127 relations: A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, Amber, Ampere, Ampere hour, Ancient Greek, Antiparticle, Astronomy, Atom, Atomic nucleus, Benjamin Franklin, Bioelectricity, Capacitor, Casimir effect, Centimetre–gram–second system of units, Charge carrier, Charge conservation, Charge density, Charge invariance, Charged particle, Charles François de Cisternay du Fay, Chemistry, Classical electromagnetism, Color charge, Conservation law, Continuity equation, Convention (norm), Coulomb, Coulomb's law, Cross section (geometry), Current density, De Magnete, Deuterium, Diamond, Drift velocity, Electric current, Electric field, Electric ray, Electric spark, Electrical conductor, Electrical engineering, Electrical polarity, Electricity, Electrolysis, Electrolyte, Electromagnetic field, Electromagnetism, Electrometer, Electron, Electron hole, Electrostatic discharge, ..., Electrostatic generator, Electrostatics, Elementary charge, Etymology of electricity, Faraday constant, Fluid theory of electricity, Force, Fordham University Press, Fractional quantum Hall effect, French Academy of Sciences, Fundamental interaction, Fur, Galvanometer, Gauge theory, George Johnstone Stoney, Gerolamo Cardano, Girolamo Fracastoro, Glass, Hair, Harvard University Press, Helium, Insulator (electricity), International System of Units, Inverse-square law, Ion, Isolated system, J. J. Thomson, James Clerk Maxwell, Jean-Antoine Nollet, Jet (lignite), Leyden jar, Lightning, Macroscopic scale, Magnetic field, Mathematical diagram, Matter, Mechanics, Metal, Michael Faraday, Mole (unit), Neutron, New Latin, Oil drop experiment, Optics, Otto von Guericke, Partial charge, Photon, Physical property, Physics, Plasma (physics), Polarization density, Proton, Pseudodoxia Epidemica, Quantity, Quantum electrodynamics, Quantum mechanics, Quark, Real number, Robert Andrews Millikan, Robert Boyle, Second, SI derived unit, SI electromagnetism units, Silk, Solution, St. Elmo's fire, Static electricity, Stephen Gray (scientist), Subatomic particle, Thales of Miletus, Theory of relativity, Thomas Browne, Triboelectric effect, Vacuum, Wave function, William Gilbert (astronomer), William Watson (scientist). Expand index (77 more) » « Shrink index
A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism is a two-volume treatise on electromagnetism written by James Clerk Maxwell in 1873.
Amber is fossilized tree resin, which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times.
The ampere (symbol: A), often shortened to "amp",SI supports only the use of symbols and deprecates the use of abbreviations for units.
An ampere hour or amp hour (symbol Ah; also denoted A⋅h or A h) is a unit of electric charge, having dimensions of electric current multiplied by time, equal to the charge transferred by a steady current of one ampere flowing for one hour, or 3600 coulombs.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
In particle physics, every type of particle has an associated antiparticle with the same mass but with opposite physical charges (such as electric charge).
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
In biology, developmental bioelectricity refers to the regulation of cell, tissue, and organ-level patterning and behavior as the result of endogenous electrically-mediated signaling.
A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores potential energy in an electric field.
In quantum field theory, the Casimir effect and the Casimir–Polder force are physical forces arising from a quantized field.
The centimetre–gram–second system of units (abbreviated CGS or cgs) is a variant of the metric system based on the centimetre as the unit of length, the gram as the unit of mass, and the second as the unit of time.
In physics, a charge carrier is a particle free to move, carrying an electric charge, especially the particles that carry electric charges in electrical conductors.
In physics, charge conservation is the principle that the total electric charge in an isolated system never changes.
In electromagnetism, charge density is a measure of the amount of electric charge per unit length, surface area, or volume.
Charge invariance refers to the fixed electrostatic potential of a particle, regardless of speed.
In physics, a charged particle is a particle with an electric charge.
Charles François de Cisternay du Fay (14 September 1698 – 16 July 1739) was a French chemist and superintendent of the Jardin du Roi.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Classical electromagnetism or classical electrodynamics is a branch of theoretical physics that studies the interactions between electric charges and currents using an extension of the classical Newtonian model.
Color charge is a property of quarks and gluons that is related to the particles' strong interactions in the theory of quantum chromodynamics (QCD).
In physics, a conservation law states that a particular measurable property of an isolated physical system does not change as the system evolves over time.
A continuity equation in physics is an equation that describes the transport of some quantity.
A convention is a set of agreed, stipulated, or generally accepted standards, norms, social norms, or criteria, often taking the form of a custom.
The coulomb (symbol: C) is the International System of Units (SI) unit of electric charge.
Coulomb's law, or Coulomb's inverse-square law, is a law of physics for quantifying the amount of force with which stationary electrically charged particles repel or attract each other.
In geometry and science, a cross section is the non-empty intersection of a solid body in three-dimensional space with a plane, or the analog in higher-dimensional spaces.
In electromagnetism, current density is the electric current per unit area of cross section.
De Magnete, Magneticisque Corporibus, et de Magno Magnete Tellure (On the Magnet and Magnetic Bodies, and on That Great Magnet the Earth) is a scientific work published in 1600 by the English physician and scientist William Gilbert and his partner Aaron Dowling.
Deuterium (or hydrogen-2, symbol or, also known as heavy hydrogen) is one of two stable isotopes of hydrogen (the other being protium, or hydrogen-1).
Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.
The drift velocity is the average velocity that a particle, such as an electron, attains in a material due to an electric field.
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.
The electric rays are a group of rays, flattened cartilaginous fish with enlarged pectoral fins, composing the order Torpediniformes.
An electric spark is an abrupt electrical discharge that occurs when a sufficiently high electric field creates an ionized, electrically conductive channel through a normally-insulating medium, often air or other gases or gas mixtures.
In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions.
Electrical engineering is a professional engineering discipline that generally deals with the study and application of electricity, electronics, and electromagnetism.
Electrical polarity is a term used throughout industries and fields that involve electricity.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
An electromagnetic field (also EMF or EM field) is a physical field produced by electrically charged objects.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
An electrometer is an electrical instrument for measuring electric charge or electrical potential difference.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In physics, chemistry, and electronic engineering, an electron hole (often simply called a hole) is the lack of an electron at a position where one could exist in an atom or atomic lattice.
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is the sudden flow of electricity between two electrically charged objects caused by contact, an electrical short, or dielectric breakdown.
An electrostatic generator, or electrostatic machine, is an electromechanical generator that produces static electricity, or electricity at high voltage and low continuous current.
Electrostatics is a branch of physics that studies electric charges at rest.
The elementary charge, usually denoted as or sometimes, is the electric charge carried by a single proton, or equivalently, the magnitude of the electric charge carried by a single electron, which has charge.
The New Latin adjective electricus, originally meaning 'of amber', was first used to refer to amber's attractive properties by William Gilbert in his 1600 text De Magnete.
The Faraday constant, denoted by the symbol and sometimes stylized as ℱ, is named after Michael Faraday.
Fluid theories of electricity are outdated theories that postulated one or more electrical fluids which were thought to be responsible for many electrical phenomena in the history of electromagnetism.
In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.
The Fordham University Press is a publishing house, a division of Fordham University, that publishes primarily in the humanities and the social sciences.
The fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) is a physical phenomenon in which the Hall conductance of 2D electrons shows precisely quantised plateaus at fractional values of e^2/h.
The French Academy of Sciences (French: Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research.
In physics, the fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces, are the interactions that do not appear to be reducible to more basic interactions.
Fur is the hair covering of non-human mammals, particularly those mammals with extensive body hair that is soft and thick.
A galvanometer is an electromechanical instrument used for detecting and indicating electric current.
In physics, a gauge theory is a type of field theory in which the Lagrangian is invariant under certain Lie groups of local transformations.
George Johnstone Stoney FRS (15 February 1826 – 5 July 1911) was an Irish physicist.
Gerolamo (or Girolamo, or Geronimo) Cardano (Jérôme Cardan; Hieronymus Cardanus; 24 September 1501 – 21 September 1576) was an Italian polymath, whose interests and proficiencies ranged from being a mathematician, physician, biologist, physicist, chemist, astrologer, astronomer, philosopher, writer, and gambler.
Girolamo Fracastoro (Hieronymus Fracastorius; c. 1476/86 August 1553) was an Italian physician, poet, and scholar in mathematics, geography and astronomy.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
Hair is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field.
The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.
The inverse-square law, in physics, is any physical law stating that a specified physical quantity or intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of that physical quantity.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
In physical science, an isolated system is either of the following.
Sir Joseph John Thomson (18 December 1856 – 30 August 1940) was an English physicist and Nobel Laureate in Physics, credited with the discovery and identification of the electron; and with the discovery of the first subatomic particle.
James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.
Jean-Antoine Nollet (19 November 1700 – 25 April 1770) was a French clergyman and physicist.
Pendant in Jet, Magdalenian, Marsoulas MHNT Jet is a type of lignite, a precursor to coal, and is a gemstone.
A Leyden jar (or Leiden jar) stores a high-voltage electric charge (from an external source) between electrical conductors on the inside and outside of a glass jar.
Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.
The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which objects or phenomena are large enough to be visible almost practically with the naked eye, without magnifying optical instruments.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
Mathematical diagrams are diagrams in the field of mathematics, and diagrams using mathematics such as charts and graphs, that are mainly designed to convey mathematical relationships, for example, comparisons over time.
In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.
Mechanics (Greek μηχανική) is that area of science concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment.
A metal (from Greek μέταλλον métallon, "mine, quarry, metal") is a material (an element, compound, or alloy) that is typically hard when in solid state, opaque, shiny, and has good electrical and thermal conductivity.
Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.
The mole, symbol mol, is the SI unit of amount of substance.
New Latin (also called Neo-Latin or Modern Latin) was a revival in the use of Latin in original, scholarly, and scientific works between c. 1375 and c. 1900.
The oil drop experiment was performed by Robert A. Millikan and Harvey Fletcher in 1909 to measure the elementary electric charge (the charge of the electron).
Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
Otto von Guericke (originally spelled Gericke,; November 20, 1602 – May 11, 1686 (Julian calendar); November 30, 1602 – May 21, 1686 (Gregorian calendar)) was a German scientist, inventor, and politician.
A partial charge is a non-integer charge value when measured in elementary charge units.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
A physical property is any property that is measurable, whose value describes a state of a physical system.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.
In classical electromagnetism, polarization density (or electric polarization, or simply polarization) is the vector field that expresses the density of permanent or induced electric dipole moments in a dielectric material.
Pseudodoxia Epidemica or Enquiries into very many received tenets and commonly presumed truths, also known simply as Pseudodoxia Epidemica or Vulgar Errors, is a work by Thomas Browne challenging and refuting the "vulgar" or common errors and superstitions of his age.
Quantity is a property that can exist as a multitude or magnitude.
In particle physics, quantum electrodynamics (QED) is the relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.
In mathematics, a real number is a value of a continuous quantity that can represent a distance along a line.
Robert Andrews Millikan (March 22, 1868 – December 19, 1953) was an American experimental physicist honored with the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1923 for the measurement of the elementary electronic charge and for his work on the photoelectric effect.
Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor.
The second is the SI base unit of time, commonly understood and historically defined as 1/86,400 of a day – this factor derived from the division of the day first into 24 hours, then to 60 minutes and finally to 60 seconds each.
SI derived units are units of measurement derived from the seven base units specified by the International System of Units (SI).
Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles.
In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.
Static electricity is an imbalance of electric charges within or on the surface of a material.
Stephen Gray (December 1666 – 7 February 1736) was an English dyer and astronomer who was the first to systematically experiment with electrical conduction.
In the physical sciences, subatomic particles are particles much smaller than atoms.
Thales of Miletus (Θαλῆς (ὁ Μιλήσιος), Thalēs; 624 – c. 546 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer from Miletus in Asia Minor (present-day Milet in Turkey).
The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.
Sir Thomas Browne (19 October 1605 – 19 October 1682) was an English polymath and author of varied works which reveal his wide learning in diverse fields including science and medicine, religion and the esoteric.
The triboelectric effect (also known as triboelectric charging) is a type of contact electrification on which certain materials become electrically charged after they come into frictional contact with a different material.
Vacuum is space devoid of matter.
A wave function in quantum physics is a mathematical description of the quantum state of an isolated quantum system.
William Gilbert (24 May 1544 – 30 November 1603), also known as Gilberd, was an English physician, physicist and natural philosopher.
Sir William Watson, FRS (3 April 1715 – 10 May 1787) was a British physician and scientist who was born and died in London.
Capacitor charge, Electric Charge, Electric charges, Electric polarity, Electrical charge, Electrically charged, Electrically neutral, Electrification by friction, Electrostatic charge, Elementary electrostatic charge, Negative Charge, Negative charge, Negatively charged, Positive Charge, Positive charge, Positive electricity, Positive static charge, Positively charged, Q (electricity), Resinous charge, Specific charge, Vitreous charge.