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# Electromagnetism

Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles. 

## A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism

A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism is a two-volume treatise on electromagnetism written by James Clerk Maxwell in 1873.

## Abraham–Lorentz force

In the physics of electromagnetism, the Abraham–Lorentz force (also Lorentz–Abraham force) is the recoil force on an accelerating charged particle caused by the particle emitting electromagnetic radiation.

In electrical engineering, admittance is a measure of how easily a circuit or device will allow a current to flow.

## Aeromagnetic survey

An aeromagnetic survey is a common type of geophysical survey carried out using a magnetometer aboard or towed behind an aircraft.

## Aharonov–Bohm effect

The Aharonov–Bohm effect, sometimes called the Ehrenberg–Siday–Aharonov–Bohm effect, is a quantum mechanical phenomenon in which an electrically charged particle is affected by an electromagnetic potential (V, A), despite being confined to a region in which both the magnetic field B and electric field E are zero.

## Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).

## Amber

Amber is fossilized tree resin, which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times.

## Ampère's circuital law

In classical electromagnetism, Ampère's circuital law (not to be confused with Ampère's force law that André-Marie Ampère discovered in 1823) relates the integrated magnetic field around a closed loop to the electric current passing through the loop.

## Ampere

The ampere (symbol: A), often shortened to "amp",SI supports only the use of symbols and deprecates the use of abbreviations for units.

## Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

## André-Marie Ampère

André-Marie Ampère (20 January 177510 June 1836) was a French physicist and mathematician who was one of the founders of the science of classical electromagnetism, which he referred to as "electrodynamics".

## Atom

An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

## Atomic nucleus

The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.

## Beltrami vector field

In vector calculus, a Beltrami vector field, named after Eugenio Beltrami, is a vector field in three dimensions that is parallel to its own curl.

## Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.

## Bijection

In mathematics, a bijection, bijective function, or one-to-one correspondence is a function between the elements of two sets, where each element of one set is paired with exactly one element of the other set, and each element of the other set is paired with exactly one element of the first set.

## Bistability

In a dynamical system, bistability means the system has two stable equilibrium states.

## Capacitance

Capacitance is the ratio of the change in an electric charge in a system to the corresponding change in its electric potential.

## Centimetre–gram–second system of units

The centimetre–gram–second system of units (abbreviated CGS or cgs) is a variant of the metric system based on the centimetre as the unit of length, the gram as the unit of mass, and the second as the unit of time.

## Chaos theory

Chaos theory is a branch of mathematics focusing on the behavior of dynamical systems that are highly sensitive to initial conditions.

## Chemistry

Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.

## Classical electromagnetism

Classical electromagnetism or classical electrodynamics is a branch of theoretical physics that studies the interactions between electric charges and currents using an extension of the classical Newtonian model.

## Classical electromagnetism and special relativity

The theory of special relativity plays an important role in the modern theory of classical electromagnetism.

## Classical mechanics

Classical mechanics describes the motion of macroscopic objects, from projectiles to parts of machinery, and astronomical objects, such as spacecraft, planets, stars and galaxies.

## Clifford algebra

In mathematics, a Clifford algebra is an algebra generated by a vector space with a quadratic form, and is a unital associative algebra.

## Compass

A compass is an instrument used for navigation and orientation that shows direction relative to the geographic cardinal directions (or points).

## Computational electromagnetics

Computational electromagnetics, computational electrodynamics or electromagnetic modeling is the process of modeling the interaction of electromagnetic fields with physical objects and the environment.

## Conservation law

In physics, a conservation law states that a particular measurable property of an isolated physical system does not change as the system evolves over time.

## Coulomb

The coulomb (symbol: C) is the International System of Units (SI) unit of electric charge.

## Covariant formulation of classical electromagnetism

The covariant formulation of classical electromagnetism refers to ways of writing the laws of classical electromagnetism (in particular, Maxwell's equations and the Lorentz force) in a form that is manifestly invariant under Lorentz transformations, in the formalism of special relativity using rectilinear inertial coordinate systems.

## Current density

In electromagnetism, current density is the electric current per unit area of cross section.

## De Haas–van Alphen effect

The de Haas–van Alphen effect, often abbreviated to dHvA, is a quantum mechanical effect in which the magnetic susceptibility of a pure metal crystal oscillates as the intensity of an applied magnetic field H is increased.

## De Magnete

De Magnete, Magneticisque Corporibus, et de Magno Magnete Tellure (On the Magnet and Magnetic Bodies, and on That Great Magnet the Earth) is a scientific work published in 1600 by the English physician and scientist William Gilbert and his partner Aaron Dowling.

## Dissipative system

A dissipative system is a thermodynamically open system which is operating out of, and often far from, thermodynamic equilibrium in an environment with which it exchanges energy and matter.

## Double-slit experiment

In modern physics, the double-slit experiment is a demonstration that light and matter can display characteristics of both classically defined waves and particles; moreover, it displays the fundamentally probabilistic nature of quantum mechanical phenomena.

## E. T. Whittaker

Edmund Taylor Whittaker FRS FRSE (24 October 1873 – 24 March 1956) was an English mathematician who contributed widely to applied mathematics, mathematical physics, and the theory of special functions.

## Electric charge

Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field.

## Electric current

An electric current is a flow of electric charge.

## Electric displacement field

In physics, the electric displacement field, denoted by D, is a vector field that appears in Maxwell's equations.

## Electric field

An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.

## Electric potential

An electric potential (also called the electric field potential, potential drop or the electrostatic potential) is the amount of work needed to move a unit positive charge from a reference point to a specific point inside the field without producing any acceleration.

## Electric power

Electric power is the rate, per unit time, at which electrical energy is transferred by an electric circuit.

## Electric susceptibility

In electricity (electromagnetism), the electric susceptibility (\chi_; Latin: susceptibilis "receptive") is a dimensionless proportionality constant that indicates the degree of polarization of a dielectric material in response to an applied electric field.

## Electrical impedance

Electrical impedance is the measure of the opposition that a circuit presents to a current when a voltage is applied.

## Electrical reactance

In electrical and electronic systems, reactance is the opposition of a circuit element to a change in current or voltage, due to that element's inductance or capacitance.

## Electrical resistance and conductance

The electrical resistance of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor.

## Electrical resistivity and conductivity

Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.

## Electricity

Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.

## Electromagnet

An electromagnet is a type of magnet in which the magnetic field is produced by an electric current.

## Electromagnetic field

An electromagnetic field (also EMF or EM field) is a physical field produced by electrically charged objects.

## Electromagnetic induction

Electromagnetic or magnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force (i.e., voltage) across an electrical conductor in a changing magnetic field.

In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.

## Electromagnetic wave equation

The electromagnetic wave equation is a second-order partial differential equation that describes the propagation of electromagnetic waves through a medium or in a vacuum.

## Electromechanics

In engineering, electromechanics combines processes and procedures drawn from electrical engineering and mechanical engineering.

## Electromotive force

Electromotive force, abbreviated emf (denoted \mathcal and measured in volts), is the electrical intensity or "pressure" developed by a source of electrical energy such as a battery or generator.

## Electron

The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

## Electroweak interaction

In particle physics, the electroweak interaction is the unified description of two of the four known fundamental interactions of nature: electromagnetism and the weak interaction.

## Emergence

In philosophy, systems theory, science, and art, emergence occurs when "the whole is greater than the sum of the parts," meaning the whole has properties its parts do not have.

The farad (symbol: F) is the SI derived unit of electrical capacitance, the ability of a body to store an electrical charge.

## Flux tube

A flux tube is a generally tube-like (cylindrical) region of space containing a magnetic field, B, such that the field is perpendicular to the normal vector, \hat.

## Frequency

Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.

## Friction

Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.

## Fundamental interaction

In physics, the fundamental interactions, also known as fundamental forces, are the interactions that do not appear to be reducible to more basic interactions.

## Galilean invariance

Galilean invariance or Galilean relativity states that the laws of motion are the same in all inertial frames.

## Gamma ray

A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.

## Gaussian units

Gaussian units constitute a metric system of physical units.

## Geometric phase

In classical and quantum mechanics, the geometric phase, Pancharatnam–Berry phase (named after S. Pancharatnam and Sir Michael Berry), Pancharatnam phase or most commonly Berry phase, is a phase difference acquired over the course of a cycle, when a system is subjected to cyclic adiabatic processes, which results from the geometrical properties of the parameter space of the Hamiltonian.

## Geophysics

Geophysics is a subject of natural science concerned with the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth and its surrounding space environment, and the use of quantitative methods for their analysis.

## George Francis FitzGerald

Prof George Francis FitzGerald FRS FRSE (3 August 1851 – 22 February 1901) was an Irish professor of "natural and experimental philosophy" (i.e., physics) at Trinity College in Dublin, Ireland, during the last quarter of the 19th century.

## Gian Domenico Romagnosi

Gian Domenico Romagnosi (11 December 1761 &ndash; 8 June 1835) was an Italian philosopher, economist and jurist.

## Gravity

Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

## Hans Christian Ørsted

Hans Christian Ørsted (often rendered Oersted in English; 14 August 17779 March 1851) was a Danish physicist and chemist who discovered that electric currents create magnetic fields, which was the first connection found between electricity and magnetism.

## Heinrich Hertz

Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (22 February 1857 – 1 January 1894) was a German physicist who first conclusively proved the existence of the electromagnetic waves theorized by James Clerk Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light.

## Hendrik Lorentz

Hendrik Antoon Lorentz (18 July 1853 – 4 February 1928) was a Dutch physicist who shared the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics with Pieter Zeeman for the discovery and theoretical explanation of the Zeeman effect.

## Henri Poincaré

Jules Henri Poincaré (29 April 1854 – 17 July 1912) was a French mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer, and philosopher of science.

## Henry (unit)

The henry (symbol: H) is the SI derived unit of electrical inductance.

## History of special relativity

The history of special relativity consists of many theoretical results and empirical findings obtained by Albert A. Michelson, Hendrik Lorentz, Henri Poincaré and others.

## Inductance

In electromagnetism and electronics, inductance is the property of an electrical conductor by which a change in electric current through it induces an electromotive force (voltage) in the conductor.

## Intermolecular force

Intermolecular forces (IMF) are the forces which mediate interaction between molecules, including forces of attraction or repulsion which act between molecules and other types of neighboring particles, e.g., atoms or ions.

## International System of Units

The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.

## Iron ore

Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.

## James Clerk Maxwell

James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.

## Josephson effect

The Josephson effect is the phenomenon of supercurrent—i.e. a current that flows indefinitely long without any voltage applied—across a device known as a Josephson junction (JJ), which consists of two superconductors coupled by a weak link.

## Laws of thermodynamics

The four laws of thermodynamics define fundamental physical quantities (temperature, energy, and entropy) that characterize thermodynamic systems at thermal equilibrium.

## Light

Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

## London equations

The London equations, developed by brothers Fritz and Heinz London in 1935, relate current to electromagnetic fields in and around a superconductor.

## Lorentz force

In physics (particularly in electromagnetism) the Lorentz force is the combination of electric and magnetic force on a point charge due to electromagnetic fields.

## Lorentz–Heaviside units

Lorentz–Heaviside units (or Heaviside–Lorentz units) constitute a system of units (particularly electromagnetic units) within CGS, named for Hendrik Antoon Lorentz and Oliver Heaviside.

## Luminiferous aether

In the late 19th century, luminiferous aether or ether ("luminiferous", meaning "light-bearing"), was the postulated medium for the propagation of light.

## Magnesia (regional unit)

Magnesia (Μαγνησία, Magnisía), deriving from the tribe name Magnetes, is one of the regional units of Greece.

Magnesia Sipylum (Mαγνησία του Σιπύλου) (modern Manisa, Turkey), was a city of Lydia, situated about 65 km northeast of Smyrna (now İzmir) on the river Hermus (now Gediz) at the foot of Mount Sipylus.

## Magnetic field

A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.

## Magnetic flux

In physics, specifically electromagnetism, the magnetic flux (often denoted or) through a surface is the surface integral of the normal component of the magnetic field B passing through that surface.

## Magnetic susceptibility

In electromagnetism, the magnetic susceptibility (Latin: susceptibilis, "receptive"; denoted) is one measure of the magnetic properties of a material.

## Magnetism

Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields.

## Magnetoquasistatic field

A magnetoquasistatic field is a class of electromagnetic field in which a slowly oscillating magnetic field is dominant.

## Magnetostatics

Magnetostatics is the study of magnetic fields in systems where the currents are steady (not changing with time).

## Mathematical descriptions of the electromagnetic field

There are various mathematical descriptions of the electromagnetic field that are used in the study of electromagnetism, one of the four fundamental interactions of nature.

## Mathematical physics

Mathematical physics refers to the development of mathematical methods for application to problems in physics.

## Maxwell's equations

Maxwell's equations are a set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electromagnetism, classical optics, and electric circuits.

## McGraw-Hill Education

McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.

Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.

## Molecular orbital

In chemistry, a molecular orbital (MO) is a mathematical function describing the wave-like behavior of an electron in a molecule.

## Molecule

A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

## Nature

Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe.

## Nikola Tesla

Nikola Tesla (Никола Тесла; 10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was a Serbian-American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, physicist, and futurist who is best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system.

## Noether's theorem

Noether's (first) theorem states that every differentiable symmetry of the action of a physical system has a corresponding conservation law.

## North Magnetic Pole

The North Magnetic Pole is the wandering point on the surface of Earth's Northern Hemisphere at which the planet's magnetic field points vertically downwards (in other words, if a magnetic compass needle is allowed to rotate about a horizontal axis, it will point straight down).

## Nucleon

In chemistry and physics, a nucleon is either a proton or a neutron, considered in its role as a component of an atomic nucleus.

## Oersted

The oersted (symbol Oe) is the unit of the auxiliary magnetic field '''H''' in the centimetre–gram–second system of units (CGS).

## Ohm

The ohm (symbol: Ω) is the SI derived unit of electrical resistance, named after German physicist Georg Simon Ohm.

## Oliver Heaviside

Oliver Heaviside FRS (18 May 1850 – 3 February 1925) was an English self-taught electrical engineer, mathematician, and physicist who adapted complex numbers to the study of electrical circuits, invented mathematical techniques for the solution of differential equations (equivalent to Laplace transforms), reformulated Maxwell's field equations in terms of electric and magnetic forces and energy flux, and independently co-formulated vector analysis.

## Oliver Lodge

Sir Oliver Joseph Lodge, (12 June 1851 – 22 August 1940) was a British physicist and writer involved in the development of, and holder of key patents for, radio.

## Optics

Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.

## Oscillation

Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states.

## Particle physics

Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.

## Permeability (electromagnetism)

In electromagnetism, permeability is the measure of the ability of a material to support the formation of a magnetic field within itself.

## Permittivity

In electromagnetism, absolute permittivity, often simply called permittivity, usually denoted by the Greek letter ε (epsilon), is the measure of resistance that is encountered when forming an electric field in a particular medium.

## Phase factor

For any complex number written in polar form (such as reiθ), the phase factor is the complex exponential factor (eiθ).

## Phase transition

The term phase transition (or phase change) is most commonly used to describe transitions between solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter, and, in rare cases, plasma.

## Phenomenon

A phenomenon (Greek: φαινόμενον, phainómenon, from the verb phainein, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural phenomena) is any thing which manifests itself.

## Photon

The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

## Physical Review

Physical Review is an American peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1893 by Edward Nichols.

## Physics

Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

## Plasma (physics)

Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.

## Prentice Hall

Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc.

## Proceedings of the Physical Society

The Proceedings of the Physical Society was a journal on the subject of physics, originally associated with the Physical Society of London, England.

## QED vacuum

The Quantum Electrodynamic Vacuum or QED vacuum is the field-theoretic vacuum of quantum electrodynamics.

## Quantum

In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is the minimum amount of any physical entity (physical property) involved in an interaction.

## Quantum critical point

A quantum critical point is a point in the phase diagram of a material where a continuous phase transition takes place at absolute zero.

## Quantum electrodynamics

In particle physics, quantum electrodynamics (QED) is the relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics.

## Quantum entanglement

Quantum entanglement is a physical phenomenon which occurs when pairs or groups of particles are generated, interact, or share spatial proximity in ways such that the quantum state of each particle cannot be described independently of the state of the other(s), even when the particles are separated by a large distance—instead, a quantum state must be described for the system as a whole.

## Quantum Hall effect

The quantum Hall effect (or integer quantum Hall effect) is a quantum-mechanical version of the Hall effect, observed in two-dimensional electron systems subjected to low temperatures and strong magnetic fields, in which the Hall conductance undergoes quantum Hall transitions to take on the quantized values where is the channel current, is the Hall voltage, is the elementary charge and is Planck's constant.

## Quantum phase transition

In physics, a quantum phase transition (QPT) is a phase transition between different quantum phases (phases of matter at zero temperature).

## Quark

A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.

## Quark epoch

In physical cosmology the Quark epoch was the period in the evolution of the early universe when the fundamental interactions of gravitation, electromagnetism, the strong interaction and the weak interaction had taken their present forms, but the temperature of the universe was still too high to allow quarks to bind together to form hadrons.

## Quaternion

In mathematics, the quaternions are a number system that extends the complex numbers.

Radio waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum longer than infrared light.

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.

## Relativistic electromagnetism

Relativistic electromagnetism is a physical phenomenon explained in electromagnetic field theory due to Coulomb's law and Lorentz transformations.

## Sagnac effect

The Sagnac effect, also called Sagnac interference, named after French physicist Georges Sagnac, is a phenomenon encountered in interferometry that is elicited by rotation.

## Second law of thermodynamics

The second law of thermodynamics states that the total entropy of an isolated system can never decrease over time.

## Siemens (unit)

The siemens (symbol: S) is the derived unit of electric conductance, electric susceptance and electric admittance in the International System of Units (SI).

## Special relativity

In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.

## Speed of light

The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.

## Spontaneous symmetry breaking

Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a spontaneous process of symmetry breaking, by which a physical system in a symmetric state ends up in an asymmetric state.

## Standard Model

The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.

## Strong interaction

In particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force (also called the strong force or nuclear strong force), and is one of the four known fundamental interactions, with the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction, and gravitation.

## Superconductivity

Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.

## Susceptance

In electrical engineering, susceptance (B) is the imaginary part of admittance, where the real part is conductance.

## Tesla (unit)

The tesla (symbol T) is a derived unit of magnetic flux density (informally, magnetic field strength) in the International System of Units.

The Road to Reality: A Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe is a book on modern physics by the British mathematical physicist Roger Penrose, published in 2004.

## Topological degeneracy

Topological degeneracy is a phenomenon in quantum many-body physics, that the ground state of a gapped many-body system becomes degenerate in the large system size limit, and that such a degeneracy cannot be lifted by any local perturbations as long as the system size is large.

## Topological order

In physics, topological order is a kind of order in the zero-temperature phase of matter (also known as quantum matter).

## Type-I superconductor

The interior of a bulk superconductor cannot be penetrated by a weak magnetic field, a phenomenon known as the Meissner effect.

## Type-II superconductor

In superconductivity, a type-II superconductor is characterized by the formation of magnetic vortices in an applied magnetic field.

## Uncertainty principle

In quantum mechanics, the uncertainty principle (also known as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle) is any of a variety of mathematical inequalities asserting a fundamental limit to the precision with which certain pairs of physical properties of a particle, known as complementary variables, such as position x and momentum p, can be known.

## Vacuum

Vacuum is space devoid of matter.

## Volt

The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.

## Voltage

Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.

## Voltaic pile

The voltaic pile was the first electrical battery that could continuously provide an electric current to a circuit.

## Vortex

In fluid dynamics, a vortex (plural vortices/vortexes) is a region in a fluid in which the flow revolves around an axis line, which may be straight or curved.

## Watt

The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.

## Weak interaction

In particle physics, the weak interaction (the weak force or weak nuclear force) is the mechanism of interaction between sub-atomic particles that causes radioactive decay and thus plays an essential role in nuclear fission.

## Weber (unit)

In physics, the weber (symbol: Wb) is the SI unit of magnetic flux.

## Wheeler–Feynman absorber theory

The Wheeler–Feynman absorber theory (also called the Wheeler–Feynman time-symmetric theory), named after its originators, the physicists Richard Feynman and John Archibald Wheeler, is an interpretation of electrodynamics derived from the assumption that the solutions of the electromagnetic field equations must be invariant under time-reversal transformation, as are the field equations themselves.

## William Gilbert (astronomer)

William Gilbert (24 May 1544 – 30 November 1603), also known as Gilberd, was an English physician, physicist and natural philosopher.

## William Rowan Hamilton

Sir William Rowan Hamilton MRIA (4 August 1805 – 2 September 1865) was an Irish mathematician who made important contributions to classical mechanics, optics, and algebra.

## Zero-point energy

Zero-point energy (ZPE) or ground state energy is the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical system may have.

## References

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