336 relations: A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field, Abdus Salam, Abelian group, Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), Acceleration, Acta Physica Polonica, Advanced Photon Source, Albert Einstein, American Journal of Physics, Angular aperture, Angular frequency, Angular momentum of light, Angular resolution, Annalen der Physik, Annals of Science, Annihilation, Anomalous magnetic dipole moment, Antiparticle, Applied Physics B, Arthur Compton, Astronomy Letters, Atom, Atomic nucleus, Augustin-Jean Fresnel, Ballistic photon, Baryon number, Beam splitter, Biochemistry, Birefringence, BKS theory, Black-body radiation, Boltzmann constant, Bose–Einstein condensate, Bose–Einstein statistics, Boson, Brillouin scattering, C parity, Capacitor, Carl Wieman, Cauchy–Schwarz inequality, Center-of-momentum frame, Charge-coupled device, Chemistry, Chlorine, Christiaan Huygens, Circular polarization, Cis–trans isomerism, Coherent states, Complex geometry, Complex number, ..., Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Compton scattering, Conservation law, Coulomb's law, De Broglie–Bohm theory, Degenerate energy levels, Degrees of freedom, Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft, Diffraction, Dirac equation, Dispersion (optics), Doppler effect, Double-slit experiment, Edward Andrade, Effective mass (solid-state physics), Electric charge, Electric field, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electromagnetic field, Electromagnetic four-potential, Electromagnetic radiation, Electromagnetic wave equation, Electromagnetism, Electron, Electron–positron annihilation, Electroweak interaction, Elementary particle, Emission spectrum, Energy, Energy level, EPL (journal), EPR paradox, Eric Allin Cornell, Ernest Rutherford, Euclidean vector, European Journal of Physics, European Physical Journal, Exciton, Förster resonance energy transfer, Fermi–Dirac statistics, Fermion, Field (physics), Fock state, Force carrier, Four-vector, Fourier series, Frequency, Gamma, Gamma ray, Gas-discharge lamp, Gauge boson, Gauge fixing, Gauge theory, Geiger counter, General relativity, George Wald, Gilbert N. Lewis, Gluon, Grand Unified Theory, Gravitational lens, Gravitational redshift, Gravitational wave, Graviton, Gravity, Greek alphabet, Greek language, Hadron, Hans Kramers, Hardware random number generator, Heinrich Hertz, Helicity (particle physics), Higgs mechanism, High energy X-ray imaging technology, Hyperfine structure, Identical particles, Infinity, Intensity (physics), International Linear Collider, Invariant mass, Ionization, IOP Publishing, Isaac Asimov, Isaac Newton, Isomerization, James Clerk Maxwell, John C. Slater, John Joly, Journal of Modern Optics, Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Lagrangian (field theory), Lamb shift, Laser, Lene Hau, Lens (optics), Leonard T. Troland, Lepton, Lepton number, Light, Light cone, Luminiferous aether, Magnetic field, Magnetic potential, Magnetism, Magnitude (mathematics), Mass in special relativity, Massless particle, Matrix mechanics, Matter, Max Born, Max Planck, Maxwell's equations, Maxwell–Boltzmann statistics, McGraw-Hill Education, Measurement in quantum mechanics, Medical optical imaging, Medipix, Modern physics, Modulational instability, Molecular biology, Molecule, Momentum, Muonium, Neuron (journal), Newsweek, Niels Bohr, Nobel Prize, Nonlinear optics, Nu (letter), Number density, Observable, Optical communication, Optical engineering, Optical parametric oscillator, Optics, Optics and Photonics News, Orbital angular momentum of light, Pair production, Parity (physics), Particle, Particle Data Group, Particle physics, Pascual Jordan, Paul Dirac, Paul Ulrich Villard, Pauli exclusion principle, Perturbation theory, Perturbation theory (quantum mechanics), Peter Debye, Phase space, Philosophical Magazine, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Phonon, Photochemistry, Photodissociation, Photoelectric effect, Photography, Photomultiplier, Photon counting, Photon energy, Photon epoch, Photon polarization, Photon structure function, Photonic molecule, Photonics, Physical Review, Physical Review Letters, Physics Letters, Physikalische Zeitschrift, Picosecond, Planck constant, Planck's law, Point particle, Polariton, Polarization (waves), Polarization density, Ponderomotive energy, Position and momentum space, Positron, Positronium, Potential energy, Pound–Rebka experiment, Precision tests of QED, Prentice Hall, Probability amplitude, Probability distribution, Proceedings of the Royal Society, Progress in Optics, Project Gutenberg, Protein, Proton decay, QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter, Quantity, Quantization (physics), Quantum, Quantum chromodynamics, Quantum computing, Quantum cryptography, Quantum electrodynamics, Quantum entanglement, Quantum field theory, Quantum mechanics, Quantum optics, Quantum state, Quasiparticle, Radiation pressure, Radio, Radio wave, Raman scattering, Reaction rate constant, Real number, Refraction, Refractive index, René Descartes, Renormalization, Retinal, Review of Scientific Instruments, Reviews of Modern Physics, Robert Andrews Millikan, Robert Hooke, Royal Society, Satyendra Nath Bose, Schrödinger equation, Science (journal), Self-phase modulation, Semiconductor, Sheldon Lee Glashow, Simple harmonic motion, Single-photon source, Slow light, Solar core, Spacetime, Special unitary group, Speed of light, Spin (physics), Spin angular momentum of light, Spin quantum number, Spin–statistics theorem, Spontaneous emission, Spontaneous parametric down-conversion, Springer Science+Business Media, Squeezed coherent state, Standard Model, Static forces and virtual-particle exchange, Steven Weinberg, Stimulated emission, Stress–energy tensor, Subatomic particle, Superconductivity, Svante Arrhenius, Symmetry (physics), Synchrotron radiation, Temperature, Tensor product, Thermal equilibrium, Thomas Young (scientist), Thought experiment, Total angular momentum quantum number, Translational symmetry, Treatise on Light, Two-photon absorption, Two-photon excitation microscopy, Two-photon physics, Ultraviolet catastrophe, Uncertainty principle, Unitary group, University of Chicago Press, Upper and lower bounds, Vacuum, Variable speed of light, Vector meson dominance, Virtual particle, Visual perception, W and Z bosons, Walker Books, Wave, Wave function, Wave interference, Wave vector, Wave–particle duality, Wavelength, Wavenumber, Weak interaction, Weak isospin, Werner Heisenberg, Wikisource, Wilhelm Wien. Expand index (286 more) »

## A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field

"A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field" is a paper by James Clerk Maxwell on electromagnetism, published in 1865.

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## Abdus Salam

Mohammad Abdus Salam Salam adopted the forename "Mohammad" in 1974 in response to the anti-Ahmadiyya decrees in Pakistan, similarly he grew his beard.

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## Abelian group

In abstract algebra, an abelian group, also called a commutative group, is a group in which the result of applying the group operation to two group elements does not depend on the order in which they are written.

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## Absorption (electromagnetic radiation)

In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way in which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom.

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## Acceleration

In physics, acceleration is the rate of change of velocity of an object with respect to time.

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## Acta Physica Polonica

Acta Physica Polonica is an open access peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in physics.

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## Advanced Photon Source

The Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (in Argonne, Illinois, USA) is a national synchrotron-radiation light source research facility funded by the United States Department of Energy Office of Science.

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## Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).

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## American Journal of Physics

The American Journal of Physics is a monthly, peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Association of Physics Teachers and the American Institute of Physics.

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## Angular aperture

The angular aperture of a lens is the angular size of the lens aperture as seen from the focal point: where.

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## Angular frequency

In physics, angular frequency ω (also referred to by the terms angular speed, radial frequency, circular frequency, orbital frequency, radian frequency, and pulsatance) is a scalar measure of rotation rate.

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## Angular momentum of light

The angular momentum of light is a vector quantity that expresses the amount of dynamical rotation present in the electromagnetic field of the light.

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## Angular resolution

Angular resolution or spatial resolution describes the ability of any image-forming device such as an optical or radio telescope, a microscope, a camera, or an eye, to distinguish small details of an object, thereby making it a major determinant of image resolution.

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## Annalen der Physik

Annalen der Physik (English: Annals of Physics) is one of the oldest scientific journals on physics and has been published since 1799.

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## Annals of Science

Annals of Science is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the history of science and technology.

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## Annihilation

In particle physics, annihilation is the process that occurs when a subatomic particle collides with its respective antiparticle to produce other particles, such as an electron colliding with a positron to produce two photons.

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## Anomalous magnetic dipole moment

In quantum electrodynamics, the anomalous magnetic moment of a particle is a contribution of effects of quantum mechanics, expressed by Feynman diagrams with loops, to the magnetic moment of that particle.

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## Antiparticle

In particle physics, every type of particle has an associated antiparticle with the same mass but with opposite physical charges (such as electric charge).

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## Applied Physics B

Applied Physics B: Lasers & Optics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Springer Science+Business Media.

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## Arthur Compton

Arthur Holly Compton (September 10, 1892 – March 15, 1962) was an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1927 for his 1923 discovery of the Compton effect, which demonstrated the particle nature of electromagnetic radiation.

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## Astronomy Letters

Astronomy Letters (Russian: Pis’ma v Astronomicheskii Zhurnal) is a Russian peer-reviewed scientific journal.

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## Atom

An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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## Atomic nucleus

The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.

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## Augustin-Jean Fresnel

Augustin-Jean Fresnel (10 May 178814 July 1827) was a French civil engineer and physicist whose research in optics led to the almost unanimous acceptance of the wave theory of light, excluding any remnant of Newton's corpuscular theory, from the late 1830s until the end of the 19th century.

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## Ballistic photon

Ballistic photons are the light photons that travel through a scattering (turbid) medium in a straight line.

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## Baryon number

In particle physics, the baryon number is a strictly conserved additive quantum number of a system.

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## Beam splitter

A beam splitter is an optical device that splits a beam of light in two.

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## Biochemistry

Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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## Birefringence

Birefringence is the optical property of a material having a refractive index that depends on the polarization and propagation direction of light.

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## BKS theory

The Bohr-Kramers-Slater (BKS) theory was perhaps the final attempt at understanding the interaction of matter and electromagnetic radiation on the basis of the so-called old quantum theory, in which quantum phenomena are treated by imposing quantum restrictions on classically describable behaviour.

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## Black-body radiation

Black-body radiation is the thermal electromagnetic radiation within or surrounding a body in thermodynamic equilibrium with its environment, or emitted by a black body (an opaque and non-reflective body).

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## Boltzmann constant

The Boltzmann constant, which is named after Ludwig Boltzmann, is a physical constant relating the average kinetic energy of particles in a gas with the temperature of the gas.

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## Bose–Einstein condensate

A Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter of a dilute gas of bosons cooled to temperatures very close to absolute zero.

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## Bose–Einstein statistics

In quantum statistics, Bose–Einstein statistics (or more colloquially B–E statistics) is one of two possible ways in which a collection of non-interacting indistinguishable particles may occupy a set of available discrete energy states, at thermodynamic equilibrium.

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## Boson

In quantum mechanics, a boson is a particle that follows Bose–Einstein statistics.

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## Brillouin scattering

Brillouin scattering, named after Léon Brillouin, refers to the interaction of light and material waves within a medium.

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## C parity

In physics, the C parity or charge parity is a multiplicative quantum number of some particles that describes their behavior under the symmetry operation of charge conjugation.

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## Capacitor

A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores potential energy in an electric field.

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## Carl Wieman

Carl Edwin Wieman (born March 26, 1951) is an American physicist and educationist at Stanford University.

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## Cauchy–Schwarz inequality

In mathematics, the Cauchy–Schwarz inequality, also known as the Cauchy–Bunyakovsky–Schwarz inequality, is a useful inequality encountered in many different settings, such as linear algebra, analysis, probability theory, vector algebra and other areas.

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## Center-of-momentum frame

In physics, the center-of-momentum frame (also zero-momentum frame or COM frame) of a system is the unique (up to velocity but not origin) inertial frame in which the total momentum of the system vanishes.

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## Charge-coupled device

A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value.

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## Chemistry

Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.

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## Chlorine

Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.

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## Christiaan Huygens

Christiaan Huygens (Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695) was a Dutch physicist, mathematician, astronomer and inventor, who is widely regarded as one of the greatest scientists of all time and a major figure in the scientific revolution.

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## Circular polarization

In electrodynamics, circular polarization of an electromagnetic wave is a polarization state in which, at each point, the electric field of the wave has a constant magnitude but its direction rotates with time at a steady rate in a plane perpendicular to the direction of the wave.

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## Cis–trans isomerism

Cis–trans isomerism, also known as geometric isomerism or configurational isomerism, is a term used in organic chemistry.

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## Coherent states

In physics, specifically in quantum mechanics, a coherent state is the specific quantum state of the quantum harmonic oscillator, often described as a state which has dynamics most closely resembling the oscillatory behavior of a classical harmonic oscillator.

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## Complex geometry

In mathematics, complex geometry is the study of complex manifolds and functions of several complex variables.

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## Complex number

A complex number is a number that can be expressed in the form, where and are real numbers, and is a solution of the equation.

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## Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences

Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences (English: Proceedings of the Academy of sciences), or simply Comptes rendus, is a French scientific journal which has been published since 1666.

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## Compton scattering

Compton scattering, discovered by Arthur Holly Compton, is the scattering of a photon by a charged particle, usually an electron.

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## Conservation law

In physics, a conservation law states that a particular measurable property of an isolated physical system does not change as the system evolves over time.

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## Coulomb's law

Coulomb's law, or Coulomb's inverse-square law, is a law of physics for quantifying the amount of force with which stationary electrically charged particles repel or attract each other.

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## De Broglie–Bohm theory

The de Broglie–Bohm theory, also known as the pilot wave theory, Bohmian mechanics, Bohm's interpretation, and the causal interpretation, is an interpretation of quantum mechanics.

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## Degenerate energy levels

In quantum mechanics, an energy level is degenerate if it corresponds to two or more different measurable states of a quantum system.

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## Degrees of freedom

In many scientific fields, the degrees of freedom of a system is the number of parameters of the system that may vary independently.

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## Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft

The Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft (DPG, "German Physical Society") is the world's largest organization of physicists.

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## Diffraction

--> Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit.

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## Dirac equation

In particle physics, the Dirac equation is a relativistic wave equation derived by British physicist Paul Dirac in 1928.

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## Dispersion (optics)

In optics, dispersion is the phenomenon in which the phase velocity of a wave depends on its frequency.

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## Doppler effect

The Doppler effect (or the Doppler shift) is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to observer who is moving relative to the wave source.

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## Double-slit experiment

In modern physics, the double-slit experiment is a demonstration that light and matter can display characteristics of both classically defined waves and particles; moreover, it displays the fundamentally probabilistic nature of quantum mechanical phenomena.

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## Edward Andrade

Edward Neville da Costa Andrade FRS (27 December 1887 – 6 June 1971) was an English physicist, writer, and poet.

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## Effective mass (solid-state physics)

In solid state physics, a particle's effective mass (often denoted) is the mass that it seems to have when responding to forces, or the mass that it seems to have when interacting with other identical particles in a thermal distribution.

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## Electric charge

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.

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## Electric field

An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.

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## Electrical resistivity and conductivity

Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.

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## Electromagnetic field

An electromagnetic field (also EMF or EM field) is a physical field produced by electrically charged objects.

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## Electromagnetic four-potential

An electromagnetic four-potential is a relativistic vector function from which the electromagnetic field can be derived.

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## Electromagnetic radiation

In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.

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## Electromagnetic wave equation

The electromagnetic wave equation is a second-order partial differential equation that describes the propagation of electromagnetic waves through a medium or in a vacuum.

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## Electromagnetism

Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.

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## Electron

The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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## Electron–positron annihilation

Electron–positron annihilation occurs when an electron and a positron (the electron's antiparticle) collide.

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## Electroweak interaction

In particle physics, the electroweak interaction is the unified description of two of the four known fundamental interactions of nature: electromagnetism and the weak interaction.

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## Elementary particle

In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle with no substructure, thus not composed of other particles.

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## Emission spectrum

The emission spectrum of a chemical element or chemical compound is the spectrum of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation emitted due to an atom or molecule making a transition from a high energy state to a lower energy state.

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## Energy

In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.

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## Energy level

A quantum mechanical system or particle that is bound—that is, confined spatially—can only take on certain discrete values of energy.

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## EPL (journal)

EPL is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by EDP Sciences, IOP Publishing and the Italian Physical Society on behalf of the European Physical Society and 17 other European physical societies.

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## EPR paradox

The Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen paradox or the EPR paradox of 1935 is a thought experiment in quantum mechanics with which Albert Einstein and his colleagues Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen (EPR) claimed to demonstrate that the wave function does not provide a complete description of physical reality, and hence that the Copenhagen interpretation is unsatisfactory; resolutions of the paradox have important implications for the interpretation of quantum mechanics.

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## Eric Allin Cornell

Eric Allin Cornell (born December 19, 1961) is an American physicist who, along with Carl E. Wieman, was able to synthesize the first Bose–Einstein condensate in 1995.

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## Ernest Rutherford

Ernest Rutherford, 1st Baron Rutherford of Nelson, HFRSE LLD (30 August 1871 – 19 October 1937) was a New Zealand-born British physicist who came to be known as the father of nuclear physics.

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## Euclidean vector

In mathematics, physics, and engineering, a Euclidean vector (sometimes called a geometric or spatial vector, or—as here—simply a vector) is a geometric object that has magnitude (or length) and direction.

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## European Journal of Physics

The European Journal of Physics is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal dedicated to maintaining and improving the standard of physics education in higher education.

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## European Physical Journal

The European Physical Journal (or EPJ) is a joint publication of EDP Sciences, Springer Science+Business Media, and the Società Italiana di Fisica.

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## Exciton

An exciton is a bound state of an electron and an electron hole which are attracted to each other by the electrostatic Coulomb force.

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## Förster resonance energy transfer

Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), resonance energy transfer (RET) or electronic energy transfer (EET) is a mechanism describing energy transfer between two light-sensitive molecules (chromophores).

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## Fermi–Dirac statistics

In quantum statistics, a branch of physics, Fermi–Dirac statistics describe a distribution of particles over energy states in systems consisting of many identical particles that obey the Pauli exclusion principle.

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## Fermion

In particle physics, a fermion is a particle that follows Fermi–Dirac statistics.

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## Field (physics)

In physics, a field is a physical quantity, represented by a number or tensor, that has a value for each point in space and time.

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## Fock state

In quantum mechanics, a Fock state or number state is a quantum state that is an element of a Fock space with a well-defined number of particles (or quanta).

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## Force carrier

In particle physics, force carriers or messenger particles or intermediate particles are particles that give rise to forces between other particles.

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## Four-vector

In special relativity, a four-vector (also known as a 4-vector) is an object with four components, which transform in a specific way under Lorentz transformation.

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## Fourier series

In mathematics, a Fourier series is a way to represent a function as the sum of simple sine waves.

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## Frequency

Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.

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## Gamma

Gamma (uppercase, lowercase; gámma) is the third letter of the Greek alphabet.

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## Gamma ray

A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.

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## Gas-discharge lamp

Gas-discharge lamps are a family of artificial light sources that generate light by sending an electric discharge through an ionized gas, a plasma.

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## Gauge boson

In particle physics, a gauge boson is a force carrier, a bosonic particle that carries any of the fundamental interactions of nature, commonly called forces.

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## Gauge fixing

In the physics of gauge theories, gauge fixing (also called choosing a gauge) denotes a mathematical procedure for coping with redundant degrees of freedom in field variables.

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## Gauge theory

In physics, a gauge theory is a type of field theory in which the Lagrangian is invariant under certain Lie groups of local transformations.

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## Geiger counter

The Geiger counter is an instrument used for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation used widely in applications such as radiation dosimetry, radiological protection, experimental physics and the nuclear industry.

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## General relativity

General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.

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## George Wald

George David Wald (November 18, 1906 – April 12, 1997) was an American scientist who studied pigments in the retina.

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## Gilbert N. Lewis

Gilbert Newton Lewis (October 25 (or 23), 1875 – March 23, 1946) was an American physical chemist known for the discovery of the covalent bond and his concept of electron pairs; his Lewis dot structures and other contributions to valence bond theory have shaped modern theories of chemical bonding.

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## Gluon

A gluon is an elementary particle that acts as the exchange particle (or gauge boson) for the strong force between quarks.

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## Grand Unified Theory

A Grand Unified Theory (GUT) is a model in particle physics in which, at high energy, the three gauge interactions of the Standard Model which define the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, or forces, are merged into one single force.

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## Gravitational lens

A gravitational lens is a distribution of matter (such as a cluster of galaxies) between a distant light source and an observer, that is capable of bending the light from the source as the light travels towards the observer.

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## Gravitational redshift

In astrophysics, gravitational redshift or Einstein shift is the process by which electromagnetic radiation originating from a source that is in a gravitational field is reduced in frequency, or redshifted, when observed in a region at a higher gravitational potential.

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## Gravitational wave

Gravitational waves are the disturbance in the fabric ("curvature") of spacetime generated by accelerated masses and propagate as waves outward from their source at the speed of light.

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## Graviton

In theories of quantum gravity, the graviton is the hypothetical elementary particle that mediates the force of gravity.

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## Gravity

Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

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## Greek alphabet

The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.

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## Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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## Hadron

In particle physics, a hadron (ἁδρός, hadrós, "stout, thick") is a composite particle made of quarks held together by the strong force in a similar way as molecules are held together by the electromagnetic force.

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## Hans Kramers

Hendrik Anthony "Hans" Kramers (2 February 1894 – 24 April 1952) was a Dutch physicist who worked with Niels Bohr to understand how electromagnetic waves interact with matter.

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## Hardware random number generator

In computing, a hardware random number generator (true random number generator, TRNG) is a device that generates random numbers from a physical process, rather than a computer program.

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## Heinrich Hertz

Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (22 February 1857 – 1 January 1894) was a German physicist who first conclusively proved the existence of the electromagnetic waves theorized by James Clerk Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light.

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## Helicity (particle physics)

In particle physics, helicity is the projection of the spin onto the direction of momentum.

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## Higgs mechanism

In the Standard Model of particle physics, the Higgs mechanism is essential to explain the generation mechanism of the property "mass" for gauge bosons.

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## High energy X-ray imaging technology

High energy X-ray imaging technology (HEXITEC) is a family of spectroscopic, single photon counting, pixel detectors developed for high energy X-ray and Ύ-ray spectroscopy applications.

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## Hyperfine structure

In atomic physics, hyperfine structure refers to small shifts and splittings in the energy levels of atoms, molecules and ions, due to interaction between the state of the nucleus and the state of the electron clouds.

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## Identical particles

Identical particles, also called indistinguishable or indiscernible particles, are particles that cannot be distinguished from one another, even in principle.

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## Infinity

Infinity (symbol) is a concept describing something without any bound or larger than any natural number.

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## Intensity (physics)

In physics, intensity is the power transferred per unit area, where the area is measured on the plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the energy.

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## International Linear Collider

The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a proposed linear particle accelerator.

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## Invariant mass

The invariant mass, rest mass, intrinsic mass, proper mass, or in the case of bound systems simply mass, is the portion of the total mass of an object or system of objects that is independent of the overall motion of the system.

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## Ionization

Ionization or ionisation, is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.

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## IOP Publishing

IOP Publishing (previously named Institute of Physics Publishing) is the publishing company of the Institute of Physics.

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## Isaac Asimov

Isaac Asimov (January 2, 1920 – April 6, 1992) was an American writer and professor of biochemistry at Boston University.

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## Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

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## Isomerization

In chemistry isomerization (also isomerisation) is the process by which one molecule is transformed into another molecule which has exactly the same atoms, but the atoms have a different arrangement e.g. A-B-C → B-A-C (these related molecules are known as isomers). In some molecules and under some conditions, isomerization occurs spontaneously.

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## James Clerk Maxwell

James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.

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## John C. Slater

John Clarke Slater (December 22, 1900 – July 25, 1976) was a noted American physicist who made major contributions to the theory of the electronic structure of atoms, molecules and solids.

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## John Joly

John Joly FRS (1 November 1857 – 8 December 1933) was an Irish physicist,and professor of geology at the University of Dublin famous for his development of radiotherapy in the treatment of cancer.

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## Journal of Modern Optics

The Journal of Modern Optics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established as Optica Acta in 1954.

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## Journal of Physics: Conference Series

Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS) is a peer-reviewed, open-access publication from IOP Publishing providing readers with the latest developments in physics presented at international conferences.

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## Lagrangian (field theory)

Lagrangian field theory is a formalism in classical field theory.

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## Lamb shift

In physics, the Lamb shift, named after Willis Lamb, is a difference in energy between two energy levels 2S1/2 and 2P1/2 (in term symbol notation) of the hydrogen atom which was not predicted by the Dirac equation, according to which these states should have the same energy.

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## Laser

A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.

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## Lene Hau

Lene Vestergaard Hau (born November 13, 1959 in Vejle, Denmark) is a Danish physicist with a PhD from Aarhus University.

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## Lens (optics)

A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction.

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## Leonard T. Troland

Leonard Thompson Troland (1889–1932) was an American physicist, psychologist and psychical researcher.

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## Lepton

In particle physics, a lepton is an elementary particle of half-integer spin (spin) that does not undergo strong interactions.

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## Lepton number

In particle physics, lepton number (historically also called lepton charge) is a conserved quantum number representing the difference between the number of leptons and the number of antileptons in an elementary particle reaction.

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## Light

Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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## Light cone

In special and general relativity, a light cone is the path that a flash of light, emanating from a single event (localized to a single point in space and a single moment in time) and traveling in all directions, would take through spacetime.

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## Luminiferous aether

In the late 19th century, luminiferous aether or ether ("luminiferous", meaning "light-bearing"), was the postulated medium for the propagation of light.

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## Magnetic field

A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.

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## Magnetic potential

The term magnetic potential can be used for either of two quantities in classical electromagnetism: the magnetic vector potential, or simply vector potential, A; and the magnetic scalar potential ψ. Both quantities can be used in certain circumstances to calculate the magnetic field B. The more frequently used magnetic vector potential is defined so that its curl is equal to the magnetic field: curl A.

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## Magnetism

Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields.

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## Magnitude (mathematics)

In mathematics, magnitude is the size of a mathematical object, a property which determines whether the object is larger or smaller than other objects of the same kind.

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## Mass in special relativity

Mass in special relativity incorporates the general understandings from the laws of motion of special relativity along with its concept of mass–energy equivalence.

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## Massless particle

In particle physics, a massless particle is an elementary particle whose invariant mass is zero.

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## Matrix mechanics

Matrix mechanics is a formulation of quantum mechanics created by Werner Heisenberg, Max Born, and Pascual Jordan in 1925.

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## Matter

In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.

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## Max Born

Max Born (11 December 1882 – 5 January 1970) was a German physicist and mathematician who was instrumental in the development of quantum mechanics.

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## Max Planck

Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, FRS (23 April 1858 – 4 October 1947) was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.

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## Maxwell's equations

Maxwell's equations are a set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electromagnetism, classical optics, and electric circuits.

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## Maxwell–Boltzmann statistics

In statistical mechanics, Maxwell–Boltzmann statistics describes the average distribution of non-interacting material particles over various energy states in thermal equilibrium, and is applicable when the temperature is high enough or the particle density is low enough to render quantum effects negligible.

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## McGraw-Hill Education

McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.

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## Measurement in quantum mechanics

The framework of quantum mechanics requires a careful definition of measurement.

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## Medical optical imaging

Medical optical imaging is the use of light as an investigational imaging technique for medical applications.

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## Medipix

Medipix is a family of photon counting and particle tracking pixel detectors developed by an international collaboration, hosted by CERN.

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## Modern physics

Modern physics is the post-Newtonian conception of physics.

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## Modulational instability

In the fields of nonlinear optics and fluid dynamics, modulational instability or sideband instability is a phenomenon whereby deviations from a periodic waveform are reinforced by nonlinearity, leading to the generation of spectral-sidebands and the eventual breakup of the waveform into a train of pulses.

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## Molecular biology

Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.

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## Molecule

A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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## Momentum

In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.

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## Muonium

Muonium is an exotic atom made up of an antimuon and an electron, which was discovered in 1960 by Vernon W. Hughes and is given the chemical symbol Mu.

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## Neuron (journal)

Neuron is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Cell Press, and imprint of Elsevier.

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## Newsweek

Newsweek is an American weekly magazine founded in 1933.

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## Niels Bohr

Niels Henrik David Bohr (7 October 1885 – 18 November 1962) was a Danish physicist who made foundational contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1922.

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## Nobel Prize

The Nobel Prize (Swedish definite form, singular: Nobelpriset; Nobelprisen) is a set of six annual international awards bestowed in several categories by Swedish and Norwegian institutions in recognition of academic, cultural, or scientific advances.

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## Nonlinear optics

Nonlinear optics (NLO) is the branch of optics that describes the behavior of light in nonlinear media, that is, media in which the dielectric polarization P responds nonlinearly to the electric field E of the light.

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## Nu (letter)

Nu (uppercase Ν lowercase ν; νι ni) or ny is the 13th letter of the Greek alphabet.

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## Number density

In physics, astronomy, chemistry, biology and geography, number density (symbol: n or ρN) is an intensive quantity used to describe the degree of concentration of countable objects (particles, molecules, phonons, cells, galaxies, etc.) in physical space: three-dimensional volumetric number density, two-dimensional areal number density, or one-dimensional line number density.

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## Observable

In physics, an observable is a dynamic variable that can be measured.

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## Optical communication

Optical communication, also known as optical telecommunication, is communication at a distance using light to carry information.

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## Optical engineering

Optical engineering is the field of study that focuses on applications of optics.

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## Optical parametric oscillator

An optical parametric oscillator (OPO) is a parametric oscillator that oscillates at optical frequencies.

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## Optics

Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.

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## Optics and Photonics News

Optics & Photonics News is the membership magazine of The Optical Society.

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## Orbital angular momentum of light

The orbital angular momentum of light (OAM) is the component of angular momentum of a light beam that is dependent on the field spatial distribution, and not on the polarization.

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## Pair production

Pair production is the creation of an elementary particle and its antiparticle from a neutral boson.

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## Parity (physics)

In quantum mechanics, a parity transformation (also called parity inversion) is the flip in the sign of one spatial coordinate.

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## Particle

In the physical sciences, a particle (or corpuscule in older texts) is a small localized object to which can be ascribed several physical or chemical properties such as volume, density or mass.

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## Particle Data Group

The Particle Data Group (or PDG) is an international collaboration of particle physicists that compiles and reanalyzes published results related to the properties of particles and fundamental interactions.

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## Particle physics

Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.

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## Pascual Jordan

Ernst Pascual Jordan (18 October 1902 – 31 July 1980) was a theoretical and mathematical physicist who made significant contributions to quantum mechanics and quantum field theory.

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## Paul Dirac

Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac (8 August 1902 – 20 October 1984) was an English theoretical physicist who is regarded as one of the most significant physicists of the 20th century.

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## Paul Ulrich Villard

Paul Ulrich Villard (28 September 1860 – 13 January 1934) was a French chemist and physicist.

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## Pauli exclusion principle

The Pauli exclusion principle is the quantum mechanical principle which states that two or more identical fermions (particles with half-integer spin) cannot occupy the same quantum state within a quantum system simultaneously.

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## Perturbation theory

Perturbation theory comprises mathematical methods for finding an approximate solution to a problem, by starting from the exact solution of a related, simpler problem.

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## Perturbation theory (quantum mechanics)

In quantum mechanics, perturbation theory is a set of approximation schemes directly related to mathematical perturbation for describing a complicated quantum system in terms of a simpler one.

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## Peter Debye

Peter Joseph William Debye (March 24, 1884 – November 2, 1966) was a Dutch-American physicist and physical chemist, and Nobel laureate in Chemistry.

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## Phase space

In dynamical system theory, a phase space is a space in which all possible states of a system are represented, with each possible state corresponding to one unique point in the phase space.

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## Philosophical Magazine

The Philosophical Magazine is one of the oldest scientific journals published in English.

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## Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society

Philosophical Transactions, titled Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (often abbreviated as Phil. Trans.) from 1776, is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society.

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## Phonon

In physics, a phonon is a collective excitation in a periodic, elastic arrangement of atoms or molecules in condensed matter, like solids and some liquids.

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## Photochemistry

Photochemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the chemical effects of light.

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## Photodissociation

Photodissociation, photolysis, or photodecomposition is a chemical reaction in which a chemical compound is broken down by photons.

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## Photoelectric effect

The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons or other free carriers when light shines on a material.

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## Photography

Photography is the science, art, application and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film.

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## Photomultiplier

Photomultiplier tubes (photomultipliers or PMTs for short), members of the class of vacuum tubes, and more specifically vacuum phototubes, are extremely sensitive detectors of light in the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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## Photon counting

Photon counting is a technique in which individual photons are counted using some single-photon detector (SPD).

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## Photon energy

Photon energy is the energy carried by a single photon.

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## Photon epoch

In physical cosmology, the photon epoch was the period in the evolution of the early universe in which photons dominated the energy of the universe.

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## Photon polarization

Photon polarization is the quantum mechanical description of the classical polarized sinusoidal plane electromagnetic wave.

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## Photon structure function

The photon structure function, in quantum field theory, describes the quark content of the photon.

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## Photonic molecule

First theoretically predicted by Jung-Tsung Shen in 2007, photonic molecules are a natural form of matter which can also be made artificially in which photons bind together to form "molecules".

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## Photonics

Photonics is the physical science of light (photon) generation, detection, and manipulation through emission, transmission, modulation, signal processing, switching, amplification, and detection/sensing.

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## Physical Review

Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.

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## Physical Review Letters

Physical Review Letters (PRL), established in 1958, is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal that is published 52 times per year by the American Physical Society.

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## Physics Letters

Physics Letters was a scientific journal published from 1962 to 1966, when it split in two series now published by Elsevier.

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## Physikalische Zeitschrift

Physikalische Zeitschrift (English: Physical Journal) was a German scientific journal of physics published from 1899 to 1945 by S. Hirzel Verlag.

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## Picosecond

A picosecond is an SI unit of time equal to 10−12 or 1/1,000,000,000,000 (one trillionth) of a second.

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## Planck constant

The Planck constant (denoted, also called Planck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action, central in quantum mechanics.

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## Planck's law

Planck's law describes the spectral density of electromagnetic radiation emitted by a black body in thermal equilibrium at a given temperature T. The law is named after Max Planck, who proposed it in 1900.

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## Point particle

A point particle (ideal particle or point-like particle, often spelled pointlike particle) is an idealization of particles heavily used in physics.

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## Polariton

In physics, polaritons are quasiparticles resulting from strong coupling of electromagnetic waves with an electric or magnetic dipole-carrying excitation.

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## Polarization (waves)

Polarization (also polarisation) is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations.

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## Polarization density

In classical electromagnetism, polarization density (or electric polarization, or simply polarization) is the vector field that expresses the density of permanent or induced electric dipole moments in a dielectric material.

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## Ponderomotive energy

In strong-field laser physics, ponderomotive energy is the cycle-averaged quiver energy of a free electron in an electromagnetic field.

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## Position and momentum space

In physics and geometry, there are two closely related vector spaces, usually three-dimensional but in general could be any finite number of dimensions.

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## Positron

The positron or antielectron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron.

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## Positronium

Positronium (Ps) is a system consisting of an electron and its anti-particle, a positron, bound together into an exotic atom, specifically an onium.

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## Potential energy

In physics, potential energy is the energy possessed by an object because of its position relative to other objects, stresses within itself, its electric charge, or other factors.

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## Pound–Rebka experiment

The Pound–Rebka experiment is a well known experiment to test Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity.

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## Precision tests of QED

Quantum electrodynamics (QED), a relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics, is among the most stringently tested theories in physics.

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## Prentice Hall

Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc.

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## Probability amplitude

In quantum mechanics, a probability amplitude is a complex number used in describing the behaviour of systems.

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## Probability distribution

In probability theory and statistics, a probability distribution is a mathematical function that provides the probabilities of occurrence of different possible outcomes in an experiment.

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## Proceedings of the Royal Society

Proceedings of the Royal Society is the parent title of two scientific journals published by the Royal Society.

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## Progress in Optics

Progress in Optics are a series of books edited by Emil Wolf published by Elsevier.

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## Project Gutenberg

Project Gutenberg (PG) is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to "encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks".

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## Protein

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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## Proton decay

In particle physics, proton decay is a hypothetical form of radioactive decay in which the proton decays into lighter subatomic particles, such as a neutral pion and a positron.

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## QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter

QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter is an adaptation for the general reader of four lectures on quantum electrodynamics (QED) published in 1985 by American physicist and Nobel laureate Richard Feynman.

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## Quantity

Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude.

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## Quantization (physics)

In physics, quantization is the process of transition from a classical understanding of physical phenomena to a newer understanding known as quantum mechanics.

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## Quantum

In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is the minimum amount of any physical entity (physical property) involved in an interaction.

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## Quantum chromodynamics

In theoretical physics, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction between quarks and gluons, the fundamental particles that make up composite hadrons such as the proton, neutron and pion.

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## Quantum computing

Quantum computing is computing using quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement.

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## Quantum cryptography

Quantum cryptography is the science of exploiting quantum mechanical properties to perform cryptographic tasks.

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## Quantum electrodynamics

In particle physics, quantum electrodynamics (QED) is the relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics.

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## Quantum entanglement

Quantum entanglement is a physical phenomenon which occurs when pairs or groups of particles are generated, interact, or share spatial proximity in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently of the state of the other(s), even when the particles are separated by a large distance—instead, a quantum state must be described for the system as a whole.

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## Quantum field theory

In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is the theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics.

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## Quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.

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## Quantum optics

Quantum optics (QO) is a field of research that uses semi-classical and quantum-mechanical physics to investigate phenomena involving light and its interactions with matter at submicroscopic levels.

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## Quantum state

In quantum physics, quantum state refers to the state of an isolated quantum system.

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## Quasiparticle

In physics, quasiparticles and collective excitations (which are closely related) are emergent phenomena that occur when a microscopically complicated system such as a solid behaves as if it contained different weakly interacting particles in free space.

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## Radiation pressure

Radiation pressure is the pressure exerted upon any surface due to the exchange of momentum between the object and the electromagnetic field.

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## Radio

Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.

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## Radio wave

Radio waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum longer than infrared light.

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## Raman scattering

Raman scattering or the Raman effect is the inelastic scattering of a photon by molecules which are excited to higher vibrational or rotational energy levels.

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## Reaction rate constant

In chemical kinetics a reaction rate constant or reaction rate coefficient, k, quantifies the rate of a chemical reaction.

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## Real number

In mathematics, a real number is a value of a continuous quantity that can represent a distance along a line.

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## Refraction

Refraction is the change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its transmission medium.

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## Refractive index

In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.

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## René Descartes

René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.

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## Renormalization

Renormalization is a collection of techniques in quantum field theory, the statistical mechanics of fields, and the theory of self-similar geometric structures, that are used to treat infinities arising in calculated quantities by altering values of quantities to compensate for effects of their self-interactions.

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## Retinal

Retinal is also known as retinaldehyde.

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## Review of Scientific Instruments

Review of Scientific Instruments is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Institute of Physics.

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## Reviews of Modern Physics

Reviews of Modern Physics is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Physical Society.

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## Robert Andrews Millikan

Robert Andrews Millikan (March 22, 1868 – December 19, 1953) was an American experimental physicist honored with the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1923 for the measurement of the elementary electronic charge and for his work on the photoelectric effect.

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## Robert Hooke

Robert Hooke FRS (– 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.

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## Royal Society

The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.

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## Satyendra Nath Bose

Satyendra Nath Bose, (সত্যেন্দ্র নাথ বসু Sôtyendronath Bosu,; 1 January 1894 – 4 February 1974) was an Indian physicist specialising in theoretical physics.

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## Schrödinger equation

In quantum mechanics, the Schrödinger equation is a mathematical equation that describes the changes over time of a physical system in which quantum effects, such as wave–particle duality, are significant.

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## Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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## Self-phase modulation

Self-phase modulation (SPM) is a nonlinear optical effect of light-matter interaction.

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## Semiconductor

A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.

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## Sheldon Lee Glashow

Sheldon Lee Glashow (born December 5, 1932) is a Nobel Prize winning American theoretical physicist.

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## Simple harmonic motion

In mechanics and physics, simple harmonic motion is a special type of periodic motion or oscillation motion where the restoring force is directly proportional to the displacement and acts in the direction opposite to that of displacement.

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## Single-photon source

Single-photon sources are light sources that emit light as single particles or photons.

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## Slow light

Slow light is the propagation of an optical pulse or other modulation of an optical carrier at a very low group velocity.

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## Solar core

The core of the Sun is considered to extend from the center to about 0.2 to 0.25 of solar radius.

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## Spacetime

In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum.

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## Special unitary group

In mathematics, the special unitary group of degree, denoted, is the Lie group of unitary matrices with determinant 1.

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## Speed of light

The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.

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## Spin (physics)

In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.

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## Spin angular momentum of light

The spin angular momentum of light (SAM) is the component of angular momentum of light that is associated with the quantum spin and the wave's circular or elliptical polarization.

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## Spin quantum number

In atomic physics, the spin quantum number is a quantum number that parameterizes the intrinsic angular momentum (or spin angular momentum, or simply spin) of a given particle.

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## Spin–statistics theorem

In quantum mechanics, the spin–statistics theorem relates the intrinsic spin of a particle (angular momentum not due to the orbital motion) to the particle statistics it obeys.

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## Spontaneous emission

Spontaneous emission is the process in which a quantum mechanical system (such as an atom, molecule or subatomic particle) transitions from an excited energy state to a lower energy state (e.g., its ground state) and emits a quantum in the form of a photon.

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## Spontaneous parametric down-conversion

Spontaneous parametric down-conversion (also known as SPDC, parametric fluorescence or parametric scattering) is a nonlinear instant optical process that converts one photon of higher energy (namely, a pump photon), into a pair of photons (namely, a signal photon, and an idler photon) of lower energy, in accordance with the law of conservation of energy and law of conservation of momentum.

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## Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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## Squeezed coherent state

In physics, a squeezed coherent state is a quantum state that is usually described by two non-commuting observables having continuous spectra of eigenvalues.

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## Standard Model

The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.

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## Static forces and virtual-particle exchange

Static force fields are fields, such as a simple electric, magnetic or gravitational fields, that exist without excitations.

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## Steven Weinberg

Steven Weinberg (born May 3, 1933) is an American theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate in Physics for his contributions with Abdus Salam and Sheldon Glashow to the unification of the weak force and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles.

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## Stimulated emission

Stimulated emission is the process by which an incoming photon of a specific frequency can interact with an excited atomic electron (or other excited molecular state), causing it to drop to a lower energy level.

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## Stress–energy tensor

The stress–energy tensor (sometimes stress–energy–momentum tensor or energy–momentum tensor) is a tensor quantity in physics that describes the density and flux of energy and momentum in spacetime, generalizing the stress tensor of Newtonian physics.

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## Subatomic particle

In the physical sciences, subatomic particles are particles much smaller than atoms.

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## Superconductivity

Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.

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## Svante Arrhenius

Svante August Arrhenius (19 February 1859 – 2 October 1927) was a Nobel-Prize winning Swedish scientist, originally a physicist, but often referred to as a chemist, and one of the founders of the science of physical chemistry.

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## Symmetry (physics)

In physics, a symmetry of a physical system is a physical or mathematical feature of the system (observed or intrinsic) that is preserved or remains unchanged under some transformation.

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## Synchrotron radiation

Synchrotron radiation (also known as magnetobremsstrahlung radiation) is the electromagnetic radiation emitted when charged particles are accelerated radially, i.e., when they are subject to an acceleration perpendicular to their velocity.

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## Temperature

Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

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## Tensor product

In mathematics, the tensor product of two vector spaces and (over the same field) is itself a vector space, together with an operation of bilinear composition, denoted by, from ordered pairs in the Cartesian product into, in a way that generalizes the outer product.

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## Thermal equilibrium

Two physical systems are in thermal equilibrium if there are no net flow of thermal energy between them when they are connected by a path permeable to heat.

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## Thomas Young (scientist)

Thomas Young FRS (13 June 1773 – 10 May 1829) was a British polymath and physician.

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## Thought experiment

A thought experiment (Gedankenexperiment, Gedanken-Experiment or Gedankenerfahrung) considers some hypothesis, theory, or principle for the purpose of thinking through its consequences.

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## Total angular momentum quantum number

In quantum mechanics, the total angular momentum quantum number parameterises the total angular momentum of a given particle, by combining its orbital angular momentum and its intrinsic angular momentum (i.e., its spin).

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## Translational symmetry

In geometry, a translation "slides" a thing by a: Ta(p).

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## Treatise on Light

Treatise on Light (Traité de la Lumière) is a 1690 book written by the Dutch polymath Christiaan Huygens on his wave theory of light.

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## Two-photon absorption

Two-photon absorption (TPA) is the absorption of two photons of identical or different frequencies in order to excite a molecule from one state (usually the ground state) to a higher energy electronic state.

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## Two-photon excitation microscopy

Two-photon excitation microscopy is a fluorescence imaging technique that allows imaging of living tissue up to about one millimeter in depth.

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## Two-photon physics

Two-photon physics, also called gamma–gamma physics, is a branch of particle physics that describes the interactions between two photons.

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## Ultraviolet catastrophe

The ultraviolet catastrophe, also called the Rayleigh–Jeans catastrophe, was the prediction of late 19th century/early 20th century classical physics that an ideal black body at thermal equilibrium will emit radiation in all frequency ranges, emitting more energy as the frequency increases.

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## Uncertainty principle

In quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle (also known as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle) is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known.

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## Unitary group

In mathematics, the unitary group of degree n, denoted U(n), is the group of unitary matrices, with the group operation of matrix multiplication.

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## University of Chicago Press

The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.

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## Upper and lower bounds

In mathematics, especially in order theory, an upper bound of a subset S of some partially ordered set (K, ≤) is an element of K which is greater than or equal to every element of S. The term lower bound is defined dually as an element of K which is less than or equal to every element of S. A set with an upper bound is said to be bounded from above by that bound, a set with a lower bound is said to be bounded from below by that bound.

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## Vacuum

Vacuum is space devoid of matter.

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## Variable speed of light

A variable speed of light (VSL) is a feature of a family of hypotheses stating that the speed of light in vacuum, usually denoted by c, may in some way not be constant, e.g. varying in space or time, or depending on frequency.

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## Vector meson dominance

In physics, vector meson dominance (VMD) was a model developed by J. J. Sakurai in the 1960s before the introduction of quantum chromodynamics to describe interactions between energetic photons and hadronic matter.

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## Virtual particle

In physics, a virtual particle is a transient fluctuation that exhibits some of the characteristics of an ordinary particle, but whose existence is limited by the uncertainty principle.

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## Visual perception

Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.

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## W and Z bosons

The W and Z bosons are together known as the weak or more generally as the intermediate vector bosons. These elementary particles mediate the weak interaction; the respective symbols are,, and.

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## Walker Books

Walker Books is an independent British publisher of children's books, founded in 1978 by Sebastian Walker, Amelia Edwards, and Wendy Boase.

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## Wave

In physics, a wave is a disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space, with little or no associated mass transport.

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## Wave function

A wave function in quantum physics is a mathematical description of the quantum state of an isolated quantum system.

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## Wave interference

In physics, interference is a phenomenon in which two waves superpose to form a resultant wave of greater, lower, or the same amplitude.

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## Wave vector

In physics, a wave vector (also spelled wavevector) is a vector which helps describe a wave.

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## Wave–particle duality

Wave–particle duality is the concept in quantum mechanics that every particle or quantic entity may be partly described in terms not only of particles, but also of waves.

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## Wavelength

In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.

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## Wavenumber

In the physical sciences, the wavenumber (also wave number or repetency) is the spatial frequency of a wave, measured in cycles per unit distance or radians per unit distance.

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## Weak interaction

In particle physics, the weak interaction (the weak force or weak nuclear force) is the mechanism of interaction between sub-atomic particles that causes radioactive decay and thus plays an essential role in nuclear fission.

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## Weak isospin

In particle physics, weak isospin is a quantum number relating to the weak interaction, and parallels the idea of isospin under the strong interaction.

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## Werner Heisenberg

Werner Karl Heisenberg (5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics.

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## Wikisource

Wikisource is an online digital library of free content textual sources on a wiki, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation.

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## Wilhelm Wien

Wilhelm Carl Werner Otto Fritz Franz Wien (13 January 1864 – 30 August 1928) was a German physicist who, in 1893, used theories about heat and electromagnetism to deduce Wien's displacement law, which calculates the emission of a blackbody at any temperature from the emission at any one reference temperature.

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## Redirects here:

Antiphoton, Energy in a wave, Energy in light, Energy in wave, Energy of a wave, Energy of light, Energy of photon, Energy of wave, Energy of waves, Gamma quantum, Incident photon, Light particle, Light quanta, Light quantum, Locating an electron with an ideal microscope, Momentum of photon, PHOTONS, Photon Quantum, Photon momentum, Photons.

## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photon