589 relations: A Voyage to Terra Australis, AACTA Awards, ABC News (Australia), Abel Tasman, Aboriginal Australians, Aboriginal Protection Act 1869, Abstract art, Acacia, Administrator of the Northern Territory, Admiralty, Advance Australia Fair, AFC Asian Cup, Agriculture in Australia, Allen & Unwin, Alpine climate, Anglican Church of Australia, Anglicanism, Anglo-Celtic, Anglo-Celtic Australians, Antarctica, ANZUS, Apprenticeship, Arabic, Arafura Sea, Arid, Art Gallery of New South Wales, Arthur Boyd, Arthur Phillip, Arthur Streeton, Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Association football, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Auslan, Aussie, Australasian Legal Information Institute, Australia (continent), Australia Act 1986, Australia Council for the Arts, Australia Day, Australia national cricket team, Australia–Chile Free Trade Agreement, Australia–United States Free Trade Agreement, Australian Aboriginal languages, Australian Alps, Australian and New Zealand Army Corps, Australian Antarctic Territory, Australian Army, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Australian Bureau of Statistics, ..., Australian Capital Territory, Australian Defence Force, Australian dollar, Australian Electoral Commission, Australian English, Australian English phonology, Australian federal election, 2016, Australian Football League, Australian frontier wars, Australian Grand Prix, Australian House of Representatives, Australian Labor Party, Australian literature, Australian megafauna, Australian Museum, Australian New Wave, Australian Open, Australian referendum, 1967 (Aboriginals), Australian republic referendum, 1999, Australian rules football, Australian Securities Exchange, Australian Senate, Australian Strategic Policy Institute, Australian wine, Australians, Balance of payments of Australia, Banjo Paterson, Barkly Tableland, Basketball at the Summer Olympics, Billion, Biodiversity action plan, Biome, Bob Hawke, Booker Prize, Brett Whiteley, 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A Voyage to Terra Australis: Undertaken for the Purpose of Completing the Discovery of that Vast Country, and Prosecuted in the Years 1801, 1802, and 1803, in His Majesty's Ship the Investigator was a sea voyage journal written by English mariner and explorer Matthew Flinders.
The Australian Academy of Cinema and Television Arts Awards, known as the AACTA Awards, are presented annually by the Australian Academy of Cinema and Television Arts (AACTA).
ABC News is a national news service in Australia produced by the News and Current Affairs division of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
Abel Janszoon Tasman (1603 – 10 October 1659) was a Dutch seafarer, explorer, and merchant, best known for his voyages of 1642 and 1644 in the service of the Dutch East India Company (VOC).
Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members "of the Aboriginal race of Australia" (indigenous to mainland Australia or to the island of Tasmania).
The Aboriginal Protection Act, enacted in 1869 by the colony of Victoria, Australia gave extensive powers over the lives of Aboriginal people to the government's Board for the Protection of Aborigines, including regulation of residence, employment and marriage.
Abstract art uses a visual language of shape, form, color and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of independence from visual references in the world.
Acacia, commonly known as the wattles or acacias, is a large genus of shrubs and trees in the subfamily Mimosoideae of the pea family Fabaceae.
The Administrator of the Northern Territory is an official appointed by the Governor-General of Australia to represent the government of the Commonwealth in the Northern Territory.
The Admiralty, originally known as the Office of the Admiralty and Marine Affairs, was the government department responsible for the command of the Royal Navy firstly in the Kingdom of England, secondly in the Kingdom of Great Britain, and from 1801 to 1964, the United Kingdom and former British Empire.
"Advance Australia Fair" is the national anthem of Australia.
The AFC Asian Cup is an international association football tournament run by the Asian Football Confederation (AFC).
Australia is a major agricultural producer and exporter, with over 325,300 employed in Agriculture, forestry and fishing as of February 2015.
Allen & Unwin is an Australian independent publishing company, established in Australia in 1976 as a subsidiary of the British firm George Allen & Unwin Ltd., which was founded by Sir Stanley Unwin in August 1914 and went on to become one of the leading publishers of the twentieth century.
Alpine climate is the average weather (climate) for the regions above the tree line.
The Anglican Church of Australia is a Christian church in Australia and an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
Anglo-Celtic citizens are those of British or English and Celtic descent.
Anglo-Celtic Australians are Australians whose ancestors originate wholly or partially in the countries of England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
The Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty (ANZUS or ANZUS Treaty) is the 1951, collective security non-binding agreement between Australia and New Zealand and, separately, Australia and the United States, to co-operate on military matters in the Pacific Ocean region, although today the treaty is taken to relate to conflicts worldwide.
An apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a trade or profession with on-the-job training and often some accompanying study (classroom work and reading).
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arafura Sea lies west of the Pacific Ocean overlying the continental shelf between Australia and Indonesian New Guinea.
A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life.
The Art Gallery of New South Wales (AGNSW), located in The Domain in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, is the most important public gallery in Sydney and one of the largest in Australia.
Arthur Merric Bloomfield Boyd (24 July 1920 – 24 April 1999) was a leading Australian painter of the late 20th century.
Admiral Arthur Phillip (11 October 1738 – 31 August 1814) was a Royal Navy officer and the first Governor of New South Wales who founded the British penal colony that later became the city of Sydney, Australia.
Sir Arthur Ernest Streeton (8 April 1867 – 1 September 1943) was an Australian landscape painter and leading member of the Heidelberg School, also known as Australian Impressionism.
The Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands is an uninhabited external territory of Australia consisting of four low-lying tropical islands in two separate reefs, and the 12 nautical mile territorial sea generated by the islands.
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a forum for 21 Pacific Rim member economies.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional intergovernmental organization comprising ten Southeast Asian countries that promotes intergovernmental cooperation and facilitates economic, political, security, military, educational, and sociocultural integration amongst its members, other Asian countries, and globally.
Auslan is the sign language of the Australian Deaf community.
Aussie or Ozzie is Australian slang for an Australian and less commonly, Australia.
The Australasian Legal Information Institute (AustLII) is an institution operated jointly by the Faculties of Law of the University of Technology Sydney and the University of New South Wales.
The continent of Australia, sometimes known in technical contexts by the names Sahul, Australinea or Meganesia to distinguish it from the country of Australia, consists of the land masses which sit on Australia's continental shelf.
The Australia Act 1986 is the short title of each of a pair of separate but related pieces of legislation: one an Act of the Commonwealth (i.e. federal) Parliament of Australia, the other an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Australia Council for the Arts, informally known as the Australia Council, is the official arts council or arts funding body of the Government of Australia.
Australia Day is the official national day of Australia.
The Australia national cricket team is the joint oldest team in Test cricket history, having played in the first ever Test match in 1877.
The Australia–Chile Free Trade Agreement is a trade agreement between the countries of Chile and Australia.
The Australia – United States Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA) is a preferential trade agreement between Australia and the United States modelled on the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
The Australian Aboriginal languages consist of around 290–363 languages belonging to an estimated twenty-eight language families and isolates, spoken by Aboriginal Australians of mainland Australia and a few nearby islands.
The Australian Alps, an interim Australian bioregion, data is the highest mountain range in Australia.
The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) was a First World War army corps of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force.
The Australian Antarctic Territory (AAT) is a part of Antarctica administered by the Australian Antarctic Division, an agency of the federal Department of the Environment and Energy.
The Australian Army is Australia's military land force.
The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) founded in 1929 is Australia's national broadcaster, funded by the Australian Federal Government but specifically independent of Government and politics in the Commonwealth.
The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the independent statistical agency of the Government of Australia.
The Australian Capital Territory (ACT; known as the Federal Capital Territory until 1938) is Australia's federal district, located in the south-east of the country and enclaved within the state of New South Wales.
The Australian Defence Force (ADF) is the military organisation responsible for the defence of Australia.
The Australian dollar (sign: $; code: AUD) is the currency of the Commonwealth of Australia, including its external territories Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island, as well as the independent Pacific Island states of Kiribati, Nauru, Papua New Guinea, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu.
The Australian Electoral Commission (AEC) is the federal independent agency in charge of organising, conducting and supervising federal elections and referendums.
Australian English (AuE, en-AU) is a major variety of the English language, used throughout Australia.
Australian English (AuE) is a non-rhotic variety of English spoken by most native-born Australians.
The 2016 Australian federal election was a double dissolution election held on Saturday 2 July to elect all 226 members of the 45th Parliament of Australia, after an extended eight-week official campaign period.
The Australian Football League (AFL) is the pre-eminent professional competition in the sport of Australian rules football in Australia and features only Australian teams.
The Australian frontier wars is a term applied by some historians to violent conflicts between Indigenous Australians and white settlers during the British colonisation of Australia.
The Australian Grand Prix is a motor race held annually in Australia currently under contract to host Formula One until 2023.
The Australian House of Representatives is one of the two Houses (chambers) of the Parliament of Australia.
The Australian Labor Party (ALP, also Labor, was Labour before 1912) is a political party in Australia.
Australian literature is the written or literary work produced in the area or by the people of the Commonwealth of Australia and its preceding colonies.
Australian megafauna comprises a number of large animal species in Australia, often defined as species with body mass estimates of greater than or equal to or greater than 130% of the body mass of their closest living relatives.
The Australian Museum is the oldest museum in Australia, with an international reputation in the fields of natural history and anthropology.
The Australian New Wave (also known as the Australian Film Revival, Australian Film Renaissance, or New Australian Cinema) was an era of resurgence in worldwide popularity of Australian cinema, particularly in the United States.
The Australian Open is a tennis tournament held annually over the last fortnight of January in Melbourne, Australia.
The Australian referendum of 27 May 1967, called by the Holt Government, approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to Indigenous Australians.
The Australian republic referendum held on 6 November 1999 was a two-question referendum to amend the Constitution of Australia.
Australian rules football, officially known as Australian football, or simply called Aussie rules, football or footy, is a contact sport played between two teams of eighteen players on an oval-shaped field, often a modified cricket ground.
The Australian Securities Exchange (ASX, sometimes referred to outside Australia as the Sydney Stock Exchange) is Australia's primary securities exchange.
The Australian Senate is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of Australia, the lower house being the House of Representatives.
The Australian Strategic Policy Institute (ASPI) is an independent and non-partisan defence and strategic policy think-tank based in Canberra, the Australian Capital Territory.
The Australian wine industry is the world's fourth largest exporter of wine with approximately 750 million litres a year to the international export market with only about 40% of production consumed domestically.
Australians, colloquially known as Aussies, are people associated with Australia, sharing a common history, culture, and language (Australian English).
In trade terms, the Australian economy has had persistently large current account deficits for more than 50 years.
Andrew Barton "Banjo" Paterson, (17 February 18645 February 1941) was an Australian bush poet, journalist and author.
The Barkly Tableland is a rolling plain of grassland which runs from the eastern part of the Northern Territory into western Queensland.
Basketball at the Summer Olympics has been a sport for men consistently since 1936.
A billion is a number with two distinct definitions.
A biodiversity action plan (BAP) is an internationally recognized program addressing threatened species and habitats and is designed to protect and restore biological systems.
A biome is a community of plants and animals that have common characteristics for the environment they exist in.
Robert James Lee Hawke, (born 9 December 1929) is a former Australian politician who was the 23rd Prime Minister of Australia, serving from 1983 to 1991.
The Man Booker Prize for Fiction (formerly known as the Booker–McConnell Prize and commonly known simply as the Booker Prize) is a literary prize awarded each year for the best original novel written in the English language and published in the UK.
Brett Whiteley (7 April 1939 – 15 June 1992) was an Australian artist.
The Brigalow Belt is a wide band of acacia wooded grassland that runs between tropical rainforest of the coast and the semi-arid interior of Queensland, Australia.
British cuisine is the set of cooking traditions and practices associated with the United Kingdom.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and over six thousand smaller isles.
The British Overseas Territories (BOT) or United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs) are 14 territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
In Australia, Buddhism is a small but growing religion.
The Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) is an Executive Agency of the Australian Government responsible for providing weather services to Australia and surrounding areas.
The bush ballad, bush song or bush poem is a style of poetry and folk music that depicts the life, character and scenery of the Australian bush.
Bush tucker, also called bushfood, is any food native to Australia and used as sustenance by the original inhabitants, the Aboriginal Australians, but it can also describe any native fauna or flora used for culinary and/or medicinal purposes, regardless of the continent or culture.
The Cabinet of Australia is the Australian Government's council of senior Ministers of the Crown, responsible to Parliament.
The Cairns Group (Cairns Group of Fair Trading Nations) is an interest group of 19 agricultural exporting countries, composed of Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, the Philippines, South Africa, Thailand, Uruguay, and Vietnam.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Canberra is the capital city of Australia.
The Cantonese language is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton) and its surrounding area in southeastern China.
Cape York Peninsula is a large remote peninsula located in Far North Queensland, Australia.
A carbon tax is a tax levied on the carbon content of fuels.
Catherine Elise Blanchett, (born 14 May 1969) is an Australian actress and theatre director.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Church in Australia is part of the worldwide Catholic Church under the spiritual and administrative leadership of the Holy See.
Catholic education in Australia refers to the education services provided by the Roman Catholic Church in Australia within the Australian education system.
The Center for Global Development (CGD) is a U.S. nonprofit think tank based in Washington, D.C. that focuses on international development.
The Central Ranges xeric scrub is a deserts and xeric shrublands ecoregion of Australia.
Centre-left politics or center-left politics (American English), also referred to as moderate-left politics, is an adherence to views leaning to the left-wing, but closer to the centre on the left–right political spectrum than other left-wing variants.
Centre-right politics or center-right politics (American English), also referred to as moderate-right politics, are politics that lean to the right of the left–right political spectrum, but are closer to the centre than other right-wing variants.
The Chief Justice of Australia is the presiding justice of the High Court of Australia and the highest-ranking judicial officer in the Commonwealth of Australia.
A chief minister is the elected head of government of a sub-national entity, for instance a administrative subdivision or federal constituent entity.
The Chief of the Defence Force (CDF) is the professional head of the Australian Defence Force (ADF) and the most senior uniformed military adviser to the Minister of Defence.
The Chiko Roll is an Australian savoury snack invented by Frank McEncroe, inspired by the Chinese spring roll and first sold in 1951 as the "Chicken Roll" despite not actually containing chicken.
The China–Australia Free Trade Agreement (ChAFTA) is a bilateral Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between the governments of Australia and China.
Chinese Australians are Australian citizens of Chinese ancestry.
Chinese cuisine is an important part of Chinese culture, which includes cuisine originating from the diverse regions of China, as well as from Chinese people in other parts of the world.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Territory of Christmas Island is an Australian external territory comprising the island of the same name. Christmas Island is located in the Indian Ocean, around south of Java and Sumatra and around north-west of the closest point on the Australian mainland. It has an area of. Christmas Island had a population of 1,843 residents as of 2016, the majority of whom live in settlements on the northern tip of the island. The main settlement is Flying Fish Cove. Around two-thirds of the island's population is estimated to have Malaysian Chinese origin (though just 21.2% of the population declared a Chinese ancestry in 2016), with significant numbers of Malays and white Australians as well as smaller numbers of Malaysian Indians and Eurasians. Several languages are in use, including English, Malay, and various Chinese dialects. Islam and Buddhism are major religions on the island, though a vast majority of the population does not declare a formal religious affiliation and may be involved in ethnic Chinese religion. The first European to sight the island was Richard Rowe of the Thomas in 1615. The island was later named on Christmas Day (25 December) 1643 by Captain William Mynors, but only settled in the late 19th century. Its geographic isolation and history of minimal human disturbance has led to a high level of endemism among its flora and fauna, which is of interest to scientists and naturalists. The majority (63 percent) of the island is included in the Christmas Island National Park, which features several areas of primary monsoonal forest. Phosphate, deposited originally as guano, has been mined on the island since 1899.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
The Chromista is an eukaryotic kingdom, probably polyphyletic.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
The Australian film industry has its beginnings with the 1906 production of The Story of the Kelly Gang, the earliest feature film ever made.
Civil liberties or personal freedoms are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation, without due process.
Closer Economic Relations (CER) is a free trade agreement between the governments of New Zealand and Australia.
The Coalition (or Liberal–National Coalition) is an alliance of centre-right political parties that forms one of the two major groupings in Australian federal politics.
The Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands is an Australian external territory in the Indian Ocean, comprising a small archipelago approximately midway between Australia and Sri Lanka.
Coffee culture describes a social atmosphere or series of associated social behaviors that depends heavily upon coffee, particularly as a social lubricant.
A coffeehouse, coffee shop or café (sometimes spelt cafe) is an establishment which primarily serves hot coffee, related coffee beverages (café latte, cappuccino, espresso), tea, and other hot beverages.
The Collins English Dictionary is a printed and online dictionary of English.
The Colonial Office was a government department of the Kingdom of Great Britain and later of the United Kingdom, first created to deal with the colonial affairs of British North America but needed also to oversee the increasing number of colonies of the British Empire.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
The Commitment to Development Index (CDI), published annually by the Center for Global Development, ranks the world’s richest countries on their dedication to policies that benefit the five billion people living in poorer nations.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
The Commonwealth Games are an international multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations.
The Commonwealth Liberal Party (CLP, also known as the Deakin–Cook Party, The Fusion, or the Deakinite Liberal Party) was a political movement active in Australia from 1909 to 1917, shortly after Federation.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state that is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and shares the same person, currently Queen Elizabeth II, as its head of state and reigning constitutional monarch, but retains a Crown legally distinct from the other realms.
Compulsory voting refers to laws which require eligible citizens to register and vote in national and/or local elections.
The Constitution of Australia is the supreme law under which the government of the Commonwealth of Australia operates, including its relationship to the States of Australia.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
Contemporary Indigenous Australian art (also known as contemporary Aboriginal Australian art) is the modern art work produced by indigenous Australians.
Between 1788 and 1868, about 162,000 convicts were transported by the British government to various penal colonies in Australia.
The Coral Sea is a marginal sea of the South Pacific off the northeast coast of Australia, and classified as an interim Australian bioregion.
The Coral Sea Islands Territory is an external territory of Australia which comprises a group of small and mostly uninhabited tropical islands and reefs in the Coral Sea, northeast of Queensland, Australia.
The ICC Cricket World Cup is the international championship of One Day International (ODI) cricket.
Crocodile Dundee (stylised as "Crocodile" Dundee in the U.S.) is a 1986 Australian-American action comedy film set in the Australian Outback and in New York City.
Crown colony, dependent territory and royal colony are terms used to describe the administration of United Kingdom overseas territories that are controlled by the British Government.
The Cruising Yacht Club of Australia(CYCA), established in 1944 in Rushcutters Bay, inner-east Sydney.
The culture of Asia encompasses the collective and diverse customs and traditions of art, architecture, music, literature, lifestyle, philosophy, politics and religion that have been practiced and maintained by the numerous ethnic groups of the continent of Asia since prehistory.
The culture of the United States of America is primarily of Western culture (European) origin and form, but is influenced by a multicultural ethos that includes African, Native American, Asian, Polynesian, and Latin American people and their cultures.
In economics, a country's current account is one of the two components of its balance of payments, the other being the capital account (also known as the financial account).
In meteorology, a cyclone is a large scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low atmospheric pressure.
David George Joseph Malouf (born 20 March 1934) is an Australian writer.
David Keith Williamson, AO (born 24 February 1942) is one of Australia's best-known dramatists and playwrights.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
In law and government, de jure (lit) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.
The Department of Defence is a department of the Government of Australia charged with the responsibility to defend Australia and its national interests.
The Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (also called DFAT, ˈdiː.fæˑt, DEE-fat) is the department of the Government of Australia with the responsibility of the foreign policy, foreign relations, foreign aid, consular services, and trade and investment of the Commonwealth of Australia.
The Australian Federal Department of Health and Ageing was an Australian government department that existed between November 2001 and September 2013.
The Department of Immigration and Citizenship (also called DIAC) was an Australian government department that existed between January 2007 and September 2013, that was preceded by the Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs and was succeeded by the Department of Immigration and Border Protection.
The Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts was an Australian Government department that existed between December 2007 and September 2010.
The Deputy Prime Minister of Australia is the second-most senior officer in the Government of Australia.
Named deserts of Australia cover, or 18% of the Australian mainland.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
A dim sim is a Chinese-inspired meat and vegetable dumpling-style snack food, popular in Australia and to a lesser extent in New Zealand.
The dingo (Canis familiaris or Canis familiaris dingo or Canis lupus dingo or Canis dingo) is a type of feral dog native to Australia.
Dominions were semi-independent polities under the British Crown, constituting the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867.
Isobel Marion Dorothea Mackellar (better known as Dorothea Mackellar), OBE (1 July 1885 – 14 January 1968) was an Australian poet and fiction writer.
A double dissolution is a procedure permitted under the Australian Constitution to resolve deadlocks in the bicameral Parliament of Australia between the House of Representatives (lower house) and the Senate (upper house).
The term Down Under is a colloquialism which is variously construed to refer to Australia and New Zealand.
Dreamtime (also dream time, dream-time) is a term devised by early anthropologists to refer to a religio-cultural worldview attributed to Australian Aboriginal beliefs.
Drought in Australia is defined by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology as rainfall over a three-month period being in the lowest decile of what has been recorded for that region in the past.
Dutch Australians refers to Australians with full or partial Dutch ancestry.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
Duyfken (Little Dove), also spelled Duifken or Duijfken, was a small ship built in the Dutch Republic.
The East Asia Summit (EAS) is a forum held annually by leaders of, initially, 16 countries in the East Asian, Southeast Asian and South Asian regions.
East Timor or Timor-Leste (Tetum: Timór Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (República Democrática de Timor-Leste, Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is a sovereign state in Maritime Southeast Asia.
The Eastern Australian temperate forests, or temperate eucalypt forests, are an ecoregion of open forest on uplands starting from the east coast of New South Wales in the South Coast to southern Queensland, Australia.
Echidnas, sometimes known as spiny anteaters, belong to the family Tachyglossidae in the monotreme order of egg-laying mammals.
Economic freedom or economic liberty is the ability of people of a society to take economic actions.
The Einasleigh Uplands is an interim Australian bioregion, with vegetation consisting of savanna and woodland located on a large plateau in inland Queensland, Australia.
El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an irregularly periodic variation in winds and sea surface temperatures over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, affecting climate of much of the tropics and subtropics.
The Australian electoral system comprises the laws and processes used for the election of members of the Australian Parliament.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
Emily Kame Kngwarreye (or Emily Kam Ngwarray) (1910 – 3 September 1996) was an indigenous Australian artist from the Utopia community in the Northern Territory.
The emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) is the second-largest living bird by height, after its ratite relative, the ostrich.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
English Australians, also known as Anglo-Australians, are Australians of English descent, and are the largest 'ancestry' identity in the Australian census.
The Environmental Performance Index (EPI) is a method of quantifying and numerically marking the environmental performance of a state's policies.
Eucalyptus L'Héritier 1789 (plural eucalypti, eucalyptuses or eucalypts) is a diverse genus of flowering trees and shrubs (including a distinct group with a multiple-stem mallee growth habit) in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae.
The Eureka Rebellion was a rebellion in 1854, instigated by gold miners in Ballarat, Victoria, Australia, who revolted against the colonial authority of the United Kingdom.
An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.
A failed state is a political body that has disintegrated to a point where basic conditions and responsibilities of a sovereign government no longer function properly (see also fragile state and state collapse).
Fairfax Media Limited (formerly John Fairfax and Sons) is one of the largest media companies in Australia and New Zealand, with investments in newspaper, magazines, radio and digital properties.
The fauna of Australia consists of a huge variety of animals; some 83% of mammals, 89% of reptiles, 24% of fish and insects and 93% of amphibians that inhabit the continent are endemic to Australia.
In motion picture terminology, feature length is the length of a feature film.
In Australia's political system, the Federal Executive Council is a body established by Section 62 of the Australian Constitution to advise the Governor-General, and comprises, at least notionally, all current and former Commonwealth Ministers and Assistant Ministers.
The Federal Register of Legislation (formerly ComLaw), also known as the Legislation Register, is an Australian government web site run by the Office of Parliamentary Counsel since October 2012 that provides online copies of Commonwealth legislation and related documents.
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.
The Federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British self-governing colonies of Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia, and Western Australia agreed to unite and form the Commonwealth of Australia, establishing a system of federalism in Australia.
The biological family Felidae is a lineage of carnivorans colloquially referred to as cats.
A feral cat is a cat that lives outdoors and has had little or no human contact.
The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.
Figurative art, sometimes written as figurativism, describes artwork (particularly paintings and sculptures) that is clearly derived from real object sources and so is, by definition, representational.
The First Fleet was the 11 ships that departed from Portsmouth, England, on 13 May 1787 to found the penal colony that became the first European settlement in Australia.
The Five Power Defence Arrangements (FPDA) are a series of defence relationships established by a series of multi-lateral agreements between the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia and Singapore (all Commonwealth members) signed in 1971, whereby the five powers are to consult each other "immediately" in the event or threat of an armed attack on any of these five countries for the purpose of deciding what measures should be taken jointly or separately in response.
A flat white is an espresso-based coffee drink consisting of espresso with microfoam (steamed milk with small, fine bubbles with a glossy or velvety consistency).
A floating exchange rate (also called a fluctuating or flexible exchange rate) is a type of exchange-rate regime in which a currency's value is allowed to fluctuate in response to foreign-exchange market mechanisms.
This is a list of notable recorded floods that have occurred in the country of Australia.
Foreign relations of Australia are influenced by its position as a leading trading nation and as a significant donor of humanitarian aid.
Australia has many forests of importance due to significant features, despite being one of the driest continents.
Frederick Ronald (Fred) Williams OBE (23 January 192722 April 1982) was an Australian painter and printmaker.
Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.
Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various media, including printed and electronic media, especially published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely.
The G20 (or Group of Twenty) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union.
Gallipoli is a 1981 Australian war drama film directed by Peter Weir and produced by Patricia Lovell and Robert Stigwood, starring Mel Gibson and Mark Lee, about several rural Western Australian young men who enlist in the Australian Army during the First World War.
The Gallipoli Campaign, also known as the Dardanelles Campaign, the Battle of Gallipoli, or the Battle of Çanakkale (Çanakkale Savaşı), was a campaign of the First World War that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu in modern Turkey) in the Ottoman Empire between 17 February 1915 and 9 January 1916.
Geoffrey Roy Rush (born 6 July 1951) is an Australian actor.
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.
Geoscience Australia is an agency of the Australian Government.
German Australians (Deutsch-Australier) are Australian citizens of ethnic German ancestry.
The Gibson Desert, an interim Australian bioregion, is a large desert that covers a large dry area in the state of Western Australia and is still largely in an almost "pristine" state.
"God Save the Queen" (alternatively "God Save the King", depending on the gender of the reigning monarch) is the national or royal anthem in a number of Commonwealth realms, their territories, and the British Crown dependencies.
A gold rush is a new discovery of gold—sometimes accompanied by other precious metals and rare earth minerals—that brings an onrush of miners seeking their fortune.
The goods and services tax (GST) in Australia is a value added tax of 10% on most goods and services sales, with some exemptions (such as for certain food, healthcare and housing items) and concessions (including qualifying long term accommodation which is taxed at an effective rate of 5.5%).
Edward Gough Whitlam (11 July 191621 October 2014) was the 21st Prime Minister of Australia, serving from 1972 to 1975.
The Government of the Commonwealth of Australia (also referred to as the Australian Government, the Commonwealth Government, or the Federal Government) is the government of the Commonwealth of Australia, a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy.
The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia is the representative of the Australian monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II.
The governors of the Australian states are the representatives of Australia's monarch in each of Australia's six states.
A grand final is a game that decides a sports league's championship (or premiership) winning team, i.e. the conclusive game of a finals (or play-off) series.
The Grand Slam tournaments, also called majors, are the four most important annual tennis events.
Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses (Poaceae); however, sedge (Cyperaceae) and rush (Juncaceae) families can also be found along with variable proportions of legumes, like clover, and other herbs.
The Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest coral reef system composed of over 2,900 individual reefs and 900 islands stretching for over over an area of approximately.
The Great Dividing Range, or the Eastern Highlands, is Australia's most substantial mountain range and the third longest land-based range in the world.
The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s.
The Great Sandy-Tanami desert is a World Wildlife Fund ecoregion of Western Australia extending into the Northern Territory.
The Great Victoria Desert, an interim Australian bioregion, is a sparsely populated desert area in Western Australia and South Australia.
Greek Australians (Ελληνοαυστραλοί) comprise Australian citizens who have full or partial Greek heritage or people who sought asylum as refugees after the Greek Civil War or emigrated from Greece and reside in Australia.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
The Gulf Country is the region of woodland and savanna grassland surrounding the Gulf of Carpentaria in north western Queensland and eastern Northern Territory on the north coast of Australia.
HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
The Territory of Heard Island and McDonald IslandsCIA World Factbook. Accessed 4 January 2009.
Heath Andrew Ledger (4 April 197922 January 2008) was an Australian actor and director.
The Heidelberg School was an Australian art movement of the late 19th century.
Henry Bathurst, 3rd Earl Bathurst, (22 May 1762 – 27 July 1834) was a High Tory, High Church Pittite from the end of the Second Empire.
Henry Archibald Hertzberg Lawson (17 June 1867 – 2 September 1922) was an Australian writer and bush poet.
The High Court of Australia is the supreme court in the Australian court hierarchy and the final court of appeal in Australia.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Hinduism is a major religion in Australia consisting of more than 440,300 followers, making up 1.9% of the population as of the 2016 census, up from 275,000 individuals representing 1.3% of the total Australian population according to the 2011 census (up from 148,119 in the 2006 census).
Hippocrene Books is an independent US publishing press located at 171 Madison Avenue, New York City, NY 10016.
The history of Australia from 1788–1850 covers the early colonial period of Australia's history, from the arrival in 1788 of the First Fleet of British ships at Sydney, New South Wales, who established the penal colony, the scientific exploration of the continent and later, establishment of other Australian colonies and the beginnings of representative democratic government.
Jakarta is Indonesia's capital and largest city.
The history of the Jews in Australia traces the history of Australian Jews from the British settlement of Australia commencing in 1788.
Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California.
The honors music for a person, office or rank is music played on formal or ceremonial occasions in the presence of the person, office-holder, or rank-holder, especially by a military band.
House of Assembly is a name given to the legislature or lower house of a bicameral parliament.
The House of Windsor is the reigning royal house of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
Household debt is defined as the combined debt of all people in a household.
The Howard Government refers to the federal executive government of Australia led by Prime Minister John Howard between 11 March 1996 and 3 December 2007.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and mild to cool winters.
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
The Illustrated Sydney News was a monthly English language newspaper published in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
Immigration to Australia began when the ancestors of Australian Aborigines arrived on the continent via the islands of Maritime Southeast Asia and New Guinea.
Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterised by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles.
Income tax in Australia is imposed by the federal government on the taxable income of individuals and corporations.
The following is an alphabetical list of articles related to Australia.
The Index of Economic Freedom is an annual index and ranking created by The Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal in 1995 to measure the degree of economic freedom in the world's nations.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indian Australians are Australians of Indian descent or heritage.
The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), also known as the Indian Niño, is an irregular oscillation of sea-surface temperatures in which the western Indian Ocean becomes alternately warmer and then colder than the eastern part of the ocean.
Indigenous Australian art or Australian Aboriginal art is art made by the Indigenous peoples of Australia and in collaborations between Indigenous Australians and others.
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to British colonisation.
The Indo-Australian Plate is a major tectonic plate that includes the continent of Australia and surrounding ocean, and extends northwest to include the Indian subcontinent and adjacent waters.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Instant-runoff voting (IRV) is a voting method used in single-seat elections with more than two candidates.
The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is the inter-governmental organisation representing hydrography.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The following are international rankings of Australia.
Invasive species are a serious threat to the native biodiversity of Australia and are an ongoing cost to Australian agriculture.
Irish Australians (Gael-Astrálaigh) are an ethnic group of Australian citizens of Irish descent, which include immigrants from and descendants whose ancestry originates from the island of Ireland.
Atheism, agnosticism, deism, scepticism, freethought, secular humanism or general secularism are increasing in Australia.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islam in Australia is a minority religious affiliation.
Italian Australians comprise the sixth largest ethnic group in Australia, with the 2016 census finding 4.6% of the population (1,000,013 people) claiming ancestry from Italy be they migrants to Australia or their descendants born in Australia of Italian heritage.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Jakarta, officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta (Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia.
Captain James Cook (7 November 1728Old style date: 27 October14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy.
The Jervis Bay Territory (abbreviated as JBT) is a territory of the Commonwealth of Australia.
Dame Joan Alston Sutherland, OM, AC, DBE (7 November 192610 October 2010) was an Australian dramatic coloratura soprano noted for her contribution to the renaissance of the bel canto repertoire from the late 1950s through to the 1980s.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
The judiciary of Australia comprises judges who sit in federal courts and courts of the States and Territories of Australia.
The kangaroo is a marsupial from the family Macropodidae (macropods, meaning "large foot").
The Kimberley is the northernmost of the nine regions of Western Australia.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
Kiribati, officially the Republic of Kiribati (Gilbertese: Ribaberiki Kiribati),.
The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus, or, inaccurately, koala bear) is an arboreal herbivorous marsupial native to Australia.
The Kokoda Track campaign or Kokoda Trail campaign was part of the Pacific War of World War II.
Kookaburras are terrestrial tree kingfishers of the genus Dacelo native to Australia and New Guinea, which grow to between 28–42 cm (11–17 in) in length.
La Niña is a coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomenon that is the counterpart of El Niño as part of the broader El Niño–Southern Oscillation climate pattern.
Major General Lachlan Macquarie, CB (Lachann MacGuaire; 31 January 1762 – 1 July 1824) was a British Army officer and colonial administrator from Scotland.
A lamington is an Australian cake, made from squares of butter cake or sponge cake coated in an outer layer of chocolate (or sometimes raspberry) sauce and rolled in desiccated coconut.
A land bridge, in biogeography, is an isthmus or wider land connection between otherwise separate areas, over which animals and plants are able to cross and colonise new lands.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Legislative assembly is the name given in some countries to either a legislature, or to one of its branch.
A legislative council is the name given to the legislature, or one of the legislative chambers of a nation, colony, or subnational division such as a province or state; or, in the United States, a council within a legislature which supervises nonpartisan legislative support staff.
Leslie Allan "Les" Murray AO (born 17 October 1938) is an Australian poet, anthologist and critic.
Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism.
The Liberal Party of Australia is a major centre-right political party in Australia, one of the two major parties in Australian politics, along with the centre-left Australian Labor Party (ALP).
The Administrator of Norfolk Island acts as a representative both of the Crown and of the Australian Federal Government, as well as carrying out other duties according to the Norfolk Island Amendment Act 2015.
This list details Australian people working in the film industry who have been nominated for, or won, Academy Awards (also known as Oscars).
This is a list of the wild birds found in Australia including its outlying islands and territories, but excluding the Australian Antarctic Territory.
This list of Australian cities by population provides rankings of Australian cities according to various systems defined by the Australian Bureau of Statistics.
The Commonwealth Heads of Government (CHOG) is the collective name for the government leaders of the nations with membership in the Commonwealth of Nations.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of countries and dependent territories ranked by population density, measured by the number of human inhabitants per square kilometer.
This is a list of countries by carbon dioxide emissions emissions per capita from 1990 through 2011.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.
The world sorted by their gross domestic product per capita at nominal values.
This is a list of all the countries by the Human Development Index as included in a United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Report.
This article is a list of countries by military expenditure in a given year.
This list of islands by area includes all islands in the world greater than and several other islands over, sorted in descending order by area.
This is a list of selected Australian islands grouped by State or Territory.
This is a list of wetlands in Australia that are designated by the Ramsar Convention as sites of international importance.
These are lists of countries by foreign-born population (immigrants) and lists of countries by number native-born persons living in a foreign country (emigrants).
Lord Howe Island (formerly Lord Howe's Island) is an irregularly crescent-shaped volcanic remnant in the Tasman Sea between Australia and New Zealand, directly east of mainland Port Macquarie, and about southwest of Norfolk Island.
Mabo v Queensland (No 2) (commonly known as Mabo).
The Macquarie Dictionary is a dictionary of Australian English.
Macquarie Island, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, lies in the southwest Pacific Ocean, about halfway between New Zealand and Antarctica, at 54° 30' S, 158° 57' E.
Mad Max is an Australian dystopian action media franchise created by George Miller and Byron Kennedy.
Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
A majority government is a government formed by a governing party that has an absolute majority of seats in the legislature or parliament in a parliamentary system.
The Makassar people (also known as Mangasara, Mengkasara, Macassar, Taena, Tena, or Gowa) are an ethnic group that inhabits the southern part of the South Peninsula, Sulawesi (formerly Celebes) in Indonesia.
Malcolm Bligh Turnbull (born 24 October 1954) is an Australian politician serving as the 29th and current Prime Minister of Australia and Leader of the Liberal Party since 2015.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
Margaret Rose Preston (29 April 1875 – 28 May 1963) was an Australian painter and printmaker who is regarded as one of Australia's leading modernists of the early 20th century.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
Marsupials are any members of the mammalian infraclass Marsupialia.
Captain Matthew Flinders (16 March 1774 – 19 July 1814) was an English navigator and cartographer, who was the leader of the first circumnavigation of Australia and identified it as a continent.
Mawson Peak is an active volcanic mountain on Heard Island, an external Australian territory in the Southern Ocean.
An Australian or New Zealand meat pie is a hand-sized meat pie containing diced or minced meat and gravy, sometimes with onion, mushrooms, or cheese and often consumed as a takeaway food snack.
Medicare is the publicly funded universal health care system in Australia.
A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
The term megadiverse country refers to any one of a group of nations that harbour the majority of Earth's species and high numbers of endemic species.
Melanesia is a subregion of Oceania extending from New Guinea island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean to the Arafura Sea, and eastward to Fiji.
Melbourne is the state capital of Victoria and the second-most populous city in Australia and Oceania.
The Melbourne Cup is Australia's most prestigious annual Thoroughbred horse race.
Melbourne University Publishing (MUP) is the book publishing arm of the University of Melbourne.
Michael Francis McCormack (born 2 August 1964) is an Australian politician who has been a member of the House of Representatives since 2010, representing the Division of Riverina for the National Party.
Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet developed by Microsoft for Windows, macOS, Android and iOS.
Stella Maria Sarah Miles Franklin, known as Miles Franklin (14 October 187919 September 1954) was an Australian writer and feminist who is best known for her novel My Brilliant Career, published by Blackwoods of Edinburgh in 1901.
The Miles Franklin Literary Award is an annual literary prize awarded to "a novel which is of the highest literary merit and presents Australian life in any of its phases".
Mining in Australia is a significant primary industry and contributor to the Australian economy.
The Australian Minister for Defence is currently Senator Marise Payne, who took office on 21 September 2015 as a member of the Turnbull Government.
Modern art includes artistic work produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the styles and philosophy of the art produced during that era.
The monarchy of Australia is a form of government in which a hereditary king or queen serves as the nation's sovereign.
Monotremes are one of the three main groups of living mammals, along with placentals (Eutheria) and marsupials (Metatheria).
The world's most liveable cities is an informal name given to any list of cities as they rank on an annual survey of living conditions.
Mount Augustus National Park is located 852 km north of Perth, 490 km by road east of Carnarvon and 390 km northwest of Meekatharra, in the Gascoyne region of Western Australia.
Mount Kosciuszko is Australia’s highest mountain, at 2,228 metres (7,310 ft) above sea level.
Mount McClintock is the highest mountain (3,490 m / 11,456 ft) in the Britannia Range in Antarctica, surmounting the south end of Forbes Ridge, east of Mount Olympus.
Mount Menzies is the culminating peak (3,355 m; 11,007 ft) on the large massif between Mount Mather and Mount Bayliss, standing on the south side of Fisher Glacier, Antarctica.
The Mulga Lands are an interim Australian bioregion of eastern Australia consisting of dry sandy plains scattered with mulga trees.
Multiculturalism is a term with a range of meanings in the contexts of sociology, political philosophy, and in colloquial use.
In international relations, multilateralism refers to an alliance of multiple countries pursuing a common goal.
"My Country" is an iconic patriotic poem about Australia, written by Dorothea Mackellar (1885–1968) at the age of 19 while homesick in the United Kingdom.
A national anthem (also state anthem, national hymn, national song, etc.) is generally a patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions, and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nation's government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people.
The National Archives of Australia is an Australian Government agency that collects, preserves and encourages access to important Australian Government records.
The National Gallery of Australia (originally the Australian National Gallery) is the national art museum of Australia as well as one of the largest art museums in Australia, holding more than 166,000 works of art.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy.
The National Party of Australia (also known as The Nationals or simply, The Nats) is an Australian political party.
The National Rugby League (NRL) is a league of professional men's rugby league teams in Australasia.
In Australia, the common law doctrine of Aboriginal title is referred to as native title, which is "the recognition by Australian law that Indigenous people have rights and interests to their land that come from their traditional laws and customs".
Nauru (Naoero, or), officially the Republic of Nauru (Repubrikin Naoero) and formerly known as Pleasant Island, is an island country in Micronesia, a subregion of Oceania, in the Central Pacific.
Dame Nellie Melba GBE (born Helen Porter Mitchell; 19 May 186123 February 1931) was an Australian operatic soprano.
New Holland (Nieuw Holland; Nova Hollandia) is a historical European name for mainland Australia.
New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of:Australia.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
The original News Corporation or News Corp. was an American multinational mass media corporation headquartered in New York City.
Nicole Mary Kidman, (born 20 June 1967) is an Australian actress and producer.
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
Norfolk Island (Norfuk: Norf'k Ailen) is a small island in the Pacific Ocean located between Australia, New Zealand, and New Caledonia, directly east of mainland Australia's Evans Head, and about from Lord Howe Island.
The Northern Territory (abbreviated as NT) is a federal Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia.
The Nullarbor Plain (Latin: nullus, "no", and arbor, "tree") is part of the area of flat, almost treeless, arid or semi-arid country of southern Australia, located on the Great Australian Bight coast with the Great Victoria Desert to its north.
According to 2007 statistics from the World Health Organization (WHO), Australia has the third-highest prevalence of overweight adults in the English-speaking world.
Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.
An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
The OFC Nations Cup is an international association football tournament held among the Oceania Football Confederation (OFC) member nations.
Opera Australia is the principal opera company in Australia.
Operation Okra is the Australian Defence Force (ADF) contribution to the military intervention against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL).
Oral tradition, or oral lore, is a form of human communication where in knowledge, art, ideas and cultural material is received, preserved and transmitted orally from one generation to another.
The Ord Victoria Plain, an interim Australian bioregion, is located in the Northern Territory and Western Australia, comprising.
The Outback is the vast, remote interior of Australia.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Australia: Australia refers to both the continent of Australia and to the Commonwealth of Australia, the sovereign country.
Ozploitation (a portmanteau of Australia and exploitation) films are exploitation films – a category of low-budget horror, comedy, and action films – made in Australia after the introduction of the R rating in 1971.
The Pacific Games (formerly known as the South Pacific Games) is a multi-sport event, much like the Olympic Games (albeit on a smaller scale), with participation exclusively from countries around the South Pacific Ocean.
The Pacific Islands are the islands of the Pacific Ocean.
The Pacific Islands Forum (PIF) is an inter-governmental organization that aims to enhance cooperation between the independent countries of the Pacific Ocean.
The Pacific Rim comprises the lands around the rim of the Pacific Ocean.
The terms Paleolithic diet, paleo diet, caveman diet, and stone-age diet describe modern fad diets requiring the sole or predominant consumption of foods presumed to have been the only foods available to or consumed by humans during the Paleolithic era.
Papua New Guinea (PNG;,; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.
The Parliament of Australia (officially the Federal Parliament; also known as the Commonwealth Parliament or just Parliament) is the legislative branch of the government of Australia.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
The Parliaments of the Australian states and territories are legislative bodies within the federal framework of the Commonwealth of Australia.
Patrick Victor Martindale White (28 May 191230 September 1990) was an Australian writer who, from 1935 to 1987, published 12 novels, three short-story collections and eight plays.
Pavlova is a meringue-based dessert named after the Russian ballerina Anna Pavlova.
A penal colony is a settlement used to exile prisoners and separate them from the general population by placing them in a remote location, often an island or distant colonial territory.
Penal transportation or transportation refers to the relocation of convicted criminals, or other persons regarded as undesirable, to a distant place, often a colony for a specified term; later, specifically established penal colonies became their destination.
The Pennefather River is a river located on the western Cape York Peninsula in Far North Queensland, Australia.
Peter Philip Carey AO (born 7 May 1943) is an Australian novelist.
General Sir Peter John Cosgrove, (born 28 July 1947) is a retired senior Australian Army officer who is the 26th and current Governor-General of Australia, in office since 2014.
The Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) is a program of the Australian Government that provides subsidised prescription drugs to residents of Australia, as well as certain foreign visitors covered by a Reciprocal Health Care Agreement.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
The Pilbara is a large, dry, thinly populated region in the north of Western Australia.
The platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus), sometimes referred to as the duck-billed platypus, is a semiaquatic egg-laying mammal endemic to eastern Australia, including Tasmania.
A plenary power or plenary authority is a complete and absolute power to take action on a particular issue, with no limitations.
A population pyramid, also called an "age-sex pyramid", is a graphical illustration that shows the distribution of various age groups in a population (typically that of a country or region of the world), which forms the shape of a pyramid when the population is growing.
Port Jackson, consisting of the waters of Sydney Harbour, Middle Harbour, North Harbour and the Lane Cove and Parramatta Rivers, is the ria or natural harbour of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
The Premiers of the Australian states are the heads of the executive governments in the six states of the Commonwealth of Australia.
The President of the Senate is the presiding officer of the Australian Senate, the upper house of the Parliament of Australia.
The Prime Minister of Australia (sometimes informally abbreviated to PM) is the head of government of Australia.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, usually known simply as the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom.
The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a worldwide study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in member and non-member nations intended to evaluate educational systems by measuring 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance on mathematics, science, and reading.
Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body.
Protected areas of Australia include Commonwealth and off-shore protected areas managed by the Australian government, as well as protected areas within each of the six states of Australia and two self-governing territories, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory, which are managed by the eight state and territory governments.
Queensland (abbreviated as Qld) is the second-largest and third-most populous state in the Commonwealth of Australia.
Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall in the case of tropical rainforests between, and definitions varying by region for temperate rainforests.
The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands.
A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition).
Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is an international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
In a parliamentary or semi-presidential system of government, a reserve power is a power that may be exercised by the head of state without the approval of another branch of the government.
Responsible government is a conception of a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability, the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy.
Richard Miller Flanagan (born 1961) is an Australian novelist from Tasmania.
Richard Hakluyt (1553 – 23 November 1616) was an English writer.
In archaeology, rock art is human-made markings placed on natural stone; it is largely synonymous with parietal art.
Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.
The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF), formed March 1921, is the aerial warfare branch of the Australian Defence Force (ADF).
The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force.
Rugby league football is a full-contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular field.
Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.
Samuel Purchas (1577? – 1626), an English cleric, published several volumes of reports by travellers to foreign countries.
Scott Michael Ryan (born 12 May 1973) is an Australian politician.
Scottish Australians are residents of Australia who are fully or partially of Scottish descent.
Section 109 of the Constitution of Australia deals with the legislative inconsistency between federal and state laws and declares that valid federal laws override ("shall prevail") inconsistent State laws, to the extent of the inconsistency.
Section 51 of the Constitution of Australia grants legislative powers to the Australian (Commonwealth) Parliament only when subject to the constitution.
Section 96 of the Constitution of Australia authorises the Australian (Commonwealth) Parliament to grant financial assistance to any state on the terms and conditions that it sees fit, subject to acceptance by the state(s) concerned.
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.
The doctrine of the separation of powers in Australia divides the institutions of government into three branches: legislative, executive and judicial.
Sir Sidney Robert Nolan (22 April 191728 November 1992) was one of Australia's leading artists of the 20th century.
Sign languages (also known as signed languages) are languages that use manual communication to convey meaning.
A silent film is a film with no synchronized recorded sound (and in particular, no spoken dialogue).
The Simpson Desert is a large area of dry, red sandy plain and dunes in Northern Territory, South Australia and Queensland in central Australia.
The single transferable vote (STV) is a voting system designed to achieve proportional representation through ranked voting in multi-seat organizations or constituencies (voting districts).
The Sixth East Asia Summit was held in Bali, Indonesia on November 18–19, 2011.
Skiing in Australia takes place in the high country of the states of New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania as well as in the Australian Capital Territory, during the southern hemisphere winter.
Social security, in Australia, refers to a system of social welfare payments provided by Commonwealth Government of Australia.
Solomon Islands is a sovereign country consisting of six major islands and over 900 smaller islands in Oceania lying to the east of Papua New Guinea and northwest of Vanuatu and covering a land area of.
A soprano is a type of classical female singing voice and has the highest vocal range of all voice types.
South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a state in the southern central part of Australia.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
The South Peninsula is one of the four principal peninsulas on the island of Sulawesi, stretching south from the central part of the island.
The south-west corner drainage region of Western Australia is one of only two temperate and relatively fertile parts of mainland Australia.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
The Southeast Australia temperate savanna ecoregion is a large area of grassland dotted with eucalyptus trees running north-south across central New South Wales, Australia.
The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean or the Austral Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be south of 60° S latitude and encircling Antarctica.
The Speaker of the House of Representatives is the presiding officer of the House of Representatives, the lower house of the Parliament of Australia.
The Special Broadcasting Service (SBS) is a hybrid-funded Australian public broadcasting radio, online, and television network.
The State of Origin series is the annual best-of-three rugby league football match series between two Australian state representative sides, the New South Wales Blues and the Queensland Maroons.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
Australia (officially known as the Commonwealth of Australia) is a federation of six states, together with ten federal territories.
The Statute of Westminster 1931 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and modified versions of it are now domestic law within Australia and Canada; it has been repealed in New Zealand and implicitly in former Dominions that are no longer Commonwealth realms.
The Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942 is an Act of the Australian Parliament that formally adopted the Statute of Westminster 1931, an Act of the British Imperial Parliament enabling the legislative independence of the various self-governing Dominions of the British Empire.
The Stolen Generations (also known as Stolen Children) were the children of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander descent who were removed from their families by the Australian Federal and State government agencies and church missions, under acts of their respective parliaments.
The Summer Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques d'été) or the Games of the Olympiad, first held in 1896, is an international multi-sport event that is hosted by a different city every four years.
The Sunday Mail (originally titled the Mail) is an Adelaide newspaper first published on 4 May 1912 by Clarence Moody.
The Sunday roast is a traditional British main meal that is typically served on Sunday (hence the name), consisting of roasted meat, roast potato, and accompaniments such as Yorkshire pudding, stuffing, vegetables and gravy.
Surf lifesaving is a multifaceted movement that comprises key aspects of voluntary lifeguard services and competitive surf sport.
Susan Mary Kiefel (born 17 January 1954) is the Chief Justice of Australia, in office since 30 January 2017.
The Swan River Colony was a British colony established in 1829 on the Swan River, in Western Australia.
Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania.
Sydney Cove is a small bay on the southern shore of Sydney Harbour, one of several harbours in Port Jackson, on the coast of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
The Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race is an annual event hosted by the Cruising Yacht Club of Australia, starting in Sydney, New South Wales on Boxing Day and finishing in Hobart, Tasmania.
The Tasman Sea (Māori: Te Tai-o-Rehua) is a marginal sea of the South Pacific Ocean, situated between Australia and New Zealand.
Tasmania (abbreviated as Tas and known colloquially as Tassie) is an island state of Australia.
There are many forms of taxation in Australia.
In Australia, technical and further education or TAFE institutions provide a wide range of predominantly vocational courses, mostly qualifying courses under the National Training System/Australian Qualifications Framework/Australian Quality Training Framework.
Communication in Australia through electronic means using devices such as telephone, television, radio or computer, and services such as the telephony and broadband networks have always been important in Australia given the 'tyranny of distance' with a dispersed population.
The Australian telephone numbering plan describes the allocation of phone numbers in Australia.
The terms of trade (TOT) is the relative price of imports in terms of exports and is defined as the ratio of export prices to import prices.
Terra Australis (Latin for South Land) is a hypothetical continent first posited in antiquity and which appeared on maps between the 15th and 18th centuries.
Terra nullius (plural terrae nullius) is a Latin expression meaning "nobody's land", and is a principle sometimes used in international law to describe territory that may be acquired by a state's occupation of it.
The Advertiser is a conservative, daily tabloid-format newspaper published in the city of Adelaide, South Australia.
The Age is a daily newspaper that has been published in Melbourne, Australia, since 1854.
The Ashes is a Test cricket series played between England and Australia.
The Australian is a broadsheet newspaper published in Australia from Monday to Saturday each week since 14 July 1964.
The Australian Ballet is the largest classical ballet company in Australia.
The Australian Financial Review (sometimes abbreviated to AFR) is an Australian business and finance newspaper published by Fairfax Media six days a week.
"The bush" is a term used for rural, undeveloped land or country areas in certain countries.
The Conversation is an independent, not-for-profit media outlet that uses content sourced from the academic and research community.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The Lucky Country is a 1964 book by Donald Horne.
The Monthly is an Australian national magazine of politics, society and the arts, which is published eleven times per year on a monthly basis except the December/January issue.
The Story of the Kelly Gang is a 1906 Australian silent film that traces the exploits of 19th-century bushranger and outlaw Ned Kelly and his gang.
The Sydney Morning Herald (SMH) is a daily compact newspaper published by Fairfax Media in Sydney, Australia.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
Thomas Michael Keneally, AO (born 7 October 1935) is a prolific Australian novelist, playwright, and essayist.
The thylacine (or, also; Thylacinus cynocephalus) was the largest known carnivorous marsupial of modern times.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Australia uses three main time zones: Australian Western Standard Time (AWST; UTC+08:00), Australian Central Standard Time (ACST; UTC+09:30), and Australian Eastern Standard Time (AEST; UTC+10:00).
The Timor Sea (Laut Timor; Mar de Timor; Tasi Mane. or Tasi Timór) is a relatively shallow sea bounded to the north by the island of Timor, to the east by the Arafura Sea, to the west of Australia.
The Tirari–Sturt stony desert is a large dry World Wildlife Fund ecoregion of southern Australia.
Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).
Thomas William "Tom" Roberts (8 March 185614 September 1931) was a British-born Australian artist and a key member of the Heidelberg School, also known as Australian Impressionism.
Anthony John Abbott (born 4 November 1957) is an Australian politician who served as the 28th Prime Minister of Australia, in office from 2013 to 2015.
Anthony David Hawthorn Smith (born 13 March 1967) is an Australian politician who is the 30th and current Speaker of the House of Representatives, assuming office on 10 August 2015.
The Top End of Australia's Northern Territory is a geographical region encompassing the northernmost section of the Northern Territory, which aside from the Cape York Peninsula is the northernmost part of the Australian continent.
Torres Strait Islanders are the indigenous people of the Torres Strait Islands, part of Queensland, Australia.
The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) is a trade agreement between Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, Vietnam, and United States signed on 4 February 2016, which was not ratified as required and did not take effect.
The Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia is a peace treaty among Southeast Asian countries established by the founding members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), a geo-political and economic organisation of 10 countries located in Southeast Asia.
Tropical rainforests are rainforests that occur in areas of tropical rainforest climate in which there is no dry season – all months have an average precipitation of at least 60 mm – and may also be referred to as lowland equatorial evergreen rainforest.
Tuvalu, formerly known as the Ellice Islands, is a Polynesian island nation located in the Pacific Ocean, about midway between Hawaii and Australia, lying east-northeast of the Santa Cruz Islands (belonging to the Solomons), southeast of Nauru, south of Kiribati, west of Tokelau, northwest of Samoa and Wallis and Futuna and north of Fiji.
Uluru (Pitjantjatjara), also known as Ayers Rock and officially gazetted as "UluruAyers Rock", is a large sandstone rock formation in the southern part of the Northern Territory in central Australia.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The UNESCO Courier is the main magazine published by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
The United Kingdom Hydrographic Office (UKHO) is the UK's agency for providing hydrographic and marine geospatial data to mariners and maritime organisations across the world.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
Universal health care (also called universal health coverage, universal coverage, universal care, or socialized health care) is a health care system that provides health care and financial protection to all citizens of a particular country.
The University of Melbourne is a public research university located in Melbourne, Australia.
An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
Van Diemen's Land was the original name used by most Europeans for the island of Tasmania, now part of Australia.
Vanuatu (or; Bislama, French), officially the Republic of Vanuatu (République de Vanuatu, Bislama: Ripablik blong Vanuatu), is a Pacific island nation located in the South Pacific Ocean.
Australian English is relatively homogeneous when compared with British and American English.
Vegemite is a thick, black Australian food spread made from leftover brewers' yeast extract with various vegetable and spice additives.
Victoria (abbreviated as Vic) is a state in south-eastern Australia.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
Wake in Fright (initially released as Outback outside Australia) is a 1971 psychological thriller film directed by Ted Kotcheff, written by Evan Jones and starring Gary Bond, Donald Pleasence, Chips Rafferty, Sylvia Kay and Jack Thompson.
Wakefield Press is an independent book publishing company in Australia, based in the Adelaide suburb of Mile End, South Australia.
"Waltzing Matilda" is Australia's best-known bush ballad, and has been described as the country's "unofficial national anthem".
The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.
Water restrictions have been enacted in many cities and regions in Australia, which is the Earth's driest inhabited continent, in response to chronic water shortages resulting from the widespread drought.
Weipa is a mining town on the Gulf of Carpentaria coast of the Cape York Peninsula in Queensland, Australia, and is the largest town on the Cape.
Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia.
The Western Australian Mulga shrublands is a large dry World Wildlife Fund ecoregion of inland Western Australia.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
The Western Front was the main theatre of war during the First World War.
A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem.
The term White Australia policy comprises various historical policies that effectively barred people of non-European descent from emigrating into Australia.
Willem Janszoon (1570–1630), sometimes abbreviated to Willem Jansz., was a Dutch navigator and colonial governor.
William Dampier (baptised 5 September 1651; died March 1715) was an English explorer and navigator who became the first Englishman to explore parts of what is today Australia, and the first person to circumnavigate the world three times.
Wombats are short-legged, muscular quadrupedal marsupials that are native to Australia.
Woodland, is a low-density forest forming open habitats with plenty of sunlight and limited shade.
WorkChoices was the name given to changes made to the federal industrial relations laws in Australia by the Howard Government in 2005, being amendments to the Workplace Relations Act 1996 by the Workplace Relations Amendment (Work Choices) Act 2005, that came into effect on 27 March 2006.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
.au is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Australia.
The meridian 112° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The meridian 154° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, Australasia, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 1938 British Empire Games was the third British Empire Games, the Commonwealth Games being the modern-day equivalent.
The 1956 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVI Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was held in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, in November–December 1956, apart from the equestrian events, which were held five months earlier in Stockholm, Sweden.
The 1962 British Empire and Commonwealth Games were held in Perth, Western Australia, from 22 November to 1 December 1962.
The 1975 Australian constitutional crisis, also known simply as the Dismissal, has been described as the greatest political and constitutional crisis in Australian history.
The 1982 Commonwealth Games were held in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia from 30 September to 9 October 1982.
The 2000 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXVII Olympiad and commonly known as Sydney 2000 or the Millennium Olympic Games/Games of the New Millennium, were an international multi-sport event which was held between 15 September and 1 October 2000 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
The 2000s drought in Australia, also known as the Millennium drought is said by some to be the worst drought recorded since European settlement.
The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War (also called Operation Iraqi Freedom).
The 2006 Commonwealth Games, officially the XVIII Commonwealth Games and commonly known as Melbourne 2006, were an international multi-sport event for members of the Commonwealth that were held in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia between 15 and 26 March 2006.
The 2015 Pacific Games, also known as Port Moresby 2015 or POM 2015, was held in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, from 4 to 18 July 2015.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
The 2018 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XXI Commonwealth Games and commonly known as Gold Coast 2018, were an international multi-sport event for members of the Commonwealth that were held on the Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia, between 4 and 15 April 2018.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
The 44th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 44 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 60th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 60 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 9th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 9 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.
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