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In philosophy, the concept of The Absolute, also known as The (Unconditioned) Ultimate, The Wholly Other, The Supreme Being, The Absolute/Ultimate Reality, and other names, is the thing, being, entity, power, force, reality, presence, law, principle, etc.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.
Agra is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India.
Ahmedabad, also known as Amdavad is the largest city and former capital of the Indian state of Gujarat.
Abu'l-Fath Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar (15 October 1542– 27 October 1605), popularly known as Akbar I, was the third Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1556 to 1605.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Andaman and Nicobar Islands, one of the seven union territories of India, are a group of islands at the juncture of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea.
The Andaman Islands form an archipelago in the Bay of Bengal between India, to the west, and Myanmar, to the north and east.
The Andaman Sea is a marginal sea of the eastern Indian Ocean separated from the Bay of Bengal (to its west) by the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and touching Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, and the Malay Peninsula.
Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India.
The term Anglo-Indians can refer to at least two groups of people: those with mixed Indian and British ancestry, and people of British descent born or living in the Indian subcontinent.
Appellate jurisdiction is the power of a higher court to review decisions and change outcomes of decisions of lower courts.
The Arabian Sea, also known as Sea of Oman, is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Peninsula, and on the east by India.
The Aravalli Range is a range of mountains running approximately 692 km (430 mi) in a southwest direction, starting in North India from Delhi and passing through southern Haryana, through to Western India across the states of Rajasthan and ending in Gujarat.
An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.
The architecture of India is rooted in its history, culture and religion.
The Arihant class (Sanskrit, for Slayer of Enemies) is a class of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines being built for the Indian Navy.
The Arjuna Awards are given by the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports, Government of India to recognize outstanding achievement in sports.
Arranged marriage in the Indian subcontinent is a tradition in the societies of the Indian subcontinent, and continue to account for an overwhelming majority of marriages in the Indian subcontinent.
Arunachal Pradesh ("the land of dawn-lit mountains") is one of the 29 states of India and is the northeastern-most state of the country.
Ashgate Publishing was an academic book and journal publisher based in Farnham (Surrey, United Kingdom).
Ashoka (died 232 BCE), or Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from to 232 BCE.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
The Asiatic lion (Panthera leo leo) is a lion population in Gujarat, India.
Assam is a state in Northeast India, situated south of the eastern Himalayas along the Brahmaputra and Barak River valleys.
Assamese cinema is cinema in the Assamese language, watched primarily in Assam, India.
Assamese or Asamiya অসমীয়া is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language spoken mainly in the Indian state of Assam, where it is an official language.
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional intergovernmental organization comprising ten Southeast Asian countries that promotes intergovernmental cooperation and facilitates economic, political, security, military, educational, and sociocultural integration amongst its members, other Asian countries, and globally.
Atal Bihari Vajpayee (pronunciation; born 25 December 1924) is an Indian politician who was the 10th Prime Minister of India, first term for 13 days in 1996 and then from 1998 to 2004.
An atoll, sometimes called a coral atoll, is a ring-shaped coral reef including a coral rim that encircles a lagoon partially or completely.
The Austroasiatic languages, formerly known as Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers.
The automotive industry in India is one of the largest in the world with an annual production of 23.96 million vehicles in FY (fiscal year) 2015–16, following a growth of 2.57 per cent over the last year.
Ayurveda is a system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent.
Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, nimtree or Indian lilac, is a tree in the mahogany family Meliaceae.
Āstika derives from the Sanskrit asti, "there is, there exists", and means “one who believes in the existence (of God, of another world, etc.)” and nāstika means "an atheist or unbeliever".
Badminton is a racquet sport played using racquets to hit a shuttlecock across a net.
Even though the Bahá'í Faith in India is tiny in proportion of the national population, it is numerically large and has a long history culminating in recent times with the notable Lotus Temple, various Bahá'í schools, and increasing prominence.
Bangalore, officially known as Bengaluru, is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
The Bangladesh Liberation War (মুক্তিযুদ্ধ), also known as the Bangladesh War of Independence, or simply the Liberation War in Bangladesh, was a revolution and armed conflict sparked by the rise of the Bengali nationalist and self-determination movement in what was then East Pakistan during the 1971 Bangladesh genocide.
A banyan, also spelled "banian", is a fig that begins its life as an epiphyte, i.e. a plant that grows on another plant, when its seed germinates in a crack or crevice of a host tree or edifice.
Basketball is a part of the South Asian Games since the 1995 edition.
Baul or Bauls (বাউল) are a group of mystic minstrels from Bengal, which includes Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal.
The Bay of Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গোপসাগর) is the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean, bounded on the west and north by India and Bangladesh, and on the east by Myanmar and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India).
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Before Present (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events occurred in the past.
Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.
The Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is the most numerous tiger subspecies in Asia, and was estimated at fewer than 2,500 individuals by 2011.
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.
Bhakti (भक्ति) literally means "attachment, participation, fondness for, homage, faith, love, devotion, worship, purity".
The Bhakti movement refers to the theistic devotional trend that emerged in medieval Hinduism and later revolutionised in Sikhism.
The term Bhaṅgṛā (ਭੰਗੜਾ (Gurmukhi), (Shahmukhi); pronounced) refers to the traditional dance from the Indian subcontinent originating in the Majha area of the Punjab region.
Bharatanatyam (Tamil: "பரதநாட்டியம்"), is a major genre of Indian classical dance that originated in Tamil Nadu.
The Bharatiya Janata Party (translation: Indian People's Party; BJP) is one of the two major political parties in India, along with the Indian National Congress.
Bhavai, also known as Vesha or Swang, is a popular folk theatre form of western India, especially in Gujarat.
The Bhimbetka rock shelters are an archaeological site in central India that spans the prehistoric paleolithic and mesolithic periods, as well as the historic period.
Bhojpuri cinema Bhojiwood refers to films produced in the Bhojpuri language in the western Bihar, eastern Uttar Pradesh and Madhesh in southern Nepal.
Bhutan, officially the Kingdom of Bhutan (Druk Gyal Khap), is a landlocked country in South Asia.
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.
The Bihu dance is an indigenous folk dance from the Indian state of Assam related to the Bihu festival and an important part of Assamese culture.
A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographic region with significant levels of biodiversity that is threatened with destruction.
A biopharmaceutical, also known as a biologic(al) medical product, biological, or biologic, is any pharmaceutical drug product manufactured in, extracted from, or semisynthesized from biological sources.
The Indian government has established 18 Biosphere Reserves in India, (categories roughly corresponding to IUCN Category V Protected areas), which protect larger areas of natural habitat (than a National Park or Animal Sanctuary), and often include one or more National Parks or preserves, along with buffer zones that are open to some economic uses.
The Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) is the national governing body for cricket in India.
Boro (बर'), or Mech, is the Sino-Tibetan language spoken primarily by the Boro people of North East India, Nepal and Bengal.
Hindi cinema, often metonymously referred to as Bollywood, is the Indian Hindi-language film industry, based in the city of Mumbai (formerly Bombay), Maharashtra, India.
The Brahmaputra (is one of the major rivers of Asia, a trans-boundary river which flows through China, India and Bangladesh. As such, it is known by various names in the region: Assamese: ব্ৰহ্মপুত্ৰ নদ ('নদ' nôd, masculine form of 'নদী' nôdi "river") Brôhmôputrô; ब्रह्मपुत्र, IAST:; Yarlung Tsangpo;. It is also called Tsangpo-Brahmaputra (when referring to the whole river including the stretch within Tibet). The Manas River, which runs through Bhutan, joins it at Jogighopa, in India. It is the ninth largest river in the world by discharge, and the 15th longest. With its origin in the Manasarovar Lake, located on the northern side of the Himalayas in Burang County of Tibet as the Yarlung Tsangpo River, it flows across southern Tibet to break through the Himalayas in great gorges (including the Yarlung Tsangpo Grand Canyon) and into Arunachal Pradesh (India). It flows southwest through the Assam Valley as Brahmaputra and south through Bangladesh as the Jamuna (not to be mistaken with Yamuna of India). In the vast Ganges Delta, it merges with the Padma, the popular name of the river Ganges in Bangladesh, and finally the Meghna and from here it is known as Meghna before emptying into the Bay of Bengal. About long, the Brahmaputra is an important river for irrigation and transportation. The average depth of the river is and maximum depth is. The river is prone to catastrophic flooding in the spring when Himalayas snow melts. The average discharge of the river is about, and floods can reach over. It is a classic example of a braided river and is highly susceptible to channel migration and avulsion. It is also one of the few rivers in the world that exhibit a tidal bore. It is navigable for most of its length. The river drains the Himalaya east of the Indo-Nepal border, south-central portion of the Tibetan plateau above the Ganga basin, south-eastern portion of Tibet, the Patkai-Bum hills, the northern slopes of the Meghalaya hills, the Assam plains, and the northern portion of Bangladesh. The basin, especially south of Tibet, is characterized by high levels of rainfall. Kangchenjunga (8,586 m) is the only peak above 8,000 m, hence is the highest point within the Brahmaputra basin. The Brahmaputra's upper course was long unknown, and its identity with the Yarlung Tsangpo was only established by exploration in 1884–86. This river is often called Tsangpo-Brahmaputra river. The lower reaches are sacred to Hindus. While most rivers on the Indian subcontinent have female names, this river has a rare male name, as it means "son of Brahma" in Sanskrit (putra means "son").
Bride burning or bride-burning is a form of domestic violence practiced in countries located on or around the Indian subcontinent.
Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British Film Institute (BFI) is a film and charitable organisation which promotes and preserves filmmaking and television in the United Kingdom.
The British Raj (from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Buddhist philosophy refers to the philosophical investigations and systems of inquiry that developed among various Buddhist schools in India following the death of the Buddha and later spread throughout Asia.
Burra Katha, also spelled Burrakatha, is an oral storytelling technique in the Katha tradition, performed in villages of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.
Business Line or The Hindu Business Line is an Indian business newspaper published by Kasturi & Sons, the publishers of the newspaper The Hindu located in Chennai, India.
Business Standard is the third largest Indian English-language daily newspaper published by Business Standard Ltd (BSL) in two languages, English and Hindi.
A cabinet is a body of high-ranking state officials, typically consisting of the top leaders of the executive branch.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Canada–India relations, or Indo-Canadian relations, are the longstanding bilateral relations between Canada and the Republic of India, which are built upon a "mutual commitment to democracy", "pluralism", and "people-to-people links", according to the government of Canada.
Carnatic music, Karnāṭaka saṃgīta or Karnāṭaka saṅgītam is a system of music commonly associated with southern India, including the modern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu, as well as Sri Lanka.
Caste is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary transmission of a lifestyle which often includes an occupation, status in a hierarchy, customary social interaction, and exclusion.
The caste system in India is the paradigmatic ethnographic example of caste.
Caste-related violence has occurred and occurs in India in various forms.
The decennial Census of India has been conducted 15 times,.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Chalcolithic (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998), p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective Archaeology of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BCE, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. Also called Eneolithic... Also called Copper Age - Origin early 20th cent.: from Greek khalkos 'copper' + lithos 'stone' + -ic". χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and λίθος líthos, "stone") period or Copper Age, in particular for eastern Europe often named Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus "of copper"), was a period in the development of human technology, before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze, leading to the Bronze Age.
The Chalukya dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries.
Chandigarh is a city and a union territory in India that serves as the capital of the two neighbouring states of Haryana and Punjab.
Chaturanga (चतुरङ्ग), or catur for short, is an ancient Indian strategy game which is commonly theorized to be the common ancestor of the board games chess, shogi, sittuyin, makruk, xiangqi and janggi.
Chennai (formerly known as Madras or) is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
The Cheras were the ruling dynasty of the present-day state of Kerala and to a lesser extent, parts of Tamil Nadu in South India.
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.
Chhattisgarh (translation: Thirty-Six Forts) is one of the 29 states of India, located in the centre-east of the country.
Chhau dance, also spelled as Chau or Chhau, is a semi classical Indian dance with martial, tribal and folk origins.
The Chief Justice of India (CJI) is the head of the judiciary of India and the Supreme Court of India.
A chief minister is the elected head of government of a sub-national entity, for instance a administrative subdivision or federal constituent entity.
Child labour refers to the employment of children in any work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and that is mentally, physically, socially or morally dangerous and harmful.
Child marriage is a formal marriage or informal union entered into by an individual before reaching a certain age, specified by several global organizations such as UNICEF as minors under the age of 18.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The Chola dynasty was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the history of southern India.
The Chota Nagpur Plateau is a plateau in eastern India, which covers much of Jharkhand state as well as adjacent parts of Odisha, West Bengal, Bihar and Chhattisgarh.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christianity is India's third most followed religion according to the census of 2011, with approximately 28 million followers, constituting 2.3 percent of India's population. It is traditionally believed that Christianity was introduced to India by Thomas the Apostle, who supposedly landed in Kerala in 52 AD. There is a general scholarly consensus that Christianity was definitely established in India by the 6th century AD. including some communities who used Syriac liturgies, and it is possible that the religion's existence extends as far back as the purported time of St.Thomas's arrival. Christians are found all across India and in all walks of life, with major populations in parts of South India and the south shore, the Konkan Coast, and Northeast India. Indian Christians have contributed significantly to and are well represented in various spheres of national life. They include former and current chief ministers, governors and chief election commissioners. Indian Christians have the highest ratio of women to men among the various religious communities in India. Christians are the second most educated religious group in India after Jains. Christianity in India has different denominations. The state of Kerala is home to the Saint Thomas Christian community, an ancient body of Christians, who are now divided into several different churches and traditions. They are East Syriac Saint Thomas Christian churches: the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church and the Chaldean Syrian Church. The Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, Malankara Jacobite Syrian Church, Mar Thoma Syrian Church, Syro-Malankara Catholic Church, and the Malabar Independent Syrian Church are West Syriac Saint Thomas Christian Churches. Since the 19th century Protestant churches have also been present; major denominations include the Baptists, Church of South India (CSI), Evangelical Church of India (ECI), St. Thomas Evangelical Church of India, Believers Eastern Church, the Church of North India (CNI), the Presbyterian Church of India, Pentecostal Church, Apostolics, Lutherans, Traditional Anglicans and other evangelical groups. The Christian Church runs thousands of educational institutions and hospitals which have contributed significantly to the development of the nation. Roman Catholicism was first introduced to India by Portuguese, Italian and Irish Jesuits in the 16th century to preach the gospel of Jesus Christ among Indians. Most Christian schools, hospitals, primary care centres originated through the Roman Catholic missions brought by the trade of these countries. Evangelical Protestantism was later spread to India by the efforts of British, American, German, Scottish missionaries. These Protestant missions were also responsible for introducing English education in India for the first time and were also accountable in the first early translations of the Holy Bible in various Indian languages (including Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu, Hindi, Urdu and others). Even though Christians are a significant minority, they form a major religious group in three states of India - Meghalaya, Mizoram, and Nagaland with plural majority in Manipur and Arunachal Pradesh and other states with significant Christian population include Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Christianity is widespread across India and is present in all states with major populations in South India.
The Cinema of India consists of films produced in the nation of India.
The Odia film industry, colloquially known as Ollywood, is the Odia language Indian film industry, based in Cuttack, Odisha.
The cinema of West Bengal (ṭôliuḍ), also known as Tollywood refers to the Indian Bengali language film industry based in the Tollygunge region of Kolkata, West Bengal, India.
The Civil Services refer to the civil services, the permanent executive branch of the Republic of India.
The Climate of India comprises a wide range of weather conditions across a vast geographic scale and varied topography, making generalisations difficult.
Clothing in India varies depending on the different ethnicity, geography, climate and cultural traditions of the people of each region of India.
A coalition government is a cabinet of a parliamentary government in which many or multiple political parties cooperate, reducing the dominance of any one party within that "coalition".
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
The Commission on Population and Development is one of the ten Functional Commissions of the United Nations Economic and Social Council.
The Communist Party of India (Marxist) (abbreviated CPI(M)) is a communist party in India.
Company rule in India (sometimes, Company Raj, "raj, lit. "rule" in Hindi) refers to the rule or dominion of the British East India Company over parts of the Indian subcontinent.
The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is a multilateral treaty that bans all nuclear explosions, for both civilian and military purposes, in all environments.
Conservation International (CI) is an American nonprofit environmental organization headquartered in Arlington, Virginia.
The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India.
A Constitutional republic is a republic that operates under a system of separation of powers, where both the chief executive and members of the legislature are elected by the citizens and must govern within an existing written constitution.
Contemporary slavery, also known as modern slavery, refers to the institutions of slavery that continue to exist in the present day.
Continental crust is the layer of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks that forms the continents and the areas of shallow seabed close to their shores, known as continental shelves.
Corruption is an issue that adversely affects India's economy of central, state and local government agencies.
Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".
A courser is a swift and strong horse, frequently used during the Middle Ages as a warhorse.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
Credible Minimum Deterrence is the principle on which India's nuclear strategy are based.
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular pitch with a target at each end called the wicket (a set of three wooden stumps upon which two bails sit).
Cricket in India is the nation's most popular sport by far.
The culture of India refers collectively to the thousands of distinct and unique cultures of all religions and communities present in India.
Current Science is an English-language peer-reviewed multidisciplinary scientific journal.
Dadra and Nagar Haveli (DNH in initials) is a union territory in Western India.
Dal (also spelled daal, dail, dhal; pronunciation) is a term in the Indian subcontinent for dried, split pulses (that is, lentils, peas, and beans).
Daman and Diu is a union territory in Western India.
Dance in India comprises numerous styles of dances, generally classified as classical or folk.
Raas or Dandiya Raas is the traditional folk dance form of Gujarat & Rajasthan India, and is associated with scenes of Holi, and lila of Krishna and Radha at Vrindavan.
Daylight saving time (abbreviated DST), sometimes referred to as daylight savings time in U.S., Canadian, and Australian speech, and known as summer time in some countries, is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times.
Debt bondage, also known as debt slavery or bonded labour, is a person's pledge of labour or services as security for the repayment for a debt or other obligation, where there is no hope of actually repaying the debt.
The Deccan PlateauPage 46, is a large plateau in western and southern India.
Deccan Traps are a large igneous province located on the Deccan Plateau of west-central India (17°–24°N, 73°–74°E) and are one of the largest volcanic features on Earth.
Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (NCT), is a city and a union territory of India.
Airtel Delhi Half Marathon (ADHM) is an annual half marathon foot-race held in New Delhi, India.
The Delhi Sultanate (Persian:دهلی سلطان, Urdu) was a Muslim sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
India is the second most populated country in the world with nearly a fifth of the world's population.
The Deodhar Trophy is a List A cricket competition in Indian domestic cricket.
Deserts and xeric shrublands are a biome characterized by receiving only a small amount of moisture, usually defined as less than 250 mm of annual precipitation.
Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal.
Dharma (dharma,; dhamma, translit. dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religions – Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism.
Dholavira (ધોળાવીરા) is an archaeological site at Khadirbet in Bhachau Taluka of Kutch District, in the state of Gujarat in western India, which has taken its name from a modern-day village south of it.
The Vesti, also known as panche, Dhoti, dhuti, mardani, chaadra, dhotar, and panchey, is a traditional men's garment worn in the Indian subcontinent.
Diclofenac (sold under a number of trade names) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) taken or applied to reduce inflammation and as an analgesic reducing pain in certain conditions.
Justice Dipak Misra (born 3 October 1953) is the 45th Chief Justice of India, succeeding the 44th Chief Justice, J. S. Khehar.
Diwali or Deepavali is the Hindu festival of lights celebrated every year in autumn in the northern hemisphere (spring in southern hemisphere).
Dogri (डोगरी or), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about five million people in India and Pakistan, chiefly in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh, but also in northern Punjab, other parts of Jammu and Kashmir, and elsewhere.
Between gaining independence from the United Kingdom on 15 August 1947 and the proclamation of a republic on 26 January 1950, India was an independent dominion in the British Commonwealth of Nations with king George VI as its head of state.
Doordarshan (abbreviated in English as DD) is an autonomous public service broadcaster founded by the Government of India, which is owned by the Broadcasting Ministry of India and is one of two divisions of Prasar Bharati.
Dowry deaths are deaths of women who are murdered or driven to suicide by continuous harassment and torture by husbands and in-laws in an effort to extort an increased dowry.
The dowry system in India refers to the durable goods, cash, and real or movable property that the bride's family gives to the bridegroom, his parents, or his relatives as a condition of the marriage.
Dravidian architecture is an architectural idiom in Hindu temple architecture that emerged in the southern part of the Indian subcontinent or South India, reaching its final form by the sixteenth century.
The Dravidian languages are a language family spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India, as well as in Sri Lanka with small pockets in southwestern Pakistan, southern Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan, and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore.
The Dronacharya Award, officially known as Dronacharya Award for Outstanding Coaches in Sports and Games, is sports coaching honour of the Republic of India.
Duke University Press is an academic publisher of books and journals, and a unit of Duke University.
The Duleep Trophy is a domestic first-class cricket competition played in India.
Durga Puja, also called Durgotsava, is an annual Hindu festival in the Indian subcontinent that reveres the goddess Durga. Durga Puja is believed to be the greatest festival of the Bengali people. It is particularly popular in West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, Assam, Tripura, Bangladesh and the diaspora from this region, and also in Nepal where it is called Dashain. The festival is observed in the Hindu calendar month of Ashvin, typically September or October of the Gregorian calendar, and is a multi-day festival that features elaborate temple and stage decorations (pandals), scripture recitation, performance arts, revelry, and processions. It is a major festival in the Shaktism tradition of Hinduism across India and Shakta Hindu diaspora. Durga Puja festival marks the battle of goddess Durga with the shape-shifting, deceptive and powerful buffalo demon Mahishasura, and her emerging victorious. Thus, the festival epitomises the victory of good over evil, but it also is in part a harvest festival that marks the goddess as the motherly power behind all of life and creation. The Durga Puja festival dates coincide with Vijayadashami (Dussehra) observed by other traditions of Hinduism, where the Ram Lila is enacted — the victory of Rama is marked and effigies of demon Ravana are burnt instead. The primary goddess revered during Durga Puja is Durga, but her stage and celebrations feature other major deities of Hinduism such as goddess Lakshmi (goddess of wealth, prosperity), Saraswati (goddess of knowledge and music), Ganesha (god of good beginnings) and Kartikeya (god of war). The latter two are considered to be children of Durga (Parvati). The Hindu god Shiva, as Durga's husband, is also revered during this festival. The festival begins on the first day with Mahalaya, marking Durga's advent in her battle against evil. Starting with the sixth day (Sasthi), the goddess is welcomed, festive Durga worship and celebrations begin in elaborately decorated temples and pandals hosting the statues. Lakshmi and Saraswati are revered on the following days. The festival ends of the tenth day of Vijaya Dashami, when with drum beats of music and chants, Shakta Hindu communities start a procession carrying the colorful clay statues to a river or ocean and immerse them, as a form of goodbye and her return to divine cosmos and Mount Kailash. The festival is an old tradition of Hinduism, though it is unclear how and in which century the festival began. Surviving manuscripts from the 14th century provide guidelines for Durga puja, while historical records suggest royalty and wealthy families were sponsoring major Durga Puja public festivities since at least the 16th century. The prominence of Durga Puja increased during the British Raj in its provinces of Bengal and Assam. Durga Puja is a ten-day festival, of which the last five are typically special and an annual holiday in regions such as West Bengal, Odisha and Tripura where it is particularly popular. In the contemporary era, the importance of Durga Puja is as much as a social festival as a religious one wherever it is observed.
Duttaphrynus beddomii (common name: Beddome's toad) is a species of toad endemic to the Western Ghats of India.
The East Asia Summit (EAS) is a forum held annually by leaders of, initially, 16 countries in the East Asian, Southeast Asian and South Asian regions.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
The Eastern Ghats are a discontinuous range of mountains along India's eastern coast.
The economic liberalisation in India refers to the economic liberalisation, initiated in 1991, of the country's economic policies, with the goal of making the economy more market and service-oriented and expanding the role of private and foreign investment.
The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) is a British business within the Economist Group providing forecasting and advisory services through research and analysis, such as monthly country reports, five-year country economic forecasts, country risk service reports, and industry reports.
The economy of India is a developing mixed economy.
Education in India is provided by the public sector as well as the private sector, with control and funding coming from three levels: central, state and local.
Eid al-Adha (lit), also called the "Festival of Sacrifice", is the second of two Islamic holidays celebrated worldwide each year (the other being Eid al-Fitr), and considered the holier of the two.
Eid al-Fitr (عيد الفطر) is an important religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting (sawm).
Eisenbrauns, an imprint of The Pennsylvania State University Press, is an academic publisher specializing in the ancient Near East and biblical studies.
The Election Commission of India is an autonomous constitutional authority responsible for administering election processes in India.
An electoral college is a set of electors who are selected to elect a candidate to a particular office.
An electoral district, (election) precinct, election district, or legislative district, called a voting district by the US Census (also known as a constituency, riding, ward, division, electoral area, or electorate) is a territorial subdivision for electing members to a legislative body.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
The energy policy of India is largely defined by the country's expanding energy deficit and increased focus on developing alternative sources of energy, particularly nuclear, solar and wind energy.
The Eurasian Plate is a tectonic plate which includes most of the continent of Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the traditional continents of Europe and Asia), with the notable exceptions of the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian subcontinent, and the area east of the Chersky Range in East Siberia.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
Famine had been a recurrent feature of life the Indian sub-continental countries of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.
A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government.
The Federal Research Division (FRD) is the research and analysis unit of the United States Library of Congress.
A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.
Female foeticide in India (translation) is the abortion of a female foetus outside of legal methods.
Female infanticide in India has a history spanning centuries.
Ficus religiosa or sacred fig is a species of fig native to the Indian subcontinent, and Indochina.
Field hockey in India refers to two teams, the India men's national field hockey team and the India women's national field hockey team.
Filmi ("of films") music soundtracks are produced for India's mainstream motion picture industry and written and performed for Indian cinema.
The National Flag of India is a horizontal rectangular tricolour of India saffron, white and India green; with the Ashoka Chakra, a 24-spoke wheel, in navy blue at its centre.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
Football is a popular sport in India.
Forest Survey of India (FSI), founded in June 1981 and headquartered at Dehradun in Uttarakhand, is a Government of India Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change organisation for conducting forest surveys, studies and research to periodically monitor the changing situation of land and forest resources and present the data for national planning, conservation and sustainable management of environmental protection as well for the implementation of social forestry projects.
Formula One (also Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) and owned by the Formula One Group.
France–India relations have traditionally been close and friendly and both countries have a 'special relationship' with each other.
Fundamental Rights are the basic rights of the common people and inalienable rights of the people who enjoy it under the charter of rights contained in Part III(Article 12 to 35) of Constitution of India.
The Group of Eight + Five (G8+5) was an international group that consisted of the leaders of the heads of government from the G8 nations (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Russia), plus the heads of government of the five leading emerging economies (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa).
Gandhi Jayanti is a national festival celebrated in India to mark the occasion of the birthday of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, who is also known as the "Father of the Nation".
Ganesh Chaturthi (IAST), also known as Vinayaka Chaturthi or Vinayaka Chavithi is the Hindu festival that reveres god Ganesha.
The Ganges, also known as Ganga, is a trans-boundary river of Asia which flows through the nations of India and Bangladesh.
Garba (ગરબા in Gujarati) is a form of dance which originated in the state of Gujarat in India.
Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
The Geological Society of London, known commonly as the Geological Society, is a learned society based in the United Kingdom.
Ghoomar is a traditional folk dance of Bhil tribe performed to worship Goddess Sarasvati which was later embraced by other Rajasthani communities.
Gilgit-Baltistan, formerly known as the Northern Areas, is the northernmost administrative territory in Pakistan.
Gilli Danda (Dandi Biyo in Nepali) is an amateur sport played in the rural areas and small towns all over Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Afghanistan and Pakistan as well as Cambodia, Turkey, South Africa, Italy and in some Caribbean islands like Cuba.
The Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) is a yearly report published by the World Economic Forum.
Goa is a state in India within the coastal region known as the Konkan, in Western India.
The Godavari is India's second longest river after the Ganga.
Gondwana, or Gondwanaland, was a supercontinent that existed from the Neoproterozoic (about 550 million years ago) until the Carboniferous (about 320 million years ago).
The Government of India (IAST), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic.
The title Grandmaster (GM) is awarded to chess players by the world chess organization FIDE.
The Green Revolution in India refers to a period of time when agriculture in India changed to an industrial system due to the adoption of modern methods and technology such as high yielding variety (HYV) seeds, tractors, pump sets, etc.
ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Gujarat is a state in Western India and Northwest India with an area of, a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population in excess of 60 million.
Gujarati cinema, informally referred to as Dhollywood or Gollywood, is the Gujarati language film industry.
Gujarati (ગુજરાતી) is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat.
The Gupta Empire was an ancient Indian empire, existing from approximately 240 to 590 CE.
Guru Nanak (IAST: Gurū Nānak) (15 April 1469 – 22 September 1539) was the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Sikh Gurus.
Guwahati (Pragjyotishpura in ancient Assam, Gauhati in the modern era) is the largest city in the Indian state of Assam and also the largest urban area in Northeast India.
Harappa (Urdu/ہڑپّہ) is an archaeological site in Punjab, Pakistan, about west of Sahiwal.
HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster.
Harsha (c. 590–647 CE), also known as Harshavardhana, was an Indian emperor who ruled North India from 606 to 647 CE.
Haryana, carved out of the former state of East Punjab on 1November 1966 on linguistic basis, is one of the 29 states in India.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
India's constitution guarantees free healthcare for all its citizens, but in practice the private healthcare sector is responsible for the majority of healthcare in India, and most healthcare expenses are paid out of pocket by patients and their families, rather than through insurance.
Himachal Pradesh (literally "snow-laden province") is a Indian state located in North India.
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hindu mythology are mythical narratives found in Hindu texts such as the Vedic literature, epics like Mahabharata and Ramayana, the Puranas, the regional literatures Sangam literature and Periya Puranam.
Hindu philosophy refers to a group of darśanas (philosophies, world views, teachings) that emerged in ancient India.
Hindu temple architecture has many varieties of style, though the basic nature of the Hindu temple remains the same, with the essential feature an inner sanctum, the garbha griha or womb-chamber, where the primary Murti or the image of a deity is housed in a simple bare cell.
Hindu texts are manuscripts and historical literature related to any of the diverse traditions within Hinduism.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Hinduism is the largest religion in India, with 79.8% of the population identifying themselves as Hindus, that accounts for roughly (966 million) Hindus in India as of 2011 Census of India, while 14.2% of the population follow Islam and the remaining 6% adhere to other religions (such as Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism, various indigenous ethnically-bound faiths, Atheism and Irreligion).
Hindustan is the Persian name for India, broadly the Indian subcontinent, which later became an endonym.
Hindustani classical music is the traditional music of northern areas of the Indian subcontinent, including the modern states of India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan.
Buddhism is a world religion, which arose in and around the ancient Kingdom of Magadha (now in Bihar, India), and is based on the teachings of Siddhārtha Gautama who was deemed a "Buddha" ("Awakened One").
The history of cotton can be traced to domestication.
The history of science and technology in the Indian Subcontinent begins with prehistoric human activity in the Indus Valley Civilization to early states and empires.
Hockey India (हॉकी इंडिया) is the governing body of Hockey in India.
The Hockey World Cup is an international field hockey competition organised by the International Hockey Federation (FIH).
Holi (Holī), also known as the "festival of colours", is a spring festival celebrated all across the Indian subcontinent as well as in countries with large Indian subcontinent diaspora populations such as Jamaica, Suriname, Guyana, Trinidad and Tobago, South Africa, Malaysia, the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Mauritius, and Fiji.
Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily in a new location.
Hyderabad is the capital of the Indian state of Telangana and de jure capital of Andhra Pradesh.
An income tax is a tax imposed on individuals or entities (taxpayers) that varies with respective income or profits (taxable income).
Independence Day is annually celebrated on 15 August, as a national holiday in India commemorating the nation's independence from the United Kingdom on 15 August 1947, the UK Parliament passed the Indian Independence Act 1947 transferring legislative sovereignty to the Indian Constituent Assembly.
Articles (arranged alphabetically) related to India or Indian culture include: List of India-related topics People are listed by their first names.
India played an important role in the multilateral movements of colonies and newly independent countries that wanted into the Non-Aligned Movement.
The India Davis Cup team represents India in Davis Cup tennis competition and are governed by the All India Tennis Association.
During the Second World War (1939–1945), India was controlled by the United Kingdom, with the British holding territories in India including over five hundred autonomous Princely States; British India officially declared war on Nazi Germany in September 1939.
The India national field hockey team was the first non-European team to be a part of the International Hockey Federation.
The India men's national basketball team represents India in international men's basketball.
The India national cricket team, also known as Team India and Men in Blue, is governed by the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI), and is a full member of the International Cricket Council (ICC) with Test, One Day International (ODI) and Twenty20 International (T20I) status.
Relations between the Republic of India and the European Union are currently defined by the 1994 EU-India Cooperation Agreement.
India–Israel relations refers to the bilateral ties between the Republic of India and the State of Israel.
India–Japan relations have traditionally been strong.
Relations between India and Pakistan have been complex and largely hostile due to a number of historical and political events.
Indo-Russian relations (Российско-индийские отношения भारत-रूस सम्बन्ध) refer to the bilateral relations between the Republic of India and the Russian Federation.
India–South Korea relations have been relatively strong for 2,000 years, although more progress arose during the past three decades.
The Indian–British relations are foreign relations between the Republic of India and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The 123 Agreement signed between the United States of America and the Republic of India is known as the U.S.–India Civil Nuclear Agreement or Indo-US nuclear deal.
India–United States relations (or Indo-American relations) refers to the international relations that exist between the Republic of India and the United States of America.
The Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore was founded by C. V. Raman, and was registered as a Society on 24 April 1934.
The Indian Air Force (IAF; IAST: Bhāratīya Vāyu Senā) is the air arm of the Indian armed forces.
The Indian Armed Forces (Hindi (in IAST): Bhāratīya Saśastra Senāeṃ) are the military forces of the Republic of India.
The Indian Army is the land-based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces.
The Indian Army during World War I contributed a large number of divisions and independent brigades to the European, Mediterranean and the Middle East theatres of war in World War I. Over one million Indian troops served overseas, of whom 62,000 died and another 67,000 were wounded.
Indian astronomy has a long history stretching from pre-historic to modern times.
The Indian Ballistic Missile Defence Programme is an initiative to develop and deploy a multi-layered ballistic missile defence system to protect from ballistic missile attacks.
Indian classical dance, or Shastriya Nritya, is an umbrella term for various performance arts rooted in religious Hindu musical theatre styles,, Quote: All of the dances considered to be part of the Indian classical canon (Bharata Natyam, Chhau, Kathak, Kathakali, Manipuri, Mohiniattam, Odissi, Sattriya and Yakshagana) trace their roots to religious practices (...) the Indian diaspora has led to the translocation of Hindu dances to Europe, North America and the world." whose theory and practice can be traced to the Sanskrit text Natya Shastra.
Indian classical music is a genre of South Asian music.
The Indian Coast Guard (ICG) protects India's maritime interests and enforces maritime law, with jurisdiction over the territorial waters of India, including its contiguous zone and exclusive economic zone.
Indian English is any of the forms of English characteristic of India.
Indian epic poetry is the epic poetry written in the Indian subcontinent, traditionally called Kavya (or Kāvya; Sanskrit: काव्य, IAST: kāvyá) or Kappiyam (Tamil language: காப்பியம், kāppiyam).
Indian folk music (भारतीय लोक संगीत) is diverse because of India's vast cultural diversity.
The Indian general election of 1957 elected the 2nd Lok Sabha of India.
The Indian general election of 1962 elected the 3rd Lok Sabha of India and was held from 19 to 25 February.
Legislative elections were held in India in four phases between 20 April and 10 May 2004.
India held general elections to the 15th Lok Sabha in five phases between 16 April 2009 and 13 May 2009.
The Indian general election of 2014 was held to constitute the 16th Lok Sabha, electing members of parliament for all 543 parliamentary constituencies of India.
The Indian Grand Prix (इंडियन ग्रांड प्रि) was a Formula One race in the calendar of the FIA Formula One World Championship, which was held at the Buddh International Circuit in Sector 25 along Yamuna Expressway in Gautam Buddh Nagar district of Uttar Pradesh State.
The Indian independence movement encompassed activities and ideas aiming to end the East India Company rule (1757–1857) and the British Indian Empire (1857–1947) in the Indian subcontinent.
Indian martial arts refers to the fighting systems of the Indian subcontinent.
The Indian Masters was a professional golf tournament on the European and Asian Tours, that was played in February 2008.
Indian mathematics emerged in the Indian subcontinent from 1200 BC until the end of the 18th century.
The Indian national calendar, sometimes called the Shalivahana Shaka calendar, is used along with the Vikram Samvat calendar.
The Indian National Congress (INC, often called Congress Party) is a broadly based political party in India.
The Indian Navy (IN; IAST: Bhāratīya Nau Senā) is the naval branch of the Indian Armed Forces.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) was the Indian military contingent performing a peacekeeping operation in Sri Lanka between 1987 and 1990.
The Indian peafowl or blue peafowl (Pavo cristatus), a large and brightly coloured bird, is a species of peafowl native to South Asia, but introduced in many other parts of the world.
The Indian Plate or India Plate is a major tectonic plate straddling the equator in the eastern hemisphere.
The Indian Premier League (IPL), officially Vivo Indian Premier League for sponsorship reasons, is a professional Twenty20 cricket league in India contested during April and May of every year by teams representing Indian cities and some states.
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major uprising in India between 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown.
Indian religions, sometimes also termed as Dharmic faiths or religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism.
The Indian rupee (sign: ₹; code: INR) is the official currency of the Republic of India.
The Indian rupee sign (sign:; code: INR) is the currency sign for the Indian rupee, the official currency of India.
Indian Standard Time (IST) is the time observed throughout India, with a time offset of UTC+05:30.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
Indian vernacular architecture the informal, functional architecture of structures, often in rural areas of India, built of local materials and designed to meet the needs of the local people.
Indiana University Press, also known as IU Press, is an academic publisher founded in 1950 at Indiana University that specializes in the humanities and social sciences.
Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (née Nehru; 19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984) was an Indian politician, stateswoman and a central figure of the Indian National Congress.
The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.
Indo-Aryan migration models discuss scenarios around the theory of an origin from outside South Asia of Indo-Aryan peoples, an ascribed ethnolinguistic group that spoke Indo-Aryan languages, the predominant languages of North India.
The Indo-Australian Plate is a major tectonic plate that includes the continent of Australia and surrounding ocean, and extends northwest to include the Indian subcontinent and adjacent waters.
The Indo-Gangetic Plain, also known as the Indus-Ganga Plain and the North Indian River Plain, is a 255 million-hectare (630 million-acre) fertile plain encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the eastern parts of Pakistan, virtually all of Bangladesh and southern plains of Nepal.
Indo-Islamic architecture is the architecture of the Indian subcontinent produced for Islamic patrons and purposes.
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948, sometimes known as the First Kashmir War, was fought between India and Pakistan over the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu from 1947 to 1948.
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 between Pakistan and India. The conflict began following Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar, which was designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir to precipitate an insurgency against Indian rule. India retaliated by launching a full-scale military attack on West Pakistan. The seventeen-day war caused thousands of casualties on both sides and witnessed the largest engagement of armored vehicles and the largest tank battle since World War II. Hostilities between the two countries ended after a United Nations-mandated ceasefire was declared following diplomatic intervention by the Soviet Union and the United States, and the subsequent issuance of the Tashkent Declaration. Much of the war was fought by the countries' land forces in Kashmir and along the border between India and Pakistan. This war saw the largest amassing of troops in Kashmir since the Partition of British India in 1947, a number that was overshadowed only during the 2001–2002 military standoff between India and Pakistan. Most of the battles were fought by opposing infantry and armoured units, with substantial backing from air forces, and naval operations. Many details of this war, like those of other Indo-Pakistani Wars, remain unclear. India had the upper hand over Pakistan when the ceasefire was declared. "Satisfied that it had secured a strategic and psychological victory over Pakistan by frustrating its attempt to seize Kashmir by force, when the UN resolution was passed, India accepted its terms... with Pakistan's stocks of ammunition and other essential supplies all but exhausted, and with the military balance tipping steadily in India's favour." "Losses were relatively heavy—on the Pakistani side, twenty aircraft, 200 tanks, and 3,800 troops. Pakistan's army had been able to withstand Indian pressure, but a continuation of the fighting would only have led to further losses and ultimate defeat for Pakistan." Quote: The invading Indian forces outfought their Pakistani counterparts and halted their attack on the outskirts of Lahore, Pakistan's second-largest city. By the time the United Nations intervened on 22 September, Pakistan had suffered a clear defeat. Although the two countries fought to a standoff, the conflict is seen as a strategic and political defeat for Pakistan, "... the war itself was a disaster for Pakistan, from the first failed attempts by Pakistani troops to precipitate an insurgency in Kashmir to the appearance of Indian artillery within range of Lahore International Airport." – U.S. Department of State, – Interview with Steve Coll in United States House of Representatives 12 September 1994South Asia in World Politics By Devin T. Hagerty, 2005 Rowman & Littlefield,, p. 26 as it had neither succeeded in fomenting insurrection in Kashmir "... after some initial success, the momentum behind Pakistan's thrust into Kashmir slowed, and the state's inhabitants rejected exhortations from the Pakistani insurgents to join them in taking up arms against their Indian "oppressors." Pakistan's inability to muster support from the local Kashmiri population proved a disaster, both militarily and politically." nor had it been able to gain meaningful support at an international level. "Mao had decided that China would intervene under two conditions—that India attacked East Pakistan, and that Pakistan requested Chinese intervention. In the end, neither of them obtained." Internationally, the war was viewed in the context of the greater Cold War, and resulted in a significant geopolitical shift in the subcontinent. Before the war, the United States and the United Kingdom had been major material allies of both India and Pakistan, as their primary suppliers of military hardware and foreign developmental aid. During and after the conflict, both India and Pakistan felt betrayed by the perceived lack of support by the western powers for their respective positions; those feelings of betrayal were increased with the imposition of an American and British embargo on military aid to the opposing sides. As a consequence, India and Pakistan openly developed closer relationships with the Soviet Union and China, respectively. The perceived negative stance of the western powers during the conflict, and during the 1971 war, has continued to affect relations between the West and the subcontinent. In spite of improved relations with the U.S. and Britain since the end of the Cold War, the conflict generated a deep distrust of both countries within the subcontinent which to an extent lingers to this day."In retrospect, it is clear that the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 represented a watershed in the West's association with the subcontinent.""By extending the Cold War into South Asia, however, the United States did succeed in disturbing the subcontinent's established politico-military equilibrium, undermining British influence in the region, embittering relations between India and Pakistan and, ironically, facilitating the expansion of communist influence in the developing world." "The legacy of the Johnson arms cut-off remains alive today. Indians simply do not believe that America will be there when India needs military help... the legacy of the U.S. "betrayal" still haunts U.S.-Pakistan relations today.".
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military confrontation between India and Pakistan that occurred during the liberation war in East Pakistan from 3 December 1971 to the fall of Dacca (Dhaka) on 16 December 1971.
Since the partition of British India in 1947 and creation of modern states of India and Pakistan, the two South Asian countries have been involved in four wars, including one undeclared war, and many border skirmishes and military stand-offs.
Indo-Roman trade relations (see also the spice trade and incense road) was trade between the Indian subcontinent and the Roman Empire in Europe and the Mediterranean.
Indo-Saracenic Revival (also known as Indo-Gothic, Mughal-Gothic, Neo-Mughal, Hindoo style) was an architectural style mostly used by British architects in India in the later 19th century, especially in public and government buildings in the British Raj, and the palaces of rulers of the princely states.
The Indomalayan realm is one of the eight biogeographic realms.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
Infobase Publishing is an American publisher of reference book titles and textbooks geared towards the North American library, secondary school, and university-level curriculum markets.
Information technology in India is an industry consisting of two major components: IT services and business process outsourcing (BPO).
Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses (IDSA), New Delhi, is an Indian think tank for advanced research in international relations, especially strategic and security issues, and providing training to civilian and military officers of the Indian government.
The insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir or the Kashmiri Insurgency (also known as Kashmir Intifada) is a conflict between various Kashmiri separatists and the Government of India.
Insurgency in Northeast India involves multiple armed factions operating in India's northeastern states, which are connected to the rest of India by the Siliguri Corridor, a strip of land as narrow as wide.
The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (I.A.S.T.) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanization of Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic languages.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour problems, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
The Z. R. Irani Cup (earlier called Irani Trophy) tournament was conceived during the 1959-60 season to mark the completion of 25 years of the Ranji Trophy championship and was named after the late Z. R. Irani, who was associated with the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) from its inception in 1928, till his death in 1970.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islam is the second largest religion in India, with 14.2% of the country's population or roughly 172 million people identifying as adherents of Islam (2011 census) as an ethnoreligious group.
The ISSF World Shooting Championships are governed by the International Shooting Sport Federation.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
Jainism is India's sixth-largest religion and is practiced throughout India.
James Andrew Broun-Ramsay, 1st Marquess of Dalhousie (22 April 1812 – 19 December 1860), styled Lord Ramsay until 1838 and known as The Earl of Dalhousie between 1838 and 1849, was a Scottish statesman, and a colonial administrator in British India.
Jammu and Kashmir (ænd) is a state in northern India, often denoted by its acronym, J&K.
"Jana Gana Mana" is the national anthem of India.
Janata Dal was an Indian political party which was formed through the merger of Janata Party factions, the Lok Dal, Indian National Congress (Jagjivan), and the Jan Morcha united on 11 October 1988 on the birth anniversary of Jayaprakash Narayan under the leadership of V. P. Singh.
The Janata Party (JP or JNP) (translation: People's Party) was an amalgam of Indian political parties opposed to the State of Emergency that was imposed between 1975 and 1977 by the Government of India under the Prime Ministership of Indira Gandhi and her party, the Indian National Congress (R).
Jatra (যাত্রা, origin: Yatra meaning procession or journey in Sanskrit) is a popular folk-theatre form of Bengali theatre, spread throughout most of Bengali speaking areas of the Indian subcontinent, including Bangladesh and Indian states of West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Orissa and Tripura As of 2005, there were some 55 troupes based in Calcutta's old jatra district, Chitpur Road, and all together, jatra is a $21m-a-year industry, performed on nearly 4,000 stages in West Bengal alone, where in 2001, over 300 companies employed over 20,000 people, more than the local film industry and urban theatre.
Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese) is an island of Indonesia.
Jawaharlal Nehru (14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence.
Jāti (in Devanagari: जाति, Bengali: জাতি, Telugu:జాతి, Kannada:ಜಾತಿ, Malayalam: ജാതി, Tamil:ஜாதி, literally "birth") is a group of clans, tribes, communities and sub-communities, and religions in India.
Jharkhand (lit. "Bushland" or The land of forest) is a state in eastern India, carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Judicial independence is the concept that the judiciary needs to be kept away from the other branches of government.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
Kabaddi is a contact team sport.
Kabir (कबीर, IAST: Kabīr) was a 15th-century Indian mystic poet and saint, whose writings influenced Hinduism's Bhakti movement and his verses are found in Sikhism's scripture Guru Granth Sahib.
Kalaripayattu (pronounced Kalarippayatt) is a martial art and fighting system, which originated as a style in North Malabar, Kerala, Southern India.
Kalibangān is a town located at on the left or southern banks of the Ghaggar (Ghaggar-Hakra River) in Tehsil Pilibangān, between Suratgarh and Hanumangarh in Hanumangarh District, Rajasthan, India 205 km.
The Kama Sutra (कामसूत्र) is an ancient Indian Hindu text written by Vātsyāyana.
Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in India, mainly in the state of Karnataka, and by significant linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Kerala, Goa and abroad.
Kannada cinema, also known as Chandanavana, Link referring rechristening of sandalwod as chandanavana at world kannada summit is the Indian film industry based in the state of Karnataka where motion pictures are produced in the Kannada language.
Kannauj also spelt Kanauj, is a city, administrative headquarters and a municipal board or Nagar Palika Parishad in Kannauj district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
The Kargil War (करगिल युद्ध, kargil yuddh, کرگل جنگ kargil jang), also known as the Kargil conflict, was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan that took place between May and July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir and elsewhere along the Line of Control (LOC).
Karma (karma,; italic) means action, work or deed; it also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect).
Karnataka also known Kannada Nadu is a state in the south western region of India.
Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.
The Kashmir conflict is a territorial conflict primarily between India and Pakistan, having started just after the partition of India in 1947.
Kashmiri (کأشُر), or Koshur (pronounced kọ̄šur or kạ̄šur) is a language from the Dardic subgroup of Indo-Aryan languages and it is spoken primarily in the Kashmir Valley and Chenab Valley of Jammu and Kashmir.
A katabatic wind (named from the Greek word κατάβασις katabasis, meaning "descending") is the technical name for a drainage wind, a wind that carries high-density air from a higher elevation down a slope under the force of gravity.
Kathak also known in Hindi as कथक is one of the eight major forms of Indian classical dance.
Kathakali (കഥകളി) is one of the major forms of classical Indian dance.
Kaveri (anglicized as Cauvery), also referred as Ponni, is an Indian river flowing through the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
Kālidāsa was a Classical Sanskrit writer, widely regarded as the greatest poet and dramatist in the Sanskrit language of India.
Kerala is a state in South India on the Malabar Coast.
Kessinger Publishing LLC is an American print on demand publishing company located in Whitefish, Montana that specializes in rare, out of print books.
Kho kho (ਖੋ-ਖੋ) is a popular tag sport from India.
Kochi, also known as Cochin, is a major port city on the south-west coast of India bordering the Laccadive Sea.
Kok Borok is the native language of the Borok (Tripura) people of the Indian state of Tripura and neighbouring areas of Bangladesh.
Kolkata (also known as Calcutta, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.
Konkani is an Indo-Aryan language belonging to the Indo-European family of languages and is spoken along the South western coast of India.
The Koshi or Kosi River (कोशी नदी,, कोसी नदी) drains the northern slopes of the Himalayas in Tibet and the southern slopes in Nepal.
The Krishna River is the fourth-biggest river in terms of water inflows and river basin area in India, after the Ganga, Godavari and Brahmaputra.
Kuchipudi is one of the eight major Indian classical dances.
A kurta (कुर्ता, কুর্তা, ਕੁੜਤਾ, کرتہ) is an upper garment for men and women, originating in the Indian subcontinent, with regional variations of form.
Labour in India refers to employment in the economy of India.
Lakshadweep (Lakshadīb), formerly known as the Laccadive, Minicoy, and Aminidivi Islands, is a group of islands in the Laccadive Sea, off the southwestern coast of India.
Lal Bahadur Shastri (2 October 1904 – 11 January 1966) was the 2nd Prime Minister of India and a senior leader of the Indian National Congress political party.
Languages spoken in India belong to several language families, the major ones being the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by 76.5% of Indians and the Dravidian languages spoken by 20.5% of Indians.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
Laurasia was the more northern of two supercontinents (the other being Gondwana) that formed part of the Pangaea supercontinent around (Mya).
Lavani is a genre of music popular in Maharashtra.
Law enforcement in India is performed by numerous law enforcement agencies.
Law of India refers to the system of law in modern India.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
The lentil (Lens culinaris or Lens esculenta) is an edible pulse.
Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.
The Licence Raj or Permit Raj (rāj, meaning "rule" in Hindi) was the elaborate system of licences, regulations and accompanying red tape that were required to set up and run businesses in India between 1947 and 1990.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population.
This is a list of countries by merchandise exports, based on The World Factbook of the CIA.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.
The world sorted by their gross domestic product per capita at nominal values.
This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP (PPP).
Three lists of countries below calculate gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) per capita, i.e., the purchasing power parity (PPP) value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year.
This is a list of countries by merchandise imports, based on The World Factbook of the CIA.
This is a list of countries by size of the labour force mostly based on The World Factbook.
This article is a list of countries by military expenditure in a given year.
This is a list of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel.
This article includes a list of countries and dependent territories sorted by their real gross domestic product growth rate; the rate of growth of the value of all final goods and services produced within a state in a given year.
A district (zilā) is an administrative division of an Indian state or territory.
The Himalaya, which runs across India's northern tier, is the boundary between two of the Earth's great ecozones — the Palearctic, which covers most of temperate-to-arctic Eurasia, and Indomalaya, which covers most of the Indian subcontinent and extends into Indochina, Sundaland (Malaysia and western Indonesia) and the Philippines.
Actually to the Red Data List of International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), there are 48 critically endangered species in India.
There are 24 high courts at the state and union territory level of India, which together with the Supreme Court of India at the national level, comprise the country's judicial system.
Indian folk and tribal dances are simple dances, and are performed to express joy and happiness among themselves.
These are lists of Indian states and union territories by their nominal gross state domestic product (GSDP).
Below is a list of the largest consumer markets of the world, according to data from the World Bank. The countries are sorted by their Household final consumption expenditure (HFCE) which represents consumer spending in nominal terms.
Amazon.com, often referred to as simply Amazon, is an American electronic commerce and cloud computing company with headquarters in Seattle, Washington.
India is a country in South Asia.
National parks in India are IUCN category II protected areas.
The list of Ramsar sites (related to wetland) in India comprises Indian wetlands deemed to be of "international importance" under the Ramsar Convention.
There are eight sovereign states that have successfully detonated nuclear weapons.
There are two articles listing countries according to their per capita GDP.
The Lok Sabha (House of the People) is the lower house of India's bicameral Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha.
The London School of Economics (officially The London School of Economics and Political Science, often referred to as LSE) is a public research university located in London, England and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
Longman, commonly known as Pearson Longman, is a publishing company founded in London, England, in 1724 and is owned by Pearson PLC.
India's Look East policy is an effort to cultivate extensive economic and strategic relations with the nations of Southeast Asia in order to bolster its standing as a regional power and a counterweight to the strategic influence of the People's Republic of China.
The lungi is a type of sarong, originating from the Indian subcontinent, and a traditional garment worn around the waist in Sri Lanka, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Somalia, Nepal, Cambodia, Djibouti, Myanmar and Thailand, Saudi Arabia and Yemen.
M.E. Sharpe, Inc., an academic publisher, was founded by Myron Sharpe in 1958 with the original purpose of publishing translations from Russian in the social sciences and humanities.
Macmillan Publishers Ltd (occasionally known as the Macmillan Group) is an international publishing company owned by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group.
Madhya Pradesh (MP;; meaning Central Province) is a state in central India.
Magadha was an ancient Indian kingdom in southern Bihar, and was counted as one of the sixteen Mahajanapadas (Sanskrit: "Great Countries") of ancient India.
The Mahābhārata (महाभारतम्) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa.
Mahājanapada (lit, from maha, "great", and janapada "foothold of a tribe, country") was one of the sixteen kingdoms or oligarchic republics that existed in ancient India from the sixth to fourth centuries BCE.
The Mahanadi is a major river in East Central India.
Maharashtra (abbr. MH) is a state in the western region of India and is India's second-most populous state and third-largest state by area.
The Maharashtra Open (also formerly known during its run as the McDowell Open, Gold Flake Open, Chennai Open and the Tata Open) is a professional men's tennis tournament played on outdoor hard courts.
Maharashtrian or Marathi cuisine is the cuisine of the Marathi people from the Indian state of Maharashtra.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule.
Mahavira (IAST), also known as Vardhamāna, was the twenty-fourth Tirthankara (ford-maker) of Jainism which was revived and re-established by him.
Maithili (Maithilī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Bihar and Jharkhand states of India and is one of the 22 recognised Indian languages.
Majority rule is a decision rule that selects alternatives which have a majority, that is, more than half the votes.
Malayala Manorama is a morning newspaper, in Malayalam language, published from Kottayam, Kerala, India by Malayala Manorama Company Limited, Headed by Mammen Mathew.It was first published as a weekly on 22 March 1890, and currently has a readership of over 20 million (with a circulation base of over 2.1 million copies).
Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken across the Indian state of Kerala by the Malayali people and it is one of 22 scheduled languages of India.
Malayalam cinema is the Indian film industry based in the southern state of Kerala, dedicated to the production of motion pictures in the Malayalam.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
The Maldives (or; ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ Dhivehi Raa'jey), officially the Republic of Maldives, is a South Asian sovereign state, located in the Indian Ocean, situated in the Arabian Sea.
Despite India's 50% increase in GDP since 1991, more than one third of the world's malnourished children live in India.
Mamuni Mayan (மாமுனி Māmuṉi meaning Brahmarishi Mayan, Sangakala Sirpachithan Mamuni Mayan, Mayamuni, Mayendran) is a culture hero character from Tamil Sangam literature (the Silappathikaram, Manimekalai, and Civaka Cintamani epics), identified with the asura Maya Dānava (Mayasura) of the Mahabharata, the mythical founder of Vastu Shastra.
Mangoes are juicy stone fruit (drupe) from numerous species of tropical trees belonging to the flowering plant genus Mangifera, cultivated mostly for their edible fruit.
Manipur is a state in Northeast India, with the city of Imphal as its capital.
Manipuri dance, also known as Jagoi, is one of the major Indian classical dance forms, named after the region of its origin – Manipur, a state in northeastern India bordering with Myanmar (Burma), Assam, Nagaland and Mizoram.
Manmohan Singh (born 26 September 1932) is an Indian economist and politician who served as the Prime Minister of India from 2004 to 2014.
The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.
The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was an Indian power that dominated much of the Indian subcontinent in the 17th and 18th century.
Marathi cinema refers to Indian films produced in Marathi, the language of the state of Maharashtra, India.
Marathi (मराठी Marāṭhī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by the Marathi people of Maharashtra, India.
Margao or Margão or Madagav is the second largest city by population, and the commercial and cultural capital of the Indian state of Goa.
The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.
McKinsey & Company is an American worldwide management consulting firm.
The term megadiverse country refers to any one of a group of nations that harbour the majority of Earth's species and high numbers of endemic species.
A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones.
Meghalaya is a state in Northeast India.
Mehrgarh (Balochi: Mehrgaŕh; مهرګړ; مہرگڑھ), sometimes anglicized as Mehergarh or Mehrgar, is a Neolithic (7000 BCE to c. 2500/2000 BCE) site located near the Bolan Pass on the Kacchi Plain of Balochistan, Pakistan, to the west of the Indus River valley.
Meitei (also Manipuri, Census of India, 2001, Meithei, Meetei, Meeʁteilon) is the predominant language and lingua franca in the southeastern Himalayan state of Manipur, in northeastern India.
In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.
The Midday Meal Scheme is a school meal programme of the Government of India designed to improve the nutritional status of school-age children nationwide.
The Ministry of Culture is the Indian government ministry charged with preservation and promotion of art and culture.
The Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEFCC) is an Indian government ministry.
The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) or Home Ministry (IAST: Gṛha Maṃtrālaya) is a ministry of the Government of India.
The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (Ministry of I&B) is a branch of the Government of India which is apex body for formulation and administration of the rules and regulations and laws relating to information, broadcasting, the press and films in India.
The Ministry of Law and Justice in the Government of India is a cabinet ministry which deals with the management of the legal affairs, legislative activities and administration of justice in India through its three departments namely the Legislative Department and the Department of Legal Affairs and Department of Justice respectively.
A minority government, or minority cabinet or minority parliament, is a cabinet formed in a parliamentary system when a political party or coalition of parties does not have a majority of overall seats in the parliament.
Minority rights are the normal individual rights as applied to members of racial, ethnic, class, religious, linguistic or gender and sexual minorities; and also the collective rights accorded to minority groups.
Mint is an Indian financial daily newspaper published by HT Media, a Delhi-based media group which is controlled by the KK Birla family and also publishes Hindustan Times.
The Mizo language, or Mizo ṭawng, is a language belonging to the Sino-Tibetan family of languages, spoken natively by the Mizo people in the Mizoram state of India and Chin State in Burma.
Mizoram is a state in Northeast India, with Aizawl as its capital city.
Mohenjo-daro (موئن جو دڙو, meaning 'Mound of the Dead Men'; موئن جو دڑو) is an archaeological site in the province of Sindh, Pakistan.
Mohiniyattam, also spelled Mohiniattam (മോഹിനിയാട്ടം), is one of two classical dances of India that developed and remain popular in the state of Kerala.
Moksha (मोक्ष), also called vimoksha, vimukti and mukti, is a term in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism which refers to various forms of emancipation, liberation, and release. In its soteriological and eschatological senses, it refers to freedom from saṃsāra, the cycle of death and rebirth. In its epistemological and psychological senses, moksha refers to freedom from ignorance: self-realization and self-knowledge. In Hindu traditions, moksha is a central concept and the utmost aim to be attained through three paths during human life; these three paths are dharma (virtuous, proper, moral life), artha (material prosperity, income security, means of life), and kama (pleasure, sensuality, emotional fulfillment). Together, these four concepts are called Puruṣārtha in Hinduism. In some schools of Indian religions, moksha is considered equivalent to and used interchangeably with other terms such as vimoksha, vimukti, kaivalya, apavarga, mukti, nihsreyasa and nirvana. However, terms such as moksha and nirvana differ and mean different states between various schools of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.See.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
The Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms or more briefly known as Mont-Ford Reforms were reforms introduced by the British colonial government in India to introduce self-governing institutions gradually to India.
Motilal Banarsidass (MLBD) is a leading Indian publishing house on Sanskrit and Indology since 1903, located in Delhi, India.
Mudflats or mud flats, also known as tidal flats, are coastal wetlands that form when mud is deposited by tides or rivers.
Mughal architecture is the type of Indo-Islamic architecture developed by the Mughals in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries throughout the ever-changing extent of their empire in the Indian subcontinent.
The Mughal Empire (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān)) or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by a Muslim dynasty with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, but with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; only the first two Mughal emperors were fully Central Asian, while successive emperors were of predominantly Rajput and Persian ancestry. The dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its traits and customs. The Mughal Empire at its peak extended over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent and parts of Afghanistan. It was the second largest empire to have existed in the Indian subcontinent, spanning approximately four million square kilometres at its zenith, after only the Maurya Empire, which spanned approximately five million square kilometres. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, and around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic power, accounting for 24.4% of world GDP, and the world leader in manufacturing, producing 25% of global industrial output up until the 18th century. The Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires (along with the Ottoman Empire and Safavid Persia). The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat (1526). The Mughal emperors had roots in the Turco-Mongol Timurid dynasty of Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan (founder of the Mongol Empire, through his son Chagatai Khan) and Timur (Turco-Mongol conqueror who founded the Timurid Empire). During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire. The "classic period" of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as religious harmony, and the monarchs were interested in local religious and cultural traditions. Akbar was a successful warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar. All Mughal emperors were Muslims; Akbar, however, propounded a syncretic religion in the latter part of his life called Dīn-i Ilāhī, as recorded in historical books like Ain-i-Akbari and Dabistān-i Mazāhib. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in the local societies during most of its existence, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Maratha Empire|Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. The reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658, was the zenith of Mughal architecture. He erected several large monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Badshahi Mosque, the Jama Masjid, Delhi, and the Lahore Fort. The Mughal Empire reached the zenith of its territorial expanse during the reign of Aurangzeb and also started its terminal decline in his reign due to Maratha military resurgence under Category:History of Bengal Category:History of West Bengal Category:History of Bangladesh Category:History of Kolkata Category:Empires and kingdoms of Afghanistan Category:Medieval India Category:Historical Turkic states Category:Mongol states Category:1526 establishments in the Mughal Empire Category:1857 disestablishments in the Mughal Empire Category:History of Pakistan.
Mughal paintings are a particular style of South Asian painting, generally confined to miniatures either as book illustrations or as single works to be kept in albums, which emerged from Persian miniature painting (itself largely of Chinese origin), with Indian Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist influences, and developed largely in the court of the Mughal Empire of the 16th to 18th centuries.
A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition.
Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
The Mumbai Marathon (known as the Tata Mumbai Marathon for sponsorship reasons by Tata Consultancy Services (TCS)), is an annual international marathon held in Mumbai, India, on the third Sunday of January every year.
The mung bean (Vigna radiata), alternatively known as the green gram, maash, or moong Sanskrit मुद्ग / mŪgd, is a plant species in the legume family.
The music of India includes multiple varieties of classical music, folk music, filmi, Indian rock and Indian pop.
Musti-Yuddha (Sanskrit and मुष्टि युद्ध; مُشٹی یُدّھاَ) is the traditional South Asian form of boxing.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Nagaland is a state in Northeast India.
The following table lists the names of India in its official languages.
Narendra Damodardas Modi (born 17 September 1950) is an Indian politician serving as the 14th and current Prime Minister of India since 2014.
The Narmada, also called the Rewa and previously also known as Nerbudda,even Shankari, is a river in central India and the sixth longest river in the Indian subcontinent.
The National Association of Software and Services Companies (NASSCOM) is a trade association of Indian Information Technology (IT) and Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) industry.
The National Democratic Alliance (NDA) is a centre-right coalition of political parties in India.
The National Informatics Centre (NIC) (Rashtriya Suchna Vigyan Kendra) is the premier science & technology organisation of Government of India in informatics services and information and communication technology (ICT) applications.
A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy.
National School of Drama or NSD) is a theatre training institute situated at New Delhi, India. It is an autonomous organization under Ministry of Culture, Government of India. It was set up in 1959 by the Sangeet Natak Akademi, and became an independent school in 1975. In 2005 it was granted deemed university status, but in 2011 it was revoked on the institute's request.
The Republic of India has several official national symbols including a historical document, a flag, an emblem, an anthem, a memorial tower as well as several national heroes.
Nautanki is one of the most popular folk operatic theater performance forms of South Asia, particularly in northern India.
Navi Mumbai (IPA: /nəvɪ mʊmˈbaɪ/) is a planned city off the west coast of the Indian state of Maharashtra in Konkan division.
A Naxal or Naxalite is a member of the Communist Party of India (Maoist).
Nekkhamma (Sanskrit: नैष्काम्य) is a Pali word generally translated as "renunciation" or "the pleasure of renunciation" while also conveying more specifically "giving up the world and leading a holy life" or "freedom from lust, craving and desires." In Buddhism's Noble Eightfold Path, nekkhamma is the first practice associated with "Right Intention." In the Theravada list of ten perfections, nekkhamma is the third practice of "perfection." It involves non-attachment (detachment).
Nelumbo nucifera, also known as Indian lotus, sacred lotus, bean of India, Egyptian bean or simply lotus, is one of two extant species of aquatic plant in the family Nelumbonaceae.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Nepali known by endonym Khas-kura (खस कुरा) is an Indo-Aryan language of the sub-branch of Eastern Pahari.
The net domestic product (NDP) equals the gross domestic product (GDP) minus depreciation on a country's capital goods.
New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of Government of India.
The category of newly industrialized country (NIC) is a socioeconomic classification applied to several countries around the world by political scientists and economists.
The Nilgiri langur (Trachypithecus johnii) is a lutung (a type of Old World monkey) found in the Nilgiri Hills of the Western Ghats in South India.
The NKP Salve Challenger Trophy, commonly referred to as the Challenger Series, was an Indian List A cricket tournament organized by the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI).
No first use (NFU) refers to a pledge or a policy by a nuclear power not to use nuclear weapons as a means of warfare unless first attacked by an adversary using nuclear weapons.
The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
Nonviolence is the personal practice of being harmless to self and others under every condition.
Nonviolent resistance (NVR or nonviolent action) is the practice of achieving goals such as social change through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, satyagraha, or other methods, while being nonviolent.
Northeast India (officially North Eastern Region, NER) is the easternmost region of India representing both a geographic and political administrative division of the country.
Nuclear power is the fifth-largest source of electricity in India after coal, gas, hydroelectricity and wind power.
The Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) is a multilateral export control regime and a group of nuclear supplier countries that seek to prevent nuclear proliferation by controlling the export of materials, equipment and technology that can be used to manufacture nuclear weapons.
A nuclear triad is a three-pronged military force structure that consists of land-launched nuclear missiles, nuclear-missile-armed submarines and strategic aircraft with nuclear bombs and missiles.
Oceanic crust is the uppermost layer of the oceanic portion of a tectonic plate.
Odia (ଓଡ଼ିଆ) (formerly romanized as Oriya) is a language spoken by 4.2% of India's population.
Odisha (formerly Orissa) is one of the 29 states of India, located in eastern India.
Odissi (ଓଡ଼ିଶୀ Oḍiśī), also referred to as Orissi in older literature, is a major ancient Indian classical dance that originated in the Hindu temples of Odisha – an eastern coastal state of India.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages (the other being Avestan).
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.
One World Media is a non-profit organisation, registered in the UK as a charitable trust.
The original jurisdiction of a court is the power to hear a case for the first time, as opposed to appellate jurisdiction, when a higher court has the power to review a lower court's decision.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to India: India – seventh-largest country by area, located on the Indian subcontinent in South Asia.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Oxford World's Classics is an imprint of Oxford University Press.
Pamulaparti Venkata Narasimha Rao (28 June 1921 – 23 December 2004) was an Indian lawyer and politician who served as the 9th Prime Minister of India (1991–1996).
Pusarla Venkata Sindhu (born 5 July 1995) is an Indian professional badminton player.
Pachisi (पचीसी) is a cross and circle board game that originated in medieval India which has been described as the "national game of India".
Pajamas (US) or pyjamas, often shortened to PJs or jammies, can refer to several related types of clothing originating from the Indian subcontinent.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Pala Empire was an imperial power during the Late Classical period on the Indian subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal.
The Pallava dynasty was a South Indian dynasty that existed from 275 CE to 897 CE, ruling a portion of southern India.
The Pandyan dynasty was an ancient Tamil dynasty, one of the three Tamil dynasties, the other two being the Chola and the Chera.
Parcheesi is a brand-name American adaptation of the Indian cross and circle board game Pachisi, published by Parker Brothers and Winning Moves.
The Parliament of India is the supreme legislative body of the Republic of India.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
The Partition of India was the division of British India in 1947 which accompanied the creation of two independent dominions, India and Pakistan.
Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) is the most widely grown type of millet.
Pearson Education (see also Pearson PLC) is a British-owned education publishing and assessment service to schools and corporations, as well as directly to students.
Pearson plc is a British multinational publishing and education company headquartered in London.
Pehlwani is a form of wrestling from the South Asia.
Penguin Books is a British publishing house.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The pharmaceutical industry in India ranks 3rd in the world terms of volume and 14th in terms of value.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Picador is an imprint of Pan Macmillan in the United Kingdom and Australia and of Macmillan Publishing in the United States.
The pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) is a perennial legume from the family Fabaceae.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
Pluralism as a political philosophy is the recognition and affirmation of diversity within a political body, which permits the peaceful coexistence of different interests, convictions and lifestyles.
Pokhran-II was the series of five nuclear bomb test explosions conducted by India at the Indian Army's Pokhran Test Range in May 1998.
Political culture is defined by the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences as the "set of attitudes, beliefs and sentiments that give order and meaning to a political process and which provide the underlying assumptions and rules that govern behavior in the political system".
A political party is an organised group of people, often with common views, who come together to contest elections and hold power in government.
Popular Prakashan is an Indian independent publisher and bookseller founded in Bombay in 1924.
Poverty is a significant issue in India, despite having one of the fastest-growing economies in the world, clocked at a growth rate of 7.6% in 2015, and a sizable consumer economy.
The preamble to the Constitution of India is a brief introductory statement that sets out the guiding people and principles of the document, and it indicates the source from which the ordinary document derives its authority, meaning,.
Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc.
The President of the Republic of India is the head of state of India and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces.
PricewaterhouseCoopers (doing business as PwC) is a multinational professional services network headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
A prime minister is the head of a cabinet and the leader of the ministers in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.
The Prime Minister of India is the leader of the executive of the Government of India.
Project Tiger is a tiger conservation programme launched in 1973 by the Government of India during Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's tenure.
As of May 2004, the protected areas of India cover, roughly 4.95% of the total surface area.
Protectionism is the economic policy of restricting imports from other countries through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, import quotas, and a variety of other government regulations.
India, being a culturally diverse and fervent society, celebrates various holidays and festivals.
Puducherry (literally New Town in Tamil), formerly known as Pondicherry, is a union territory of India.
The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.
Punjab is a state in northern India.
Punjabi cinema (پنجابی سنیما (Shahmukhi)), sometimes metonymously referred to as Pollywood, is the Punjabi language film industry of the Punjabi people of the world.
Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
Rabindranath Tagore FRAS, also written Ravīndranātha Ṭhākura (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali polymath who reshaped Bengali literature and music, as well as Indian art with Contextual Modernism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Rajasthan (literally, "Land of Kings") is India's largest state by area (or 10.4% of India's total area).
Rajiv Ratna Gandhi (20 August 1944 – 21 May 1991) was an Indian politician who served as the 6th Prime Minister of India from 1984 to 1989.
The Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna, officially known as Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna Award in Sports and Games, is the highest sporting honour of the Republic of India.
Rajput (from Sanskrit raja-putra, "son of a king") is a large multi-component cluster of castes, kin bodies, and local groups, sharing social status and ideology of genealogical descent originating from the Indian subcontinent.
The Rajya Sabha or Council of States is the upper house of the Parliament of India.
Ram Nath Kovind (born 1 October 1945) is the 14th and current President of India, in office since 25 July 2017.
Ramayana (रामायणम्) is an ancient Indian epic poem which narrates the struggle of the divine prince Rama to rescue his wife Sita from the demon king Ravana.
Ramlila (Rāmlīlā) (literally 'Rama’s lila or play') is any dramatic folk re-enactment of the life of Rama according to the ancient Hindu epic Ramayana or secondary literature based on it such as the Ramcharitmanas.
The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands.
The Ranji Trophy is a domestic first-class cricket championship played in India between teams representing regional and state cricket associations.
The Rann of Kutch is a large area of salt marshes located mostly in Gujarat (primarily the Kutch district), India and the southern tip of Sindh, Pakistan.
Rediff.com is an Indian news, information, entertainment and shopping web portal, founded in 1996 as "Rediff On The NeT".
Religion in India is characterised by a diversity of religious beliefs and practices.
Religious violence in India includes acts of violence by followers of one religious group against followers and institutions of another religious group, often in the form of rioting.
India is one of the countries with the largest production of energy from renewable sources.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
Republic Day honours the date on which the Constitution of India came into effect on 26 January 1950 replacing the Government of India Act (1935) as the governing document of India.
RIA Novosti (РИА Новости), sometimes RIA (РИА) for short, was Russia's international news agency until 2013 and continues to be the name of a state-operated domestic Russian-language news agency.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
Right-wing politics hold that certain social orders and hierarchies are inevitable, natural, normal or desirable, typically supporting this position on the basis of natural law, economics or tradition.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act of 1919, popularly known as the Rowlatt Act and also known as the Black Act, was a legislative act passed by the Imperial Legislative Council in Delhi on March 18, 1919, indefinitely extending the emergency measures of preventive indefinite detention, incarceration without trial and judicial review enacted in the Defence of India Act 1915 during the First World War.
Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.
SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.
The Sahitya Akademi, India's National Academy of Letters, is an organisation dedicated to the promotion of literature in the languages of India.
Saina Nehwal (born 17 March 1990) is an Indian professional badminton singles player.She won gold at 2018 Commonwealth Games in women's singles after defeating P. V. Sindhu after which she became the first Indian to win 2 singles gold in commonwealth games.
The Sangam literature (Tamil: சங்க இலக்கியம், Sanga ilakkiyam) is the ancient Tamil literature of the period in the history of ancient southern India (known as the Thamizhagam or the Tamilagam) spanning from c. 300 BCE to 300 CE.
Sangeet Natak Akademi (The National Academy for Music, Dance and Drama in English) is the national level academy for performing arts set up by the Government of India.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Santali (Ol Chiki:; Eastern Nagari: সাঁওতালি) is a language in the Munda subfamily of Austroasiatic languages, related to Ho and Mundari, spoken mainly in the Indian states of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh.
A sari, saree, or shariThe name of the garment in various regional languages include:শাড়ি, साड़ी, ଶାଢୀ, ಸೀರೆ,, साडी, कापड, चीरे,, സാരി, साडी, सारी, ਸਾਰੀ, புடவை, చీర, ساڑى is a female garment from the Indian subcontinent that consists of a drape varying from five to nine yards (4.5 metres to 8 metres) in length and two to four feet (60 cm to 1.20 m) in breadth that is typically wrapped around the waist, with one end draped over the shoulder, baring the midriff.
The Satpura Range is a range of hills in central India.
Sattriya (সত্ৰীয়া), or Sattriya Nritya, is a major Indian classical dance.
"Satyameva Jayate" (सत्यमेव जयते; lit. "Truth alone triumphs.") is a mantra from the ancient Indian scripture Mundaka Upanishad.
The Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) are officially designated groups of historically disadvantaged people in India.
The first known sculpture in the Indian subcontinent is from the Indus Valley civilization (3300–1700 BC), found in sites at Mohenjo-daro and Harappa.
Seafloor spreading is a process that occurs at mid-ocean ridges, where new oceanic crust is formed through volcanic activity and then gradually moves away from the ridge.
Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).
The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.
Sexual intercourse (or coitus or copulation) is principally the insertion and thrusting of the penis, usually when erect, into the vagina for sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.
Mirza Shahab-ud-din Baig Muhammad Khan Khurram (5 January 1592 – 22 January 1666), better known by his regnal name Shah Jahan (شاہ جہاں), (Persian:شاه جهان "King of the World"), was the fifth Mughal emperor, who reigned from 1628 to 1658.
Shaivism (Śaivam) (Devanagari: शैव संप्रदाय) (Bengali: শৈব) (Tamil: சைவம்) (Telugu: శైవ సాంప్రదాయం) (Kannada:ಶೈವ ಸಂಪ್ರದಾಯ) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism that reveres Shiva as the Supreme Being.
Shakuntala, also known as The Recognition of Shakuntala, The Sign of Shakuntala, and many other variants (Devanagari: अभिज्ञानशाकुन्तलम् – Abhijñānashākuntala), is a Sanskrit play by the ancient Indian poet Kālidāsa, dramatizing the story of Shakuntala told in the epic Mahabharata.
Shalwar kameez, also spelled salwar kameez or shalwar qameez, is a traditional outfit originating in the Indian subcontinent.
Shilpa Shastras (शिल्प शास्त्र) literally means the Science of Shilpa (arts and crafts).
Sholas are the local name for patches of stunted tropical montane forest found in valleys amid rolling grassland in the higher montane regions of South India.
Shorea robusta, also known as śāl, sakhua or shala tree, is a species of tree belonging to the Dipterocarpaceae family.
The Siachen Glacier (Hindi: सियाचिन ग्लेशियर, Urdu: سیاچن گلیشیر) is a glacier located in the eastern Karakoram range in the Himalayas at about, just northeast of the point NJ9842 where the Line of Control between India and Pakistan ends.
The Sikh Empire (also Sikh Khalsa Raj, Sarkar-i-Khalsa or Pañjab (Punjab) Empire) was a major power in the Indian subcontinent, formed under the leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, who established a secular empire based in the Punjab.
Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.
Sikhism is the fourth largest religion in India and has existed for 548 years, beginning with the birth of its founder Guru Nanak.
Sikkim is a state in Northeast India.
Silambam (சிலம்பம்) is a weapon-based martial art of India, more specifically in the state of Tamil Nadu, where it originated around 1000 BC.
Sindhi (سنڌي, सिन्धी,, ਸਿੰਧੀ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the historical Sindh region, spoken by the Sindhi people.
The Sino-Indian War (भारत-चीन युद्ध Bhārat-Chīn Yuddh), also known as the Sino-Indian Border Conflict, was a war between China and India that occurred in 1962.
The Sino-Tibetan languages, in a few sources also known as Trans-Himalayan, are a family of more than 400 languages spoken in East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia.
Smiling BuddhaThis test has many code names.
The snow leopard or ounce (Panthera uncia) is a large cat native to the mountain ranges of Central and South Asia.
Socialism in India is a political movement founded early in the 20th century, as a part of the broader Indian independence movement against the colonial British Raj.
A socialist state, socialist republic or socialist country (sometimes workers' state or workers' republic) is a sovereign state constitutionally dedicated to the establishment of socialism.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is the regional intergovernmental organization and geopolitical union of nations in South Asia.
The South Asian Games (SAF Games, SAG, or SA games, & formerly known as South Asian Federation Games) are a biennial multi-sport event held among the athletes from South Asia.
The South Asian river dolphin (Platanista gangetica) is an endangered freshwater or river dolphin found in the Indian subcontinent which is split into two subspecies, the Ganges river dolphin (P. g. gangetica)(~3,500 individuals) and the Indus river dolphin (P. g. minor)(~1,500 individuals).
South India is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area.
The South Western Ghats montane rain forests are an ecoregion of southern India, covering the southern portion of the Western Ghats range in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, at elevations over 1000 meters.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
The Speaker of the Lok Sabha is the presiding officer of the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Parliament of India.
The spice trade refers to the trade between historical civilizations in Asia, Northeast Africa and Europe.
Springer Publishing is an American publishing company of academic journals and books, focusing on the fields of nursing, gerontology, psychology, social work, counseling, public health, and rehabilitation (neuropsychology).
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
A staple food, or simply a staple, is a food that is eaten routinely and in such quantities that it constitutes a dominant portion of a standard diet for a given people, supplying a large fraction of energy needs and generally forming a significant proportion of the intake of other nutrients as well.
The State Emblem of India, as the national emblem of India is called, is an adaptation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath, preserved in the Varanasi Sarnath Museum in India.
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities.
The States Reorganisation Act, 1956 was a major reform of the boundaries of India's states and territories, organising them along linguistic lines.
Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. is a publisher of a broad range of subject areas, with multiple imprints and more than 5,000 titles in print.
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) is an international institute based in Sweden, dedicated to research into conflict, armaments, arms control and disarmament.
Subduction is a geological process that takes place at convergent boundaries of tectonic plates where one plate moves under another and is forced or sinks due to gravity into the mantle.
The Sukhoi/HAL Fifth Generation Fighter Aircraft (FGFA) or Perspective Multi-role Fighter (PMF) was a fifth-generation fighter aircraft planned for India and Russia.
Sumitra Mahajan (born 12 April 1943) is an Indian politician who is the Speaker of the 16th Lok Sabha.
The Sundarbans is a vast forest in the coastal region of the Bay of Bengal and considered one of the natural wonders of the world.
The Supreme Court of India is the highest judicial forum and final court of appeal under the Constitution of India, the highest constitutional court, with the power of constitutional review.
The Taj Mahal (meaning "Crown of the Palace") is an ivory-white marble mausoleum on the south bank of the Yamuna river in the Indian city of Agra.
A talisman is an object that someone believes holds magical properties that bring good luck to the possessor or protect the possessor from evil or harm.
Tamasha (तमाशा) is a traditional form of Marathi theatre, often with singing and dancing, widely performed by local or travelling theatre groups within the state of Maharashtra, India.
Tamil cinema is Indian motion pictures produced in the Tamil language.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
Tamil literature (தமிழ் இலக்கியம்) refers to the literature in the Tamil language.
Tamil Nadu (• tamiḻ nāḍu ? literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India.
The Tapti River (or Tapi) is a river in central India between the Godavari and Narmada rivers.
In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.
Teak (Tectona grandis) is a tropical hardwood tree species placed in the flowering plant family Lamiaceae.
A tehsil (also known as a mandal, taluk, taluq or taluka) is an administrative division of some countries of South Asia.
Telangana is a state in the south of India.
The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) is a statutory body set up by the Government of India under section 3 of the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India Act, 1997.
India's telecommunication network is the second largest in the world by number of telephone users (both fixed and mobile phone) with 1.206 billion subscribers as on 31 March 2018.
Subscriber Trunk Dialling (STD) codes are assigned to each city/town/village, with the larger Metro cities having shorter area codes (STD codes), which are from 2 to 8 digits long.
Telugu cinema, also known by its sobriquet Tollywood, is the segment of Indian cinema dedicated to the production of motion pictures in the Telugu language, based in Film Nagar, a neighborhood of Hyderabad, Telangana.
Telugu (తెలుగు) is a South-central Dravidian language native to India.
Temperate coniferous forest is a terrestrial biome found in temperate regions of the world with warm summers and cool winters and adequate rainfall to sustain a forest.
Terukkuttu is a Tamil street theatre form practised in Tamil Nadu state of India and Tamil-speaking regions of Sri Lanka.
The Tethys Ocean (Ancient Greek: Τηθύς), Tethys Sea or Neotethys was an ocean during much of the Mesozoic Era located between the ancient continents of Gondwana and Laurasia, before the opening of the Indian and Atlantic oceans during the Cretaceous Period.
Thai Pongal (தைப்பொங்கல்)is a harvest festival dedicated to the Sun God.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Thar Desert, also known as the Great Indian Desert, is a large arid region in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent that covers an area of and forms a natural boundary between India and Pakistan.
The Australian is a broadsheet newspaper published in Australia from Monday to Saturday each week since 14 July 1964.
The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is a nonprofit news organization that publishes daily articles in electronic format as well as a weekly print edition.
The Economic Times is an English-language, Indian daily newspaper published by the Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd..
In India, "the Emergency" refers to a 21-month period from 1975 to 1977 when Prime Minister Indira Gandhi had a state of emergency declared across the country.
The Globe and Mail is a Canadian newspaper printed in five cities in western and central Canada.
The Hindu is an Indian daily newspaper, headquartered at Chennai.
The Short Oxford History of the Modern World series is a book series published by the Oxford University Press publishing house.
The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
The earliest form of classical theatre of India was the Sanskrit theatre which came into existence only after the development of Greek and Roman theatres in the west.
Third Front in Indian politics refers to various alliances formed by smaller parties at various points of time since 1989 to offer a third option to Indian voters, challenging the Indian National Congress and Bhartiya Janata Party.
The tiger (Panthera tigris) is the largest cat species, most recognizable for its pattern of dark vertical stripes on reddish-orange fur with a lighter underside.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Transparency International e.V. (TI) is an international non-governmental organization which is based in Berlin, Germany, and was founded in 1993.
Transport system in India consists of transport by land, water, and air.
The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.
Tripura 'ত্রিপুরা (Bengali)' is a state in Northeast India.
Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests (TSMF), also known as tropical moist forests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome, sometimes referred to as jungle.
In geology, a trough is a linear structural depression that extends laterally over a distance.
Trusted Media Brands, Inc. (TMBI), formerly known as the Reader's Digest Association, Inc. (RDA), is an American multi-platform media and publishing company that is co-headquartered in New York City and White Plains, New York.
Tulsidas (Hindi: तुलसीदास;, also known as Goswami Tulsidas (गोस्वामी तुलसीदास); 1511–1623) was a realized soul and saint, poet, often called reformer and philosopher from Ramanandi Sampradaya, in the lineage of Jagadguru Ramanandacharya renowned for his devotion to the Lord Shri Rama.
Twenty20 cricket, sometimes written Twenty-20, and often abbreviated to T20, is a short form of cricket.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
The Union Council of Ministers exercises executive authority in the Republic of India.
A union territory is a type of administrative division in the Republic of India.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA) is part of the United Nations Secretariat and is responsible for the follow-up to major United Nations Summits and Conferences, as well as services to the United Nations Economic and Social Council and the Second and Third Committees of the United Nations General Assembly.
The United Progressive Alliance (UPA) is a coalition of centre-left political parties in India formed after the 2004 general election.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.
The University of Hawaii Press is a university press that is part of the University of Hawaiokinai.
The University of Iowa Press is a university press that is part of the University of Iowa.
The University of Minnesota Press is a university press that is part of the University of Minnesota.
University Press of America is an academic publisher based in the United States.
The Upanishads (उपनिषद्), a part of the Vedas, are ancient Sanskrit texts that contain some of the central philosophical concepts and ideas of Hinduism, some of which are shared with religious traditions like Buddhism and Jainism.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
Uttar Pradesh (IAST: Uttar Pradeś) is a state in northern India.
Uttarakhand, officially the State of Uttarakhand (Uttarākhaṇḍ Rājya), formerly known as Uttaranchal, is a state in the northern part of India.
Vachellia nilotica (commonly known as gum arabic tree, babul, thorn mimosa, Egyptian acacia or thorny acacia) is a tree in the family Fabaceae.
Vaisakhi (IAST), also known as Baisakhi, Vaishakhi, or Vasakhi is a historical and religious festival in Sikhism and Hinduism.
Vande Mataram (IAST) (English Translation: Mother, I bow to thee) is a Bengali poem written by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee in 1870s, which he included in his 1881 novel Anandamath.
Varma Kalai (Tamil:வர்மக்கலை varmakkalai),is a Tamil term for the Indian knowledge of vital points.
Vastu shastra is a traditional Hindu system of architecture which literally translates to "science of architecture." These are texts found on the Indian subcontinent that describe principles of design, layout, measurements, ground preparation, space arrangement and spatial geometry.
The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.
Vedic and Sanskrit literature comprises the spoken or sung literature of the Vedas from the early-to-mid 2nd to mid 1st millennium BCE, and continues with the oral tradition of the Sanskrit epics of Iron Age India; the golden age of Classical Sanskrit literature dates to Late Antiquity (roughly the 3rd to 8th centuries CE).
The Vedic period, or Vedic age, is the period in the history of the northwestern Indian subcontinent between the end of the urban Indus Valley Civilisation and a second urbanisation in the central Gangetic Plain which began in BCE.
Muppavarapu Venkaiah Naidu (born 1 July 1949) is an Indian politician and the current Vice-President of India, in office since 11 August 2017.
The Vice-President of India is the second-highest constitutional office in India after the President.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Vigna mungo, black gram, urad bean, minapa pappu, mungo bean or black matpe bean (māṣa) is a bean grown in the Indian subcontinent.
The Vijayanagara Empire (also called Karnata Empire, and the Kingdom of Bisnegar by the Portuguese) was based in the Deccan Plateau region in South India.
The Vikrant class (formerly Project 71 Air Defence Ship (ADS) or Indigenous Aircraft Carrier (IAC)) is a class of aircraft carrier being built for the Indian Navy.
The Vindhya Range(also known as Vindhyachal)() is a complex, discontinuous chain of mountain ridges, hill ranges, highlands and plateau escarpments in west-central India.
West Bengal (Paśchimbāṅga) is an Indian state, located in Eastern India on the Bay of Bengal.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
Western Ghats also known as Sahyadri (Benevolent Mountains) is a mountain range that runs parallel to the western coast of the Indian peninsula, located entirely in India.
The Westminster system is a parliamentary system of government developed in the United Kingdom.
The White-Rumped Vulture (Gyps bengalensis) is an Old World vulture native to South and Southeast Asia.
Whole-wheat flour (in the US) or wholemeal flour (in the UK) is a powdery substance, a basic food ingredient, derived by grinding or mashing the whole grain of wheat, also known as the wheatberry.
India prides for a variety of animal life.
The Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted for protection of plants and animal species.
Wildlife sanctuaries are established by IUCN category IV protected areas.
William Morrow and Company is an American publishing company founded by William Morrow in 1926.
The status of women in India has been subject to many great changes over the past few millennia.
The works of Rabindranath Tagore consist of poems, novels, short stories, dramas, paintings, drawings, and music that Bengali poet and Brahmo philosopher Rabindranath Tagore created over his lifetime.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Economic Forum (WEF) is a Swiss nonprofit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva, Switzerland.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
The UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves (WNBR) covers internationally designated protected areas, each known as biosphere reserves, that are meant to demonstrate a balanced relationship between people and nature (e.g. encourage sustainable development).
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
Yakshagana (Kannada: "ಯಕ್ಷಗಾನ", Tulu: "ಆಟ") is a traditional theatre form that combines dance, music, dialogue, costume, make-up, and stage techniques with a unique style and form.
The Yamuna (Hindustani: /jəmʊnaː/), also known as the Jumna, (not to be mistaken with the Jamuna of Bangladesh) is the longest and the second largest tributary river of the Ganges (Ganga) in northern India.
Yoga (Sanskrit, योगः) is a group of physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India.
The Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali are a collection of 196 Indian sutras (aphorisms) on the theory and practice of yoga.
Zoogeography is the branch of the science of biogeography that is concerned with the geographic distribution (present and past) of animal species.
The Zoological Survey of India (ZSI), founded on 1 July 1916 by Government of India Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, as premier Indian organisation in zoological research and studies to promote the survey, exploration and research of the fauna in the country.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
Zoroastrianism in India has significant history within the country.
.in is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for India.
The 1951 Asian Games, officially known as the First Asian Games, was a multi-sport event celebrated in New Delhi, India from 4 to 11 March 1951.
The 9th Asian Games were held from November 19, 1982 to December 4, 1982, in Delhi, India.
The 1983 Cricket World Cup (officially the Prudential Cup '83) was the 3rd edition of the Cricket World Cup tournament.
The 1987 Cricket World Cup (officially the Reliance Cup 1987) was the fourth edition of the ICC Cricket World Cup tournament.
The 1988 Maldives coup d'état was the attempt by a group of Maldivians led by Abdullah Luthufi and assisted by armed mercenaries of a Tamil secessionist organisation from Sri Lanka, the People's Liberation Organisation of Tamil Eelam (PLOTE), to overthrow the government in the island republic of Maldives.
The 1991 Indian economic crisis had its roots in 1985 when India began having balance of payments problems as imports swelled, leaving the country in a twin deficit: the Indian trade balance was in deficit at a time when the government was running a large fiscal deficit.
The 1996 Cricket World Cup, also called the Wills World Cup 1996 after its official sponsors, ITC's Wills brand, was the sixth Cricket World Cup, organised by the International Cricket Council (ICC).
The 2002 ICC Champions Trophy was a cricket tournament that was held in Sri Lanka in 2002.
The 2003 Afro-Asian Games, officially known as the First Afro-Asian Games or I Afro-Asian Games and unofficially known as the Inaugural Afro-Asian Games, was a major international multi-sport event held in Hyderabad, India, from October 24 (excluding football and hockey, which began on October 22 and October 23 respectively) to November 1, 2003.
The 2006 ICC Champions Trophy was a One Day International cricket tournament held in India from 7 October to 5 November 2006.
The 2007 ICC World Twenty20 was the inaugural Twenty20 cricket world championship, contested in South Africa from 11 to 24 September 2007.
The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games and commonly known as Delhi 2010, was an international multi-sport event that was held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010.
The 2010 Men's Hockey World Cup was the 12th edition of Hockey World Cup men's field hockey tournament.
The 15th Indian Census was conducted in two phases, house listing and population enumeration.
The 2011 ICC Cricket World Cup (officially known as ICC Cricket World Cup 2011) was the tenth Cricket World Cup.
The 2013 ICC Champions Trophy was a One Day International cricket tournament held in England and Wales between 6 and 23 June 2013.
The 2017 FIFA U-17 World Cup was the 17th FIFA U-17 World Cup, a biennial international football tournament contested by men's under-17 national teams.
Project 596, originally named by the US intelligence agencies Chic-1, is the codename of the People's Republic of China's first nuclear weapons test, detonated on October 16, 1964, at the Lop Nur test site.
Bharat Ganrajya, Bharat Varsha, Bhart, Bhārat Gaṇarājya, Bhārtiya Prajāsattāk, Etymology of India, Hindistan, INDIA, ISO 3166-1 alpha-3/IND, ISO 3166-1:IN, Indai, Indea, India (country), India proper, India's, India., Indian Republic, Indian State, Indian republic, Indya, Pedanindrakolanu, Republic Of India, Republic of India, Republic of india, The Republic of India, جمہوریہ بھارت, جمہوٗرِیت بًارت, هندستانڀارت،, इंडिया, जुम्हूरियत भारत, भारतमहाराज्यम्, भारतीय गणराज्याच्या, भारतीय प्रजासत्ताक, ভারত, ভারত গণরাজ্য, ভারতরাষ্টৃ, ভারতীয় প্রজাতন্ত্র, ভাৰত গণৰাজ্য, ਭਾਰਤ ਗਣਤੰਤਰ, ભારતીય ગણતંત્ર, ଭାରତ ଗଣରାଜ୍ଯ, இந்திய, இந்தியக் குடியரசு, భారత గణతంత్ర రాజ్యము, భారత రిపబ్లిక్, ಭಾರತ ಗಣರಾಜ್ಯ, ഭാരത മഹാരാജ്യം.