Z-Boson, Z-Particle, Z-boson, Z-naught, Z-particle, Z-zero, Zero boson.

## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W_and_Z_bosons