94 relations: Abdus Salam, Antiparticle, Atom, Atomic nucleus, Baryon number, Beta decay, Beta particle, Bose–Einstein statistics, Boson, Branching fraction, Bubble chamber, Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa matrix, Carlo Rubbia, CERN, Charge (physics), Charm (quantum number), Chirality (physics), Cobalt-60, Color charge, Coupling constant, Down quark, Elastic scattering, Electric charge, Electromagnetism, Electron, Electron neutrino, Electroweak interaction, Elementary charge, Elementary particle, Fermi's interaction, Fermion, Feynman diagram, Flavour (particle physics), Force carrier, Gargamelle, Gauge boson, Gauge theory, Goldstone boson, Grand Unified Theory, Graviton, Hadron, Half-life, Higgs boson, Higgs mechanism, Iron, José Leite Lopes, Kaon, Lepton, List of particles, Mass, ..., Momentum, Neutral current, Neutral particle, Neutrino, Neutron, Nobel Foundation, Nobel Prize, Nobel Prize in Physics, Nuclear transmutation, Particle accelerator, Particle physics, Photon, Physicist, Proton, Quantum electrodynamics, Quark, Radioactive decay, Relativistic Breit–Wigner distribution, Sensor, Sheldon Lee Glashow, Simon van der Meer, Spin (physics), Spontaneous symmetry breaking, Standard Model, Standard Model (mathematical formulation), Steven Weinberg, Stochastic cooling, Strange quark, Strangeness, Strong interaction, Super Proton Synchrotron, Top quark, UA1 experiment, UA2 experiment, Unitary matrix, Up quark, Vector boson, W and Z bosons, W′ and Z′ bosons, Weak interaction, Weak isospin, Weinberg angle, X and Y bosons, 1964 PRL symmetry breaking papers. Expand index (44 more) »

## Abdus Salam

Mohammad Abdus Salam Salam adopted the forename "Mohammad" in 1974 in response to the anti-Ahmadiyya decrees in Pakistan, similarly he grew his beard.

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## Antiparticle

Corresponding to most kinds of particles, there is an associated antimatter antiparticle with the same mass and opposite charge (including electric charge).

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## Atom

An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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## Atomic nucleus

The nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom.

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## Baryon number

In particle physics, the baryon number is a strictly conserved additive quantum number of a system.

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## Beta decay

In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a proton is transformed into a neutron, or vice versa, inside an atomic nucleus.

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## Beta particle

Beta particles are high-energy, high-speed electrons or positrons emitted by certain types of radioactive nuclei, such as potassium-40.

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## Bose–Einstein statistics

In quantum statistics, Bose–Einstein statistics (or more colloquially B–E statistics) is one of two possible ways in which a collection of non-interacting indistinguishable particles may occupy a set of available discrete energy states, at thermodynamic equilibrium.

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## Boson

In quantum mechanics, a boson is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics.

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## Branching fraction

In particle physics and nuclear physics, the branching fraction for a decay is the fraction of particles which decay by an individual decay mode with respect to the total number of particles which decay.

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## Bubble chamber

A bubble chamber is a vessel filled with a superheated transparent liquid (most often liquid hydrogen) used to detect electrically charged particles moving through it.

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## Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa matrix

In the Standard Model of particle physics, the Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa matrix (CKM matrix, quark mixing matrix, sometimes also called KM matrix) is a unitary matrix which contains information on the strength of flavour-changing weak decays.

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## Carlo Rubbia

Carlo Rubbia (born on 31 March 1934) is an Italian particle physicist and inventor who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1984 with Simon van der Meer for work leading to the discovery of the W and Z particles at CERN.

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## CERN

The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name "Conseil Européen pour la Recherche Nucléaire"; see ''History'') is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.

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## Charge (physics)

In physics, a charge may refer to one of many different quantities, such as the electric charge in electromagnetism or the color charge in quantum chromodynamics.

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## Charm (quantum number)

Charm (symbol C) is a flavour quantum number representing the difference between the number of charm quarks and charm antiquarks that are present in a particle: By convention, the sign of flavour quantum numbers agree with the sign of the electric charge carried by the quark of corresponding flavour.

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## Chirality (physics)

A chiral phenomenon is one that is not identical to its mirror image (see the article on mathematical chirality).

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## Cobalt-60

Cobalt-60,, is a synthetic radioactive isotope of cobalt with a half-life of 5.2714 years.

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## Color charge

Color charge is a property of quarks and gluons that is related to the particles' strong interactions in the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD).

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## Coupling constant

In physics, a coupling constant or gauge coupling parameter is a number that determines the strength of the force exerted in an interaction.

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## Down quark

The down quark or d quark (symbol: d) is the second-lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle, and a major constituent of matter.

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## Elastic scattering

Elastic scattering is a form of particle scattering in scattering theory, nuclear physics and particle physics.

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## Electric charge

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.

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## Electromagnetism

Electromagnetism is a branch of physics which involves the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.

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## Electron

The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, with a negative elementary electric charge.

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## Electron neutrino

The electron neutrino is a subatomic lepton elementary particle which has no net electric charge.

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## Electroweak interaction

In particle physics, the electroweak interaction is the unified description of two of the four known fundamental interactions of nature: electromagnetism and the weak interaction.

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## Elementary charge

The elementary charge, usually denoted as or sometimes, is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the negation (opposite) of the electric charge carried by a single electron.

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## Elementary particle

In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle whose substructure is unknown, thus it is unknown whether it is composed of other particles.

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## Fermi's interaction

In particle physics, Fermi's interaction (also the fermi theory of beta decay) is an explanation of the beta decay, proposed by Enrico Fermi in 1933.

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## Fermion

In particle physics, a fermion (a name coined by Paul Dirac from the surname of Enrico Fermi) is any particle characterized by Fermi–Dirac statistics.

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## Feynman diagram

In theoretical physics, Feynman diagrams are pictorial representations of the mathematical expressions describing the behavior of subatomic particles.

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## Flavour (particle physics)

In particle physics, flavour or flavor refers to a species of an elementary particle.

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## Force carrier

In particle physics, force carriers are particles that give rise to forces between other particles.

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## Gargamelle

Gargamelle was a giant bubble chamber detector at CERN, designed mainly for the detection of neutrino interactions.

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## Gauge boson

In particle physics, a gauge boson is a force carrier, a bosonic particle that carries any of the fundamental interactions of nature.

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## Gauge theory

In physics, a gauge theory is a type of field theory in which the Lagrangian is invariant under a continuous group of local transformations.

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## Goldstone boson

In particle and condensed matter physics, Goldstone bosons or Nambu–Goldstone bosons (NGBs) are bosons that appear necessarily in models exhibiting spontaneous breakdown of continuous symmetries.

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## Grand Unified Theory

A Grand Unified Theory (GUT) is a model in particle physics in which at high energy, the three gauge interactions of the Standard Model which define the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions or forces, are merged into one single force.

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## Graviton

In physics, the graviton is a hypothetical elementary particle that mediates the force of gravitation in the framework of quantum field theory.

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## Hadron

In particle physics, a hadron (ἁδρός, hadrós, "stout, thick") is a composite particle made of quarks held together by the strong force (in a similar way as molecules are held together by the electromagnetic force).

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## Half-life

Half-life (t1⁄2) is the amount of time required for the amount of something to fall to half its initial value.

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## Higgs boson

The Higgs boson or Higgs particle is an elementary particle in the Standard Model of particle physics.

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## Higgs mechanism

In the Standard Model of particle physics, the Higgs mechanism is essential to explain the generation mechanism of the property "mass" for gauge bosons.

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## Iron

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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## José Leite Lopes

José Leite Lopes (October 28, 1918 – June 12, 2006), noted Brazilian theoretical physicist in the field of quantum field theory and particle physics.

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## Kaon

In particle physics, a kaon, also called a K meson and denoted,The positively charged kaon used to be called τ+ and θ+, as it was supposed to be two different particles until the 1960s.

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## Lepton

A lepton is an elementary, half-integer spin (spin) particle that does not undergo strong interactions, but is subject to the Pauli exclusion principle.

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## List of particles

This is a list of the different types of particles found or believed to exist in the whole of the universe.

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## Mass

In physics, mass is a property of a physical body which determines the strength of its mutual gravitational attraction to other bodies, its resistance to being accelerated by a force, and in the theory of relativity gives the mass–energy content of a system.

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## Momentum

In classical mechanics, linear momentum or translational momentum (pl. momenta; SI unit kg m/s, or equivalently, N s) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.

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## Neutral current

Weak neutral current interactions are one of the ways in which subatomic particles can interact by means of the weak force.

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## Neutral particle

In physics, a neutral particle is a particle with no electric charge.

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## Neutrino

A neutrino (or, in Italian) is an electrically neutral elementary particle with half-integer spin.

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## Neutron

The neutron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, with no net electric charge and a mass slightly larger than that of a proton.

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## Nobel Foundation

The Nobel Foundation (Nobelstiftelsen) is a private institution founded on 29 June 1900 to manage the finances and administration of the Nobel Prizes.

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## Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Norwegian: Nobelprisen) is a set of annual international awards bestowed in a number of categories by Swedish and Norwegian committees in recognition of academic, cultural and/or scientific advances.

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## Nobel Prize in Physics

The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.

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## Nuclear transmutation

Nuclear transmutation is the conversion of one chemical element or isotope into another.

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## Particle accelerator

A particle accelerator is a device that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to high speeds and to contain them in well-defined beams.

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## Particle physics

Particle physics is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter (particles with mass) and radiation (massless particles).

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## Photon

No description.

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## Physicist

A physicist is a scientist who specializes in physics research.

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## Proton

| magnetic_moment.

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## Quantum electrodynamics

In particle physics, quantum electrodynamics (QED) is the relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics.

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## Quark

A quark is an elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.

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## Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay, also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity, is the process by which a nucleus of an unstable atom loses energy by emitting radiation.

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## Relativistic Breit–Wigner distribution

The relativistic Breit–Wigner distribution (after the 1936 nuclear resonance formula of Gregory Breit and Eugene Wigner) is a continuous probability distribution with the following probability density function, See for a discussion of the widths of particles in the PYTHIA manual.

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## Sensor

In the broadest definition, a sensor is an object whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment, and then provide a corresponding output.

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## Sheldon Lee Glashow

Sheldon Lee Glashow (born December 5, 1932) is a Nobel Prize winning American theoretical physicist.

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## Simon van der Meer

Simon van der Meer (24 November 19254 March 2011) was a Dutch particle accelerator physicist who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1984 with Carlo Rubbia for contributions to the CERN project which led to the discovery of the W and Z particles, two of the most fundamental constituents of matter.

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## Spin (physics)

In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.

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## Spontaneous symmetry breaking

Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a mode of realization of symmetry breaking in a physical system, where the underlying laws are invariant under a symmetry transformation, but the system as a whole changes under such transformations, in contrast to explicit symmetry breaking.

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## Standard Model

The Standard Model of particle physics is a theory concerning the electromagnetic, weak, and strong nuclear interactions, as well as classifying all the subatomic particles known.

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## Standard Model (mathematical formulation)

This article describes the mathematics of the Standard Model of particle physics, a gauge quantum field theory containing the internal symmetries of the unitary product group.

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## Steven Weinberg

Steven Weinberg (born May 3, 1933) is an American theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate in Physics for his contributions with Abdus Salam and Sheldon Glashow to the unification of the weak force and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles.

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## Stochastic cooling

Stochastic cooling is a form of particle beam cooling.

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## Strange quark

The strange quark or s quark (from its symbol, s) is the third-lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle.

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## Strangeness

In particle physics, strangeness ("S") is a property of particles, expressed as a quantum number, for describing decay of particles in strong and electromagnetic reactions, which occur in a short period of time.

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## Strong interaction

In particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force (also called the strong force, nuclear strong force or colour force), one of the four fundamental interactions of nature, the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction and gravitation.

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## Super Proton Synchrotron

The Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) is a particle accelerator of the synchrotron type at CERN.

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## Top quark

The top quark, also known as the t quark (symbol: t) or truth quark, is an elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.

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## UA1 experiment

The UA1 experiment was a high-energy physics experiment that ran at CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) accelerator-collider from 1981 until 1993.

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## UA2 experiment

The UA2 high energy physics experiment was one of the two major experiments and collaborations at the CERN proton-antiproton collider SPS, and codiscovered the W and Z bosons in 1983, along with UA1.

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## Unitary matrix

In mathematics, a complex square matrix U is unitary if its conjugate transpose U∗ is also its inverse – that is, if where I is the identity matrix.

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## Up quark

The up quark or u quark (symbol: u) is the lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle, and a major constituent of matter.

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## Vector boson

In particle physics, a vector boson is a boson with the spin equal to 1.

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## W and Z bosons

The W and Z bosons (together known as the weak bosons or, less specifically, the intermediate vector bosons) are the elementary particles that mediate the weak interaction; their symbols are,, and.

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## W′ and Z′ bosons

In particle physics, W′ and Z′ bosons (or W-prime and Z-prime bosons) refer to hypothetical new gauge bosons that arise from extensions of the electroweak symmetry of the Standard Model.

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## Weak interaction

In particle physics, the weak interaction is the mechanism responsible for the weak force or weak nuclear force, one of the four known fundamental interactions of nature, alongside the strong interaction, electromagnetism, and gravitation.

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## Weak isospin

In particle physics, weak isospin is a quantum number relating to the weak interaction, and parallels the idea of isospin under the strong interaction.

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## Weinberg angle

The Weinberg angle or weak mixing angle is a parameter in the Weinberg–Salam theory of the electroweak interaction, and is usually denoted as θW.

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## X and Y bosons

In particle physics, the X and Y bosons (sometimes collectively called "X bosons") are hypothetical elementary particles analogous to the W and Z bosons, but corresponding to a new type of force predicted by the Georgi–Glashow model, a grand unified theory.

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## 1964 PRL symmetry breaking papers

In 1964, three teams wrote scientific papers which proposed related but different approaches to explain how mass could arise in local gauge theories.

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## Redirects here:

The W and Z Particles, W & Z bosons, W Boson, W Minus, W Minus Boson, W Plus, W Plus Boson, W and Z Bosons, W and Z particles, W boson, W particle, W particles, W+, W-, W-Boson, W-Minus, W-Particle, W-Plus, W-boson, W-minus, W-particle, W-plus, Weak Gauge Bosons, Weak boson, Weak bosons, Weak gauge boson, Weakon, Z Particle, Z Zero, Z Zero Boson, Z boson, Z naught, Z particle, Z particles, Z-Boson, Z-Particle, Z-boson, Z-naught, Z-particle, Z-zero.

## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W_and_Z_bosons