267 relations: A. K. Warder, Aṅgulimāla, Aśvaghoṣa, Abhijñā, Agnihotra, Ahmadiyya, Ajatashatru, Ajñana, Ajita Kesakambali, Alara Kalama, Ananda, Anatta, Anuruddha, Apostasy, Arhat, Arthur Waley, Asceticism, Ashoka, Asita, Assaji, Avatar, Āgama (Buddhism), Ājīvika, Āstika and nāstika, Ātman (Hinduism), Śarīra, Śramaṇa, Śuddhodana, Balkh, Barlaam and Josaphat, Bernardo Bertolucci, Bhagavan, Bharhut, Bhikkhu, Bhikkhu Analayo, Bihar, Bimbisara, Birch bark manuscript, Bodh Gaya, Bodhi, Bodhi Tree, Bodhisattva, Brahmajala Sutta (Theravada), Brahman, Brahmavihara, Brahmin, British Library, Buddha (manga), Buddha (title), Buddha (TV series), ..., Buddha's Birthday, Buddhacarita, Buddhaghoṣa, Buddhahood, Buddhānusmṛti, Buddhism, Buddhist art, Buddhist cosmology, Buddhist vegetarianism, Cadaver, Caodaism, Chakravarti (Sanskrit term), Channa (Buddhist), Charvaka, Chaubis Avtar, Common Era, Comparison of the founders of religious traditions, Confucius, Creation (novel), Cunda Kammāraputta, Dashavatara, Deva (Buddhism), Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta, Dharma, Dharmachakra, Dharmaguptaka, Dhyāna in Buddhism, Digha Nikaya, Dinesh Subasinghe, Dipavamsa, Dudley Buck, Dukkha, Edicts of Ashoka, Edwin Arnold, Enlightenment in Buddhism, Ficus religiosa, First Buddhist council, Four Noble Truths, Franz Osten, G. S. Ghurye, Gandhara, Gandhāran Buddhist texts, Gayatri Mantra, Gāndhārī language, Gnosticism, Gore Vidal, Greco-Buddhist art, Guru Gobind Singh, Hadda, Afghanistan, Hagiography, Hedonism, Hereditary monarchy, Hermann Hesse, Himanshu Rai, Hindu, Hinduism, Historical Vedic religion, History of India, Impermanence, India, Indo-Gangetic Plain, Infarction, Insight, Jain Agamas, Jain monasticism, Jainism, Jalalabad, Jataka tales, Jesus, K. R. Norman, Kalpa (aeon), Kammaṭṭhāna, Kanthaka, Kapilavastu (ancient city), Karen Armstrong, Karl Eugen Neumann, Kassapa Buddha, Katyayana (Buddhist), Kaundinya, Kharosthi, Kinship, Koli people, Kosala, Kshatriya, Kuru Kingdom, Kushinagar, Lalitavistara Sūtra, Laozi, Little Buddha, Lokottaravāda, Lord of Light, Lumbini, Lunar month, Magadha, Maha Yazawin, Mahajanapada, Mahapajapati Gotami, Mahaparinibbana Sutta, Mahavamsa, Mahavira, Mahayana, Mahayana sutras, Mahākāśyapa, Mahāsāṃghika, Mahāvastu, Mahīśāsaka, Maitreya, Majjhima Nikaya, Makkhali Gosala, Malla (India), Manga, Mani (prophet), Manichaeism, Maudgalyayana, Maurya Empire, Maya (mother of the Buddha), Maya Devi Temple, Lumbini, Mendicant, Michael Witzel, Middle Way, Moksha, Monasticism, Motilal Banarsidass, Mulasarvastivada, Nanda (Buddhist), National Geographic Society, Nikāya, Nirvana, Nirvana (Buddhism), Noble Eightfold Path, Odisha, Oligarchy, Omniscience, Oral tradition, Oratorio, Osamu Tezuka, Oskar von Hinüber, Pakudha Kaccayana, Pali, Panchala, Parinirvana, Pāli Canon, Philology, Piprahwa, Pratītyasamutpāda, Prem Sanyas, Prophet, Punna, Purana Kassapa, Purnima, Quebec, Rajgir, Rāhula, Relic, Relic of the tooth of the Buddha, Rice pudding, Richard Gombrich, Roger Zelazny, Routledge, Saṃsāra, Saṅkhāra, Sacred Books of the East, Sadhu, Sage (philosophy), Samaññaphala Sutta, Samyutta Nikaya, Sangha, Sanjaya Belatthiputta, Sariputta, Sarnath, Sarvastivada, Secularity, Sentient beings (Buddhism), Shakya, Shorea robusta, Shussan Shaka, Shwedagon Pagoda, Siddhartha (novel), Sotāpanna, Subhuti, Superior mesenteric artery syndrome, Surname, Suryavansha, Temple of the Tooth, The Light of Asia, The Light of Asia (oratorio), Theravada, Three marks of existence, Tilaurakot, Tirthankara, Trapusa and Bahalika, Tripiṭaka, Truffle, Truth, Tushita, Uddaka Ramaputta, Unifying Hinduism, Upali, Uttar Pradesh, Vaishali (ancient city), Vaishnavism, Vajrapani, Varanasi, Varna, Vassa, Vedas, Vesak, Vinaya, Vishnu, What the Buddha Taught, White elephant (animal), Yaksha, Yangon, Yasa, Yasodharā, Yoga, 1932. Expand index (217 more) » « Shrink index
Anthony Kennedy Warder (September 8, 1924 - January 8, 2013) was a British scholar of Indology, mostly in Buddhist studies and related fields, such as the Pāḷi and Sanskrit languages.
Aṅgulimāla (Pāli language; lit. 'finger necklace'; sometimes also spelled in italic or Aṅgulimālya) is an important figure in Buddhism, particularly within the Theravāda tradition.
or Ashvaghosha was a Buddhist philosopher, dramatist, poet and orator from India.
Abhijñā (Skt., Pali, abhiññā; Tib., mngon shes, མངོན་ཤེས་) has been translated generally as "knowing,"Rhys Davids & Stede (1921-5), pp.
Agnihotra (IAST: Agnihotra, Devanagari: अग्निहोत्र) refers to the twice-daily heated milk offering made by those in the Śrauta tradition.
Ahmadiyya (officially, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community or the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at; الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية, transliterated: al-Jamā'ah al-Islāmiyyah al-Aḥmadiyyah; احمدیہ مسلم جماعت) is an Islamic religious movement founded in Punjab, British India, in the late 19th century.
Ajatashatru (Pali: Ajātasattu; Kunika; or early 4th century BCE) was a king of the Haryanka dynasty of Magadha in North India.
Ajñana was one of the ''nāstika'' or "heterodox" schools of ancient Indian philosophy, and the ancient school of radical Indian skepticism.
Ajita Kesakambali (अजित केशकंबली) was an ancient Indian philosopher in the 6th century BC.
Alara Kalama (IAST Ārāḷa Kālāma) was a hermit Brahmin saint and a teacher of yogic meditation.
Ānanda was a first cousin of Gautama Buddha and one of his ten principal disciples.
In Buddhism, the term anattā (Pali) or anātman (Sanskrit) refers to the doctrine of "non-self", that there is no unchanging, permanent self, soul or essence in living beings.
Anuruddha (Sinhala: අනුරුද්ධ මහ රහතන් වහන්සේ) was one of the ten principal disciples and a cousin of Gautama Buddha.
Apostasy (ἀποστασία apostasia, "a defection or revolt") is the formal disaffiliation from, or abandonment or renunciation of a religion by a person.
Theravada Buddhism defines arhat (Sanskrit) or arahant (Pali) as "one who is worthy" or as a "perfected person" having attained nirvana.
Arthur David Waley (born Arthur David Schloss, 19 August 188927 June 1966) was an English Orientalist and sinologist who achieved both popular and scholarly acclaim for his translations of Chinese and Japanese poetry.
Asceticism (from the ἄσκησις áskesis, "exercise, training") is a lifestyle characterized by abstinence from sensual pleasures, often for the purpose of pursuing spiritual goals.
Ashoka (died 232 BCE), or Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from to 232 BCE.
Asita or Kaladevala was a hermit ascetic of ancient India in the 6th century BCE.
Assaji (Pali: Assaji, Sanskrit: Aśvajit) was one of the first five arahants of Gautama Buddha.
An avatar (Sanskrit: अवतार, IAST), a concept in Hinduism that means "descent", refers to the material appearance or incarnation of a deity on earth.
In Buddhism, an āgama (आगम Prakrit/Sanskrit) is used as "sacred scriptures".
Ajivika (IAST) is one of the nāstika or "heterodox" schools of Indian philosophy.
Āstika derives from the Sanskrit asti, "there is, there exists", and means “one who believes in the existence (of God, of another world, etc.)” and nāstika means "an atheist or unbeliever".
Ātma is a Sanskrit word that means inner self or soul.
Śarīra is a generic term referring to Buddhist relics, although in common usage it usually refers to pearl or crystal-like bead-shaped objects that are purportedly found among the cremated ashes of Buddhist spiritual masters.
Śramaṇa (Sanskrit: श्रमण; Pali: samaṇa) means "seeker, one who performs acts of austerity, ascetic".
Śuddhodana (Pali: Suddhōdana), meaning "he who grows pure rice," was a leader of the Shakya, who lived in an oligarchic republic with their capital at Kapilavastu.
Balkh (Pashto and بلخ; Ancient Greek and Βάχλο Bakhlo) is a town in the Balkh Province of Afghanistan, about northwest of the provincial capital, Mazar-e Sharif, and some south of the Amu Darya river and the Uzbekistan border.
Barlaam and Josaphat (Barlamus et Iosaphatus) are two legendary Christian martyrs and saints.
Bernardo Bertolucci (born 16 March 1941) is an Italian director and screenwriter, whose films include The Conformist, Last Tango in Paris, 1900, The Last Emperor (for which he won the Academy Award for Best Director), The Sheltering Sky, Stealing Beauty and The Dreamers.
Bhagavān (Sanskrit: भगवान्) is an epithet for deity, particularly for Krishna and other avatars of Vishnu in Vaishnavism, as well as for Shiva in the Shaivism tradition of Hinduism,James Lochtefeld (2000), "Bhagavan", The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism, Vol.
Bharhut (Hindi: भरहुत) is a village located in the Satna district of Madhya Pradesh, central India.
A bhikkhu (from Pali, Sanskrit: bhikṣu) is an ordained male monastic ("monk") in Buddhism.
Bhikkhu Anālayo is a bhikkhu (Buddhist monk), scholar and meditation teacher.
Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.
Bimbisara (c. 558 – c. 491 BC or during the late 5th century BC) also known as Seniya or Shrenika in the Jain histories was a King of Magadha (V. K. Agnihotri (ed.), Indian History. Allied Publishers, New Delhi 262010, f. or c. 400 BC) and belonged to the Haryanka dynasty.
Birch bark manuscripts are documents written on pieces of the inner layer of birch bark, which was commonly used for writing before the advent of mass production of paper.
Bodh Gaya is a religious site and place of pilgrimage associated with the Mahabodhi Temple Complex in Gaya district in the Indian state of Bihar.
Bodhi (Sanskrit: बोधि; Pali: bodhi) in Buddhism traditionally is translated into English with the term enlightenment, although its literal meaning is closer to "awakening".
The Bodhi Tree, (Sanskrit: बोधि) also known as Bo (from Sinhalese: Bo),The word 'Bodh' means knowledge and enlightenment.
In Buddhism, Bodhisattva is the Sanskrit term for anyone who has generated Bodhicitta, a spontaneous wish and compassionate mind to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings. Bodhisattvas are a popular subject in Buddhist art.
The Brahmajāla Sutta is the first of 34 suttas in the Dīgha Nikāya (the Long Discourses of the Buddha).
In Hinduism, Brahman connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe.P. T. Raju (2006), Idealistic Thought of India, Routledge,, page 426 and Conclusion chapter part XII In major schools of Hindu philosophy, it is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists.For dualism school of Hinduism, see: Francis X. Clooney (2010), Hindu God, Christian God: How Reason Helps Break Down the Boundaries between Religions, Oxford University Press,, pages 51–58, 111–115;For monist school of Hinduism, see: B. Martinez-Bedard (2006), Types of Causes in Aristotle and Sankara, Thesis – Department of Religious Studies (Advisors: Kathryn McClymond and Sandra Dwyer), Georgia State University, pages 18–35 It is the pervasive, genderless, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. Brahman as a metaphysical concept is the single binding unity behind diversity in all that exists in the universe. Brahman is a Vedic Sanskrit word, and it is conceptualized in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen, as the "creative principle which lies realized in the whole world". Brahman is a key concept found in the Vedas, and it is extensively discussed in the early Upanishads.Stephen Philips (1998), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Brahman to Derrida (Editor; Edward Craig), Routledge,, pages 1–4 The Vedas conceptualize Brahman as the Cosmic Principle. In the Upanishads, it has been variously described as Sat-cit-ānanda (truth-consciousness-bliss) and as the unchanging, permanent, highest reality. Brahman is discussed in Hindu texts with the concept of Atman (Soul, Self), personal, impersonal or Para Brahman, or in various combinations of these qualities depending on the philosophical school. In dualistic schools of Hinduism such as the theistic Dvaita Vedanta, Brahman is different from Atman (soul) in each being.Michael Myers (2000), Brahman: A Comparative Theology, Routledge,, pages 124–127 In non-dual schools such as the Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is identical to the Atman, is everywhere and inside each living being, and there is connected spiritual oneness in all existence.Arvind Sharma (2007), Advaita Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass,, pages 19–40, 53–58, 79–86.
The brahmavihāras (sublime attitudes, lit. "abodes of brahma") are a series of four Buddhist virtues and the meditation practices made to cultivate them.
Brahmin (Sanskrit: ब्राह्मण) is a varna (class) in Hinduism specialising as priests, teachers (acharya) and protectors of sacred learning across generations.
The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and the largest national library in the world by number of items catalogued.
is a manga drawn by Osamu Tezuka and is Tezuka's unique interpretation of the life of Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism.
In Buddhism, Buddha (Sanskrit: बुद्ध) is a title for someone who has achieved enlightenment, nirvana and Buddhahood, and has fully comprehended the Four Noble Truths.
Buddhaa-Rajaon Ka Raja (titled as Buddhaa - The King of Kings) is a Historical drama on Zee TV and Doordarshan, produced by B. K. Modi, under the banner Spice Global.
Buddha's Birthday is a holiday traditionally celebrated in most of East Asia to commemorate the birth of the Prince Siddhartha Gautama, later the Gautama Buddha and founder of Buddhism.
Buddhacharita ("Acts of the Buddha";, Devanagari बुद्धचरितम्) is an epic poem in the Sanskrit mahakavya style on the life of Gautama Buddha by Aśvaghoṣa, composed in the early second century CE.
Buddhaghoṣa (พระพุทธโฆษาจารย์) was a 5th-century Indian Theravada Buddhist commentator and scholar.
In Buddhism, buddhahood (buddhatva; buddhatta or italic) is the condition or rank of a buddha "awakened one".
Buddhānusmṛti (Sanskrit; Pali: buddhānussati), meaning "Buddha-mindfulness", is a common Buddhist practice in all Buddhist traditions which involves meditating with a Buddha, such as Gautama or Amitābha, as the meditation subject.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Buddhist art is the artistic practices that are influenced by Buddhism.
Buddhist cosmology is the description of the shape and evolution of the Universe according to the Buddhist scriptures and commentaries.
Buddhist vegetarianism is the belief that following a vegetarian diet is implied in the Buddha's teaching.
A cadaver, also referred to as a corpse (singular) in medical, literary, and legal usage, or when intended for dissection, is a deceased body.
Caodaism (Chữ nôm: 道高臺) is a monotheistic religion officially established in the city of Tây Ninh in southern Vietnam in 1926.
Chakravarti (Sanskrit cakravartin, Pali cakkavattin), is a Sanskrit term used to refer to an ideal universal ruler who rules ethically and benevolently over the entire world.
Channa - The Divine Charioteer (Pali: Channa; Chandaka) (6th century BCE, in what is now Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, India) was a royal servant and head charioteer of Prince Siddhartha, who was to become the Buddha.
Charvaka (IAST: Cārvāka), originally known as Lokāyata and Bṛhaspatya, is the ancient school of Indian materialism.
Chaubis Avtar (ਚੌਬੀਸ ਅਵਤਾਰ), meaning Twenty Four Incarnations, is a composition in Dasam Granth containing history of 24 incarnations of Vishnu.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
The below table is a comparison of the lives of the founders of religious traditions.
Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.
Creation is an epic historical fiction novel by Gore Vidal published in 1981.
Cunda Kammāraputta was a smith who gave Gautama Buddha his last meal as an offering while he visited his mango grove in Pāvā on his way to Kuśīnagara.
Dashavatara (दशावतार) refers to the ten primary avatars of Vishnu, the Hindu god of preservation.
A deva (देव Sanskrit and Pāli, Mongolian tenger (тэнгэр)) in Buddhism is one of many different types of non-human beings who share the godlike characteristics of being more powerful, longer-lived, and, in general, much happier than humans, although the same level of veneration is not paid to them as to buddhas.
The Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta (Pali; Sanskrit: Dharmacakrapravartana Sūtra; English: The Setting in Motion of the Wheel of the Dharma Sutta or Promulgation of the Law Sutta) is a Buddhist text that is considered by Buddhists to be a record of the first teaching given by Gautama Buddha after he attained enlightenment.
Dharma (dharma,; dhamma, translit. dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religions – Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism.
The dharmachakra (which is also known as the wheel of dharma), is one of the Ashtamangala of Indian religions such as Jainism, Buddhism, and Hinduism.
The Dharmaguptaka (Sanskrit) are one of the eighteen or twenty early Buddhist schools, depending on the source.
In Buddhism, Dhyāna (Sanskrit) or Jhāna (Pali) is a series of cultivated states of mind, which lead to a "state of perfect equanimity and awareness (upekkhii-sati-piirisuddhl)." It is commonly translated as meditation, and is also used in Hinduism and Jainism.
The Digha Nikaya (dīghanikāya; "Collection of Long Discourses") is a Buddhist scripture, the first of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka, which is one of the "three baskets" that compose the Pali Tipitaka of (Theravada) Buddhism.
Dinesh Subasinghe (born 10 July 1979, Colombo) is a Sri Lankan composer, violinist, and music producer.
The Dipavamsa or Deepavamsa (i.e., "Chronicle of the Island"; in Pali: Dīpavaṃsa), is the oldest historical record of Sri Lanka.
Dudley Buck (March 10, 1839October 6, 1909) was an American composer, organist, and writer on music.
Dukkha (Pāli; Sanskrit: duḥkha; Tibetan: སྡུག་བསྔལ་ sdug bsngal, pr. "duk-ngel") is an important Buddhist concept, commonly translated as "suffering", "pain", "unsatisfactoriness" or "stress".
The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka as well as boulders and cave walls made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan Empire during his reign from 269 BCE to 232 BCE.
Sir Edwin Arnold KCIE CSI (10 June 1832 – 24 March 1904) was an English poet and journalist, who is most known for his work The Light of Asia.
The English term enlightenment is the western translation of the term bodhi, "awakening", which was popularised in the Western world through the 19th century translations of Max Müller.
Ficus religiosa or sacred fig is a species of fig native to the Indian subcontinent, and Indochina.
The First Buddhist council was a gathering of senior monks of the Buddhist order convened just after Gautama Buddha's death in ca.
The Four Noble Truths refer to and express the basic orientation of Buddhism in a short expression: we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, which are dukkha, "incapable of satisfying" and painful.
Franz Osten (23 December 1876 – 2 December 1956) was a German filmmaker who along with Himansu Rai was among the first retainers of Bombay Talkies.
Govind Sadashiv Ghurye (12 December 1893 – 28 December 1983) was an Indian professor of sociology.
Gandhāra was an ancient kingdom situated along the Kabul and Swat rivers of Afghanistan and Pakistan.
The Gandhāran Buddhist texts are the oldest Buddhist manuscripts yet discovered, dating from about the 1st century CE.
The Gāyatrī Mantra, also known as the Sāvitrī mantra, is a highly revered mantra from the Rig Veda (Mandala 3.62.10), dedicated to Savitr, the sun deity.
Gāndhārī is a modern name (first used by scholar Harold Walter Bailey in 1946) for the Prakrit language of Kharoṣṭhi texts dating to between the third century BCE and fourth century CE found in the northwestern region of Gandhāra, but it was also heavily used in Central Asia and even appears in inscriptions in Luoyang and Anyang.
Gnosticism (from γνωστικός gnostikos, "having knowledge", from γνῶσις, knowledge) is a modern name for a variety of ancient religious ideas and systems, originating in Jewish-Christian milieus in the first and second century AD.
Eugene Luther Gore Vidal (born Eugene Louis Vidal; October 3, 1925 – July 31, 2012) was an American writer and public intellectual known for his patrician manner, epigrammatic wit, and polished style of writing.
Greco-Buddhist art is the artistic manifestation of Greco-Buddhism, a cultural syncretism between the Classical Greek culture and Buddhism, which developed over a period of close to 1000 years in Central Asia, between the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC, and the Islamic conquests of the 7th century AD.
Guru Gobind Singh (Gurmukhi: ਗੁਰੂ ਗੋਬਿੰਦ ਸਿੰਘ) (5 January 1666 – 7 October 1708), born Gobind Rai, was the tenth Sikh Guru, a spiritual master, warrior, poet and philosopher.
Haḍḍa (هډه) is a Greco-Buddhist archeological site located in the ancient region of Gandhara, ten kilometers south of the city of Jalalabad, in the Nangarhar Province of eastern Afghanistan.
A hagiography is a biography of a saint or an ecclesiastical leader.
Hedonism is a school of thought that argues that the pursuit of pleasure and intrinsic goods are the primary or most important goals of human life.
A hereditary monarchy is a form of government and succession of power in which the throne passes from one member of a royal family to another member of the same family.
Hermann Karl Hesse (2 July 1877 – 9 August 1962) was a German-born poet, novelist, and painter.
Himanshu Rai (189216 May 1940), one of the pioneers of Indian cinema, is best known as the founder of the Bombay Talkies studio in 1934, along with Devika Rani.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
The historical Vedic religion (also known as Vedism, Brahmanism, Vedic Brahmanism, and ancient Hinduism) was the religion of the Indo-Aryans of northern India during the Vedic period.
The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.
Impermanence, also called Anicca or Anitya, is one of the essential doctrines and a part of three marks of existence in Buddhism.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indo-Gangetic Plain, also known as the Indus-Ganga Plain and the North Indian River Plain, is a 255 million-hectare (630 million-acre) fertile plain encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the eastern parts of Pakistan, virtually all of Bangladesh and southern plains of Nepal.
Infarction is tissue death (necrosis) due to inadequate blood supply to the affected area.
Insight is the understanding of a specific cause and effect within a specific context.
Agamas are texts of Jainism based on the discourses of the tirthankara.
Jain monasticism refers to the order of monks and nuns in the Jain community.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
Jalālābād, or Dzalalabad, formerly called Ādīnapūr as documented by the 7th-century Xuanzang, is a city in eastern Afghanistan.
The Jātaka tales are a voluminous body of literature native to India concerning the previous births of Gautama Buddha in both human and animal form.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Kenneth Roy Norman (born 1925) is a leading scholar of Middle Indo-Aryan or Prakrit, particularly of Pali.
Kalpa (कल्प kalpa) is a Sanskrit word meaning a relatively long period of time (by human calculation) in Hindu and Buddhist cosmology.
In Buddhism, is a Pali word (Sanskrit: karmasthana) which literally means the place of work.
Kanthaka (in Pali and Sanskrit) (6th century BC, in Kapilvastu and Tilaurakot, Nepal) was a favourite white horse of length eighteen cubits that was a royal servant of Prince Siddhartha, who later became Gautama Buddha.
Kapilavastu was an ancient city on the Indian subcontinent which was the capital of Shakya.
Karen Armstrong, (born 14 November 1944) is a British author and commentator of Irish Catholic descent known for her books on comparative religion.
Karl Eugen Neumann (18 October 1865 in Vienna18 October 1915) was the first translator of large parts of the Pali Canon of Buddhist scriptures from the original Pali into a European language (German) and one of the pioneers of European Buddhism.
Kassapa Buddha (Pāli), known as Kāśyapa in Sanskrit, is one of the ancient Buddhas whose biography is chronicled in chapter 24 of the Buddhavamsa, one of the books of the Pāli Canon.
Kātyāyana was a disciple of Gautama Buddha.
Kauṇḍinya (Sanskrit; Pali: Koṇḍañña) also known as Ājñātakauṇḍinya, Pali: Añña Koṇḍañña) was a Buddhist monk follower of Gautama Buddha and the first to become an arhat. He lived during the 6th century BCE in what is now Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, India.
The Kharosthi script, also spelled Kharoshthi or Kharoṣṭhī, is an ancient script used in ancient Gandhara and ancient India (primarily modern-day Afghanistan and Pakistan) to write the Gandhari Prakrit and Sanskrit.
In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated.
The Koli people are an ethnic Indian group native to Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana states.
Kingdom of Kosala (कोसला राज्य) was an ancient Indian kingdom, corresponding roughly in area with the region of Awadh in present-day Uttar Pradesh.
Kshatriya (Devanagari: क्षत्रिय; from Sanskrit kṣatra, "rule, authority") is one of the four varna (social orders) of the Hindu society.
Kuru (कुरु) was the name of a Vedic Indo-Aryan tribal union in northern Iron Age India, encompassing the modern-day states of Delhi, Haryana, Punjab, Uttarakhand and the western part of Uttar Pradesh (the region of Doab, till Prayag), which appeared in the Middle Vedic period (c. 1200 – c. 900 BCE) and developed into the first recorded state-level society in the Indian subcontinent.
Kushinagar (also known as Kusinagar, Kusinara, Kasia and Kasia Bazar) is a pilgrimage town and a Notified Area Council in the Kushinagar district of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh located around NH-28, and is 52 km east of Gorakhpur city.
The Lalitavistara Sūtra is a Mahayana Buddhist sutra that tells the story of Gautama Buddha from the time of his descent from Tushita until his first sermon in the Deer Park near Varanasi.
Laozi (. Collins English Dictionary.; also Lao-Tzu,. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2016. or Lao-Tze;, literally "Old Master") was an ancient Chinese philosopher and writer.
Little Buddha is a 1993 Italian-French-British drama film directed by Bernardo Bertolucci and starring Chris Isaak, Bridget Fonda and Keanu Reeves as Prince Siddhartha (the Buddha before his enlightenment).
The Lokottaravāda (Sanskrit, लोकोत्तरवाद) was one of the early Buddhist schools according to Mahayana doxological sources compiled by Bhāviveka, Vinitadeva and others, and was a subgroup which emerged from the Mahāsāṃghika.
Lord of Light (1967) is a science fantasy novel by American author Roger Zelazny.
Lumbinī (Nepali and Sanskrit: लुम्बिनी, "the lovely") is a Buddhist pilgrimage site in the Rupandehi District of Province No. 5 in Nepal.
In lunar calendars, a lunar month is the time between two successive syzygies (new moons or full moons).
Magadha was an ancient Indian kingdom in southern Bihar, and was counted as one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas (Sanskrit: "Great Countries") of ancient India.
The Maha Yazawin, fully the Maha Yazawindawgyi (မဟာ ရာဇဝင်တော်ကြီး) and formerly romanized as the Maha-Radza Weng, is the first national chronicle of Burma/Myanmar.
Mahājanapada (lit, from maha, "great", and janapada "foothold of a tribe, country") was one of the sixteen kingdoms or oligarchic republics that existed in ancient India from the sixth to fourth centuries BCE.
Mahāpajāpatī Gotamī (Pali; Sanskrit Mahāprajāpatī Gautamī) was the step-mother and maternal aunt (mother's sister) of Buddha.
The Mahāparinibbāṇa Sutta is Sutta 16 in the Digha Nikaya, a scripture belonging the Sutta Pitaka of Theravada Buddhism.
The Mahavamsa ("Great Chronicle", Pali Mahāvaṃsa) (5th century CE) is an epic poem written in the Pali language.
Mahavira (IAST), also known as Vardhamāna, was the twenty-fourth Tirthankara (ford-maker) of Jainism which was revived and re-established by him.
Mahāyāna (Sanskrit for "Great Vehicle") is one of two (or three, if Vajrayana is counted separately) main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice.
The Mahayana sutras are a broad genre of Buddhist scriptures that various traditions of Mahayana Buddhism accept as canonical.
Mahākāśyapa (Sanskrit; Pali: Mahākassapa) or Kāśyapa was one of the principal disciples of Gautama Buddha.
The Mahāsāṃghika (Sanskrit "of the Great Sangha") was one of the early Buddhist schools.
The Mahāvastu (Sanskrit for "Great Event" or "Great Story") is a text of the Lokottaravāda school of Early Buddhism.
Mahīśāsaka is one of the early Buddhist schools according to some records.
Maitreya (Sanskrit), Metteyya (Pali), is regarded as a future Buddha of this world in Buddhist eschatology.
The Majjhima Nikaya (-nikāya; "Collection of Middle-length Discourses") is a Buddhist scripture, the second of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka, which is one of the "three baskets" that compose the Pali Tipitaka (lit. "Three Baskets") of Theravada Buddhism.
Makkhali Gosala (Pāli; BHS: Maskarin Gośāla; Jain Prakrit sources: Gosala Mankhaliputta) or Manthaliputra Goshalak was an ascetic teacher of ancient India.
Malla was one of the republics of ancient India that constituted the mahajanapadas.
are comics created in Japan or by creators in the Japanese language, conforming to a style developed in Japan in the late 19th century.
Mani (in Middle Persian Māni, New Persian: مانی Māni, Syriac Mānī, Greek Μάνης, Latin Manes; also Μανιχαῖος, Latin Manichaeus, from Syriac ܡܐܢܝ ܚܝܐ Mānī ḥayyā "Living Mani"), of Iranian origin, was the prophet and the founder of Manichaeism, a gnostic religion of Late Antiquity which was widespread but no longer prevalent by name.
Manichaeism (in Modern Persian آیین مانی Āyin-e Māni) was a major religious movement that was founded by the Iranian prophet Mani (in مانی, Syriac: ܡܐܢܝ, Latin: Manichaeus or Manes from Μάνης; 216–276) in the Sasanian Empire.
Maudgalyāyana (Moggallāna), also known as Mahāmaudgalyāyana, was one of the Buddha's closest disciples.
The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.
Queen Māyā of Sakya (Māyādevī) was the birth mother of Gautama Buddha, the sage on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
Maya Devi Temple is an ancient Buddhist temple situated at the UNESCO World Heritage Site of Lumbini, Nepal.
A mendicant (from mendicans, "begging") is one who practices mendicancy (begging) and relies chiefly or exclusively on charitable donations to survive.
Michael Witzel (born July 18, 1943) is a German-American philologist and academic.
The Middle Way or Middle Path (Majjhimāpaṭipadā; Madhyamāpratipad;;; มัชฌิมาปฏิปทา) is the term that Gautama Buddha used to describe the character of the Noble Eightfold Path he discovered that leads to liberation.
Moksha (मोक्ष), also called vimoksha, vimukti and mukti, is a term in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism which refers to various forms of emancipation, liberation, and release. In its soteriological and eschatological senses, it refers to freedom from saṃsāra, the cycle of death and rebirth. In its epistemological and psychological senses, moksha refers to freedom from ignorance: self-realization and self-knowledge. In Hindu traditions, moksha is a central concept and the utmost aim to be attained through three paths during human life; these three paths are dharma (virtuous, proper, moral life), artha (material prosperity, income security, means of life), and kama (pleasure, sensuality, emotional fulfillment). Together, these four concepts are called Puruṣārtha in Hinduism. In some schools of Indian religions, moksha is considered equivalent to and used interchangeably with other terms such as vimoksha, vimukti, kaivalya, apavarga, mukti, nihsreyasa and nirvana. However, terms such as moksha and nirvana differ and mean different states between various schools of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.See.
Monasticism (from Greek μοναχός, monachos, derived from μόνος, monos, "alone") or monkhood is a religious way of life in which one renounces worldly pursuits to devote oneself fully to spiritual work.
Motilal Banarsidass (MLBD) is a leading Indian publishing house on Sanskrit and Indology since 1903, located in Delhi, India.
The Mūlasarvāstivāda (Sanskrit: मूलसर्वास्तिवाद) was one of the early Buddhist schools of India.
Prince Nanda was the younger half-brother of the Buddha.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
Nikāya is a Pāḷi word meaning "volume".
(निर्वाण nirvāṇa; निब्बान nibbāna; णिव्वाण ṇivvāṇa) literally means "blown out", as in an oil lamp.
Nirvana (Sanskrit:; Pali) is the earliest and most common term used to describe the goal of the Buddhist path.
The Noble Eightfold Path (ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo, āryāṣṭāṅgamārga) is an early summary of the path of Buddhist practices leading to liberation from samsara, the painful cycle of rebirth.
Odisha (formerly Orissa) is one of the 29 states of India, located in eastern India.
Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people.
Omniscience, mainly in religion, is the capacity to know everything that there is to know.
Oral tradition, or oral lore, is a form of human communication where in knowledge, art, ideas and cultural material is received, preserved and transmitted orally from one generation to another.
An oratorio is a large musical composition for orchestra, choir, and soloists.
was a Japanese manga artist, cartoonist, animator, and film producer.
Oskar von Hinüber, a well-known Indologist, was born in Hanover in 1939.
was an Indian teacher who lived around the 5th or 4th century BCE, contemporaneous with Mahavira and the Buddha.
Pali, or Magadhan, is a Middle Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian subcontinent.
Panchala (पञ्चाल) was an ancient kingdom of northern India, located in the Ganges-Yamuna Doab of the upper Gangetic plain.
In Buddhism, the term parinirvana (Sanskrit:; Pali) is commonly used to refer to nirvana-after-death, which occurs upon the death of the body of someone who has attained nirvana during his or her lifetime.
The Pāli Canon is the standard collection of scriptures in the Theravada Buddhist tradition, as preserved in the Pāli language.
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
Piprahwa is a village near Birdpur in Siddharthnagar district of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
Pratītyasamutpāda (प्रतीत्यसमुत्पाद pratītyasamutpāda; पटिच्चसमुप्पाद paṭiccasamuppāda), commonly translated as dependent origination, or dependent arising, is the principle that all dharmas ("phenomena") arise in dependence upon other dharmas: "if this exists, that exists; if this ceases to exist, that also ceases to exist".
Prem Sanyas (The Light of Asia) (Die Leuchte Asiens in German) is a 1925 silent film, directed by Franz Osten and Himansu Rai.
In religion, a prophet is an individual regarded as being in contact with a divine being and said to speak on that entity's behalf, serving as an intermediary with humanity by delivering messages or teachings from the supernatural source to other people.
(Sanskrit Purna), was an arhat and one of the ten principal disciples of Gautama Buddha.
Purana Kassapa (Pali: Pūraṇa Kassapa) was an Indian ascetic teacher who lived around the 5th or 4th century BCE, contemporaneous with Mahavira and the Buddha.
Purnima (also called Poornima, Pournima, Bangla: পূর্ণিমা, Sanskrit: पूर्णिमा (IAST: pūrṇimā)) is the Indian and Nepali word for full moon, while in Indonesian it is known as Purnama.
Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
Rajgir (originally known as Girivraj) is a city and a notified area in Nalanda district in the Indian state of Bihar.
Rāhula (born c. 534 BCE) was the only son of Siddhartha Gautama (commonly known as Buddha), and his wife Princess Yasodharā.
In religion, a relic usually consists of the physical remains of a saint or the personal effects of the saint or venerated person preserved for purposes of veneration as a tangible memorial.
The Sacred Relic of the tooth of Buddha (Pali danta dhātuya) is venerated in Sri Lanka as a cetiya "relic" of Gautama Buddha, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
Rice pudding is a dish made from rice mixed with water or milk and other ingredients such as cinnamon and raisins.
Richard Francis Gombrich (born 17 July 1937) is an Indologist and scholar of Sanskrit, Pāli, and Buddhist Studies.
Roger Joseph Zelazny (May 13, 1937 – June 14, 1995) was an American poet and writer of fantasy and science fiction short stories and novels, best known for The Chronicles of Amber.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
Saṃsāra is a Sanskrit word that means "wandering" or "world", with the connotation of cyclic, circuitous change.
(Pali; Sanskrit) is a term figuring prominently in Buddhism.
The Sacred Books of the East is a monumental 50-volume set of English translations of Asian religious writings, edited by Max Müller and published by the Oxford University Press between 1879 and 1910.
A sadhu (IAST: (male), sādhvī (female)), also spelled saddhu, is a religious ascetic, mendicant (monk) or any holy person in Hinduism and Jainism who has renounced the worldly life.
A sage (σοφός, sophos), in classical philosophy, is someone who has attained the wisdom which a philosopher seeks.
The Samaññaphala Sutta is the second discourse (Pali, sutta; Skt., sutra) of all 34 Digha Nikaya discourses.
The Samyutta Nikaya (SN, "Connected Discourses" or "Kindred Sayings") is a Buddhist scripture, the third of the five nikayas, or collections, in the Sutta Pitaka, which is one of the "three baskets" that compose the Pali Tipitaka of Theravada Buddhism.
Sangha (saṅgha; saṃgha; සංඝයා; พระสงฆ์; Tamil: சங்கம்) is a word in Pali and Sanskrit meaning "association", "assembly", "company" or "community" and most commonly refers in Buddhism to the monastic community of bhikkhus (monks) and bhikkhunis (nuns).
Sanjaya Belatthiputta (literally, "Sanjaya of the Belattha clan"), also referred as Sanjaya Vairatiputra was an Indian ascetic teacher who lived around the 6th century BCE in the region of Magadha.
Sāriputta (Pali) or (Sanskrit) was one of two chief male disciples of Gautama Buddha along with Moggallāna, counterparts to the bhikkhunis Khema and Uppalavanna, his two chief female disciples.
Sarnath is a place located 10 kilometres north-east of Varanasi near the confluence of the Ganges and the Varuna rivers in Uttar Pradesh, India.
The Sarvāstivāda (Sanskrit) were an early school of Buddhism that held to the existence of all dharmas in the past, present and future, the "three times".
Secularity (adjective form secular, from Latin saeculum meaning "worldly", "of a generation", "temporal", or a span of about 100 years) is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being exclusively allied with or against any particular religion.
In Buddhism, sentient beings are beings with consciousness, sentience, or in some contexts life itself.
The Shakya (Sanskrit:, Devanagari: शाक्य; Pali:,, or) were a clan of the late Vedic India (c. 1000 – c. 500 BCE) and during the so-called second urbanisation period (c. 600 – c. 200 BCE) in the Indian subcontinent (present-day nations of India and Nepal).
Shorea robusta, also known as śāl, sakhua or shala tree, is a species of tree belonging to the Dipterocarpaceae family.
Shussan Shaka (Japanese: 出山釋迦 shussan shaka; Chinese: 出山释迦 chūshān shìjiā; English: Śākyamuni Emerging from the Mountain) refers to the Zen Buddhist story of Śākyamuni Buddha returning from six years of asceticism in the mountains, having realized that ascetic practice is not the path to enlightenment.
The Shwedagon Pagoda (MLCTS), officially named Shwedagon Zedi Daw (ရွှေတိဂုံစေတီတော်) and also known as the Great Dagon Pagoda and the Golden Pagoda, is a gilded stupa located in Yangon, Myanmar.
Siddhartha is a novel by Hermann Hesse that deals with the spiritual journey of self-discovery of a man named Siddhartha during the time of the Gautama Buddha.
In Buddhism, a sotāpanna (Pali), srotāpanna (Sanskrit;, Tibetan: རྒྱུན་ཞུགས་, Wylie: rgyun zhugs), "stream-winner", or "stream-entrant" is a person who has seen the Dharma and consequently, has dropped the first three fetters (saŋyojana) that bind a being to rebirth, namely self-view (sakkāya-ditthi), clinging to rites and rituals (sīlabbata-parāmāsa), and skeptical indecision (Vicikitsa).
Subhūti (Pali: Subhūti) was one of the Ten Great Śrāvakas of Gautama Buddha, and foremost in giving gifts.
Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome is a gastro-vascular disorder in which the third and final portion of the duodenum is compressed between the abdominal aorta (AA) and the overlying superior mesenteric artery.
A surname, family name, or last name is the portion of a personal name that indicates a person's family (or tribe or community, depending on the culture).
Suryavansha (Suryavam(n)sham or Solar Dynasty) is a mythological dynasty of ancient India.
Sri Dalada Maligawa or the Temple of the Sacred Tooth Relic is a Buddhist temple in the city of Kandy, Sri Lanka.
The Light of Asia, subtitled The Great Renunciation, is a book by Sir Edwin Arnold.
The Light of Asia is an oratorio by the American composer Dudley Buck.
Theravāda (Pali, literally "school of the elder monks") is a branch of Buddhism that uses the Buddha's teaching preserved in the Pāli Canon as its doctrinal core.
In Buddhism, the three marks of existence are three characteristics (Pali: tilakkhaa; Sanskrit: trilakaa) of all existence and beings, namely impermanence (anicca), unsatisfactoriness or suffering (dukkha), and non-self (anattā).
Tilaurakot is a village development committee in Kapilvastu District in the Lumbini Zone of southern Nepal.
In Jainism, a tirthankara (Sanskrit:; English: literally a 'ford-maker') is a saviour and spiritual teacher of the dharma (righteous path).
Trapusa and Bahalika (alternatively Bhallika) are attributed to be the first two lay disciples of the Buddha.
The Tripiṭaka (Sanskrit) or Tipiṭaka (Pali), is the traditional term for the Buddhist scriptures.
A truffle is the fruiting body of a subterranean Ascomycete fungus, predominantly one of the many species of the genus Tuber.
Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard.
Tushita or Tusita (meaning "realm, contentment") is the fourth of the six deva or heavenly realms of Kamadhatu, located between the "Yāmā deva" realm and the "Nirmanarati deva" realm.
Uddaka Rāmaputta was a meditator, probably of Brahmanical background and a teacher of meditation.
Unifying Hinduism: Philosophy and Identity in Indian Intellectual History is a book Andrew J. Nicholson on Indian philosophy, describing the philosophical unification of Hinduism, which it places in the Middle Ages.
Upali (Sanskrit उपालि upāli) was a monk, one of the ten chief disciples of the Buddha.
Uttar Pradesh (IAST: Uttar Pradeś) is a state in northern India.
Vaishali or Vesali was a city in present-day Bihar, India, and is now an archaeological site.
Vaishnavism (Vaishnava dharma) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism along with Shaivism, Shaktism, and Smartism.
(Sanskrit: "Vajra in hand") is one of the earliest-appearing bodhisattvas in Mahayana Buddhism.
Varanasi, also known as Benares, Banaras (Banāras), or Kashi (Kāśī), is a city on the banks of the Ganges in the Uttar Pradesh state of North India, south-east of the state capital, Lucknow, and east of Allahabad.
Varna (Варна, Varna) is the third-largest city in Bulgaria and the largest city and seaside resort on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast.
Vassa (script, script, both "rain") is the three-month annual retreat observed by Theravada practitioners.
The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.
Vesak (Pali: Vesākha, Vaiśākha), also known as Buddha Purnima and Buddha Day, is a holiday traditionally observed by Buddhists and some Hindus on different days in India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Tibet, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Mongolia and the Philippines and in China, Japan, South Korea, North Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam as "Buddha's Birthday" as well as in other parts of the world.
The Vinaya (Pali and Sanskrit, literally meaning "leading out", "education", "discipline") is the regulatory framework for the sangha or monastic community of Buddhism based on the canonical texts called the Vinaya Pitaka.
Vishnu (Sanskrit: विष्णु, IAST) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism, and the Supreme Being in its Vaishnavism tradition.
What the Buddha Taught, by Theravadin Walpola Rahula, is a widely used introductory book on Buddhism for non-Buddhists.
A white elephant (also albino elephant) is a rare kind of elephant, but not a distinct species.
Yaksha (Sanskrit: यक्ष yakṣa, Tamil: யகன் yakan, இயக்கன் iyakan, Odia: ଯକ୍ଷ jôkhyô, Pali: yakkha) are a broad class of nature-spirits, usually benevolent, but sometimes mischievous and sexually aggressive or capricious caretakers of the natural treasures hidden in the earth and tree roots.
Yangon (ရန်ကုန်မြို့, MLCTS rankun mrui,; formerly known as Rangoon, literally: "End of Strife") was the capital of the Yangon Region of Myanmar, also known as Burma.
Yasa means role, order that can not be refused.
Yaśodharā (Pali Yasodharā) was the wife of Siddhārtha Gautama, later known as Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism.
Yoga (Sanskrit, योगः) is a group of physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India.
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