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Computer memory

Index Computer memory

In computing, memory refers to the computer hardware integrated circuits that store information for immediate use in a computer; it is synonymous with the term "primary storage". [1]

79 relations: A-RAM, Accumulator (computing), Alan Turing, An Wang, Areal density (computer storage), Auxiliary memory, BIOS, Bit, Buffer overflow, Cache hierarchy, Cathode ray tube, Computer, Computer data storage, Computer hardware, Computer virus, Computing, CPU cache, Delay line memory, Digital data, Dynamic random-access memory, EEPROM, Electronics, ENIAC, EPROM, Ferroelectric RAM, Firmware, Flash memory, Flip-flop (electronics), Floppy disk, Hard disk drive, Integer overflow, Integrated circuit, J. Presper Eckert, Jan A. Rajchman, Jay Wright Forrester, Magnetic tape, Magnetic-core memory, Malware, Memory cell (computing), Memory geometry, Memory hierarchy, Memory leak, Mercury (element), Millipede memory, Nano-RAM, Non-volatile memory, Operating system, Optical disc, Paging, Parallel random-access machine, ..., Processor register, Programmable metallization cell, Programmable read-only memory, Punched card, Punched tape, Racetrack memory, Random-access memory, Read-only memory, Reboot, Resistive random-access memory, Segmentation fault, Selectron tube, Semiconductor, Semiconductor memory, Silicon, Solid-state drive, SONOS, Spin-transfer torque, Static random-access memory, Thrashing (computer science), Transducer, Transistor, Vacuum tube, Virtual memory, Volatile memory, Williams tube, Word (computer architecture), Z-RAM, 3D XPoint. Expand index (29 more) »

A-RAM

Advanced-Random Access Memory (A-RAM) is a type of dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) based on single-transistor capacitor-less cells.

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Accumulator (computing)

In a computer's central processing unit (CPU), an accumulator is a register in which intermediate arithmetic and logic results are stored.

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Alan Turing

Alan Mathison Turing (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and theoretical biologist.

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An Wang

An Wang (February 7, 1920 – March 24, 1990) was a Chinese–American computer engineer and inventor, and co-founder of computer company Wang Laboratories, which was known primarily for its dedicated word processing machines.

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Areal density (computer storage)

Areal density is a measure of the quantity of information bits that can be stored on a given length of track, area of surface, or in a given volume of a computer storage medium.

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Auxiliary memory

Auxiliary memory, also known as auxiliary storage, secondary storage, secondary memory or external memory, is a non-volatile memory (does not lose stored data when the device is powered down) that is not directly accessible by the CPU, because it is not accessed via the input/output channels (it is an external device).

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BIOS

BIOS (an acronym for Basic Input/Output System and also known as the System BIOS, ROM BIOS or PC BIOS) is non-volatile firmware used to perform hardware initialization during the booting process (power-on startup), and to provide runtime services for operating systems and programs.

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Bit

The bit (a portmanteau of binary digit) is a basic unit of information used in computing and digital communications.

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Buffer overflow

In information security and programming, a buffer overflow, or buffer overrun, is an anomaly where a program, while writing data to a buffer, overruns the buffer's boundary and overwrites adjacent memory locations.

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Cache hierarchy

Cache hierarchy, or multi-level caches, refers to a memory design property which uses a hierarchy of memory stores based on varying access speeds to cache data.

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Cathode ray tube

The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, and is used to display images.

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Computer

A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.

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Computer data storage

Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data.

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Computer hardware

Computer hardware includes the physical parts or components of a computer, such as the central processing unit, monitor, keyboard, computer data storage, graphic card, sound card and motherboard.

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Computer virus

A computer virus is a type of malicious software program ("malware") that, when executed, replicates itself by modifying other computer programs and inserting its own code.

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Computing

Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computers.

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CPU cache

A CPU cache is a hardware cache used by the central processing unit (CPU) of a computer to reduce the average cost (time or energy) to access data from the main memory.

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Delay line memory

Delay line memory is a form of computer memory, now obsolete, that was used on some of the earliest digital computers.

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Digital data

Digital data, in information theory and information systems, is the discrete, discontinuous representation of information or works.

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Dynamic random-access memory

Dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) is a type of random access semiconductor memory that stores each bit of data in a separate tiny capacitor within an integrated circuit.

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EEPROM

EEPROM (also E2PROM) stands for Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory and is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers, integrated in microcontrollers for smart cards and remote keyless system, and other electronic devices to store relatively small amounts of data but allowing individual bytes to be erased and reprogrammed.

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Electronics

Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.

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ENIAC

ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was amongst the earliest electronic general-purpose computers made.

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EPROM

An EPROM (rarely EROM), or erasable programmable read-only memory, is a type of memory chip that retains its data when its power supply is switched off.

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Ferroelectric RAM

Ferroelectric RAM (FeRAM, F-RAM or FRAM) is a random-access memory similar in construction to DRAM but using a ferroelectric layer instead of a dielectric layer to achieve non-volatility.

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Firmware

In electronic systems and computing, firmware is a specific class of computer software that provides the low-level control for the device's specific hardware.

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Flash memory

Flash memory is an electronic (solid-state) non-volatile computer storage medium that can be electrically erased and reprogrammed.

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Flip-flop (electronics)

In electronics, a flip-flop or latch is a circuit that has two stable states and can be used to store state information.

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Floppy disk

A floppy disk, also called a floppy, diskette, or just disk, is a type of disk storage composed of a disk of thin and flexible magnetic storage medium, sealed in a rectangular plastic enclosure lined with fabric that removes dust particles.

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Hard disk drive

A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive or fixed disk is an electromechanical data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material.

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Integer overflow

In computer programming, an integer overflow occurs when an arithmetic operation attempts to create a numeric value that is outside of the range that can be represented with a given number of bits – either larger than the maximum or lower than the minimum representable value.

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Integrated circuit

An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.

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J. Presper Eckert

John Adam Presper "Pres" Eckert Jr. (April 9, 1919 – June 3, 1995) was an American electrical engineer and computer pioneer.

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Jan A. Rajchman

Jan Aleksander Rajchman (London, 10 August 1911 – 1 April 1989) was a Polish electrical engineer and computer pioneer.

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Jay Wright Forrester

Jay Wright Forrester (July 14, 1918 – November 16, 2016) was a pioneering American computer engineer and systems scientist.

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Magnetic tape

Magnetic tape is a medium for magnetic recording, made of a thin, magnetizable coating on a long, narrow strip of plastic film.

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Magnetic-core memory

Magnetic-core memory was the predominant form of random-access computer memory for 20 years between about 1955 and 1975.

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Malware

Malware (a portmanteau for malicious software) is any software intentionally designed to cause damage to a computer, server or computer network.

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Memory cell (computing)

The memory cell is the fundamental building block of computer memory.

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Memory geometry

In the design of modern computers, memory geometry describes the internal structure of random-access memory.

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Memory hierarchy

In computer architecture, the memory hierarchy separates computer storage into a hierarchy based on response time.

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Memory leak

In computer science, a memory leak is a type of resource leak that occurs when a computer program incorrectly manages memory allocations in such a way that memory which is no longer needed is not released.

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Mercury (element)

Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.

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Millipede memory

Millipede memory is a non-volatile computer memory stored on nanoscopic pits burned into the surface of a thin polymer layer, read and written by a MEMS-based probe.

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Nano-RAM

Nano-RAM is a proprietary computer memory technology from the company Nantero.

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Non-volatile memory

Non-volatile memory (NVM) or non-volatile storage is a type of computer memory that can retrieve stored information even after having been power cycled.

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Operating system

An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.

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Optical disc

In computing and optical disc recording technologies, an optical disc (OD) is a flat, usually circular disc which encodes binary data (bits) in the form of pits (binary value of 0 or off, due to lack of reflection when read) and lands (binary value of 1 or on, due to a reflection when read) on a special material (often aluminium) on one of its flat surfaces.

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Paging

In computer operating systems, paging is a memory management scheme by which a computer stores and retrieves data from secondary storage for use in main memory.

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Parallel random-access machine

In computer science, a parallel random-access machine (PRAM) is a shared-memory abstract machine.

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Processor register

In computer architecture, a processor register is a quickly accessible location available to a computer's central processing unit (CPU).

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Programmable metallization cell

The programmable metallization cell, or PMC, is a non-volatile computer memory developed at Arizona State University.

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Programmable read-only memory

A programmable read-only memory (PROM) or field programmable read-only memory (FPROM) or one-time programmable non-volatile memory (OTP NVM) is a form of digital memory where the setting of each bit is locked by a fuse or antifuse.

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Punched card

A punched card or punch card is a piece of stiff paper that can be used to contain digital data represented by the presence or absence of holes in predefined positions.

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Punched tape

Punched tape or perforated paper tape is a form of data storage, consisting of a long strip of paper in which holes are punched to store data.

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Racetrack memory

Racetrack memory or domain-wall memory (DWM) is an experimental non-volatile memory device under development at IBM's Almaden Research Center by a team led by physicist Stuart Parkin.

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Random-access memory

Random-access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage that stores data and machine code currently being used.

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Read-only memory

Read-only memory (ROM) is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices.

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Reboot

In computing, rebooting is the process by which a running computer system is restarted, either intentionally or unintentionally.

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Resistive random-access memory

Resistive random-access memory (ReRAM or RRAM) is a type of non-volatile (NV) random-access (RAM) computer memory that works by changing the resistance across a dielectric solid-state material, often referred to as a memristor.

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Segmentation fault

In computing, a segmentation fault (often shortened to segfault) or access violation is a fault, or failure condition, raised by hardware with memory protection, notifying an operating system (OS) the software has attempted to access a restricted area of memory (a memory access violation).

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Selectron tube

The Selectron was an early form of digital computer memory developed by Jan A. Rajchman and his group at the Radio Corporation of America (RCA) under the direction of Vladimir K. Zworykin.

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Semiconductor

A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.

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Semiconductor memory

Semiconductor memory is a digital electronic data storage device, often used as computer memory, implemented with semiconductor electronic devices on an integrated circuit (IC).

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Silicon

Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.

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Solid-state drive

A solid-state drive (SSD) is a solid-state storage device that uses integrated circuit assemblies as memory to store data persistently.

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SONOS

SONOS, short for "silicon–oxide–nitride–oxide–silicon", more precisely, "polycrystalline silicon"—"silicon dioxide"—"silicon nitride"—"siicon dioxide"—"silicon", is a cross sectional structure of MOSFET, realized in late 70's.

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Spin-transfer torque

Spin-transfer torque is an effect in which the orientation of a magnetic layer in a magnetic tunnel junction or spin valve can be modified using a spin-polarized current.

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Static random-access memory

Static random-access memory (static RAM or SRAM) is a type of semiconductor memory that uses bistable latching circuitry (flip-flop) to store each bit.

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Thrashing (computer science)

In computer science, thrashing occurs when a computer's virtual memory resources become saturated, leading to a constant state of paging (rapidly exchanging data in memory for data on disk), to the exclusion of most application-level processing.

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Transducer

A transducer is a device that converts energy from one form to another.

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Transistor

A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.

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Vacuum tube

In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container.

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Virtual memory

In computing, virtual memory (also virtual storage) is a memory management technique that provides an "idealized abstraction of the storage resources that are actually available on a given machine" which "creates the illusion to users of a very large (main) memory." The computer's operating system, using a combination of hardware and software, maps memory addresses used by a program, called virtual addresses, into physical addresses in computer memory.

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Volatile memory

Volatile memory, in contrast to non-volatile memory, is computer memory that requires power to maintain the stored information; it retains its contents while powered on but when the power is interrupted, the stored data is quickly lost.

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Williams tube

The Williams tube, or the Williams–Kilburn tube after inventors Freddie Williams (26 June 1911 – 11 August 1977), and Tom Kilburn (11 August 1921 – 17 January 2001), is an early form of computer memory.

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Word (computer architecture)

In computing, a word is the natural unit of data used by a particular processor design.

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Z-RAM

Z-RAM is a tradename of a now-obsolete dynamic random-access memory technology that did not require a capacitor to maintain its state.

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3D XPoint

3D XPoint (pronounced three dee cross point) is a non-volatile memory (NVM) technology by Intel and Micron Technology; it was announced in July 2015 and is available on the open market under brand names Optane (Intel) and subsequently QuantX (Micron) since April 2017.

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Address Memory, Computer Memory, Memory (Computer), Memory (computers), Memory (computing), Off-chip memory, Types of computers memory.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer_memory

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