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Australia (colloquially), officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is an Oceanian country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. [1]

571 relations: ABC News (Australia), Aboriginal Australians, Aboriginal Protection Act 1869, Abstract art, Acacia, Administrator of the Northern Territory, Advance Australia Fair, AFC Asian Cup, Agence France-Presse, Agriculture in Australia, Allen & Unwin, Alpine climate, Anglican Church of Australia, Anglicanism, Anglo-Celtic, Anglo-Celtic Australian, Antarctica, ANZUS, Apprenticeship, Arabic, Arafura Sea, Art Gallery of New South Wales, Arthur Boyd, Arthur Phillip, Arthur Streeton, Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Auslan, Aussie, Australasian Legal Information Institute, Australia (continent), Australia Act 1986, Australia Council for the Arts, Australia Day, Australia–Chile Free Trade Agreement, Australia–United States Free Trade Agreement, Australian Aboriginal languages, Australian Alps, Australian and New Zealand Army Corps, Australian Antarctic Territory, Australian Army, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, 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area, List of islands of Australia, List of Ramsar sites in Australia, List of sovereign states and dependent territories by population density, Lord Howe Island, Lower house, Mabo v Queensland (No 2), Macquarie Dictionary, Macquarie Island, Mad Max (franchise), Mainland, Majority government, Malcolm Turnbull, Man Booker Prize, Mandarin Chinese, Margaret Preston, Maritime Southeast Asia, Market economy, Marsupial, Mawson Peak, Meat pie (Australia and New Zealand), Medicare (Australia), Mediterranean climate, Megadiverse countries, Melanesia, Melbourne Cup, Melbourne University Publishing, Microsoft Excel, Miles Franklin, Miles Franklin Award, Minister for Defence (Australia), Modern art, Monarchy of Australia, Monotreme, Mount Augustus National Park, Mount Kosciuszko, Mount McClintock, Mount Menzies, Mulga Lands, Multiculturalism, Multilateralism, National anthem, National Archives of Australia, National Film and Sound Archive, National Gallery of Australia, National Geographic 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pyramid, Port Jackson, Premiers of the Australian states, Prime Minister of Australia, Privatization, Privy council, Programme for International Student Assessment, Proportional representation, Protected areas of Australia, Queensland, Rabbit-Proof Fence (film), Radio National, Rainforest, Ramsar Convention, Realism (arts), Refugee, Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands, Reporters Without Borders, Republic, Reserve power, Responsible government, Richard Flanagan, Robert French, Rock art, Roman Catholicism in Australia, Rowman & Littlefield, Royal Australian Air Force, Royal Australian Navy, Rudd Government (2007–10), Rugby league, Rugby union, Samuel Purchas, Scottish Australian, Section 51 of the Constitution of Australia, Separation of powers in Australia, Shine (film), Sidney Nolan, Sign language, Silent film, Simpson Desert, Single transferable vote, Sixth East Asia Summit, Skiing in Australia, Social security in Australia, Solomon Islands, Soprano, South Australia, South Korea, Southeast Asia, Southeast Australia temperate savanna, Southern Ocean, Southwest corner of Western Australia, Special Broadcasting Service, State of Origin series, State religion, States and territories of Australia, Statute of Westminster 1931, Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942, Stolen Generations, Stuart Macintyre, Summer Olympic Games, Sunday Mail (Adelaide), Sunday roast, Surf lifesaving, Swan River Colony, Sydney, Sydney Cove, Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race, Tasman Sea, Tasmania, Taxation in Australia, Technical and further education, Telecommunications in Australia, Telephone numbers in Australia, Terms of trade, Terra Australis, Terra nullius, The Advertiser (Adelaide), The Age, The Ashes, The Australian, The Australian Ballet, The Australian Financial Review, The bush, The Conversation (website), The Economist, The Independent, The Japan Times, The Monthly, The Story of the Kelly Gang, The Sydney Morning Herald, The World Factbook, Thomas Keneally, Thylacine, Time in Australia, Timor Sea, Tirari-Sturt Stony Desert, Tobacco smoking, Tom Roberts, Tony Abbott, Top End, Torres Strait Islanders, Torres Strait Islands, Tourism in Australia, Trans-Pacific Partnership, Transport in Australia, Treaty of Amity and Cooperation in Southeast Asia, Tropical rainforest, Tuvalu, Uluru, UNESCO, UNESCO Courier, Unicameralism, United Nations, Universal health care, University of Melbourne, University of Sydney, Upper house, Urbanization, Van Diemen's Land, Vanuatu, Variation in Australian English, Vegemite, Victoria (Australia), Vietnam, Vietnamese language, Visa policy of Australia, Wakefield Press, Waltzing Matilda, Water restrictions in Australia, Water supply and sanitation in Australia, Weipa, Queensland, Western Australia, Western Australian Mulga shrublands, Western culture, Western Front (World War I), Wetland, White Australia policy, Willem Janszoon, William Dampier, Wombat, Woodland, WorkChoices, World Heritage Site, World Trade Organization, World's most liveable cities, Yale University, .au, 112th meridian east, 154th meridian east, 1938 British Empire Games, 1956 Summer Olympics, 1962 British Empire and Commonwealth Games, 1975 Australian constitutional crisis, 1982 Commonwealth Games, 2000 Summer Olympics, 2000s Australian drought, 2003 invasion of Iraq, 2003 Rugby World Cup, 2006 Commonwealth Games, 2015 Pacific Games, 2018 Commonwealth Games, 44th parallel south, 60th parallel south, 9th parallel south. 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ABC News is a national news service in Australia produced by the News and Current Affairs division of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.

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Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members "of the Aboriginal race of Australia" (indigenous to the Australian continent—mainland Australia or to the island of Tasmania).

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The Aboriginal Protection Act, enacted in 1869 by the colony of Victoria, Australia gave extensive powers over the lives of Aboriginal people to the government's Board for the Protection of Aborigines, including regulation of residence, employment and marriage.

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Abstract art uses a visual language of shape, form, color and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of independence from visual references in the world.

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Acacia, known commonly as acacia, thorntree, whistling thorn, or wattle, is a genus of shrubs and trees belonging to the subfamily Mimosoideae of the family Fabaceae, described by the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus in 1773 based on the African species Acacia nilotica.

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The Administrator of the Northern Territory is an official appointed by the Governor-General of Australia to represent the government of the Commonwealth in the Northern Territory.

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"Advance Australia Fair" is the national anthem of Australia.

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The AFC Asian Cup is an international association football tournament run by the Asian Football Confederation (AFC).

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Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris.

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Australia is a major agricultural producer and exporter, with over 325,300 employed in Agriculture, forestry and fishing as of February 2015.

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Allen & Unwin is an Australian independent publishing company, established in Australia in 1976 as a subsidiary of the British firm George Allen & Unwin Ltd., which was founded by Sir Stanley Unwin in August 1914 and went on to become one of the leading publishers of the twentieth century.

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Alpine climate is the average weather (climate) for the regions above the tree line.

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The Anglican Church of Australia is a Christian church in Australia and an autonomous province of the Anglican Communion.

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Anglicanism is a tradition within Christianity comprising the Church of England and churches which are historically tied to it or hold similar beliefs, worship practices and church structures.

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Anglo-Celtic people are those of British and Irish descent.

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Anglo-Celtic Australians are citizens of Australia with British and/or Irish ancestral origins.

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Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent, containing the geographic South Pole.

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The Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty (ANZUS or ANZUS Treaty) is the 1951 collective security agreement which binds Australia and New Zealand and, separately, Australia and the United States, to co-operate on military matters in the Pacific Ocean region, although today the treaty is taken to relate to conflicts worldwide.

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Apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a trade or profession with on-the-job training and often some accompanying study (classroom work and reading).

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Arabic (العَرَبِية, or عربي,عربى) is the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century and its modern descendants excluding Maltese.

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The Arafura Sea lies west of the Pacific Ocean overlying the continental shelf between Australia and Indonesian New Guinea.

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The Art Gallery of New South Wales (AGNSW), located in The Domain in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, is the most important public gallery in Sydney and the fourth largest in Australia.

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Arthur Merric Bloomfield Boyd (24 July 1920 – 24 April 1999) was a leading Australian painter of the late 20th century.

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Admiral Arthur Phillip (11 October 173831 August 1814) was a Royal Navy officer, the first Governor of New South Wales and founder of the British penal colony that later became the city of Sydney, Australia.

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Sir Arthur Ernest Streeton (8 April 1867 – 1 September 1943) was an Australian landscape painter and leading member of the Heidelberg School, also known as Australian Impressionism.

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The Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands is an uninhabited external territory of Australia consisting of four low-lying tropical islands in two separate reefs, and the 12 nautical mile territorial sea generated by the islands.

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Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a forum for 21 Pacific Rim member economies.

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The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a political and economic organisation of ten Southeast Asian countries.

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Auslan is the sign language of the Australian deaf community.

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Aussie is Australian slang for Australian and less commonly, Australia.

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The Australasian Legal Information Institute (AustLII) is an institution operated jointly by the Faculties of Law of the University of Technology Sydney and the University of New South Wales.

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Australia, sometimes known in technical contexts by the names Sahul, Australinea or Meganesia, to distinguish it from the Australian mainland, is a continent comprising mainland Australia, Tasmania, New Guinea, Seram, possibly Timor, and neighbouring islands.

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The Australia Act 1986 is the name given to a pair of separate but related pieces of legislation: one an Act of the Commonwealth (i.e. federal) Parliament of Australia, the other an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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The Australia Council for the Arts, informally known as the Australia Council, is the official arts council or arts funding body of the Government of Australia.

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Australia Day is the official national day of Australia.

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The Australia–Chile Free Trade Agreement is a trade agreement between the countries of Chile and Australia.

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The Australia – United States Free Trade Agreement (AUSFTA) is a preferential trade agreement between Australia and the United States modelled on the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).

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The Australian Aboriginal languages comprise up to twenty-seven language families and isolates native to the Australian Aborigines of Australia and a few nearby islands, but by convention excluding the languages of Tasmania and the eastern Torres Strait Island language Meriam Mer.

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The Australian Alps, an interim Australian bioregion, data is the highest mountain range in Australia.

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The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) was a First World War army corps of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force.

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The Australian Antarctic Territory (AAT) is a part of Antarctica.

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The Australian Army is Australia's military land force.

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The Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC) is Australia's state-owned and funded national public broadcaster.

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The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the statistical agency of the Government of Australia.

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The Australian Capital Territory (abbreviated as ACT) (formerly, "The Territory for the Seat of Government" and, later, the "Federal Capital Territory") is a territory in the south east of Australia, enclaved within New South Wales.

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The Australian court hierarchy consists of a variety of courts and tribunals at both the federal and state and territory levels, with the High Court being the highest court in the Australian judicial system.

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The Australian Defence Force (ADF) is the military organisation responsible for the defence of Australia.

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The Australian dollar (sign: $; code: AUD) is the currency of the Commonwealth of Australia, including Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island, as well as the independent Pacific Island states of Kiribati, Nauru and Tuvalu.

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The Australian Electoral Commission (AEC) is the federal government agency in charge of organising, conducting and supervising federal elections and referendums.

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Australian English (AusE, AuE, AusEng, en-AU) is a major variety of the English language and is used throughout Australia.

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Australian English (AuE) is a non-rhotic variety of English spoken by most native-born Australians.

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A federal election to determine the members of the 44th Parliament of Australia took place on 7 September 2013.

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The Australian Football League (AFL) is the highest-level professional competition in the sport of Australian rules football.

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The Australian Grand Prix is a motor race held annually in Australia currently under contract to host Formula One until 2023.

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The Australian House of Representatives is one of the two houses (chambers) of the Parliament of Australia.

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The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) is Australia's national agency for information and statistics on Australia’s health and welfare.

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The Australian Labor Party (ALP, also Labor, was Labour before 1912) is a political party in Australia.

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The Australian Labor Party leadership spill, 2010 occurred on 24 June 2010.

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Australian literature is the written or literary work produced in the area or by the people of the Commonwealth of Australia and its preceding colonies.

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Australian megafauna comprises a number of large animal species in Australia, often defined as species with body mass estimates of greater than 45 kilograms or equal to or greater than 30% greater body mass than their closest living relatives.

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The Australian Museum is the oldest museum in Australia, with an international reputation in the fields of natural history and anthropology.

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The Australian National University (ANU) is a public university in Canberra, Australian Capital Territory.

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The Australian New Wave (also known as the Australian Film Revival, Australian Film Renaissance, or New Australian Cinema) was an era of resurgence in worldwide popularity of Australian cinema, particularly in the United States.

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The Australian Open is a major tennis tournament held annually over the last fortnight of January in Melbourne, Australia.

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The Australian referendum of 27 May 1967, called by the Holt Government, approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to Indigenous Australians.

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The Australian republic referendum held on 6 November 1999 was a two-question referendum to amend the Constitution of Australia.

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Australian rules football, officially known as Australian football, also called football, footy, or Aussie rules (and in some regions marketed as AFL after the Australian Football League, the pre-eminent and fully professional Australian football league in the country), is a sport played between two teams of eighteen players on the field of either an Australian football ground, a modified cricket field, or a similarly sized sports venue.

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Australian Securities Exchange or ASX Limited (ASX), an Australian public company, operates Australia's primary securities exchange, the Australian Securities Exchange.

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The Senate is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of Australia, the lower house being the House of Representatives.

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The Australian Strategic Policy Institute (ASPI) is a think tank that was established in 2001.

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The Australian wine industry is the world's fourth largest exporter of wine with approximately 750 million litres a year to the international export market with only about 40% of production consumed domestically.

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Australians, colloquially known as Aussies, are a people associated with the continent of Australia, sharing a common history, culture, and language (Australian English).

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In trade terms, the Australian economy has had persistently large current account deficits for more than 50 years.

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Andrew Barton "Banjo" Paterson OBE Services to literature (1939) (17 February 18645 February 1941) was an Australian bush poet, journalist and author.

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The Barkly Tableland is a rolling plain of grassland which runs from the eastern part of the Northern Territory into western Queensland.

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A biodiversity action plan (BAP) is an internationally recognized program addressing threatened species and habitats and is designed to protect and restore biological systems.

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Biota are the total collection of organisms of a geographic region or a time period, from local geographic scales and instantaneous temporal scales all the way up to whole-planet and whole-timescale spatiotemporal scales.

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Rugby Union's Bledisloe Cup is contested by the Australia national rugby union team and New Zealand national rugby union team.

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Robert James Lee "Bob" Hawke (born 9 December 1929) is an Australian politician who was the Prime Minister of Australia and the Leader of the Labor Party from 1983 to 1991.

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Breaker Morant is a 1980 Australian film about the 1902 court martial of Breaker Morant, directed by Bruce Beresford and starring British actor Edward Woodward as Harry "Breaker" Morant and Jack Thompson as his attorney.

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Brett Whiteley (7 April 1939 – 15 June 1992) was an Australian avant-garde artist.

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The Brigalow Belt is a wide band of acacia wooded grassland that runs between tropical rainforest of the coast and the semi-arid interior of Queensland, Australia.

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British cuisine is the specific set of cooking traditions and practices associated with the United Kingdom.

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The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom.

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The fourteen British Overseas Territories (BOT) are territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom; they do not, however, form part of it.

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Buddhism is a nontheistic religion or philosophy (Sanskrit: dharma; Pali: धम्म dhamma) that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to Gautama Buddha, commonly known as the Buddha ("the awakened one").

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In Australia, Buddhism is a small but growing religion.

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The Bureau of Meteorology (BOM), formerly known as the Central Weather Bureau, is an Executive Agency of the Australian Government responsible for providing weather services to Australia and surrounding areas.

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Bush poets were Australian poets who wrote about life in the Australian bush during the colonial era.

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Bush tucker, also called bushfood, is any food native to Australia and used as sustenance by the original inhabitants, the Aboriginal Australians, but it can also describe any native fauna/flora used for culinary and/or medicinal purposes, regardless of the continent or culture.

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The Cairns Group (Cairns Group of Fair Trading Nations) is an interest group of 20 agricultural exporting countries, composed of Argentina, Australia, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, the Philippines, South Africa, Thailand, Uruguay, and Vietnam.

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Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Canberra is the capital city of Australia.

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Cantonese, or Standard Cantonese (廣東話, 广东话; originally known as 廣州話, 广州话), is the dialect of Yue Chinese spoken in the vicinity of Canton (Guangzhou) in southern China.

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Cape York Peninsula is a large remote peninsula located in Far North Queensland at the north of the state of Queensland, Australia, the largest unspoiled wilderness in northern Australia and one of the last remaining wilderness areas on Earth.

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A carbon tax is a tax levied on the carbon content of fuels.

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Catherine Élise "Cate" Blanchett (born 14 May 1969) is an Australian actress.

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The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is, the largest Christian church, with more than 1.25 billion members worldwide.

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Catholic education in Australia refers to the education services provided by the Roman Catholic Church in Australia within the Australian education system.

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The Center for Global Development (CGD) is a U.S. nonprofit think tank based in Washington, D.C. that focuses on international development.

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The Central Ranges xeric scrub is a deserts and xeric shrublands ecoregion of Australia.

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The centre-left or moderate left is an adherence to views leaning to the left but closer to the centre on the left-right political spectrum than other left-wing variants.

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Centre-right politics, also referred to as moderate-right politics, are politics that lean to the right of the left-right political spectrum, but are closer to the centre than other right-wing variants.

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The Chief Justice of Australia is the informal title for the presiding justice of the High Court of Australia and the highest-ranking judicial officer in the Commonwealth of Australia.

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A Chief Minister is the elected head of government of a sub-national (e.g. constituent federal) entity, notably a state (and sometimes a union territory) in India, a territory of Australia, provinces of Sri Lanka or Pakistan, Philippine Autonomous Regions or a British Overseas Territory that has attained self-government.

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Chief of the Defence Force (CDF) is the most senior appointment in the Australian Defence Force (ADF).

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The Chiko Roll is an Australian savoury appetiser snack invented by Frank McEncroe, originally called the chicken roll and inspired by the Chinese egg roll and spring rolls.

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The China–Australia Free Trade Agreement (ChAFTA) is a bilateral Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between the governments of Australia and China.

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Chinese Australians are Australian citizens of Chinese ancestry.

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Chinese cuisine includes styles originating from the diverse regions of China, as well as from Chinese people in other parts of the world.

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A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.

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The Territory of Christmas Island is a territory of Australia in the Indian Ocean, composed of one island.

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The Chromista are a eukaryotic supergroup, probably polyphyletic, which may be treated as a separate kingdom or included among the Protista.

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The Church of England is the officially-established Christian church in England, and the mother church of the worldwide Anglican Communion.

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The Australian film industry has its beginnings with the 1906 production of The Story of the Kelly Gang, the earliest feature film ever made.

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Civil liberties are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation without due process.

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Closer Economic Relations (CER) is a free trade agreement between the governments of New Zealand and Australia.

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In Australian politics, the Coalition is a formal alliance of broadly centre-right parties, which has existed in various forms since 1923.

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The Territory of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, also called Cocos Islands and Keeling Islands, is a territory of Australia, located in the Indian Ocean, southwest of Christmas Island and approximately midway between Australia and Sri Lanka.

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Coffee culture describes a social atmosphere or series of associated social behaviors that depends heavily upon coffee, particularly as a social lubricant.

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The Collins English Dictionary is a printed and online dictionary of English.

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ComLaw is an Australian government web site run by the Office of Parliamentary Counsel since October 2012 that provides online copies of Commonwealth legislation and related documents.

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A commander-in-chief is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces or significant elements of those forces.

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The Commitment to Development Index (CDI), published annually by the Center for Global Development, ranks the world’s richest countries on their dedication to policies that benefit the five billion people living in poorer nations.

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Common Era (also Current Era or Christian Era), abbreviated as CE, is an alternative naming of the calendar era Anno Domini ("in the year of the/our Lord", abbreviated AD).

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The Commonwealth Games (known as the British Empire Games from 1930–1950, the British Empire and Commonwealth Games from 1954–1966, and British Commonwealth Games from 1970–1974) is an international, multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations.

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The Commonwealth Liberal Party (CLP, also known as the Deakin–Cook Party, The Fusion, or the Deakinite Liberal Party) was a political movement active in Australia from 1909 to 1917, shortly after Federation.

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The Commonwealth of Nations, commonly known as the Commonwealth (formerly the British Commonwealth), is an intergovernmental organization of 53 member states that were mostly territories of the former British Empire.

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A Commonwealth realm is one of 16 sovereign states that are members of the Commonwealth of Nations, have Queen Elizabeth II as the reigning constitutional monarch, and have in common the same royal line of succession.

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Compulsory voting is a system in which electors are obliged to vote in elections or attend a polling place on voting day.

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The Constitution of Australia is the supreme law under which the government of the Commonwealth of Australia operates, including its relationship to the States of Australia.

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A constitutional monarchy, limited monarchy or parliamentary monarchy (also called a crowned republic) is a form of government in which governing powers of the monarch are restricted by a constitution.

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Contemporary Indigenous Australian art (also known as Contemporary Aboriginal Australian art) is the modern art work produced by indigenous Australians.

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Between 1788 and 1868, approximately 162,000 convicts were transported to the various Australian penal colonies by the British government.

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The Coral Sea is a marginal sea of the South Pacific off the northeast coast of Australia, and classified as an interim Australian bioregion.

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The Coral Sea Islands Territory includes a group of small and mostly uninhabited tropical islands and reefs in the Coral Sea, northeast of Queensland, Australia.

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Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players each on a field at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard-long pitch.

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A Crown colony, also known in the 17th century as royal colony, was a type of colonial administration of the English and later British Empire.

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The Cruising Yacht Club of Australia(CYCA), established in 1944 in Rushcutters Bay, inner-east Sydney.

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The Culture of Asia is human civilization in Asia.

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The culture of the United States is primarily Western, but is influenced by African, Native American, Asian, Polynesian, and Latin American cultures.

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In economics, a country's current account is one of the two components of its balance of payments, the other being the capital account (sometimes called the financial account).

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In meteorology, a cyclone is an area of closed, circular fluid motion rotating in the same direction as the Earth.

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David George Joseph Malouf (born 20 March 1934) is an Australian writer.

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David Keith Williamson, AO (born 19 or 24 February 1942) is one of Australia's best-known dramatists and playwrights.

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De facto is a Latin expression that means "in fact, in reality, in actual existence, force, or possession, as a matter of fact" (literally "from fact").

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De jure (Classical Latin: de iúre) is an expression that means "of right, by right, according to law" (literally "from law"), as contrasted with de facto, which means "in fact, in reality" (literally "from fact").

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The Australian Department of Defence is a department of the Government of Australia charged with the responsibility to defend Australia and its national interests.

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The Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (also called DFAT) is a department of the Government of Australia charged with the responsibility of advancing the interests of Australia and its citizens internationally.

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The Department of Health and Ageing was an Australian government department that existed between November 2001 and September 2013.

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The Department of Immigration and Citizenship (also called DIAC) was an Australian government department that existed between January 2007 and September 2013, that was preceded by the Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs and was succeeded by the Department of Immigration and Border Protection.

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The Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts was an Australian Government department that existed between December 2007 and September 2010.

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Named deserts of Australia cover, or 18% of the Australian mainland.

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A developed country, industrialized country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.

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A dim sim is a Chinese-inspired meat or vegetable dumpling-style snack food, popular in Australia and to a lesser extent in New Zealand.

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The dingo (Canis lupus dingo) is a free-ranging dog found mainly in Australia.

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Dominions were semi-independent polities that were nominally under the Crown, constituting the British Empire and British Commonwealth, beginning in the later part of the 19th century.

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A double dissolution is a procedure permitted under the Australian Constitution to resolve deadlocks between the House of Representatives and the Senate.

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Dreamtime (also dream time, dream-time) is a term for the animist framework also symbol system of Australian Aboriginal mythology, introduced by A. P. Elkin in 1938 and popularised by William Edward Hanley Stanner and others from the 1970s for a concept of "time out of time", or "everywhen", inhabited by ancestral figures, often of heroic proportions or with supernatural abilities, but not considered "gods" as they do not control the material world and are not worshipped.

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Drought in Australia is defined by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology as rainfall over a three-month period being in the lowest decile of what has been recorded for that region in the past.

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A Dutch Australian is an inhabitant of Australia with full or partial Dutch ancestry, the majority of these people are part of the Dutch diaspora.

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The Dutch Republic, also known as the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands (Republiek der Zeven Verenigde Nederlanden), Republic of the United Netherlands or Republic of the Seven United Provinces (Republiek der Zeven Verenigde Provinciën), was a republic in Europe existing from 1581, when part of the Netherlands separated from Spanish rule, until 1795.

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The East Asia Summit (EAS) is a forum held annually by leaders of, initially, 16 countries in the East Asian region.

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East Timor or Timor-Leste, officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (Tetum: Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is a country in Maritime Southeast Asia.

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The Eastern Australian temperate forests are an ecoregion of open forest on uplands behind the east coast of New South Wales and southern Queensland, Australia.

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The eastern states of Australia are the states adjoining the east coast of Australia.

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Echidnas, sometimes known as spiny anteaters, belong to the family Tachyglossidae in the monotreme order of egg-laying mammals.

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Economic freedom or economic liberty or right to economic liberty is the ability of members of a society to undertake economic direction and actions.

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The Einasleigh Uplands are an interim Australian bioregion of savanna and woodland located on a large plateau in inland Queensland, Australia.

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El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an irregularly periodical climate change caused by variations in sea surface temperatures over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, affecting much of the tropics and subtropics.

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The Australian electoral system has evolved over 150 years of democratic government, including through the Australian Parliament, instituted in 1901.

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Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is the queen of 16 of the 53 member states in the Commonwealth of Nations.

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Emily Kame Kngwarreye (or Emily Kam Ngwarray) (1910 – 2 September 1996) was an Australian Aboriginal artist from the Utopia community in the Northern Territory.

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The emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) is the second-largest living bird in the world by height, after its ratite relative, the ostrich.

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The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.

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English Australians, also known as Anglo-Australians are Australians of English descent, are both the single largest ethnic group in Australia and the largest 'ancestry' identity in the Australian Census.

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The Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 (EPBC Act) is an Act of the Parliament of Australia that provides a framework for protection of the Australian environment, including its biodiversity and its natural and culturally significant places.

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The Environmental Performance Index (EPI) is a method of quantifying and numerically marking the environmental performance of a state's policies.

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Errol Leslie Thomson Flynn (20 June 1909 – 14 October 1959) was an Australian-American actor.

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Eucalyptus L'Heritier 1789 is a diverse genus of flowering trees and shrubs (including a distinct group with a multiple-stem mallee growth habit) in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae.

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The Eureka Rebellion in 1854 was a rebellion of gold miners of Ballarat, Victoria, Australia, who revolted against the colonial authority of the United Kingdom.

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An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.

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A failed state is a state perceived as having failed at some of the basic conditions and responsibilities of a sovereign government.

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Fairfax Media Limited is one of largest media companies in Australia and New Zealand, with investment in newspaper, magazines, radio and internet, owner of The Sydney Morning Herald, The Age and The Australian Financial Review in Australia and Stuff.co.nz in New Zealand.

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The fauna of Australia consists of a huge variety of animals; some 83% of mammals, 89% of reptiles, 24% of fish and insects and 93% of amphibians that inhabit the continent are endemic to Australia.

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In motion picture terminology, feature length is the length of a feature film.

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The Federal Executive Council is a body established by the Constitution of Australia to advise the Governor-General.

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A federal monarchy is a federation of states with a single monarch as over-all head of the federation, but retaining different monarchs, or a non-monarchical system of government, in the various states joined to the federation.

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Federalism is a political concept in which a group of members are bound together by covenant (Latin: foedus, covenant) with a governing representative head.

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A federated state (which may be referred to as a state, a province, a canton, a Land, etc.) is a territorial and constitutional community forming part of a federal union (federation).

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The Federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British self-governing colonies of Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia, and Western Australia agreed to unite and form the Commonwealth of Australia, establishing a system of federalism in Australia.

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Field hockey, or simply hockey, is a team sport of the hockey family.

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The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.

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Figurative art, sometimes written as figurativism, describes artwork—particularly paintings and sculptures—that is clearly derived from real object sources, and are therefore by definition representational.

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The First Fleet is the name given to the 11 ships which left Great Britain on 13 May 1787 to found a penal colony that became the first European settlement in Australia.

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The Five Power Defence Arrangements (FPDA) are a series of defence relationships established by a series of bilateral agreements between the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, Malaysia and Singapore (all Commonwealth members) signed in 1971, whereby the five countries will consult each other in the event of external aggression or threat of attack against Peninsular Malaysia or Singapore.

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A floating exchange rate or fluctuating exchange rate is a type of exchange-rate regime in which a currency's value is allowed to fluctuate in response to foreign-exchange market mechanisms.

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This is a list of notable recorded floods that have occurred in the country of Australia.

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The foreign relations of Australia are influenced by its position as a leading trading nation and as a significant donor of humanitarian aid.

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Australia has many forests of importance due to significant features, despite being one of the driest continents.

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Frederick Ronald (Fred) Williams OBE (23 January 192722 April 1982) was an Australian painter and printmaker.

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Free trade is a policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.

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Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the freedom of communication and expression through mediums including various electronic media and published materials.

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The Group of Twenty (also known as the G-20 or G20) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from 20 major economies.

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The Gallipoli Campaign, also known as the Dardanelles Campaign, the Battle of Gallipoli or the Battle of Çanakkale (Çanakkale Savaşı), was a campaign of World War I that took place on the Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu in modern Turkey) in the Ottoman Empire between 25 April 1915 and 9 January 1916.

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Geoffrey Roy Rush (born 6 July 1951) is an internationally renowned Australian actor and film producer.

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A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on the Earth to be specified by a set of numbers or letters.

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Geoscience Australia is an agency of the Australian federal government.

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German Australians (Deutsch-Australier) are Australian citizens of ethnic German ancestry.

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The Gibson Desert, an interim Australian bioregion, covers a large dry area in the state of Western Australia and is still largely in an almost "pristine" state.

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"God Save the Queen" (alternatively "God Save the King") is the national and/or royal anthem in a number of Commonwealth realms, their territories, and the British Crown Dependencies.

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A gold rush is an interval of feverish migration of workers to an area that has had a dramatic discovery of gold deposits.

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The Goods and Services Tax (GST) in Australia is a value added tax of 10% on most goods and services sales.

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Edward Gough Whitlam (11 July 191621 October 2014) was the 21st Prime Minister of Australia, serving from 1972 to 1975.

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The Government of the Commonwealth of Australia, also referred to as the Australian Government, Commonwealth Government or the Federal Government, is the federal democratic administrative authority of Australia.

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The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia is the representative in Australia of the Australian monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II.

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The Governors of the Australian states are the representatives of the Queen of Australia in each of that country's six states.

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A Grand final is a game that decides a sports league's championship (or premiership) winning team, i.e. the conclusive game of a finals (or play-off) series.

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The Grand Slam tournaments, also called majors, are the four most important annual tennis events.

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Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses (Poaceae), however sedge (Cyperaceae) and rush (Juncaceae) families can also be found.

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The Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest coral reef system composed of over 2,900 individual reefs and 900 islands stretching for over over an area of approximately.

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The Great Dividing Range, or the Eastern Highlands, is Australia's most substantial mountain range and the third longest land-based range in the world.

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The Global Recession was the general economic decline observed in world markets around the end of the first decade of the 21st century.

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The Great Sandy-Tanami desert is a World Wildlife Fund ecoregion of Western Australia extending into the Northern Territory.

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The Great Victoria Desert, an interim Australian bioregion, is a sparsely populated desert area in Western Australia and South Australia.

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Greek Australians (Ελληνοαυστραλοί) are Australian citizens either fully or partially of Greek descent or Greece-born people who reside in Australia.

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Greek or Hellenic (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to the southern Balkans, the Aegean Islands, western Asia Minor, parts of northern and Eastern Anatolia and the South Caucasus, southern Italy, Albania and Cyprus.

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Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is a measure of the size of an economy.

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The Group of Eight (Go8) is a coalition of research-intensive Australian universities.

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The Gulf Country is the name given to the region of woodland and savanna grassland surrounding the Gulf of Carpentaria in north western Queensland and eastern Northern Territory on the north coast of Australia.

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HarperCollins Publishers LLC is one of the world's largest publishing companies and, alongside Hachette, Holtzbrinck/Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster, is part of the "Big Five" English-language publishing companies.

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Head of government is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony who often presides over a cabinet.

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The Territory of Heard Island and McDonald IslandsCIA World Factbook. Accessed 2009.01.04.

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Heath Andrew Ledger (4 April 197922 January 2008) was an Australian actor and director.

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The Heidelberg School was an Australian art movement of the late 19th century.

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Henry Archibald Hertzberg Lawson (17 June 1867 – 2 September 1922) was an Australian writer and poet.

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The High Court of Australia is the supreme court in the Australian court hierarchy and the final court of appeal in Australia.

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Hinduism is the dominant religion, or way of life, in South Asia, most notably in India and Nepal.

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Hinduism in Australia is a minority religion consisting of more than 275,000 individuals, representing 1.3% of the total Australian population according to the 2011 census (up from 148,119 in the 2006 census).

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Hippocrene Books is a US publishing press located at 171 Madison Avenue, New York City, NY 10016.

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The history of Australia from 1780–1859 covers the early colonies period of Australia's history, from the arrival of the First Fleet of British ships at Sydney to establish the penal colony of New South Wales in 1780 to the European exploration of the continent and establishment of other colonies and the beginnings of autonomous democratic government.

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Jakarta is Indonesia's capital and largest city.

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The history of the Jews in Australia commenced with the British settlement of Australia in 1788.

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Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California.

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The honors music for a person, office or rank is music played on formal or ceremonial occasions in the presence of the person, office-holder, or rank-holder, especially by a military band.

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House of Assembly is a name given to the legislature or lower house of a bicameral parliament.

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The House of Windsor is the royal house of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.

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The Howard Government refers to the federal Executive Government of Australia led by Prime Minister John Howard between 11 March 1996 to 3 December 2007.

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The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.

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A hunter-gatherer or early human society is one in which most or all food is obtained from wild plants and animals, in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.

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Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure or arterial hypertension, is a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

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The Illustrated Sydney News was a monthly English language newspaper published in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

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Considered part of the History of human migration from Africa,https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com/human-journey/ it is estimated that first humans arrived in Australia approximately 50,000 years ago when ancestors of the first wave of migrants from Africa arrived on the continent via the islands of Maritime Southeast Asia and New Guinea.

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Income tax in Australia is the most important revenue stream within the Australian taxation system.

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The Index of Economic Freedom is an annual index and ranking created by The Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal in 1995 to measure the degree of economic freedom in the world's nations.

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An Indian Australian is an Australian of Indian descent or heritage.

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The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), also known as the Indian Niño, is an irregular oscillation of sea-surface temperatures in which the western Indian Ocean becomes alternately warmer and then colder than the eastern part of the ocean.

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Indigenous Australian art or Australian Aboriginal art is art made by the Indigenous peoples of Australia and in collaborations between Indigenous Australians and others.

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Indigenous Australians are members of groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to European colonisation.

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The Indo-Australian Plate was a major tectonic plate that included the continent of Australia and surrounding ocean, and extended northwest to include the Indian subcontinent and adjacent waters.

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Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.

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Instant-runoff voting (IRV), also known as the: alternative vote (AV), transferable vote, ranked choice voting, or preferential voting is an electoral system used to elect a single winner from a field of more than two candidates.

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The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is the inter-governmental organisation representing hydrography.

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The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, DC, of "188 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world".

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The following are international rankings of Australia.

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Invasive species are a serious threat to the native biodiversity of Australia and are an ongoing cost to Australian agriculture.

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Irish Australians (Gael-Astrálaigh) are an ethnic group of Australian citizens of Irish descent, which include immigrants from and descendants whose ancestry originates from the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland.

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Atheism, agnosticism, deism, scepticism, freethought, secular humanism or general secularism are increasing in Australia.

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Islam (There are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster). The most common are (Oxford English Dictionary, Random House) and (American Heritage Dictionary). الإسلام,: Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~. In Northwestern Africa, they do not have stress or lengthened vowels.) is a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a religious text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God, and, for the vast majority of adherents, by the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad (circa 570–8 June 632 CE), considered by most of them to be the last prophet of God.

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Islam in Australia is a minority religious affiliation.

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Italian Australians are the fourth largest ethnic group in Australia, consisting of Italian-born residents and Australian-born citizens of Italian descent.

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Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken mainly in Europe: Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City, as a second language in Albania, Malta, Slovenia and Croatia, by minorities in Crimea, Eritrea, France, Libya, Monaco, Montenegro, Romania and Somalia, – Gordon, Raymond G., Jr.

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Jakarta,Pronounced in Indonesian language:.

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Captain James Cook, FRS, RN (7 November 1728Old style date: 27 October14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy.

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The Jervis Bay Territory (abbreviated as JBT) is a territory of the Commonwealth of Australia.

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Jiji Press Ltd. (株式会社 時事通信社 Kabushiki gaisha Jiji Tsūshinsha) is a wire service in Japan.

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Dame Joan Alston Sutherland (7 November 192610 October 2010) was an Australian dramatic coloratura soprano noted for her contribution to the renaissance of the bel canto repertoire from the late 1950s through to the 1980s.

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Judaism (from Iudaismus, derived from Greek Ἰουδαϊσμός, originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; in Hebrew:, Yahadut, the distinctive characteristics of the Judean ethnos) encompasses the religion, philosophy, culture and way of life of the Jewish people.

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Dame Judith Anderson, AC, DBE (10 February 18973 January 1992) was an Australian actress who had a successful career in stage, film and television.

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Julia Eileen Gillard (born 29 September 1961) is a former Australian politician who served as the 27th Prime Minister of Australia from 2010 to 2013, as leader of the Australian Labor Party.

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The kangaroo is a marsupial from the family Macropodidae (macropods, meaning "large foot").

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The Kimberley is one of the nine regions of Western Australia.

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The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially Great Britain,"After the political union of England and Scotland in 1707, the nation's official name became 'Great Britain'", The American Pageant, Volume 1, Cengage Learning (2012)"From 1707 until 1801 Great Britain was the official designation of the kingdoms of England and Scotland".

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Kiribati, officially the Republic of Kiribati, is an island nation in the central Pacific Ocean.

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The koala (Phascolarctos cinereus, or, inaccurately, koala bear) is an arboreal herbivorous marsupial native to Australia.

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The Kokoda Track campaign or Kokoda Trail campaign was part of the Pacific War of World War II.

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Kookaburras are terrestrial tree kingfishers of the genus Dacelo native to Australia and New Guinea, which grow to between in length.

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The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty, which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits State Parties to reduce greenhouse gases emissions, based on the premise that (a) global warming exists and (b) man-made CO2 emissions have caused it.

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La Niña is a coupled ocean-atmosphere phenomenon that is the counterpart of El Niño as part of the broader El Niño–Southern Oscillation climate pattern.

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Major-General Lachlan Macquarie CB (Lachlann MacGuaire; 31 January 1762 – 1 July 1824) was a British Army officer and colonial administrator from Scotland.

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A lamington is a dessert of Australian origin.

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A land bridge, in biogeography, is an isthmus or wider land connection between otherwise separate areas, over which animals and plants are able to cross and colonise new lands.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Legatum is a private investment firm headquartered in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.

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The Legatum Prosperity Index is an annual ranking, developed by the Legatum Institute, of 142 countries.

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Legislative assembly is the name given in some countries to either a legislature, or to one of its branch.

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A legislative council is the name given to the legislature, or one of the chambers of the legislature of many nations and colonies.

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Leslie Allan "Les" Murray AO (born 17 October 1938) is an Australian poet, anthologist and critic.

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Liberal democracy is a political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of liberalism.

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The Liberal Party of Australia (Lib, colloquially Libs or, rarely, "LPA") is a centre-right political party in Australia.

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The Administrator of Norfolk Island acts as a representative both of the Crown and of the Australian Federal Government, as well as carrying out other duties according to the Norfolk Island Amendment Act 2015.

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This is a list of the wild birds found in Australia including its outlying islands and territories, but excluding the Australian Antarctic Territory.

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A Christian denomination is a generic term for a distinct religious body identified by traits such as a common name, structure, leadership and doctrine.

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The Commonwealth Heads of Government (CHOG) is the collective name for the government leaders of the nations with membership in the Commonwealth of Nations.

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This is a list of the world's sovereign states and their dependent territories by area, ranked by its total area.

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This is a list of countries by carbon dioxide emissions per capita from 1990 through 2009.

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Countries are sorted by nominal GDP estimates from financial and statistical institutions, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates.

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This article includes four lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product per capita at nominal values.

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This is a list of all the countries by the Human Development Index as included in a United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Report.

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This article is a list of countries by military expenditure, the amount spent by a nation on its military in a given year.

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This list of islands by area includes all islands in the world greater than 2,500 km2 and several other islands over 500 km2, sorted in descending order by area.

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This is a list of selected Australian islands grouped by State or Territory.

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This is a list of wetlands in Australia that are designated by the Ramsar Convention as sites of international importance.

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This is a list of countries and dependencies ranked by human population density and measured by the number of human inhabitants per square kilometer or square mile.

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Lord Howe Island (formerly Lord Howe's Island) is an irregularly crescent-shaped volcanic remnant in the Tasman Sea between Australia and New Zealand, directly east of mainland Port Macquarie, and about from Norfolk Island.

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A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house.

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Mabo v Queensland (No. 2) (commonly known as Mabo) was a landmark High Court of Australia decision recognising native title in Australia for the first time.

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The Macquarie Dictionary is a dictionary of Australian English.

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Macquarie Island lies in the southwest Pacific Ocean, about half-way between New Zealand and Antarctica, at 54° 30' S, 158° 57' E.

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Mad Max is an Australian post-apocalyptic action multi-media franchise created by George Miller and Byron Kennedy.

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Mainland is a name given to a large landmass in a region (as contrasted with a nearby island or islands), or to the largest of a group of islands in an archipelago.

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A majority government is a government formed by a governing party that has an absolute majority of seats in the legislature or parliament in a parliamentary system.

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Malcolm Bligh Turnbull (born 24 October 1954) is an Australian politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Australia and Leader of the Liberal Party since 2015, and as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Wentworth since 2004.

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The Man Booker Prize for Fiction (formerly known as the Booker-McConnell Prize and commonly known simply as the Booker Prize) is a literary prize awarded each year for the best original novel, written in the English language, and published in the UK.

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Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.

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Margaret Rose Preston (29 April 1875 – 28 May 1963) was an Australian artist.

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Maritime Southeast Asia is the maritime region of Southeast Asia as opposed to mainland Southeast Asia and comprises Brunei, East Malaysia, East Timor, Indonesia, Singapore, and the Philippines.

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A market economy is an economy in which decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are based on supply and demand, and prices of goods and services are determined in a free price system.

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Marsupials are an infraclass of mammals living primarily in Australasia and the Americas.

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Mawson Peak is an active volcanic mountain on Heard Island, an external Australian territory in the Southern Ocean.

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An Australian or New Zealand meat pie is a hand-sized meat pie containing largely diced or minced meat and gravy, sometimes with onion, mushrooms, or cheese and often consumed as a takeaway food snack.

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Medicare is a publicly funded universal health care scheme in Australia.

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The term Mediterranean climate is one typical of the Mediterranean Basin and is a particular variety of subtropical climate.

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The megadiverse countries are a group of countries that harbor the majority of the Earth's species and are therefore considered extremely biodiverse.

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Melanesia (UK:; US) is a subregion of Oceania (and occasionally Australasia) extending from the western end of the Pacific Ocean to the Arafura Sea, and eastward to Fiji.

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The Melbourne Cup is Australia's major thoroughbred horse race.

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Melbourne University Publishing (MUP) is the book publishing arm of the University of Melbourne.

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Microsoft Excel is a spreadsheet application developed by Microsoft for Microsoft Windows,, and iOS.

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Stella Maria Sarah Miles Franklin, known as Miles Franklin (14 October 187919 September 1954) was an Australian writer and feminist who is best known for her novel My Brilliant Career, self-published in 1901.

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The Miles Franklin Literary Award is an annual literary prize awarded to "a novel which is of the highest literary merit and presents Australian life in any of its phases".

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The Australian Minister for Defence is currently Senator the Honourable Marise Payne.

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Modern art includes artistic works produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the style and philosophy of the art produced during that era.

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The monarchy of Australia is a form of government in which a hereditary monarch is the sovereign.

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Monotremes are mammals that lay eggs (Prototheria) instead of giving birth to live young like marsupials (Metatheria) and placental mammals (Eutheria).

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Mount Augustus National Park is located 852 km north of Perth, 490 km by road east of Carnarvon and 390 km northwest of Meekatharra, in the Gascoyne region of Western Australia.

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Mount Kosciuszko is a mountain located on the Main Range of the Snowy Mountains in Kosciuszko National Park, part of the Australian Alps National Parks and Reserves, in New South Wales, Australia.

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Mount McClintock is the highest mountain (3,492 m / 11,456 ft) in the Britannia Range in Australian Antarctic Territory, surmounting the south end of Forbes Ridge, east of Mount Olympus.

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Mount Menzies is the culminating peak (3,355 m; 11,007 ft) on the large massif between Mount Mather and Mount Bayliss, standing on the south side of Fisher Glacier, Antarctica.

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The Mulga Lands are an interim Australian bioregion of eastern Australia consisting of dry sandy plains scattered with mulga trees.

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Multiculturalism describes the existence, acceptance, or promotion of multiple cultural traditions within a single jurisdiction, usually considered in terms of the culture associated with an ethnic group.

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In international relations, multilateralism is multiple countries working in concert on a given issue.

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A national anthem (also state anthem, national hymn, national song etc.) is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nation's government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people.

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The National Archives of Australia is a body established by the Government of Australia for the purpose of preserving Commonwealth Government records.

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The National Film and Sound Archive (NFSA) is Australia’s audiovisual archive, responsible for developing, preserving, maintaining, promoting and providing access to a national collection of audiovisual materials and related items.

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The National Gallery of Australia (NGA; originally the Australian National Gallery) is the national art museum of Australia as well as the largest art museum in the country, holding more than 166,000 works of art.

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The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C. in the United States of America, is one of the largest nonprofit scientific and educational institutions in the world.

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A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) which has some connection—de facto or de jure—with a people and perhaps by extension the territory they occupy.

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The National Party of Australia (also known as The Nationals or simply, The Nats) is an Australian political party.

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The National Portrait Gallery in Australia is a collection of portraits of prominent Australians that are important in their field of endeavour or whose life sets them apart as an individual of long-term public interest.

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The National Rugby League (NRL) is the top league of professional rugby league clubs in Australasia.

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In Australia, the common law doctrine of Aboriginal title is referred to as native title, which is "the recognition by Australian law that Indigenous people have rights and interests to their land that come from their traditional laws and customs".

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Nauru, officially the Republic of Nauru and formerly known as Pleasant Island, is an island country in Micronesia in the Central Pacific.

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Dame Nellie Melba GBE (19 May 186123 February 1931), born Helen Porter Mitchell, was an Australian operatic soprano.

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Netball is a ball sport played by two teams of seven players.

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New Holland is a historical European name for mainland Australia.

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New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of:Australia.

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New Zealand (Aotearoa) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

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The original News Corporation or News Corp. was an American multinational mass media corporation headquartered in New York City.

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Nicole Mary Kidman, AC (born 20 June 1967) is an Australian actress and film producer.

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Since 1901, the Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) has been awarded annually to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning).

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Norfolk Island (Norfuk: Norf'k Ailen) is a small island in the Pacific Ocean located between Australia, New Zealand and New Caledonia, directly east of mainland Australia's Evans Head, and about from Lord Howe Island.

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The Northern Territory (abbreviated as NT) is a federal Australian territory in the centre and central northern regions.

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The Nullarbor Plain (Latin: nullus, "no", and arbor, "tree") is part of the area of flat, almost treeless, arid or semi-arid country of southern Australia, located on the Great Australian Bight coast with the Great Victoria Desert to its north.

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Obesity in Australia is an "epidemic" with "increasing frequency." The Medical Journal of Australia found that obesity in Australia more than doubled in the two decades preceding 2003, and the unprecedented rise in obesity has been compared to the same health crisis in America.

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Oceania (Pronunciation: The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) ISBN 0-19-861263-X — p.1282 "Oceania /ˌəʊsɪˈɑːnɪə, -ʃɪ-/". or), also known as Oceanica, is a region centered on the islands of the tropical Pacific Ocean.

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The OFC Nations Cup is an international association football tournament held among the Oceania Football Confederation (OFC) member nations.

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Opera Australia is the principal opera company in Australia.

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Operation Astute was an Australian-led military deployment to East Timor to quell unrest and return stability in the 2006 East Timor crisis.

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Operation Slipper was the Australian Defence Force (ADF) contribution to the war in Afghanistan.

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Oral tradition and oral lore is cultural material and tradition transmitted orally from one generation to another.

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The Ord Victoria Plain, an interim Australian bioregion, is located in the Northern Territory and Western Australia, comprising.

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The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an international economic organisation of 34 countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.

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The Outback is the vast, remote, arid interior of Australia.

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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Australia: Australia refers to both the continent of Australia and to the Commonwealth of Australia, the sovereign country.

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Ozploitation (a portmanteau of Australia and exploitation) films are exploitation films – a category of low-budget horror, comedy, and action films – made in Australia after the introduction of the R rating in 1971.

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The Pacific Games (formerly known as the South Pacific Games) is a multi-sport event, much like the Olympics (albeit on a much smaller scale), with participation exclusively from countries around the South Pacific.

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The Pacific Islands comprise 20,000 to 30,000 islands in the Pacific Ocean.

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The Pacific Islands Forum is an inter-governmental organization that aims to enhance cooperation between the independent countries of the Pacific Ocean.

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The Pacific Rim are the lands around the rim of the Pacific Ocean.

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The paleolithic diet is a diet based on the foods ancient ancestors might likely have eaten, such as meat, nuts and berries, and excludes food to which they had not yet become familiar, like dairy.

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Papua New Guinea (PNG;; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.

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The Parliament of Australia, officially The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia but commonly referred to as the Commonwealth Parliament or the Federal Parliament, is the legislative branch of the government of Australia.

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A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state in which the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from, and is held accountable to, the legislature (parliament); the executive and legislative branches are thus interconnected.

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The parliaments of the Australian states and territories are legislative bodies within the federal framework of the Commonwealth of Australia.

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Patrick Victor Martindale White (28 May 191230 September 1990) was an Australian writer who is widely regarded as one of the most important English-language novelists of the 20th century.

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Pavlova is a meringue-based dessert named after the Russian ballerina Anna Pavlova.

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A penal colony is a settlement used to exile prisoners and separate them from the general populace by placing them in a remote location, often an island or distant colonial territory.

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Transportation or penal transportation is the sending of convicted criminals or other persons regarded as undesirable to a penal colony.

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The Pennefather River in Queensland, Australia, is located on western Cape York Peninsula at.

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Peter Philip Carey AO (born 7 May 1943) is an Australian novelist, known primarily for being one of only three writers to have won the Booker Prize twice—the others being J. M. Coetzee and Hilary Mantel.

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General Sir Peter John Cosgrove, (born 28 July 1947) is a retired senior Australian Army officer and the 26th and current Governor-General of Australia.

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The Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) is a program of the Australian Government that provides subsidised prescription drugs to residents of Australia.

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Picnic at Hanging Rock is a 1975 Australian mystery drama film directed by Peter Weir and starring Anne-Louise Lambert, Helen Morse, Rachel Roberts, Vivean Gray and Dominic Guard.

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The Pilbara is a large, dry, thinly populated region in the north of Western Australia.

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The platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) also known as the duck-billed platypus is a semiaquatic egg-laying mammal endemic to eastern Australia, including Tasmania.

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A population pyramid, also called an age pyramid or age picture diagram, is a graphical illustration that shows the distribution of various age groups in a population (typically that of a country or region of the world), which forms the shape of a pyramid when the population is growing.

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Port Jackson, comprising the waters of Sydney Harbour, Middle Harbour, North Harbour and the Lane Cove and Parramatta Rivers, is the natural harbour of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

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The Premiers of the Australian states are the de facto heads of the executive governments in the six states of the Commonwealth of Australia.

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The Prime Minister of the Commonwealth of Australia is the head of government in Australia.

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Privatization, also spelled privatisation, may have several meanings.

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A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically, but not always, in the context of a monarchic government.

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The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a worldwide study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in member and non-member nations of 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance on mathematics, science, and reading.

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Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body.

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Protected areas of Australia include Commonwealth and off-shore protected areas managed by the Australian government, as well as protected areas within each of the six states of Australia and two self-governing territories, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory, which are managed by the eight state and territory governments.

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Queensland (abbreviated as Qld) is the second-largest and third-most-populous state in Australia.

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Rabbit-Proof Fence is a 2002 Australian drama film directed by Phillip Noyce based on the book Follow the Rabbit-Proof Fence by Doris Pilkington Garimara.

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ABC Radio National is an Australia-wide non-commercial radio network run by the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.

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Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall between.

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The Ramsar Convention (formally, the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat) is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands,, retrieved 2011-07-10 recognizing the fundamental ecological functions of wetlands and their economic, cultural, scientific, and recreational value.

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Realism (or naturalism) in the arts is the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, implausible, exotic and supernatural elements.

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A refugee, in contrast to a migrant, is according to the Geneva Convention on Refugees applied to a person who is outside their home country of citizenship because they have well-founded grounds for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion, and is unable to obtain sanctuary from their home country or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail themselves of the protection of that country; or in the case of not having a nationality and being outside their country of former habitual residence as a result of such event, is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to return to their country of former habitual residence.

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The Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands (RAMSI), also known as Operation Helpem Fren and Operation Anode, was created in 2003 in response to a request for international aid by the Governor-General of Solomon Islands.

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Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is a France-based international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.

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A republic (from res publica) is a form of government or country in which power resides in elected individuals representing the citizen body and government leaders exercise power according to the rule of law.

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In a parliamentary or semi-presidential system of government, a reserve power is a power that may be exercised by the head of state without the approval of another branch of the government.

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Responsible government is a conception of a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability, the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy.

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Richard Miller Flanagan (born 1961) is an Australian novelist from Tasmania.

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Robert Shenton French (born 19 March 1947) is the twelfth and current Chief Justice of the High Court of Australia, the highest court in the Australian court hierarchy.

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In archaeology, rock art is human-made markings placed on natural stone; it is largely synonymous with parietal art.

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The Catholic Church in Australia is part of the worldwide Catholic Church under the spiritual and administrative leadership of the Holy See.

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Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.

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The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF), formed March 1921, is the aerial warfare branch of the Australian Defence Force.

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The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force.

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The Rudd Government (2007–10) was the government of Australia formed by the Australian Labor Party and led by Kevin Rudd as Prime Minister.

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Rugby league football, usually called rugby league, or simply league, is a full contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular field.

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Rugby union, or simply rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.

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Not to be confused with Samuel Purchas (d. c. 1658), author of A Theatre of Political Flying-Insects. Samuel Purchas (1577? – 1626), an English cleric, published several volumes of reports by travelers to foreign countries.

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Scottish Australians are residents of Australia who are fully or partially of Scottish descent.

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Section 51 of the Constitution of Australia grants legislative powers to the Australian (Commonwealth) Parliament only when subject to the constitution.

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The doctrine of the separation of powers in Australia divides the institutions of government into three branches: legislative, executive and judicial.

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Shine is a 1996 Australian biographical drama film based on the life of pianist David Helfgott, who suffered a mental breakdown and spent years in institutions.

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Sir Sidney Robert Nolan (22 April 191728 November 1992) was one of Australia's leading artists of the 20th century.

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A sign language (also signed language or simply signing) is a language which uses manual communication and body language to convey meaning, as opposed to acoustically conveyed sound patterns.

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A silent film is a film with no synchronized recorded sound, especially with no spoken dialogue.

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The Simpson Desert is a large area of dry, red sandy plain and dunes in Northern Territory, South Australia and Queensland in central Australia.

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The single transferable vote (STV) is a voting system designed to achieve proportional representation through ranked voting in multi-seat constituencies (voting districts).

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The Sixth East Asia Summit was held in Bali, Indonesia on November 18–19, 2011.

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Skiing in Australia takes place in the high country of the states of New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania as well as in the Australian Capital Territory, during the Southern Hemisphere winter.

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Social security, in Australia, refers to a system of social welfare payments provided by Commonwealth Government of Australia.

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Solomon Islands is a sovereign country consisting of a large number of islands in Oceania lying to the east of Papua New Guinea and northwest of Vanuatu and covering a land area of.

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A soprano is a type of classical female singing voice and has the highest vocal range of all voice types.

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South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a state in the southern central part of Australia.

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South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (lit. The Republic of Great Han; ROK), and commonly referred to as Korea, is a sovereign state in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula.

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Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.

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The Southeast Australia temperate savanna ecoregion is a large area of grassland dotted with eucalyptus trees running north-south across central New South Wales, Australia.

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The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean or the Austral Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be south of 60° S latitude and encircling Antarctica.

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The south-west corner drainage region of Western Australia is one of only two temperate and relatively fertile parts of mainland Australia.

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The Special Broadcasting Service (SBS) is a hybrid-funded Australian public broadcasting radio, online, and television network.

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State of Origin series is the annual best-of-three Australian rugby league football match series between two state representative sides, New South Wales "The Blues" and Queensland "The Maroons".

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A state religion (also called an established religion, state church, established church, or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.

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Australia is a federation consisting of six states, three federal territories and seven external territories.

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The Statute of Westminster, 1931 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and separate versions of it are now domestic law within Australia and Canada; it has been repealed in New Zealand and implicitly by subsequent laws in former Commonwealth realms.

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The Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942 is an Act of the Australian Parliament that formally adopted the Statute of Westminster 1931, an Act of the British Imperial Parliament enabling the legislative independence of the various self-governing Dominions of the British Empire.

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The Stolen Generations (also known as Stolen Children) were the children of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander descent who were removed from their families by the Australian Federal and State government agencies and church missions, under acts of their respective parliaments.

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Stuart Forbes Macintyre (born 21 April 1947), an Australian historian, academic and public intellectual, is a former Dean of the Faculty of Arts at the University of Melbourne.

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The Summer Olympic Games or the Games of the Olympiad (French: Jeux olympiques d'été), first held in 1896, are an international multi-sport event, occurring every four years, organized by the International Olympic Committee.

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The Sunday Mail (originally titled the Mail) was founded in 1912 by Clarence Moody.

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The Sunday roast is a traditional British and Irish main meal that is traditionally served on Sunday, consisting of roasted meat, roast potato or (very rarely) mashed potato, with accompaniments such as Yorkshire pudding, stuffing, vegetables and gravy.

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Surf lifesaving is a multifaceted movement that comprises key aspects of voluntary lifeguard services and competitive surf sport.

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The Swan River Colony was a British settlement established in 1829 on the Swan River, in Western Australia.

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Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania.

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Sydney Cove is a small bay on the southern shore of Sydney Harbour, one of several harbours in Port Jackson, on the coast of New South Wales, Australia.

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The Sydney to Hobart Yacht Race is an annual event hosted by the Cruising Yacht Club of Australia, starting in Sydney, New South Wales on Boxing Day and finishing in Hobart, Tasmania.

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The Tasman Sea (Māori: Te Tai-o-Rehua) is a marginal sea of the South Pacific Ocean, situated between Australia and New Zealand.

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Tasmania (abbreviated as Tas and known colloquially as "Tassie") is an island state that is part of the Commonwealth of Australia.

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There are many forms of taxation in Australia.

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In Australia, technical and further education or TAFE institutions provide a wide range of predominantly vocational tertiary education courses, mostly qualifying courses under the National Training System/Australian Qualifications Framework/Australian Quality Training Framework.

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Telecommunications in Australia involves the availability and use of electronic devices and services, such as the telephone, television, radio or computer, for the purpose of communication.

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The Australian telephone numbering plan describes the allocation of phone numbers in Australia.

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Terms of trade (TOT) refers to the relative price of exports in terms of imports and is defined as the ratio of export prices to import prices.

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Terra Australis (Latin for South Land) was a hypothetical continent first posited in Antiquity and which appeared on maps between the 15th and 18th centuries.

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Terra nullius (plural terrae nullius) is a Latin expression deriving from Roman law meaning "nobody's land", which is used in international law to describe territory which has never been subject to the sovereignty of any state, or over which any prior sovereign has expressly or implicitly relinquished sovereignty.

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The Advertiser (commonly known as The Tiser) is a conservative, daily tabloid-format newspaper published in the city of Adelaide, South Australia.

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The Age is a daily newspaper which has been published in Melbourne, Australia, since 1854.

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The Ashes is a Test cricket series played between England and Australia. The Ashes are regarded as being held by the team that most recently won the Test series. The term originated in a satirical obituary published in a British newspaper, The Sporting Times, immediately after Australia's 1882 victory at The Oval, their first Test win on English soil. The obituary stated that English cricket had died, and "the body will be cremated and the ashes taken to Australia". The mythical ashes immediately became associated with the 1882–83 series played in Australia, before which the English captain Ivo Bligh had vowed to "regain those ashes". The English media therefore dubbed the tour the quest to regain the Ashes. After England had won two of the three Tests on the tour, a small urn was presented to Bligh by a group of Melbourne women including Florence Morphy, whom Bligh married within a year. The Illustrated Australian News, 20 February 1884, (foot of column 2) at Trove The contents of the urn are reputed to be the ashes of a wooden bail, and were humorously described as "the ashes of Australian cricket". It is not clear whether that "tiny silver urn" is the same as the small terracotta urn given to the MCC by Bligh's widow after his death in 1927. The urn has never been the official trophy of the Ashes series, having been a personal gift to Bligh. However, replicas of the urn are often held aloft by victorious teams as a symbol of their victory in an Ashes series. Since the 1998–99 Ashes series, a Waterford Crystal representation of the Ashes urn (called the Ashes Trophy) has been presented to the winners of an Ashes series as the official trophy of that series. Whichever side holds the Ashes, the urn remains in the MCC Museum at Lord's; it has however been taken to Australia to be put on touring display on two occasions: as part of the Australian Bicentenary celebrations in 1988, and to accompany the Ashes series in 2006–07. An Ashes series is traditionally of five Tests, hosted in turn by England and Australia at least once every four years., England hold the ashes, having won three of the five Tests in the 2015 Ashes series. Overall, Australia has won 32 series, England 32 and five series have been drawn.

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The Australian is a broadsheet newspaper published in Australia from Monday to Saturday each week since 14 July 1964.

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The Australian Ballet is the largest classical ballet company in Australia.

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The Australian Financial Review is a leading business and finance newspaper in Australia.

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"The bush" is a term used for rural, undeveloped land or country areas in certain countries.

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The Conversation is an independent, not-for-profit media outlet that uses content sourced from the academic and research community.

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The Economist is an English-language weekly newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited in offices in London.

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The Independent is a British national morning newspaper published in London by Independent Print Limited, owned by Alexander Lebedev since 2010.

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The Japan Times is an English-language newspaper published in Japan by, a subsidiary of Nifco, a leading manufacturer of plastic fasteners for the automotive and home design industries.

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The Monthly is an Australian national magazine of politics, society and the arts, which is published eleven times per year on a monthly basis except the December/January issue.

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The Story of the Kelly Gang is a 1906 Australian film that traces the life of legendary bushranger and outlaw Ned Kelly (1854–1880).

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The Sydney Morning Herald (SMH) is a daily compact newspaper published by Fairfax Media in Sydney and is also an Australian national brand.

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The World Factbook (ISSN; also known as the CIA World Factbook) is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.

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Thomas Michael ("Mick") Keneally, AO (born 7 October 1935) is an Australian novelist, playwright and author of non-fiction.

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The thylacine (or, also; binomial name: Thylacinus cynocephalus, Greek for "dog-headed pouched one"Greek κυνοκέφαλος, kynoképhalos "dog-headed" and θύλακος, týlakos "pouched one"-->) was the largest known carnivorous marsupial of modern times.

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Australia uses three main time zones, Australian Western Standard Time (AWST; UTC+08:00), Australian Central Standard Time (ACST; UTC+09:30), and Australian Eastern Standard Time (AEST; UTC+10:00).

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The Timor Sea (Laut Timor; Mar de Timor) is a relatively shallow sea bounded to the north by the island of Timor, to the east by the Arafura Sea, to the south by Australia and to the west by the Indian Ocean.

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The Tirari-Sturt stony desert is a large dry World Wildlife Fund ecoregion of southern Australia.

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Tobacco smoking is the practice of burning tobacco and inhaling the smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).

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Thomas William "Tom" Roberts (9 March 185614 September 1931) was a prominent Australian artist and a key member of the Heidelberg School.

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Anthony John "Tony" Abbott (born 4 November 1957) is an Australian politician who was the 28th Prime Minister of Australia from 18 September 2013 to 15 September 2015.

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The Top End of Australia's Northern Territory is a geographical region encompassing the northernmost section of the Northern Territory, which is the second northernmost part of the Australian continent.

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Torres Strait Islanders are the indigenous people of the Torres Strait Islands, part of Queensland, Australia.

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The Torres Strait Islands are a group of at least 274 small islands which lie in Torres Strait, the waterway separating far northern continental Australia's Cape York Peninsula and the island of New Guinea.

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Tourism is an important industry for the Australian economy.

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The Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP) is a proposed trade agreement between several Pacific Rim countries concerning a variety of matters of economic policy.

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There are many forms of transport in Australia.

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The is a peace treaty among Southeast Asian countries established by the founding members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), a geo-political and economic organisation of 10 countries located in Southeast Asia.

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A tropical rainforest is a biome type that occurs roughly within the latitudes 28 degrees north or south of the equator (in the equatorial zone between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn).

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Tuvalu, formerly known as the Ellice Islands, is a Polynesian island nation located in the Pacific Ocean, midway between Hawaii and Australia.

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Uluru, also known as Ayers Rock and officially gazetted as Uluru / Ayers Rock, is a large sandstone rock formation in the southern part of the Northern Territory in central Australia.

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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN).

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The UNESCO Courier is the main magazine published by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO.

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In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.

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The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation.

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Universal health care, sometimes referred to as universal health coverage, universal coverage, or universal care, usually refers to a health care system which provides health care and financial protection to all citizens of a particular country.

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The University of Melbourne (informally Melbourne University or simply Melbourne) is an Australian public research university located in Melbourne, Victoria.

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The University of Sydney (commonly referred to as Sydney University, Sydney Uni, USYD, or Sydney) is an Australian public research university in Sydney.

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An upper house, often called a Senate, is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house.

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Urbanization is a population shift from rural to urban areas, "the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas", and the ways in which each society adapts to the change.

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Van Diemen's Land was the original name used by most Europeans for the island of Tasmania, now part of Australia.

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Vanuatu (or; Bislama), officially the Republic of Vanuatu (République de Vanuatu, Bislama: Ripablik blong Vanuatu), is an Oceanian island nation located in the South Pacific Ocean.

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Australian English is relatively homogeneous when compared with British and American English.

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Vegemite is a dark brown Australian food paste made from leftover brewers' yeast extract with various vegetable and spice additives developed by Cyril P. Callister in Melbourne, Victoria, in 1922.

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Victoria (abbreviated as Vic) is a state in the south-east of Australia.

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Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (SRV), is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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Vietnamese (tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in the north of Vietnam and is the national and official language of the country.

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The visa policy of Australia deals with the requirements which a foreign national wishing to enter Australia must meet to obtain a visa, which is a permit to travel to, enter and remain in the country.

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Wakefield Press is an independent book publishing company in Australia, based in the Adelaide suburb of Mile End, South Australia.

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"Waltzing Matilda" is Australia's most widely known bush ballad, and has been referred to as "the unofficial national anthem of Australia".

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Water restrictions have been enacted in many cities and regions in Australia, which is the Earth's driest inhabited continent, in response to chronic water shortages resulting from the widespread drought.

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Water supply and sanitation in Australia is universal and of good quality.

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Weipa is the largest town on the Gulf of Carpentaria coast of the Cape York Peninsula in Queensland, Australia.

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Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia.

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The Western Australian Mulga shrublands is a large dry World Wildlife Fund ecoregion of inland Western Australia.

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Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Western lifestyle, or European civilization, is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems, and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe, having both indigenous and foreign origin.

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Following the outbreak of World War I in 1914, the German Army opened the Western Front by first invading Luxembourg and Belgium, then gaining military control of important industrial regions in France.

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A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water, either permanently or seasonally, such that it takes on the characteristics of a distinct ecosystem.

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The term White Australia Policy comprises various historical policies that intentionally favoured immigrants to Australia from other English-speaking countries, and, to a lesser extent, from certain European countries.

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Willem Janszoon (1570–1630), sometimes abbreviated to Willem Jansz., was a Dutch navigator and colonial governor.

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William Dampier (baptised 5 September 1651March 1715) was the first Englishman to explore parts of what is today Australia, and the first person to circumnavigate the world three times.

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Wombats are short-legged, muscular quadrupedal marsupials native to Australia and are about in length, with small, stubby tails.

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Woodland is a low-density forest forming open habitats with plenty of sunlight and limited shade.

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WorkChoices was the name given to changes made to the federal industrial relations laws in Australia by the Howard Government in 2005, being amendments to the Workplace Relations Act 1996 by the Workplace Relations Amendment Act 2005, that came into effect on 27 March 2006.

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A World Heritage Site is a place (such as a building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, or mountain) that is listed by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as being of special cultural or physical significance.

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The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization which regulates international trade.

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The world's most liveable cities is an informal name given to any list of cities as they rank on an annual survey of living conditions.

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Yale University is a private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.

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.au is the internet country code for Australia.

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The meridian 112° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

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The meridian 154° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, Australasia, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

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The 1938 British Empire Games was the third British Empire Games, the Commonwealth Games being the modern-day equivalent.

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The 1956 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVI Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event which was held in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, in 1956, apart from the equestrian events, which were held five months earlier in Stockholm.

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The 1962 British Empire and Commonwealth Games were held in Perth, Western Australia, Australia from 22 November-1 December 1962.

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The 1975 Australian constitutional crisis (also known simply as "the Dismissal") has been described as the greatest political and constitutional crisis in Australian history.

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The 1982 Commonwealth Games were held in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia from 30 September–9 October 1982.

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The 2000 Summer Olympic Games (Les Jeux olympiques d'été de 2000), officially known as the Games of the XXVII Olympiad and commonly known as Sydney 2000 or the Millennium Olympic Games/Games of the New Millennium, were an international multi-sport event which was celebrated between 15 September and 1 October 2000 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

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The 2000s drought in Australia, also known as the Millennium drought(official), is said by some to be the worst recorded since settlement.

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The 2003 Invasion of Iraq lasted from 19 March to 1 May 2003 and signaled the start of the Iraq War, which was dubbed Operation Iraqi Freedom by the United States (prior to 19 March, the mission in Iraq was called Operation Enduring Freedom, a carryover from the War in Afghanistan).

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The 2003 Rugby World Cup was the fifth Rugby World Cup and was won by England.

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The 2006 Commonwealth Games, officially the XVIII Commonwealth Games, were held in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia between 15 and 26 March 2006.

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The 2015 Pacific Games was held in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, from 4 to 18 July 2015.

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The 2018 Commonwealth Games (officially the XXI Commonwealth Games) is an international multi-sport event for members of the Commonwealth that will be held on the Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia between 4 to 15 April 2018.

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The 44th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 44 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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The 60th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 60 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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The 9th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 9 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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AUSTRALIA, AUSTRALIAN, Asutralia, Ausrtalia, Aussieland, Austalia, Austraila, Austrailia, Australai, AustraliA, Australia (Commonwealth realm), Australia (Commonwealth), Australia (commonwealth realm), Australia (commonwealth), Australia (constitutional monarchy), Australia (country), Australia (dominion), Australia (empire), Australia (federation), Australia (monarchy), Australia (nation state), Australia (nation), Australia (nation-state), Australia (realm), Australia (state), Australia's, Australia., Australian Commonwealth, Australian Woman's Day, Australian city life, Australian country life, Australian geopolitics, Australian mainland, Australian's, Australias, Australie, Australien, Australiia, Australija, Australlia, Australo, Australo-, Australocentric, Australocentrism, Australocentrist, Austraya, Austrlaia, Austrlia, City life in Australia, Commonwealth Australia, Commonwealth of Australia, Commonwealth of australia, Continental Australia, Country life in Australia, Dominion of Australia, Empire of Australia, Etymology of Australia, Federal Australia, Geopolitics of Australia, ISO 3166-1:AU, Imperial Australia, Mainland Australia, Modern Australia, New Australian, Orstraya, Ostralia, Pax Australiana, Peace of Australia, Philosophy in Australia, Science in Australia, Straya, Technology in Australia, The Commonwealth of Australia, United States of Australia.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Australia

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