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India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. [1]

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Abhijñānashākuntala or Abhijñānaśākuntalam (Devanagari: अभिज्ञानशाकुन्तलम्), is a well-known Sanskrit play by Kālidāsa, dramatizing the story of Shakuntala told in the epic Mahabharata.

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Abrahamic religions (also Semitic religions) are monotheistic religions of West Asian origin, emphasizing and tracing their common origin to Abraham or recognizing a spiritual tradition identified with him.

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In religious philosophy, the Absolute is the concept of a form Being which transcends limited, conditional, everyday existence.

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Adivasi is an umbrella term for a heterogeneous set of ethnic and tribal groups considered the aboriginal population of India.

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Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Afġānistān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent.

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Agra (Āgrā) is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, Northwestern India.

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Ahmedabad (also known as Amdavad Gujarati pronunciation) is the largest city and former capital of Gujarat.

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Abu'l-Fath Jalal ud-din Muhammad Akbar, popularly known as Akbar I (literally "the great"; 15 October 1542– 27 October 1605) and later Akbar the Great (Urdu: Akbar-e-Azam; literally "Great the Great"), was Mughal Emperor from 1556 until his death.

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Amazon.com, Inc. is an American electronic commerce and cloud computing company with headquarters in Seattle, Washington.

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The term anatomically modern humans (AMH) or anatomically modern Homo sapiens (AMHS) refers in paleoanthropology to individual members of the species Homo sapiens with an appearance consistent with the range of phenotypes in modern humans.

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Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (circa 600 AD).

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The Andaman and Nicobar Islands are a group of islands at the juncture of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea, and are a Union Territory of India.

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The Andaman Islands (अंडमान द्वीप) form an archipelago in the Bay of Bengal between India, to the west, and Myanmar, to the north and east.

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The Andaman Sea (আন্দামান সাগর; अंडमान सागर) is a body of water to the southeast of the Bay of Bengal, south of Myanmar (Burma), west of Thailand, north-west of Malay Peninsula, north of Sumatra and east of the Andaman Islands, India, from which it takes its name; it is part of the Indian Ocean.

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Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India, situated on the southeastern coast of the country.

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Anglo-Indians are people who have mixed Indian and British ancestry, or people of British descent born or living in the Indian subcontinent or Burma, now mainly historical in the latter sense.

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Appellate jurisdiction is the power of a court to review decisions and change outcomes of decisions of lower courts.

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The Arabian Sea is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by northeastern Somalia and the Arabian Peninsula, and on the east by India.

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The Aravali Range (हिन्दी, संस्कृ.

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అఆఇఈ The architecture of India is rooted in its history, culture and religion.

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The Arihant class (Sanskrit, for Killer of Enemies) is a class of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines being built for the Indian Navy.

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The Arjuna Awards are given by the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports, government of India to recognize outstanding achievement in National sports.

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Arranged marriages are traditional in South Asian society and continue to account for an overwhelming majority of marriages in the Indian subcontinent.

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Arunachal Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India.

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Ashgate Publishing is an academic book and journal publisher based in Farnham (Surrey, United Kingdom).

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Ashoka Maurya (IAST:;; 304–232 BCE), commonly known as Ashoka and Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from circa 269 BCE to 232 BCE.

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Asia is the Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres.

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The Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica), also known as the Indian lion or Persian lion, is a lion subspecies that exists as a single population in India's Gujarat state.

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Assam (Ôxôm) is a state in Northeast India.

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The Assam Rifles is the oldest paramilitary force of India.

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Assamese cinema (Assamese: অসমীয়া কথাছবি) is cinema in the Assamese language, watched primarily in Assam, India.

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Assamese or Asamiya (অসমীয়া Ôxômiya) is an Eastern Indo-Aryan language used mainly in the state of Assam, where it is an official language.

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The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a political and economic organisation of ten Southeast Asian countries.

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Atal Bihari Vajpayee (born 25 December 1924) is an Indian statesman who was the Prime Minister of India, first for 13 days in 1996 and then from 1998 to 2004.

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The Austroasiatic languages, in recent classifications synonymous with Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of continental Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China.

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The automotive industry in India is one of the largest automotive markets in the world.

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Ayurveda (Sanskrit: आयुर्वेद ''Āyurveda''., "life-knowledge"; English pronunciation) or Ayurvedic medicine is a system of traditional Hindu medicine native to the Indian subcontinent.

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Azadirachta indica, also known as Neem, Nimtree, and Indian Lilac is a tree in the mahogany family Meliaceae.

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Āstika ("there is, there exists") and nāstika ("not āstika") are concepts used by the Brahmanical tradition to classify and contrast Indian philosophies.

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Badminton is a recreational sport played by either two opposing players (singles) or two opposing pairs (doubles), that take positions on opposite halves of a rectangular court divided by a net.

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Even though the Bahá'í Faith in India is tiny in proportion of the national population, it is numerically large and has a long history culminating in recent times with the notable Lotus Temple, various Bahá'í schools, and increasing prominence.

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Bangalore, officially known as Bengaluru, is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka.

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Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ,, lit. "The land of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.

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The Bangladesh Liberation War (মুক্তিযুদ্ধ), also known as the Bangladesh War of Independence, or simply the Liberation War in Bangladesh, was a revolution and armed conflict sparked by the rise of the Bengali nationalist and self-determination movement in East Pakistan and the 1971 Bangladesh genocide.

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Basketball is a part of the South Asian Games since the 1995 edition.

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The Baul (বাউল) are a group of mystic minstrels from Bengal which includes Indian State of West Bengal and the country of Bangladesh.

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The Bay of Bengal, the largest bay in the world, forms the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean.

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The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is the public-service broadcaster of the United Kingdom, headquartered at Broadcasting House in London.

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BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Before Present (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events in the past occurred.

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Bengal (বাংলা /baŋla/ or বঙ্গ Bônggo /bɔŋɡo/) is a geographical and ethno-linguistic region in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent in South Asia, at the apex of the Bay of Bengal and dominated by the fertile Ganges delta.

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The Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris), is the most numerous tiger subspecies.

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Bengali or Bangla (বাংলা) is the language native to the region of Bengal, which comprises the present-day nation of Bangladesh and of the Indian states West Bengal, Tripura and southern Assam.

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Bhakti (भक्ति) literally means "attachment, participation, devotion to, fondness for, homage, faith or love, worship, piety to (as a religious principle or means of salvation)".

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The Bhakti movement refers to the theistic devotional trend that emerged in medieval Hinduism.

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The term Bhaṅgṛā (ਭੰਗੜਾ (Gurmukhi), (Shahmukhi); pronounced) refers to the traditional dance originating in the Majha area of the Punjab region; free form traditional Bhangra originating in Punjab, India and modern Bhangra developed by the Punjabi diaspora.

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In Hindu mythology, Bharata (Sanskrit: भरत, Bharata ie, "The cherished") is a legendary emperor and the founder of the Bhārata dynasty, and thus an ancestor of the Pandavas and the Kauravas in the Sanskrit epic, The Mahabharata.

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Bharathanatyam (பரதநாட்டியம்) is a form of Indian classical dance that originated in the temples of Tamil Nadu.

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The Bharatiya Janata Party (translation: Indian People's Party; BJP) is one of the two major parties in the Indian political system, along with the Indian National Congress.

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Bhavai, also known as Vesha or Swang, is a popular folk theatre form of western India especially in Gujarat.

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Bhāratas were a tribe mentioned in the Rigveda, especially in Mandala 3 attributed to the Bharata sage Vishvamitra.

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The Bhimbetka rock shelters are an archaeological site of the Paleolithic, exhibiting the earliest traces of human life on the Indian subcontinent, and thus the beginning of the South Asian Stone Age.

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Bhojpuri cinema refers to films produced in the Bhojpuri language in the eastern Uttar Pradesh, western Bihar and Terai in southern Nepal.

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Bhutan (Dzongkha Dru Ü), officially the Kingdom of Bhutan, is a landlocked country in South Asia at the eastern end of the Himalayas.

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A bicameral legislature is one in which the legislators are divided into two separate assemblies, chambers or houses.

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Bihar is a state in East India.

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The Bihu dance (বিহু নৃত্য, बिहू नृत्य) is a folk dance from the Indian state of Assam related to the Bihu festival.

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A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographic region with a significant reservoir of biodiversity that is under threat from humans.

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A biopharmaceutical, also known as a biologic medical product or biologic, is any medicinal product manufactured in, extracted from, or semisynthesized from biological sources.

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The Indian government has established 18 Biosphere Reserves in India, (categories roughly corresponding to IUCN Category V Protected areas), which protect larger areas of natural habitat (than a National Park or Animal Sanctuary), and often include one or more National Parks and/or preserves, along with buffer zones that are open to some economic uses.

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The Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) is the national governing body for cricket in India.

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Bodo (Devanagari: बड़ो, pronounced, Assamese: বড়ো), or Mech, is the Sino-Tibetan language of the Bodo people of north-eastern India and Nepal.

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Bollywood is the sobriquet for the Hindi language film industry, based in Mumbai, India.

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The Brahmaputra, also called Tsangpo-Brahmaputra, is a trans-boundary river and one of the major rivers of Asia.

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Bride burning or bride-burning is a form of domestic violence practised in Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and other countries located on or around the Indian subcontinent (but not Sri Lanka).

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Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is an international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.

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The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom.

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The British Film Institute (BFI) is a charitable organisation established by Royal Charter to.

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The British Raj (rāj, meaning "rule" in Hindi) was the rule of Great Britain in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947.

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Buddhism is a nontheistic religion or philosophy (Sanskrit: dharma; Pali: धम्म dhamma) that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to Gautama Buddha, commonly known as the Buddha ("the awakened one").

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Buddhist philosophy is the elaboration and explanation of the delivered teachings of the Buddha as found in the Tripitaka and Agama.

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Burra katha, also spelled Burrakatha, is an oral storytelling technique in the Katha tradition, performed in villages of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.

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Business Line or The Hindu Business Line is an Indian business newspaper published by Kasturi & Sons, the publishers of the newspaper The Hindu located in Chennai, India.

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Business Standard is an Indian English-language daily newspaper published by Business Standard Ltd (BSL) in two languages, English and Hindi.

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A cabinet is a body of high-ranking state officials, typically consisting of the top leaders of the executive branch.

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Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, Kampuchea), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, Preah Reacheanachak Kampuchea) and once known as the Khmer Empire, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Canada–India relations, or Indo-Canadian relations, are the longstanding bilateral relations between Canada and the Republic of India, which are built upon a "mutual commitment to democracy", "pluralism", and "people-to-people links", according to the government of Canada.

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Carnatic music, Karnāṭaka saṃgīta or Karnāṭaka saṅgītam is a system of music commonly associated with the southern part of the Indian subcontinent, with its area roughly confined to four modern states of India: Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu.

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Caste is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, non-commensality and hereditary occupations.

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The caste system in India is a system of social stratification which has pre-modern origins, was transformed by the British Raj, and is today the basis of reservation in India.

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Caste-related violence has occurred and occurs in India in various forms.

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The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the U.S. Government, tasked with gathering, processing and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).

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The Chalcolithic (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) ISBN 0-19-861263-X, p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective Archaeology of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BC, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. Also called Eneolithic... Also called Copper Age - Origin early 20th cent.: from Greek khalkos 'copper' + lithos 'stone' + -ic". χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and λίθος líthos, "stone") period or Copper Age, also known as the Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus "of bronze"), is a phase of the Bronze Age before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze.

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The Chalukya dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries.

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Chandigarh is a city and a union territory in the northern part of India that serves as the capital of the states of Punjab and Haryana.

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Chaturanga (चतुरङ्ग), catur, is an ancient Indian strategy game which is the common ancestor of the board games chess, shogi, makruk, xiangqi and janggi.

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Chennai (also known as Madras) is the capital city of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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The Chennai Open (also known during its run as the Gold Flake Open and the Tata Open) is a professional tennis tournament played on outdoor hard courts.

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The Cheras were an ancient Dravidian royal dynasty of Tamil origin who ruled in regions of Tamil Nadu and Kerala in India.

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Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an eight-by-eight grid.

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Chhath (Devanagari: छठ, छठी, छठ पर्व, छठ पुजा, डाला छठ, डाला पुजा, सुर्य षष्ठी) is an ancient Hindu festival of Nepalese and Indian people and is the only Vedic Festival dedicated to the Hindu Sun God, Surya and Chhathi Maiya (ancient Vedic Goddess Usha).

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Chhattisgarh (literally 'Thirty-Six Forts'), is a state in central India.

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Chhau dance is a genre of Indian tribal martial dance which is popular in the Indian states of Odisha, Jharkhand and West Bengal.

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The Chief Justice of India (CJI) is the highest-ranking judge in the Supreme Court of India, and thus holds the highest judicial position in India.

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A Chief Minister is the elected head of government of a sub-national (e.g. constituent federal) entity, notably a state (and sometimes a union territory) in India, a territory of Australia, provinces of Sri Lanka or Pakistan, Philippine Autonomous Regions or a British Overseas Territory that has attained self-government.

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Child marriage is a formal marriage or informal union entered into by an individual before reaching the age of 18.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.

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The Chola dynasty (also called Choda and Cholan) was an ancient dynasty of southern India.

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The Chota Nagpur Plateau is a plateau in eastern India, which covers much of Jharkhand state as well as adjacent parts of Odisha, West Bengal, Bihar and Chhattisgarh.

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A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth.

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ChristianityFrom the Ancient Greek word Χριστός, Christos, a translation of the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", together with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Christianity is India's third-largest religion according to the census of 2001, with approximately 24 million followers, constituting 2.3 percent of India's population.

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The cinema of India consists of films produced across India, which includes the cinematic cultures of Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, West Bengal, and Bollywood among others.

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The Cinema of Karnataka, sometimes colloquially referred to as 'Chandanavana' or the Sandalwood,.

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The Odia film industry, colloquially known as Ollywood, is the Odia language Indian film industry, based in Cuttack, Odisha.

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Punjabi cinema (ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਸਿਨੇਮਾ), commonly known as Pollywood is the Punjabi language film industry in the states of Punjab in India and Pakistan.

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The Cinema of West Bengal (টলিউড), refers to the Tollygunge-based Bengali film industry in the city of Kolkata, West Bengal, India.

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The climate of India comprises a wide range of weather conditions across a vast geographic scale and varied topography, making generalisations difficult.

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Clothing in India varies on the different ethnicity, geography, climate and cultural traditions of the people of that region.

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A coalition government is a cabinet of a parliamentary government in which several political parties cooperate, reducing the dominance of any one party within that coalition.

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The Cold War was a state of political and military tension after World War II between powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others) and powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its allies in the Warsaw Pact).

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Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.

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The Commission on Population and Development is one of the ten Functional Commissions of the United Nations Economic and Social Council.

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Common Era (also Current Era or Christian Era), abbreviated as CE, is an alternative naming of the calendar era Anno Domini ("in the year of the/our Lord", abbreviated AD).

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Company rule in India (sometimes, Company Raj, "raj," lit. "rule" in Hindi) refers to the rule or dominion of the British East India Company on the Indian subcontinent.

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The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is a multilateral treaty by which states agree to ban all nuclear explosions in all environments, for military or civilian purposes.

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Conservation International (CI) is an American nonprofit environmental organization headquartered in Arlington, Virginia.

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The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India.

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The continental crust is the layer of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks which forms the continents and the areas of shallow seabed close to their shores, known as continental shelves.

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Corruption in India is a major issue that adversely affects its economy.

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A courser is a swift and strong horse, frequently used during the Middle Ages as a warhorse.

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The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group that specializes in producing technical books.

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Credible Minimum Deterrence is the principle on which India's nuclear doctrine are based.

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Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players each on a field at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard-long pitch.

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Cricket is the most popular sport in India.

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The culture of India is the way of living of the people of India.

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Current Science is an Indian peer-reviewed scientific journal.

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Dadra and Nagar Haveli is a Union Territory in Western India.

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Daman and Diu is a union territory in India.

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Dance in India comprises the varied styles of dances in the country.

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Raas or Dandiya Raas is the traditional folk dance form of Gujarat, India, and is associated with scenes of Holi, and lila of Krishna and Radha at Vrindavan.

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The Deccan PlateauPage 46, (Tamil: தக்கன், Telugu: దక్కన్, Kannada: ದಕ್ಕನ್, Malayalam: ടക്കാൻ, Marathi: दक्कन) is a large plateau in India, making up most of the southern part of the country.

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The Deccan Traps are a large igneous province located on the Deccan Plateau of west-central India (between 17°–24°N, 73°–74°E) and one of the largest volcanic features on Earth.

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Delhi (Dilli), officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi, is the Capital territory of India.

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The Airtel Delhi Half Marathon is an annual half marathon foot-race held in New Delhi, India.

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The Delhi Sultanate was a Muslim kingdom based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).

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Democracy, or democratic government, is "a system of government in which all the people of a state or polity...

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India is the second most populous country in the world, with over 1.271 billion people (2015), more than a sixth of the world's population.

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The Deodhar Trophy is a List A cricket competition in Indian domestic cricket.

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Deserts and xeric shrublands also called xerófila are a biome characterized by, relating to, or requiring only a small amount of moisture, usually defined as less than 250 mm of annual precipitation.

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Devanagari (देवनागरी devanāgarī a compound of "deva" and "nāgarī"), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, ISBN 978-1615301492, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) alphabet of India and Nepal.

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Dharma (धर्म dharma,; धम्म dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religions Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Jainism.

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Dholavira (ધોળાવીરા) is an archaeological site at Khadirbet in Bhachau Taluka of Kutch District, in the state of Gujarat in western India, which has taken its name from a modern village south of it.

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The dhoti, also known as vetti, mundu,mundh, pancha or mardani, is a traditional men's garment, worn in the South Asia mainly by Nepalese and Indian nationals.

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Diclofenac (INN; see trade names below) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) taken or applied to reduce inflammation and as an analgesic reducing pain in certain conditions.

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Diwali (or Deepavali, the "festival of lights") is an ancient Hindu festival celebrated in autumn (northern hemisphere) every year.

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Dogri (डोगरी or) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about five million people in India and Pakistan, chiefly in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh, but also in northern Punjab, other parts of Jammu and Kashmir, and elsewhere.

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The Dominion of India (भारत अधिराज्य, Bhārata Adhirājya) was a predecessor to modern-day India and an independent state that existed between 15 August 1947 and 26 January 1950.

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Doordarshan (often abbreviated DD) is autonomous India's Central Government founded public service broadcaster, a division of Prasar Bharati.

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Dowry deaths are deaths of young women who are murdered or driven to suicide by continuous harassment and torture by husbands and in-laws in an effort to extort an increased dowry.

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In India, Dowry (दहेज) refers to the durable goods, cash, and real or movable property that the bride's family gives to the bridegroom, his parents, or his relatives as a condition of the marriage.

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Dravidian architecture was an architectural idiom that emerged in the Southern part of the Indian subcontinent or South India.

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The Dravidian languages are a language family spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India as well as in northeastern Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia and Singapore.

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Dronacharya Award is an award presented by the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports, government of India for excellence in sports coaching.

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Duke University Press is an academic publisher of books and journals, and a unit of Duke University.

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The Duleep Trophy is a domestic first-class cricket competition played in India between teams representing geographical zones of India.

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Durga Puja (দুর্গাপূজা or দুৰ্গা পূজা or ଦୁର୍ଗା ପୂଜା, listen:, "Worship of Durga"), also referred to as Durgotsava (দুর্গোৎসব or ଦୁର୍ଗୋତ୍ସବ, listen:, "Festival of Durga") or Sharadotsav is an annual Hindu festival in South Asia that celebrates worship of the Hindu goddess Durga.

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Duttaphrynus beddomii (common name: Beddome's toad) is a species of toad endemic to the Western Ghats of India.

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The East Asia Summit (EAS) is a forum held annually by leaders of, initially, 16 countries in the East Asian region.

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The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company and informally as John Company was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to pursue trade with the East Indies, but which ended up trading mainly with the Indian subcontinent and Qing China.

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The Eastern Ghats or Pūrva Ghaṭ, also known as Mahendra Pravata, are a discontinuous range of mountains along India's eastern coast.

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The economic liberalisation in India refers to the ongoing economic liberalisation, initiated in 1991, of the country's economic policies, with the goal of making the economy more market-oriented and expanding the role of private and foreign investment.

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The Economy of India is the seventh-largest in the world by nominal GDP and the third-largest by purchasing power parity (PPP).

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Education in India is provided by the public sector as well as the private sector, with control and funding coming from three levels: central, state, and local.

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Eid al-Adha (عيد الأضحى,, "Festival of the Sacrifice"), also called the Feast of Sacrifice or Bakr-Eid, is the second of two religious holidays celebrated by Muslims worldwide each year.

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Eid al-Fitr (عيد الفطر,, "festival of breaking of the fast"), also called Feast of Breaking the Fast, the Sugar Feast, Bayram (Bajram), the Sweet Festival or Hari Raya Puasa and the Lesser Eid, is an important religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting (sawm).

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Eisenbrauns is an international academic publisher specializing in the ancient Near East and biblical studies.

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The Election Commission of India is an autonomous, established federal authority responsible for administering all the electoral processes in the Republic of India.

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An electoral college is a set of electors who are selected to elect a candidate to a particular office.

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An electoral district (also known as a constituency, riding, ward, division, electoral area or electorate) is a territorial subdivision for electing members to a legislative body.

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The emblem of India is an adaptation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka at Sarnath, preserved in the Varansi Sarnath Museum in India.

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The title Emperor of India was used by the British monarchs during the British Raj in the Indian Subcontinent from 1876 (see Royal Titles Act 1876) until 1948,India Independence Act 1947 (10 & 11 Geo. 6. c. 30) after India had attained independence from the United Kingdom, when for a transitional period the British monarch was also King of India and King of Pakistan.

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The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.

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The energy policy of India is largely defined by the country's burgeoning energy deficit and increased focus on developing alternative sources of energy, particularly nuclear, solar and wind energy.

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The English Education Act was a legislative Act of the Council of India in 1835 giving effect to a decision in 1835 by William Bentinck, 4th Duke of Portland, the then Governor-General of British India to reallocate funds the East India Company was required by the British Parliament to spend on education and literature in India.

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The Eurasian Plate is a tectonic plate which includes most of the continent of Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the traditional continents of Europe and Asia), with the notable exceptions of the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian subcontinent, and the area east of the Chersky Range in East Siberia.

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The European Union (EU) is a politico-economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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The executive branch is the part of the government that has its authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state.

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Famine had been a recurrent feature of life in the Indian sub-continental countries of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, and reached its numerically deadliest peak in the late 18th and 19th centuries.

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The Federal Research Division (FRD) is the research and analysis unit of the United States Library of Congress.

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Federalism is a political concept in which a group of members are bound together by covenant (Latin: foedus, covenant) with a governing representative head.

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A federation (from Latin: foedus, gen.: foederis, "covenant"), also known as a federal state, is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing states or regions under a central (federal) government.

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Female foeticide in India is the act of killing a female foetus outside of the legal channels of abortion.

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Female infanticide in India has a history spanning centuries.

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Ficus benghalensis, with the common name Indian banyan and वट वृक्ष in Hindi, is a tree which is native to the Indian Subcontinent. Specimens in India are among the largest trees in the world by canopy coverage.

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Ficus religiosa or sacred fig is a species of fig native to Nepal, India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, south-west China and Indochina.

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Field hockey in India refers to two teams, the India men's national field hockey team and the India women's national field hockey team.

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Filmi (फ़िल्मी संगीत, "of films") is Indian popular music as written and performed for Indian cinema (though "filmi" may refer to other uses such as 'filmi actor' or 'filmi attitude').

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The National Flag of India is a horizontal rectangular tricolour of deep saffron, white and India green; with the Ashoka Chakra, a 24-spoke wheel, in navy blue at its centre.

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The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; French: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Italian: Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is an agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.

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Football is India's second most popular sport, next to the game of cricket.

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Forest Survey of India (FSI) is a government organization in India under the union Ministry of Environment and Forests for conducting forest surveys and studies.

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France–India relations have traditionally been close and friendly.

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Fundamental Rights is a charter of rights contained in the Constitution of India.

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The Group of Seven + Five (G7+5), formally known as the Group of Eight + Five (G8+5) is an international group that consists of the leaders of the heads of government from the G7 nations (Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States), plus the heads of government of the five leading emerging economies (Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa).

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Gana-Sangha (equal assembly), or Gana-Rajya (equal government), refers to a type of republic or oligarchy in ancient India.

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Gandhi Jayanti is a national festival celebrated in India to mark the occasion of the birthday of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, the "Father of the Nation".

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Ganesh Chaturthi (Vinayaka Chaturthi, Gaṇēśa Caturthī or Vināyaka Caviti) is the Hindu festival celebrated in honour of the elephant-headed god Ganesha.

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The Ganges, also Ganga, is a trans-boundary river of Asia which flows through the nations of India and Bangladesh.

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Garba (ગરબા in Gujarati) is a form of dance that originated in the state of Gujarat in India.

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Gautama Buddha, also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni, or simply the Buddha, was a sage on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.

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The Geological Society of London (also known as the Geological Society) is a learned society based in the United Kingdom.

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George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the Dominions of the British Commonwealth from 11 December 1936 until his death.

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Ghoomar is a traditional folk dance of Rajasthan, India and southern Asia.

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Gilgit-Baltistan (Urdu/Shina/Burushaski:, Balti), formerly known as the Northern Areas of Pakistan is the northernmost administrative territory of Pakistan.

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Gilli-Danda is an amateur sport played in the rural areas and small towns all over Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Afghanistan and Pakistan as well as Cambodia and Italy.

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The Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) is a yearly report published by the World Economic Forum.

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Goa is a state located in the western region of India, it is bounded by the state of Maharashtra to the north, and by Karnataka to the east and south, while the Arabian Sea forms its western coast.

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The Godavari (Marathi: गोदावरी, Telugu: గోదావరి) is the second longest river in India after the river Ganges.

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In paleogeography, Gondwana, also Gondwanaland, is the name given to the more southerly of two supercontinents (the other being Laurasia) that were part of the Pangaea supercontinent that existed from approximately 300 to 180 million years ago (Mya).

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The Government of India (GoI), officially known as the Union Government and also known as the Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories, collectively called the Republic of India.

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The title Grandmaster is awarded to chess players by the world chess organization FIDE.

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Green Revolution in India was a period during which agriculture in India increased its yields due to improved agronomic technology.It allows less developed countries like India, to overcome chronic food defects.

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Greenwood Publishing Group (GPG) is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.

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Gujarat is a state in the western part of India.

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Gujarati cinema or Gujarati film industry, informally referred as Dhollywood or Gollywood, is one of the major regional and vernacular film industry of Cinema of India associated with Gujarati language.

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Gujarati (ગુજરાતી) is an Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian state of Gujarat.

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The Gupta Empire (गुप्तसाम्राज्य) was an ancient Indian empire, founded by Maharaja Sri Gupta, which existed at its zenith from approximately 320 to 550 CE and covered much of the Indian Subcontinent.

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Guru Nanak (ਗੁਰੂ ਨਾਨਕ; गुरु नानक, Urdu:, Gurū Nānak) (15 April 1469 – 22 September 1539) is the founder of Sikhism and the first of the Sikh Gurus. His birth is celebrated world-wide on Kartik Puranmashi, the full-moon day which falls on different dates each year in the month of Katak, October–November. Guru Nanak travelled far and wide teaching people the message of one God who dwells in every one of His creations and constitutes the eternal Truth. He set up a unique spiritual, social, and political platform based on equality, fraternal love, goodness, and virtue. It is part of Sikh religious belief that the spirit of Guru Nanak's sanctity, divinity and religious authority descended upon each of the nine subsequent Gurus when the Guruship was devolved on to them.

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Handyala Lakshminarayanaswamy Dattu (born 3 December 1950) is the Chief Justice of India.

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Harappa (ਹੜੱਪਾ; ہڑپّہا) is an archaeological site in Punjab, Pakistan, about west of Sahiwal.

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HarperCollins Publishers LLC is one of the world's largest publishing companies and, alongside Hachette, Holtzbrinck/Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster, is part of the "Big Five" English-language publishing companies.

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Harshavardhana (c. 590–647), commonly called Harsha, was an Indian emperor who ruled North India from 606 to 647 from his capital Kanauj.

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Haryana is a state in North India with its capital as Chandigarh.

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Head of government is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony who often presides over a cabinet.

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The Constitution of India makes health in India the responsibility of state governments, rather than the central federal government.

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Himachal Pradesh (literally "Snow-ladden Region") is a state in Northern India.

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The Himalayas or Himalaya (or; हिमालय, Nepali: हिमालय, Hindi: हिमालय, ہمالیہ; from Sanskrit hima (snow) + ālaya (dwelling), literally meaning "abode of snow") is a mountain range in South Asia and East Asia which separates the Indo-Gangetic Plain from the Tibetan Plateau.

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Hindi (हिन्दी hindī), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (मानक हिन्दी mānak hindī), is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.

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Hindu has historically referred to geographical, religious or cultural identifier for people indigenous to the Indian subcontinent.

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Hindu mythology is a large body of traditional narratives related to Hinduism as contained in Sanskrit literature (such as the epics like Mahabharata and Ramayana, the Puranas, and the Vedas), Ancient Tamil literature (such as the Sangam literature and Periya Puranam), several other works, most notably the Bhagavata Purana, claiming the status of a Fifth Veda and other religious regional literature of South Asia.

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Hindu philosophy refers to a group of philosophies that emerged in ancient India.

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The Hindu temple architecture is an open, symmetry driven structure, with many variations, on a square grid of padas, deploying perfect geometric shapes such as circles and squares.

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Hindu texts are manuscripts and historic literature related to any of the diverse traditions within Hinduism.

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Hinduism is the dominant religion, or way of life, in South Asia, most notably in India and Nepal.

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Hinduism is the major religion of India, with 79.8% of the population identifying themselves as Hindu, which accounts for 96.63 crore Hindus in India(2011 census).

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Hindustan (हिन्दुस्तान; ہندوستان; IAST) is a common geographic term for the northern/northwestern Indian subcontinent.

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Hindustani classical music is the Hindustani or North Indian style of Indian classical music.

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Buddhism is a world religion, which arose in and around the ancient Kingdom of Magadha (now in Bihar, India), and is based on the teachings of Siddhārtha Gautama who was deemed a "Buddha" ("Awakened One"). Buddhism spread outside of Magadha starting in the Buddha's lifetime. With the reign of the Buddhist Mauryan Emperor Ashoka, the Buddhist community split into two branches: the Mahāsāṃghika and the Sthaviravāda, each of which spread throughout India and split into numerous sub-sects. In modern times, two major branches of Buddhism exist: the Theravāda in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia, and the Mahāyāna throughout the Himalayas and East Asia. The practice of Buddhism as a distinct and organized religion lost influence after the Gupta reign (c.7th century CE), and declined from the land of its origin in around 13th century, but not without leaving a significant impact. Buddhist practice is most common and Buddhism remains a major presence in the Himalayan areas such as Sikkim, Ladakh, Arunachal Pradesh, the Darjeeling hills in West Bengal, and the Lahaul and Spiti areas of upper Himachal Pradesh. Buddhism has been reemerging in India since the past century, due to its adoption by many Indian intellectuals, the migration of Buddhist Tibetan exiles, and the mass conversion of hundreds of thousands of Hindu Dalits. According to the 2001 census, Buddhists make up 0.8% of India's population, or 7.95 million individuals.

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The history of cotton can be traced back to domestication, possibly as far back as 4500 BC.

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The history of science and technology in the Indian Subcontinent begins with prehistoric human activity at Mehrgarh, in present-day Pakistan, and continues through the Indus Valley Civilization to early states and empires.

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The history of the Jews in India reaches back to ancient times.

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Hockey India (हॉकी इंडिया) is the governing body of field hockey in India.

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The Hockey World Cup is an international field hockey competition organised by the International Hockey Federation (FIH).

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Holi (Holī) is a spring festival, also known as the festival of colours or the festival of love.

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The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.

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Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intention of settling temporarily or permanently in the new location.

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Hyderabad (often) is the capital of the southern Indian state of Telangana and de jure capital of Andhra Pradesh.

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An income tax is a government levy (tax) imposed on individuals or entities (taxpayers) that varies with the income or profits (taxable income) of the taxpayer.

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Independence Day, observed annually on 15 August, is a National Holiday in India commemorating the nation's independence from the British Empire on 15 August 1947.

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Articles (arranged alphabetically) related to India or Indian culture include: List of India-related topics People are listed by their first names.

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India played an important role in the multilateral movements of colonies and newly independent countries that developed into the Non-Aligned Movement.

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The India Davis Cup team represents India in Davis Cup tennis competition and are governed by the All India Tennis Association.

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During the Second World War, India was controlled by Britain, with the British holding territories in India including over five hundred autonomous Princely States; British India officially declared war on Nazi Germany in September 1939.

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The India national field hockey team represents India in international field hockey competitions.

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The India men's national basketball team represents India in international men's basketball.

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The Indian cricket team, also known as Team India and Men in Blue, is the national cricket team of India.

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The Republic of India maintains an ongoing dialogue with the supranational Institutions of the European Union which is separate from the bilateral relations with sovereign member States of the European Union.

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India–Israel relations refers to the bilateral ties between the Republic of India and the State of Israel.

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have traditionally been strong.

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Relations between India and Pakistan have been complex due to a number of historical and political events.

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Indo-Russian relations refer to the bilateral relations between the Republic of India and the Russian Federation.

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India–South Korea relations have been relatively limited, although much progress arose during the past three decades.

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Indian–British relations are foreign relations between India and the United Kingdom.

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The 123 Agreement signed between the United States of America and the Republic of India is known as the U.S.–India Civil Nuclear Agreement or Indo-US nuclear deal.

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India–United States relations (or Indo-American relations) refers to the international relations that exist between the Republic of India and the United States of America.

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The Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore was founded by Sir C. V. Raman, and was registered as a Society on 24 April 1934.

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The Indian Air Force (IAF; Devanāgarī: भारतीय वायु सेना, Bharatiya Vāyu Senā) is the air arm of the Indian armed forces.

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The Indian Armed Forces are the military forces of the Republic of India.

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The Indian Army (IA, Hindi: भारतीय थलसेना, Bhāratīya Thalsēnā) is the land-based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces.

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The Indian Army during World War I contributed a large number of divisions and independent brigades to the European, Mediterranean and the Middle East theatres of war in World War I. Over one million Indian troops served overseas, of whom 62,000 died and another 67,000 were wounded.

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From pre-historic to modern times, Indian astronomy continues to play an integral role.

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The Indian Ballistic Missile Defence Programme is an initiative to develop and deploy a multi-layered ballistic missile defence system to protect from ballistic missile attacks.

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Indian classical dance is an umbrella term for various codified art forms rooted in sacred Hindu musical theatre styles whose theory can be traced back to the Natya Shastra of Bharata Muni (400 BCE).

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Indian classical music is the art music of the Indian subcontinent.

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The Indian Coast Guard (Hindi: भारतीय तटरक्षक, Bhāratīya Taṭarakṣaka) (ICG) protects India's maritime interests and enforces maritime law, with jurisdiction over the territorial waters of India, including its contiguous zone and exclusive economic zone.

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Indian English is any of the forms of English characteristic of the Indian subcontinent.

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Indian epic poetry is the epic poetry written in the Indian subcontinent, traditionally called Kavya (or Kāvya; Sanskrit: काव्य, IAST: kāvyá).

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Indian folk music (भारतीय लोक संगीत) is diverse because of India's vast cultural diversity.

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The Indian general election of 1957 elected the 2nd Lok Sabha of India.

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The Indian general election of 1962 elected the 3rd Lok Sabha of India and was held from 19 to 25 February.

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Legislative elections were held in India in four phases between April 20 and May 10, 2004.

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India held general elections to the 15th Lok Sabha in five phases between 16 April 2009 and 13 May 2009.

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The Indian general election of 2014 was held to constitute the 16th Lok Sabha, electing members of parliament for all 543 parliamentary constituencies of India.

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The Indian Grand Prix was a Formula One race in the calendar of the FIA Formula One World Championship, which was held at the Buddh International Circuit in Greater Noida near New Delhi.

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The term Indian Independence Movement encompasses activities and ideas aiming to end first East India Company rule (1757–1858), then the British Raj (1858–1947).

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India's Look East policy represents its efforts to cultivate extensive economic and strategic relations with the nations of Southeast Asia in order to bolster its standing as a regional power and a counterweight to the strategic influence of the People's Republic of China.

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Indian martial arts refers to the fighting systems of the Indian subcontinent in South Asia.

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The Indian Masters was a professional golf tournament on the European and Asian Tours, that was played in February 2008.

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Indian mathematics emerged in the Indian subcontinent from 1200 BCE until the end of the 18th century.

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The Indian national calendar, sometimes called the Saka calendar, is the official civil calendar in use in India.

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The Indian National Congress (INC, often called the Congress), is one of two major political parties in India; the other being the Bharatiya Janata Party.

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The Indian Navy (IN; Hindi: भारतीय नौ सेना (Devanāgarī), Bhāratīya Nau Senā (Latin)) is the naval branch of the armed forces of India.

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The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface.

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The Indian Parliament (Devnagari:भारतीय संसद) (Bhāratīya Sansada) is the supreme legislative body in India.

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Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) was the Indian military contingent performing a peacekeeping operation in Sri Lanka between 1987 and 1990.

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The Indian peafowl or blue peafowl (Pavo cristatus), a large and brightly coloured bird, is a species of peafowl native to South Asia, but introduced in many other parts of the world.

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Indian people or Indians also known as Bharatiya are citizens of India and people of Indian heritage, the second most populous nation containing 17.50% of the world's population.

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The Indian Plate or India Plate is a major tectonic plate straddling the equator in the eastern hemisphere.

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The Indian Premier League is a professional Twenty20 cricket league in India contested annually by franchise teams representing Indian cities.

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The Indian Rebellion of 1857 refers to a rebellion in India against the rule of the East India Company, that ran from May 1857 to June 1858.

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Indian religions, also termed as Dharmic faiths or religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism.

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The rupee, or more specifically the Indian rupee (symbol: ₹; ISO code: INR) (Unicode U+20B9) is the official currency of the Republic of India.

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Indian Standard Time (IST) is the time observed throughout India and Sri Lanka, with a time offset of UTC+05:30.

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The Indian subcontinent or the subcontinent is a southern region of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.

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Indian vernacular architecture the informal, functional architecture of structures, often in rural areas of India, built of local materials and designed to meet the needs of the local people.

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Indiana University Press, also known as IU Press, is an academic publisher at Indiana University that specializes in the humanities and social sciences.

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Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (Nehru; 19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984) was the first female Prime Minister of India and central figure of the Indian National Congress party.

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The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent, spoken largely by Indo-Aryan people.

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The Indo-Aryan migration theory explains the introduction of the Indo-Aryan languages in the Indian subcontinent by proposing a migration from the Bactria-Margiana Culture (present-day northern Afghanistan) into the northern Indian Subcontinent (modern day India, Nepal and Pakistan).

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The Indo-Australian Plate was a major tectonic plate that included the continent of Australia and surrounding ocean, and extended northwest to include the Indian subcontinent and adjacent waters.

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The Indo-Gangetic Plain, also known as Indus-Ganga and the North Indian River Plain, is a 255 million hectare (630 million acre) fertile plain encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the eastern parts of Pakistan, and virtually all of Bangladesh.

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Indo-Islamic architecture encompasses a wide range of styles from various backgrounds that helped shape the architecture of the Indian subcontinent from the advent of Islam in the Indian subcontinent around the 7th century.

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The Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948, sometimes known as the First Kashmir War, was fought between India and Pakistan over the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu from 1947 to 1948.

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The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 between Pakistan and India.

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The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was the direct military confrontation between India and Pakistan during the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971.

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Since the partition of British India in 1947 and creation of modern republics of India and Pakistan, the two South Asian countries have been involved in four wars, including one undeclared war, and many border skirmishes and military stand-offs.

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The Indo-Saracenic Revival (also known as Indo-Gothic, Hindoo or Hindu-Gothic, Mughal-Gothic, Neo-Mughal) was an architectural style movement by British architects in the late 19th century in British India.

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The Indomalaya ecozone is one of the eight ecozones.It extends across most of South and Southeast Asia and into the southern parts of East Asia.

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Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.

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The Indus River, also called the Sindhū River (سنڌو دريا), or Abāsīn (اباسين) in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, is one of the longest rivers in Asia.

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The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilisation (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE, pre-Harappan cultures starting c.7500 BCE) in northwest Indian subcontinent (including present day Pakistan, northwest India) and also in some regions in northeast Afghanistan.

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Infobase Publishing is an American publisher of reference book titles and textbooks geared towards the North American library, secondary school, and university-level curriculum markets.

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Information technology in India is an industry consisting of two major components: IT services and business process outsourcing (BPO).

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Institute for Defence Studies and Analysis (IDSA), New Delhi, India is an Indian think tank for advanced research in international relations, especially strategic and security issues, and also trains civilian and military officers of the Government of India.

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The insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir or the Kashmiri Insurgency is a conflict between various Kashmiri separatists and nationalists sometimes known as "ultras" (extremists), and the Government of India.

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Insurgency in Northeast India involves multiple armed factions operating in India's northeastern states, which are connected to the rest of India by the Siliguri Corridor, a strip of land as narrow as wide.

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The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.

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The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, DC, of "188 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world".

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The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.

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The Irani Cup (earlier called Irani Trophy) tournament was conceived during the 1959-60 season to mark the completion of 25 years of the Ranji Trophy championship and was named after the late Z.R. Irani, who was associated with the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI) from its inception in 1928, till his death in 1970.

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The Iron Age is the period generally occurring after the Bronze Age, marked by the prevalent use of iron.

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Islam (There are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster). The most common are (Oxford English Dictionary, Random House) and (American Heritage Dictionary). الإسلام,: Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~. In Northwestern Africa, they do not have stress or lengthened vowels.) is a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a religious text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God, and, for the vast majority of adherents, by the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad (circa 570–8 June 632 CE), considered by most of them to be the last prophet of God.

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Islam is the second-largest religion in India, making up 14.2% of the country's population with about 172 million adherents (2011 census).

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The ISSF World Shooting Championships are governed by the International Shooting Sport Federation.

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Jainism, traditionally known as the Jina śāsana or Jain dharma, is one of the oldest Indian religions and belongs to the śramaṇa tradition.

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Jainism is India's sixth-largest religion and is practiced throughout India.

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James Andrew Broun-Ramsay, 1st Marquess of Dalhousie KT, PC (22 April 1812 – 19 December 1860), styled Lord Ramsay until 1838 and known as The Earl of Dalhousie between 1838 and 1849, was a Scottish statesman, and a colonial administrator in British India.

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Jammu and Kashmir is a state in northern India.

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"Jana Gana Mana" is the national anthem of India.

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Janata Dal was an Indian political party which was formed through the merger of Janata Party factions, the Lok Dal, Congress(S), and the Jan Morcha led by V. P. Singh on 11 October 1988 on the birth anniversary of Jayaprakash Narayan.

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The Janata Party (JP or JNP) (translation: People's Party) was an amalgam of Indian political parties opposed to the State of Emergency that was imposed between 1975 and 1977 by the government of India under the prime ministership of Indira Gandhi and her party, the Indian National Congress (R).

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Jatra (Bengali: যাত্রা, origin: Yatra meaning procession or journey in Sanskrit) is a popular folk-theatre form of Bengali theatre, spread throughout most of Bengali speaking areas of the Indian subcontinent, including Bangladesh and Indian states of West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, Orissa and Tripura As of 2005, there were some 55 troupes based in Calcutta's old jatra district, Chitpur Road, and all together, jatra is a $21m-a-year industry, performed on nearly 4,000 stages in West Bengal alone, where in 2001, over 300 companies employed over 20,000 people, more than the local film industry and urban theatre.

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Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ) is an island of Indonesia.

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Jawaharlal Nehru (14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence.

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Jāti (in Devanagari: जाति,Telugu:జాతి, Kannada:ಜಾತಿ, Malayalam: ജാതി, Tamil:ஜாதி, literally "birth") is the term used to denote the thousands of clans, tribes, communities and sub-communities, and religions in India.

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Jharkhand (lit. "Bushland") is a state in eastern India carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15November 2000.

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John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing and markets its products to professionals and consumers, students and instructors in higher education, and researchers and practitioners in scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly fields.

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Judaism (from Iudaismus, derived from Greek Ἰουδαϊσμός, originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; in Hebrew:, Yahadut, the distinctive characteristics of the Judean ethnos) encompasses the religion, philosophy, culture and way of life of the Jewish people.

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Judicial independence is the concept that the judiciary needs to be kept away from the other branches of government.

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The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.

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Kabaddi is a contact sport that originated in Ancient India.

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Kabir (IAST: Kabīr) was a 15th-century mystic poet and saint of India, whose writings influenced Hinduism's Bhakti movement and his verses are found in Sikhism's scripture Adi Granth.

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Kalaripayattu is a martial art which originated as a style in Kerala during 3rd century BC to the 2nd century AD.

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Kalibangān (काली बंगा; काली बंगा) is a town located at on the left or southern banks of the Ghaggar (Ghaggar-Hakra River), identified by some scholars with Sarasvati River in Tehsil Pilibangān, between Suratgarh and Hanumāngarh in Hanumangarh district, Rajasthan, India 205 km.

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The Kama Sutra (कामसूत्र) is an ancient Indian Hindu text widely considered to be the standard work on human sexual behavior in Sanskrit literature written by Vātsyāyana.

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Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ kannaḍa) or Canarese/Kanarese, is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in the South Indian state of Karnataka, and by linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Kerala, and Goa.

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Kannauj (Hindi: कन्नौज, Urdu: قنوج, formerly known in English as Cannodge), also spelt Kanauj, is a city, administrative headquarters and a municipal board or Nagar Palika Parishad in Kannauj district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.

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The Kargil War (करगिल युद्ध kargil yuddh, کرگل جنگ kargil jang), also known as the Kargil conflict, was an armed conflict between India and Pakistan that took place between May and July 1999 in the Kargil district of Kashmir and elsewhere along the Line of Control (LOC). In India, the conflict is also referred to as Operation Vijay (विजय, lit. "Victory") which was the name of the Indian operation to clear the Kargil sector. The cause of the war was the infiltration of Pakistani soldiers and Kashmiri militants into positions on the Indian side of the LOC, which serves as the de facto border between the two states. During the initial stages of the war, Pakistan blamed the fighting entirely on independent Kashmiri insurgents, but documents left behind by casualties and later statements by Pakistan's Prime Minister and Chief of Army Staff showed involvement of Pakistani paramilitary forces, led by General Ashraf Rashid. The Indian Army, later on supported by the Indian Air Force, recaptured a majority of the positions on the Indian side of the LOC infiltrated by the Pakistani troops and militants. With international diplomatic opposition, the Pakistani forces withdrew from the remaining Indian positions along the LOC. The war is one of the most recent examples of high-altitude warfare in mountainous terrain, which posed significant logistical problems for the combating sides. To date, it is also the only instance of direct, conventional warfare between nuclear states (i.e., those possessing nuclear weapons). India had conducted its first successful test in 1974; Pakistan, which had been developing its nuclear capability in secret since around the same time, conducted its first known tests in 1998, just two weeks after a second series of tests by India.

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Karma (कर्म;; kamma) means action, work or deed; it also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect).

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Karnataka is a state in south western region of India.

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Kashmir (Kashmiri:كشهير; کشمیر; کشمیر), archaically spelled Cashmere, is in the northwestern region of South Asia.

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The Kashmir conflict is a territorial conflict between India and Pakistan which started just after partition of India.

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Kashmiri (کأشُر), or Koshur, is a language from the Dardic subgroup of the Indo-Aryan languages and it is spoken primarily in the Kashmir Valley, in Jammu and Kashmir.

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A katabatic wind, from the Greek word katabatikos meaning "to flow downhill", is the technical name for a drainage wind, a wind that carries high density air from a higher elevation down a slope under the force of gravity.

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Kathak (Hindi: कथक) is one of the eight forms of Indian classical dance.

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Kathakali (കഥകളി, kathakaḷi; कथकळिः, kathākaḷiḥ) is a stylized classical Indian dance-drama noted for the attractive make-up of characters, elaborate costumes, detailed gestures and well-defined body movements presented in tune with the anchor playback music and complementary percussion.

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The Kaveri or Cauvery in English, is a large Indian river.

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Kālidāsa (कालिदास) was a Classical Sanskrit writer, widely regarded as the greatest poet and dramatist in the Sanskrit language.

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Kerala, sometimes referred to in historical terms as Keralam, is a state in the south-west region of India on the Malabar coast.

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Kessinger Publishing LLC is an American print-on-demand publishing company located in Whitefish, Montana that specializes in rare, out of print books.

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Kho kho is a tag sport played by teams of twelve players, of which nine enter the field, who try to avoid being touched by members of the opposing team.

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Kolkata, formerly Calcutta, is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.

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Konkani is an Indo-Aryan language belonging to the Indo-European family of languages and is spoken along the western coast of India.

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The Koshi or Kosi River (कोशी नदी, कोसी नदी) drains the northern slopes of the Himalayas in the Tibet Autonomous Region and the southern slopes in Nepal.

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The Krishna River is the fourth longest river which flows entirely in India, after the Ganges, Godavari and Narmada.

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Kuchipudi (Telugu: కూచిపూడి) is a Classical Indian dance from Andhra Pradesh, India.

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A kurta (كُرتا,कुर्ता, ਕੁੜਤਾ) is an upper garment for men and women, originating in South Asia, with regional variations of form.

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Labour in India refers to employment in the economy of India.

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Lakshadweep (ലക്ഷദ്വീപ്, Mahl: ލަކްޝަދީބު), formerly known as the Laccadive, Minicoy, and Aminidivi Islands, is a group of islands in the Laccadive Sea, off the south western coast of India.

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Lal Bahadur Shastri (2 October 1904 – 11 January 1966) was the Prime Minister of the Republic of India and a leader of the Indian National Congress party.

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There are several languages in India belonging to different language families, the major ones being the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by 75% of Indians and the Dravidian languages spoken by most of the rest of Indians.

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The Constitution of India designates a bilingual approach for official language of the Government of India employing usage of Hindi written in the Devanagari script, as well as English.

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Laos ((or) ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (LPDR) (République démocratique populaire lao), is a landlocked country in Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and the People's Republic of China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the south, and Thailand to the west.

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Laurasia was the northernmost of two supercontinents (the other being Gondwana) that formed part of the Pangaea supercontinent around (Mya).

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Lavani is a genre of music popular in Maharashtra.

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Law enforcement in India is performed by numerous law enforcement agencies.

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Law of India refers to the system of law in modern India.

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In West Bengal the following parties are parts of the Left Front.

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A legislature is the law-making body of a political unit, usually a national government, that has power to enact, amend, and repeal public policy.

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Liberal democracy is a political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of liberalism.

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The Library of Congress is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress, but which is the de facto national library of the United States.

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The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.

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The Licence Raj or Permit Raj (rāj, meaning "rule" in Hindi) was the elaborate system of licences, regulations and accompanying red tape that were required to set up and run businesses in India between 1947 and 1990.

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The following is the list of most populous cities in India.

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This is a list of the world's sovereign states and their dependent territories by area, ranked by its total area.

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This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population with inclusion within the list being based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1.

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This is a list of countries by merchandise exports, based on the The World Factbook of the CIA.

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Countries are sorted by nominal GDP estimates from financial and statistical institutions, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates.

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This article includes four lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product per capita at nominal values.

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This article includes a list of countries in the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a state in a given year.

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This article includes three lists of countries by gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) per capita, i.e. the purchasing power parity (PPP) value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year.

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This is a list of countries by imports, based on the World Trade Organization and The World Factbook.

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This is a list of countries by size of the labour force mostly based on The World Factbook.

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This article is a list of countries by military expenditure, the amount spent by a nation on its military in a given year.

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This is a list of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel.

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This article includes a list of countries in the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate, the rate of growth of the value of all final goods and services produced within a state in a given year.

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A district (zilā) is an administrative division of an Indian state or territory.

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Because of its size and range of latitude, topography, and climate, India is home to a great diversity of ecoregions, ranging from permanent ice and snow to tropical rainforests.

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Critically endangered species in India According to the Red Data Book of International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), there are 47 critically endangered species in India.

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There are 24 High Courts at the state and union territory level of India which, together with the Supreme Court of India at the national level, comprise the country's judicial system.

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Indian folk and tribal dances are simple dances, and are performed to express joy and happiness among themselves.

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This page lists Indian States and major cities by their nominal gross domestic product (GDP).

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Below is a list of the largest consumer markets of the world. The countries are sorted by their Household final consumption expenditure (HFCE) which represents consumer spending in nominal terms.

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This is a list of metropolitan areas in India, by population according to the 2011 provisional population results.

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National parks in India are IUCN category II protected areas.

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The list of Ramsar sites (related to wetland) in India comprises Indian wetlands deemed to be of "international importance" under the Ramsar Convention.

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There are eight sovereign states that have successfully detonated nuclear weapons.

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The Lok Sabha (House of the People) is the lower house of India's Bicameral-Parliament, with the higher house being the Rajya Sabha.

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The London School of Economics and Political Science (commonly referred to as the London School of Economics or LSE) is a public research university located in London, England which specialises in social sciences, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.

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Longman is a publishing company founded in London, England, in 1724 and is owned by Pearson PLC.

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The lungi, also known as a sarong, is a traditional garment worn around the waist in Indonesia, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Burma, Brunei, Malaysia, Nepal, Singapore, Thailand, the Horn of Africa and the southern Arabian Peninsula.

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M.E. Sharpe, Inc., an academic publisher, was founded by Myron Sharpe in 1958 with the original purpose of publishing translations from Russian in the social sciences and humanities.

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Macmillan Publishers Ltd, also known as The Macmillan Group, is a privately held international publishing company owned by Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group.

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Madhya Pradesh (MP) (meaning Central Province) is a state in central India.

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Magadha formed one of the sixteen mahajanapadas (Sanskrit: "Great Countries") of ancient India.

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The Mahabharata or Mahābhārata (US; UK; महाभारतम्) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Ramayana.

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A Mahājanapada (literally "great realm", from maha, "great", and janapada "foothold of a tribe", "country") is one of the sixteen kingdoms or oligarchic republics that existed in ancient India from the sixth centuries BCE to fourth centuries CE.

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The Mahanadi (ମହାନଦୀ) is a major river in East Central India.

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Mahārāja (महाराज, also spelled maharajah) is a Sanskrit title for a "great ruler", "great king" or "high king".

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Maharashtra (Marathi pronunciation:, abbr. MH) is a state in the western region of India and is the nation's third largest state and also the world's second-most populous sub-national entity.

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Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was the preeminent leader of the Indian independence movement in British-ruled India.

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Mahavira also known as Vardhamana, was the twenty-fourth and last tirthankara of Jainism of present Avasarpani era (ascending half of the time cycle as per Jain cosmology).

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Maithili (Maithilī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Nepal and northern India by 34.7 million people as of 2000, of which 2.8 million were resident in Nepal.

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Majority rule is a decision rule that selects alternatives which have a majority, that is, more than half the votes.

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Makar Sankranti is a Hindu festival celebrated in almost all parts of India and Nepal in a myriad of cultural forms.

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Malayala Manorama (മലയാള മനോരമ) is a daily morning newspaper, in Malayalam language, published from Kottayam in the state of Kerala, India by Malayala Manorama Company Limited.

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Malayalam, sometimes referred to as Kairali, is a language spoken in India, predominantly in the state of Kerala.

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Malayalam cinema is a part of Indian Cinema based in Kerala dedicated to the production of motion pictures in the Malayalam language.

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Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy located in Southeast Asia.

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The Maldives (or;, officially the Republic of Maldives; ދިވެހިރާއްޖޭގެ ޖުމްހޫރިއްޔާ Dhivehi Raa'jeyge Jumhooriyya) is a sovereign island country and archipelago in the Indian Ocean.

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The World Bank estimates that India is one of the highest ranking countries in the world for the number of children suffering from malnutrition.

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Mamuni Mayan (மாமுனி Māmuṉi meaning Brahmarishi Mayan, Sangakala Sirpachithan Mamuni Mayan, Mayamuni, Mayendran) is a culture hero character from Tamil Sangam literature (the Silappathikaram, Manimekalai, and Civaka Cintamani epics), identified with the asura Maya Dānava (Mayasura) of the Mahabharata, the mythical founder of Vastu Shastra.

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The mango is a juicy stone fruit belonging to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous tropical fruiting trees, cultivated mostly for edible fruit.

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Manipur is a state in northeastern India, with the city of Imphal as its capital.

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Manipuri dance is one of the major Indian classical dance forms.

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Manmohan Singh (born 26 September 1932) is an Indian economist who served as the Prime Minister of India from 2004 to 2014.

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The mantle is an interior part of a terrestrial planet or other rocky body large enough to have differentiation by density.

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The Maratha Empire or the Maratha Confederacy was an Indian imperial power that existed from 1674 to 1818.

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Marathi cinema refers to films produced in Marathi, the language of state Maharashtra, India.

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Marathi (मराठी) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by Marathi people of Maharashtra.

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The Maurya Empire, also known as the Mauryan Empire, was a geographically extensive Iron Age historical power in ancient India, ruled by the Maurya dynasty from 322–185 BCE.

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McKinsey & Company is an American multinational management consulting firm.

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The megadiverse countries are a group of countries that harbor the majority of the Earth's species and are therefore considered extremely biodiverse.

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A megalith is a large stone that has been used to construct a structure or monument, either alone or together with other stones.

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Meghalaya is a state in north-east India.

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Mehrgarh (Balochi: Mehrgaŕh; مهرګړ; مہرگڑھ), sometimes anglicized as Mehergarh or Mehrgar, near the capital of the Kachi District Dadhar, is one of the most important Neolithic (6500 BCE to c. 2500 BCE) sites in archaeology.

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Meithei (Meitei) or Manipuri is the predominant language and lingua franca in the southeastern Himalayan state of Manipur, in northeastern India.

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In archaeology, mesolithic (Greek: mesos "middle", lithos "stone") is the culture between paleolithic and neolithic.

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The Midday Meal Scheme is a school meal programme of the government of India designed to improve the nutritional status of school-age children nationwide.

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The Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change (MoEFCC) is an Indian government ministry.

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The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) or Home Ministry is a ministry of the Government of India.

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The Ministry of Information and Broadcasting is a branch of the Government of India is the apex body for formulation and administration of the rules and regulations and laws relating to information, broadcasting, the press and films in India.

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The Ministry of Law and Justice is the highest organ of the Government of India which deals with the management of the legal affairs, legislative activities and administration of justice in India through its three departments namely the legislative department and the department of legal affairs and department of justice respectively.

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A minority government, or minority cabinet or minority parliament, is a cabinet formed in a parliamentary system when a political party or coalition of parties does not have a majority of overall seats in the parliament.

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Minority rights are the normal individual rights as applied to members of racial, ethnic, class, religious, linguistic or sexual minorities; and also the collective rights accorded to minority groups.

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Mint is India's second largest business newspaper published by HT Media Ltd, the Delhi-based media group which also publishes the Hindustan Times.

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Mizoram is one of the states of Northeast India, with Aizawl as its capital.

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Mohammad Hamid Ansari (born 1 April 1937) is the 12th and current Vice President of India, in office since 2007.

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Mohenjo-daro (موهن جو دڙو, موئن جو دڑو, IPA:, lit. Mound of the Dead) is an archeological site in the province of Sindh, Pakistan.

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Mohiniyattam, also spelled Mohiniattam (മോഹിനിയാട്ടം), is a classical dance form from Kerala, India.

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In Indian religions and Indian philosophy, moksha (मोक्ष), also called vimoksha, vimukti and mukti, means emancipation, liberation or release.

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The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles), existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.

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Monsoon (UK:; US) is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.

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The Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms or more briefly known as Mont-Ford Reforms were reforms introduced by the British Government in India to introduce self-governing institutions gradually to India.

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Motilal Banarsidass (MLBD) is a leading Indian publishing house on Sanskrit and Indology since 1903, located in Delhi, India.

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Mudflats or mud flats, also known as tidal flats, are coastal wetlands that form when mud is deposited by tides or rivers.

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Mughal architecture is an architectural style developed by the Mughals in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries throughout the extent of their empire in the Indian subcontinent.

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The Mughal Empire or Mogul Empire, self-designated as Gurkani (گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān, meaning "son-in-law"), was an empire established and ruled by a Persianate dynasty of Chagatai Turco-Mongol origin that extended over large parts of the Indian subcontinent and Afghanistan.

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Mughal painting is a particular style of South Asian painting, generally confined to miniatures either as book illustrations or as single works to be kept in albums, which emerged from Persian miniature painting, with Indian Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist influences, and developed largely in the court of the Mughal Empire (16th - 19th centuries), and later spread to other Indian courts, both Muslim and Hindu, and later Sikh.

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A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have a similar or equal chance of gaining control of government offices, separately or in coalition government.

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Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.

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The Standard Chartered Mumbai Marathon, abbreviated as SCMM, is an annual international marathon held in Mumbai, India, on the third Sunday of January every year.

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The music of India includes multiple varieties of folk music, pop, and Indian classical music.

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A Muslim, sometimes spelled Moslem, relates to a person who follows the religion of Islam, a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the Quran.

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Musti-yuddha (Sanskrit and मुष्टि युद्ध; مُشٹی یُدّھاَ) is the traditional South Asian form of boxing.

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Myanmar (or (also with the stress on first syllable)), officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia bordered by Bangladesh, India, China, Laos and Thailand.

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Nagaland is a state in Northeast India.

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The following table lists the names of the Republic of India in each of the twenty-three constitutionally recognised languages listed in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution of India.

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Narendra Damodardas Modi (born 17 September 1950) is the 15th and current Prime Minister of India, in office since 26 May 2014.

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The Narmada also called the Rewa, is a river in central India and the fifth longest river in the Indian subcontinent.

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The National Association of Software and Services Companies (NASSCOM) is a trade association of Indian Information Technology (IT) and Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) industry.

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The National Capital Region (NCR) in India is the designation for the conurbation or metropolitan area which encompasses the entire National Capital Territory of Delhi, which includes New Delhi, as well as urban areas surrounding it in neighboring states of Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan.

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The National Democratic Alliance (NDA) is a centre-right coalition of political parties in India.

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The National Informatics Centre (NIC) (राष्ट्रीय सूचना विज्ञान केंद्र Rashtriya Suchna Vigyan Kendra) is the premier science & technology organisation of India's Union Government in informatics services and information-and-communication- technology (ICT) applications.

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A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) which has some connection—de facto or de jure—with a people and perhaps by extension the territory they occupy.

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The Republic of India has several official national symbols including a historic document, a flag, an emblem, an anthem, a memorial tower as well as several national heroes.

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Nautanki (नौटंकी) is a famous folk theater and operatic drama form, popular in northern India especially in Uttar Pradesh.

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Navaratri is a festival dedicated to the worship of the Hindu deity Durga.

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A Naxal or Naxalite is a member of any of the Communist guerrilla groups in India, mostly associated with the Communist Party of India (Maoist).

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Nekkhamma (Sanskrit: नैष्काम्य) is a Pali word generally translated as "renunciation" or "the pleasure of renunciation" while also conveying more specifically "giving up the world and leading a holy life" or "freedom from lust, craving and desires." In Buddhism's Noble Eightfold Path, nekkhamma is the first practice associated with "Right Intention." In the Theravada list of ten perfections, nekkhamma is the third practice of "perfection." It involves non-attachment (detachment).

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Nelumbo nucifera, also known as Indian lotus, sacred lotus, bean of India, or simply lotus, is one of two species of aquatic plant in the family Nelumbonaceae.

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The Neolithic Age, Era, or Period, from νέος (néos, "new") and λίθος (líthos, "stone"), or New Stone Age, was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world from First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies by Peter Bellwood, 2004 and ending between 4,500 and 2,000 BC.

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Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked country located in South Asia.

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Nepali or Nepalese is an Indo-Aryan language.

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The net domestic product (NDP) equals the gross domestic product (GDP) minus depreciation on a country's capital goods.

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New Delhi is a district in Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of the executive, legislative, and judiciary branches of the Government of India.

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The category of newly industrialized country (NIC) is a socioeconomic classification applied to several countries around the world by political scientists and economists.

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The Nilgiri langur (Trachypithecus johnii) is a lutung (a type of Old World monkey) found in the Nilgiri Hills of the Western Ghats in South India.

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The NKP Salve Challenger Trophy, commonly referred to as the Challenger Trophy, is an Indian List A cricket tournament organized by the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI).

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No first use (NFU) refers to a pledge or a policy by a nuclear power not to use nuclear weapons as a means of warfare unless first attacked by an adversary using nuclear weapons.

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The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states which are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.

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Nonviolence (from Sanskrit ahimṣā, non-violence, "lack of desire to harm or kill") is the personal practice of being harmless to self and others under every condition.

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Nonviolent resistance (NVR or nonviolent action) is the practice of achieving goals through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, satyagraha, or other methods, without using violence.

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Northeast India (सा सानजा भारत, উত্তৰ-পূব ভাৰত, উত্তর-পূর্ব ভারত, पूर्वोत्तर भारत) is the eastern-most region of India.

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Nuclear power is the fourth-largest source of electricity in India after thermal, hydroelectric and renewable sources of electricity.

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Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) is a multinational body concerned with reducing nuclear proliferation by controlling the export and re-transfer of materials that may be applicable to nuclear weapon development and by improving safeguards and protection on existing materials.

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A nuclear triad refers to the nuclear weapons delivery of a strategic nuclear arsenal which consists of three components, traditionally strategic bombers, intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), and submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs).

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Oceanic crust is the part of Earth's lithosphere that surfaces in the ocean basins.

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Odia or Oriya, both renderings of ଓଡ଼ିଆ, is an Indian language belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Odisha (or Orissa)(odia:ଓଡ଼ିଶା) is one of the 29 states of India, located in the east of India.

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Odissi, also known as Orissi (ଓଡିଶୀ Oḍiśī), is one of the eight classical dance forms of India.

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An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.

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The Old Persian language or Achaemenian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages (the other being Avestan).

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The modern Olympic Games (Jeux olympiques) are the leading international sporting event featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.

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One World Media is a non-profit organisation, registered in the UK as a charitable trust.

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The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an international economic organisation of 34 countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.

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The original jurisdiction of a court is the power to hear a case for the first time, as opposed to appellate jurisdiction, when a court has the power to review a lower court's decision.

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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to India: India – seventh-largest country by area, located on the Indian subcontinent in South Asia.

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The Oxford English Dictionary (OED), published by the Oxford University Press, is a descriptive (as opposed to prescriptive) dictionary of the English language.

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Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second-oldest, after Cambridge University Press.

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Oxford World's Classics is an imprint of Oxford University Press.

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Pamulaparti Venkata Narasimha Rao (28 June 1921 – 23 December 2004) was an Indian lawyer and politician who served as the Prime Minister of India (1991–1996).

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Pachisi (पचीसी) is a cross and circle board game that originated in ancient India which has been described as the "national game of India".

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Pajamas American English, spelled pyjamas British English, often shortened to PJs, jimmies, jimjams or jammies, can refer to several related types of clothing.

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Pakistan (or; پاكستان ALA-LC), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاكستان ALA-LC), is a sovereign country in South Asia.

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The Pala Empire was a Buddhist imperial power in Classical India.

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The Pallava dynasty existed between the 3rd and 9th centuries CE, ruling a portion of what is today southern India.

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The Pandyan or Pandiyan or Pandian dynasty was an ancient Tamil dynasty, one of the three Tamil dynasties, the other two being the Chola and the Chera.

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The term "paramilitary forces" in India has not been defined in any acts or by authorities officially however they are conventionally used to refer to three forces i.e. Assam Rifles, Special Frontier Force and Indian Coast Guard Central Armed Police Forces were formerly referred as Paramilitary Forces however from March 2011, Ministry of Home Affairs adopted a uniform nomenclature of Central Armed Police Forces for five forces namely CRPF, BSF, ITBP, CISF, SSB to avoid confusion.

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Parcheesi is a brand-name American adaptation of the Indian cross and circle board game Pachisi, published by Parker Brothers and Winning Moves.

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A parliamentary republic or parliamentary constitutional republic is a type of republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).

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A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state in which the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from, and is held accountable to, the legislature (parliament); the executive and legislative branches are thus interconnected.

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The Partition of India was the partition of the British Indian Empire that led to the creation of the sovereign states of the Dominion of Pakistan (it later split into Pakistan and Bangladesh) and the Union of India (later Republic of India) on 15 August 1947.

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Pearson Education is a British-owned education publishing and assessment service to schools and corporations, as well as directly to students.

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Pearson PLC is a British multinational publishing and education company headquartered in London.

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Pehlwani (Urdu/Shahmukhi:, पहलवानी, ਪਹਿਲਵਾਨੀ, পালোয়ানি) or kusti (कुश्ती,कुस्ती, Urdu/Shahmukhi:, ਕੁਸ਼ਤੀ, কুস্তি) is a form of wrestling from South Asia.

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Penguin Books is a British publishing house.

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Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi or Parsi (English:; Persian: فارسی), is the predominant modern descendant of Old Persian, a southwestern Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Globally, India ranks 3rd in terms of volume and 14th in terms of value.

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The Philippines (Pilipinas), officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean.

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Picador is an imprint of Pan Macmillan in the United Kingdom and Australia and of Macmillan Publishing in the United States.

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Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory that describes the large-scale motion of Earth's lithosphere.

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Pluralism as a political philosophy is the recognition and affirmation of diversity within a political body, which permits the peaceful coexistence of different interests, convictions and lifestyles.

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Pokhran-II was the series of five nuclear bomb test explosions conducted by India at the Indian Army's Pokhran Test Range in May 1998.

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Political culture is defined by the International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences as the "set of attitudes, beliefs and sentiments that give order and meaning to a political process and which provide the underlying assumptions and rules that govern behavior in the political system".

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A political party is an organization of people which seeks to achieve goals common to its members through the acquisition and exercise of political power.

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Popular Prakashan is an Indian independent publisher and bookseller founded in Bombay in 1924.

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Poverty in India is widespread, and a variety of methods have been proposed to measure it.

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Pranab Kumar Mukherjee (born 11 December 1935) is the 13th and current President of India, in office since July 2012.

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The 'preamble' to the Constitution of India is a brief introductory statement that sets out the guiding purpose and principles of the document.The hopes and aspiration of the people as well as the ideals before our nation are described in the preamble in clear cut words.

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Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson PLC.

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The President of India is the formal head of the executive and legislature of India and is the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces.

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PricewaterhouseCoopers (trading as PwC) is a multinational professional services network.

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A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government, often in a parliamentary or semi-presidential system.

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The Prime Minister of India (Hindi: भारत के प्रधानमंत्री Bhārat kē Pradhānmantrī), as addressed to in the Constitution of India, is the chief of government, chief adviser to the President of India, head of the Council of Ministers and the leader of the majority party in the parliament.

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Project Tiger is a tiger conservation programme launched in 1973 by the Government of India during Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's tenure.

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As of May 2004, the protected areas of India cover, roughly 4.95% of the total surface area.

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Protectionism is the economic policy of restraining trade between states (countries) through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, restrictive quotas, and a variety of other government regulations designed to allow (according to proponents) fair competition between imports and goods and services produced domestically.

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India, being a culturally diverse and fervent society, celebrates various holidays and festivals.

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Puducherry, formerly known as Pondicherry, is a Union Territory of India formed out of four exclaves of former French India (being its capital, hence also known informally as Pondicherry) and named after the largest Puducherry district.

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Pune is the ninth-most populous city in India and the second largest in the state of Maharashtra after the state capital city of Mumbai.

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The Punjab, also spelled Panjab, panj-āb, "five rivers" (Punjabi: (Shahmukhi), ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi), Hindi: पंजाब (Devanagari)), is a geographical region in the Indian subcontinent or South Asia comprising vast areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.

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Punjab, also spelt Panjab, is a state in North India, forming part of the larger Punjab region.

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Punjabi (Shahmukhi: پنجابی; Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by 130 million native speakers worldwide, making it the 9th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.

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Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a component of some economic theories and is a technique used to determine the relative value of different currencies.

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Rabindranath Tagore, also written Ravīndranātha Thākura (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali polymath who reshaped Bengali literature and music, as well as Indian art with Contextual Modernism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

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Rajasthan (literally, "Land of Kings") is India's largest state by area (or 10.4% of India's total area).

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Rajiv Ratna Gandhi (20 August 1944 – 21 May 1991) was the Prime Minister of India, serving from 1984 to 1989.

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The Rajiv Gandhi Khel Ratna (RGKR) is India’s highest honour given for achievement in sports, given by the Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports, government of India.

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Rajput (from Sanskrit raja-putra, "son of a king") is a member of one of the patrilineal clans of western, central, northern India and current eastern Pakistan.

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The Rajya Sabha or Council of States is the upper house of the Parliament of India.

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The Ramayana (रामायणम्) is a Sanskrit epic poem ascribed to the Hindu sage and Sanskrit poet Valmiki.

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Ramlila (Rāmlīlā) (literally 'Rama’s lila or play') is a dramatic folk re-enactment of the life of Rama, ending up in ten-day battle between Rama and Ravana, as described in the Hindu religious epic, the Ramayana.

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The Ramsar Convention (formally, the Convention on Wetlands of International Importance, especially as Waterfowl Habitat) is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands,, retrieved 2011-07-10 recognizing the fundamental ecological functions of wetlands and their economic, cultural, scientific, and recreational value.

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The Ranji Trophy is a domestic first-class cricket championship played in India between teams representing regional cricket associations.

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Rann of Kutch (Kutchi language: કચ્છ જો રણ) is a large area of salt marshes located in mostly in Gujarat (primarily the Kutch district), India and the southern tip of Sindh, Pakistan.

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Rediff.com is an Indian news, information, entertainment and shopping web portal, founded in 1996 as "Rediff On The NeT".

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Religion in India is characterized by a diversity of religious beliefs and practices.

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Communal violence in India includes acts of violence by followers of one religious group against followers and institutions of another religious group, often in the form of rioting.

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Renewable energy in India comes under the purview of the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy.

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Representative democracy (also indirect democracy or psephocracy) is a variety of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.

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A republic (from res publica) is a form of government or country in which power resides in elected individuals representing the citizen body and government leaders exercise power according to the rule of law.

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Republic Day honors the date on which the Constitution of India came into force on 26 January 1950 replacing the Government of India Act (1935) as the governing document of India.

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RIA Novosti (РИА Новости), sometimes shortly RIA (РИА) was Russia's international news agency until 2013 and continues to be the name of a state-operated domestic Russian-language news agency.

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The terms right-hand traffic and left-hand traffic refer to regulations requiring all bidirectional traffic, unless otherwise directed, to keep either to the right or the left side of the road, respectively.

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Right-wing politics are political positions or activities that view some forms of social stratification or social inequality as either inevitable, natural, normal, or desirable,J.

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The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum; Ancient and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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The Anarchical and Revolutionary Crimes Act, 1919 popularly known as the Rowlatt Act was a legislative act passed by the Imperial Legislative Council in Delhi on March 18, 1919, indefinitely extending the emergency measures of preventive indefinite detention, incarceration without trial and judicial review enacted in the Defence of India Act 1915 during the First World War.

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Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group is an independent publishing house founded in 1949.

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S.

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Sage Publications is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune.

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The Sahitya Akademi (साहित्य अकादमी), India's National Academy of Letters, is an organisation dedicated to the promotion of literature in the languages of India.

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Saina Nehwal (born 17 March 1990) is an Indian badminton player who is currently ranked No.1 in the world by Badminton World Federation Women's Singles 2015.

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Samanta was an title and position used by the Indian nobility.

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The Sangam period (Tamil: சங்ககால பருவம், Cankakāla paruvam ?) is the period in the history of ancient southern India (known as the Tamilakam) spanning from c. 300 BCE to 300 CE.

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Sangeet Natak Akademi (Devanāgarī: संगीत नाटक अकादेमी or The National Academy for Music, Dance and Drama in English) is the national level academy for performing arts set up by the Government of India.

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Sanskara (IAST:, sometimes spelled samskara) are rites of passage in a human being's life described in ancient Sanskrit texts, as well as a concept in the karma theory of Indian philosophies.

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Sanskrit (Sanskrit: or, originally, "refined speech") is the primary sacred language of Hinduism, a philosophical language in Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism, and a literary language that was in use as a lingua franca in Greater India.

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Literature in Sanskrit begins with the spoken or sung literature of the Vedas from the mid-2nd millennium BCE, and continues with the oral tradition of the Sanskrit epics of Iron Age India; the golden age of Classical Sanskrit literature dates to Late Antiquity (roughly the 3rd to 8th centuries CE).

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Santhali (Ol Chiki: ᱥᱟᱱᱛᱟᱞᱤ) is a language in the Munda subfamily of Austroasiatic languages, related to Ho and Mundari.

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The Sarasvati River (Sanskrit: सरस्वती नदी) is one of the main Rigvedic rivers mentioned in the Rig Veda and later Vedic and post-Vedic texts.

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A sari, saree, sadi, or shariThe name of the garment in various regional languages include:শাড়ি, साड़ी, ଶାଢୀ, ಸೀರೆ,, साडी, कापड, चीरे,, സാരി, साडी, सारी, ਸਾਰੀ, புடவை, చీర, ساڑى is a South Asian female garment that consists of a drape varying from five to nine yards (4.57 metres to 8.23 metres) in length and two to four feet (60 cm to 1.20 m) in breadth that is typically wrapped around the waist, with one end draped over the shoulder, baring the midriff.

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The Satpura Range is a range of hills in central India.

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Sattriya or Sattriya Nritya (সত্ৰীয়া নৃত্য), is one among the eight principal classical Indian dance traditions.

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"Satyameva Jayate" (सत्यमेव जयते; lit. "Truth alone triumphs.") is a mantra from the ancient Indian scripture Mundaka Upanishad.

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The Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) are official designations given to various groups of historically disadvantaged people in India.

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The first known sculpture in the Indian subcontinent is from the Indus Valley civilization (3300–1700 BC), found in sites at Mohenjo-daro and Harappa in modern-day Pakistan.

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Seafloor spreading is a process that occurs at mid-ocean ridges, where new oceanic crust is formed through volcanic activity and then gradually moves away from the ridge.

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Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institutions and religious dignitaries.

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The separation of powers, often imprecisely used interchangeably with the trias politica principle, is a model for the governance of a state (or who controls the state).

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The Seven Sister states (Assamese: সাতভনী ৰাজ্য) are the contiguous states of Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Nagaland and Tripura in northeastern India.

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Sexual intercourse, or coitus or copulation, is principally the insertion and thrusting of a male's penis, usually when erect, into a female's vagina for the purposes of sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both.

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Shahabuddin Muhammad Shah Jahan (5 January 1592 – 22 January 1666) was the fifth Mughal Emperor of India from 1628 to 1658.

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Shaivism or Saivism is one of the four most widely followed sects of Hinduism, which reveres the God Shiva as the Supreme Being.

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Shalwar kameez, also spelled salwar kameez or shalwar qameez, is a traditional outfit originating in South Asia and is a generic term used to describe different styles of dress.

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Shilpa Shastras (Sanskrit: शिल्प शास्त्र) literally means the Science of Śilpa (arts and crafts).

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Sholas are a local name for patches of stunted tropical montane forest found in valleys amid rolling grassland in the higher montane regions of South India.

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Shorea robusta, also known as śāl, sakhua or shala tree, is a species of tree belonging to the Dipterocarpaceae family.

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The Siachen Glacier (Hindi: सियाचेन) (Urdu:سیاچین) is located in the eastern Karakoram range in the Himalaya Mountains at about, just northeast of the point NJ9842 where the Line of Control between India and Pakistan ends.

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A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a follower of Sikhism, a monotheistic dharma which originated during the 15th century in the Punjab region of South Asia.

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The Sikh Empire was a major power in the Indian subcontinent, that arose under the leadership of Maharaja Ranjit Singh who established a secular empire basing it around the Punjab.

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Sikhism, or Sikhi (from Sikh, meaning a disciple, or a learner), is a monotheistic religion founded in South Asia in the 15th century.

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Sikhism is India's fourth-largest religion and has existed for 546 years, beginning with the birth of its founder Guru Nanak.

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Sikkim is a landlocked Indian state located in the Himalayan mountains.

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Silambam is a weapon-based Indian martial art from Tamil Nadu, but also traditionally practised by the Tamil community of Sri Lanka and Malaysia.

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Sindhi (سنڌي, सिन्धी) is an Indo-Aryan language of the historical Sindh region, spoken by the Sindhi people.

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The Sino-Indian War (भारत-चीन युद्ध Bhārat-Chīn Yuddh), also known as the Sino-Indian Border Conflict, was a war between China and India that occurred in 1962.

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The Sino-Tibetan languages are a family of more than 400 languages spoken in East Asia, Southeast Asia and parts of South Asia. The family is second only to the Indo-European languages in terms of the number of native speakers. The Sino-Tibetan languages with the most native speakers are the varieties of Chinese (1.2 billion speakers), Burmese (33 million) and the Tibetic languages (8 million). Many Sino-Tibetan languages are spoken by small communities in remote mountain areas and are poorly documented. Several low-level groupings are well established, but the higher-level structure of the family remains unclear. Although the family is often presented as divided into Sinitic and Tibeto-Burman branches, a common origin of the non-Sinitic languages has never been demonstrated, and is rejected by an increasing number of researchers. A minority of researchers call the whole family "Tibeto-Burman", and the name "Trans-Himalayan" has also been proposed.

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Smiling BuddhaThis test has many code names.

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The snow leopard (Panthera uncia syn. Uncia uncia) is a large cat native to the mountain ranges of Central and South Asia.

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Socialism in India is a political movement founded early in the 20th century, as a part of the broader Indian independence movement against the colonial British Raj.

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South America is a continent located in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.

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South Asia or Southern Asia is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.

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The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is an economic and geopolitical organisation of eight countries that are primarily located in South Asia or the Indian subcontinent.

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The South Asian Games (SAF Games, SAG, or SA games, & formerly known as South Asian Federation Games) are a bi-annual multi-sport event held among the athletes from South Asia.

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The South Asian river dolphin (Platanista gangetica) is a freshwater or river dolphin found in India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan which is split into two subspecies, the Ganges river dolphin (P. g. gangetica) and Indus river dolphin (P. g. minor).

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South India (ದಕ್ಷಿಣ ಭಾರತ, തെക്കെ ഭാരതം, தெற்கு பாரதம், దక్షిణ భారతం) is the area encompassing India's states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Telangana, Tamil Nadu and Kerala as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep and Puducherry, occupying 19.31% of India's area. South India includes the southern part of the peninsular Deccan Plateau and is bounded by the Arabian Sea in the west, the Indian Ocean in the south and the Bay of Bengal in the east. The geography of the region is diverse, encompassing two mountain ranges, the Western and Eastern Ghats, and a plateau heartland. The Godavari, Krishna, Tungabhadra, Kaveri, and Vaigai rivers are important non-perennial sources of water. Chennai, Bengaluru, Hyderabad, Vijayawada, Visakhapatnam, Coimbatore, Kochi and Thiruvananthapuram are the largest and most industrialized cities in the region. A majority of Indians from the southern region speak one of the following languages: Telugu, Tamil, Kannada, Malayalam, and Tulu. During its history, a number of dynastic kingdoms ruled over parts of South India whose invasions across southern and southeastern Asia impacted the history and cultures of modern sovereign states such as Sri Lanka, Singapore, the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, and Malaysia. The region was colonized by Britain and gradually incorporated into the British Empire. South India, particularly Kerala, has been a major entry point of the religions of Christianity and later Islam to the Indian Subcontinent. After experiencing fluctuations in the decades immediately after Indian independence, the economies of South Indian states have registered higher than national average growth over the past three decades. While South Indian states have improved in some socio-economic metrics, poverty continues to affect the region much like the rest of the country, although it has considerably decreased over the years. HDI in southern states is high and the economy has undergone growth at a faster rate than most northern states. Literacy rates in southern states is also very high, with approximately 80% of the population capable of reading and writing, while in Kerala (which has the highest literacy rate in India) 94% of the population are literate. Honour killings are non-existent in South India. Violence against women in South India is relatively low, with southern states having a progressive attitude toward the rights for women. Agriculture is the single largest contributor to the regional net domestic product, while Information technology is a rapidly growing industry. Literary and architectural styles, evolved over two thousand years, differ from other parts of the country. Politics in South India is dominated by smaller regional political parties rather than by national political parties. South India ranks the highest in terms of social and economic development in areas such as fertility rate and infrastructure; the fertility rate of South India is 1.9, the lowest of all regions in India.

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The South Western Ghats montane rain forests are an ecoregion of southern India, covering the southern portion of the Western Ghats range in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, at elevations over 1000 meters.

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Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.

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Sovereignty is understood in jurisprudence as the full right and power of a governing body to govern itself without any interference from outside sources or bodies.

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The Speaker of the Lok Sabha is the presiding officer of the Lok Sabha, the lower house of the Parliament of India.

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The Special Frontier Force (SFF) is a paramilitary special force of India created on 14 November 1962.

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Springer Publishing is an American publishing company of academic journals and books, focusing on the fields of nursing, gerontology, psychology, social work, counseling, public health, and rehabilitation (neuropsychology).

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Springer Science+Business Media or Springer is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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Sri Lanka (or; Sinhalese Śrī Laṃkāva, Tamil Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka and known from the beginning of British colonial rule until 1972 as Ceylon, is an island country in South Asia near south-east India.

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St.

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India is a federal union of states comprising twenty-nine states and seven union territories.

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The States Reorganisation Act, 1956 was a major reform of the boundaries of India's states and territories, organising them along linguistic lines.

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Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. is a publisher of nonfiction titles, with more than 5,000 books in print.

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Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) is an independent international institute in Sweden, dedicated to research into conflict, armaments, arms control and disarmament.

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The Indian Strategic Forces Command (SFC), sometimes called Strategic Nuclear Command, forms part of India's Nuclear Command Authority (NCA).

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In geology, subduction is the process that takes place at convergent boundaries by which one tectonic plate moves under another tectonic plate and sinks into the mantle as the plates converge.

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The Sukhoi/HAL Fifth Generation Fighter Aircraft (FGFA) or Perspective Multi-role Fighter (PMF) is a fifth-generation fighter being developed by India and Russia.

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Sumitra Mahajan (सुमित्रा महाजन) (born 12 April 1943) is an Indian politician who has been Speaker of the Lok Sabha since 2014.

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The Sundarbans (সুন্দরবন, Shundorbôn) is a natural region in the Bengal region comprising Eastern India and Bangladesh.

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The Supreme Court of India is the highest judicial forum and final court of appeal under the Constitution of India, the highest constitutional court, with the power of constitutional review.

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The Taj Mahal (more often; from Persian and Arabic, "crown of palaces") is a white marble mausoleum located on the southern bank of the Yamuna River in the Indian city of Agra.

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Tamasha (तमाशा) is a traditional form of Marathi theatre, often with singing and dancing, widely performed by local or travelling theatre groups within the state of Maharashtra, India.

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The cinema of Tamil Nadu is a part of Indian cinema, producing films in the Tamil language.

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Tamil also spelt Thamizh is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka.

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Tamil literature (தமிழ் இலக்கியம்) refers to the literature in the Tamil language.

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Tamil Nadu; literally The Land of Tamils or Tamil Country is one of the 29 states of India.

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The Tapti River ancient original name Tapati River is a river in central India.

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In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.

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Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in the United Kingdom that publishes books and academic journals.

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Teak is a tropical hardwood species of tree known as Tectona grandis.

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A tehsil or tahsil/tahasil (तहसील, ਤਹਿਸੀਲ, తహశీల్, تحصیل), also known as taluk (or taluq/taluka (تعلقو)) or mandal, is an administrative division of some countries of South Asia.

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Telangana is a state in South India and one of the 29 states in India.

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The Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) is the independent regulator of the telecommunications business in India.

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India's telecommunication network is the second largest in the world based on the total number of telephone users (both fixed and mobile phone).

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Subscriber Trunk Dialling (STD) codes are assigned to each city/town/village, with the larger Metro cities having shorter area codes (STD codes), the shortest being 2 digits.

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Telugu cinema, also known by its sobriquet Tollywood, is a part of Indian cinema producing films in the Telugu language, and is centered in the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, particularly in the Hyderabad neighbourhood of Film Nagar.

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Telugu (తెలుగు telugu) is a Dravidian language and is the only language other than Hindi, English and Bengali that is predominantly spoken in more than one Indian state, being the primary language in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, as well as in the town of Yanam where it is also an official language.

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Temperate coniferous forest is a terrestrial biome found in temperate regions of the world with warm summers and cool winters and adequate rainfall to sustain a forest.

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A common definition of terrorism is the systematic use or threatened use of violence to intimidate a population or government for political, religious, or ideological goals.

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Terukkuttu is a Tamil street theatre form practised in Tamil Nadu state of India and Tamil-speaking regions of Sri Lanka.

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The Tethys Ocean (Greek: Τηθύς) was an ocean that existed between the continents of Gondwana and Laurasia during much of the Mesozoic era, before the opening of the Indian and Atlantic oceans during the Cretaceous period.

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Thai Pongal (Tamil: தைப்பொங்கல்) is a Tamil harvest festival.

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Thailand (or; ประเทศไทย), officially the Kingdom of Thailand (ราชอาณาจักรไทย), formerly known as Siam (สยาม), is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Mainland Southeast Asia.

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The Thar Desert, also known as the Great Indian Desert, is a large, arid region in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent that forms a natural boundary between India and Pakistan.

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The Australian is a broadsheet newspaper published in Australia from Monday to Saturday each week since 14 July 1964.

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The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is an international news organization that delivers global coverage via its website, weekly magazine, daily news briefing, email newsletters, Amazon Kindle subscription, and mobile site.

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The Economic Times is an English-language, Indian daily newspaper published by the Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd. first published in 1961.

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In India, "the Emergency" refers to a 21-month period in 1975–77 when Prime Minister Indira Gandhi unilaterally had a state of emergency declared across the country.

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The Globe and Mail is a nationally distributed Canadian newspaper owned by The Woodbridge Company, based in Toronto and printed in six cities across the country.

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The Hindu is an English-language Indian daily newspaper.

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The Short Oxford History of the Modern World series is a book series published by the Oxford University Press publishing house.

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The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper.

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The Wall Street Journal is a business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.

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The World Factbook (ISSN; also known as the CIA World Factbook) is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.

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The earliest form of the theatre of India was the Sanskrit theatre.

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Third Front in Indian politics refers to various alliances formed by smaller parties at various points of time since 1989 to offer a third option to Indian voters, challenging the Indian National Congress and Bhartiya Janata Party.

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The tiger (Panthera tigris) is the largest cat species, reaching a total body length of up to over curves and exceptionally weighing up to in the wild.

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Time (styled within the magazine as TIME) is an American weekly news magazine published in New York City.

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Transparency International (TI) is a non-governmental organization that monitors and publicizes corporate and political corruption in international development.

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Transport is an important part of India's economy.

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The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.

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Tripura is a state in Northeast India.

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Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests (TSMF), also known as tropical moist forests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome, sometimes referred to as Jungle.

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In geology, a trough generally refers to a linear structural depression that extends laterally over a distance, while being less steep than a trench.

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Trusted Media Brands, Inc., formerly known as the Reader's Digest Association, Inc. (RDA), is a global media and direct marketing company, best known for its flagship publication founded in 1922, Reader's Digest. The company is headquartered in New York City, where it moved from Pleasantville, New York. The company was founded by husband and wife DeWitt and Lila Wallace in 1922 with the first publication of Reader's Digest magazine, but has grown to include a diverse range of magazines, books, music, DVDs and online content. TMBI publishes 75 magazines globally including 49 editions of Reader's Digest magazine. Other magazines include The Family Handyman (U.S. and Australia); Best Health (Canada and Australia) and RD Specials, one-time publications sold at supermarket checkout counters. RDA also sells 30 million books a year worldwide including general books, illustrated reference books, Select Editions (condensed books), and adult and children's trade books. The company also markets music collections, videos and other products, and has a number of branded online communities.

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Tulsidas (also known as Goswami Tulsidas; 1497/1532–1623) was a Hindu poet-saint, reformer and philosopher from Ramanandi Sampradaya in the lineage of Jagadguru Ramanandacharya renowned for his devotion to the Lord Shri Rama.

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Twenty20 cricket, sometimes written Twenty-20, and often abbreviated to T20, is a short form of cricket.

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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN).

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The Union Council of Ministers exercises executive authority in the Republic of India.

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A union territory is a type of administrative division in the Republic of India.

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The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation.

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The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA) is part of the United Nations Secretariat and is responsible for the follow-up to the major United Nations Summits and Conferences, as well as services to the United Nations Economic and Social Council and the Second and Third Committees of the United Nations General Assembly.

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The United Progressive Alliance (UPA) is a coalition of centre-left political parties in India formed after the 2004 general election.

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The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal government policy on farming, agriculture, forestry, and food.

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University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.

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The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.

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The University of Colorado Boulder (UCB, also commonly referred to as CU-Boulder, CU, Boulder, or Colorado) is a public research university located in Boulder, Colorado, United States.

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The University of Hawaii Press is a university press that is part of the University of Hawaiokinai.

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The University of Iowa Press is a university press that is part of the University of Iowa.

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The University of Minnesota Press is a university press that is part of the University of Minnesota.

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University Press of America is an academic publisher based in the United States.

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The Upanishads (Upaniṣad) are a collection of texts which contain some of the central philosophical concepts of Hinduism, some of which are shared with Buddhism and Jainism.

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Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:;, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a standardised register of the Hindustani language.

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Uttar Pradesh (literally "Northern Province"), abbreviated as UP, is a state located in Northern India.

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Uttarakhand, formerly Uttaranchal, is a state in the northern part of India.

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Vachellia nilotica (widely known by the taxonomic synonym Acacia nilotica, or the common names gum arabic tree, Babul/Kikar, Egyptian thorn, Sant tree, Al-sant or prickly acacia; called thorn mimosa or prickly acacia in Australia; lekkerruikpeul or scented thorn in South Africa; karuvela maram in South India) is a species of Vachellia native to Africa, the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent.

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Vaisakhi (ਵਿਸਾਖੀ)), also known as Baisakhi, Vaishakhi, or Vasakhi) refers to the harvest festival of the Punjab region, the Punjabi new year falling on the same day, Khalsa Sirjana Divas and Mesha Sankranti festival.

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Vande Mataram (Bengali script: বন্দে মাতরম্, Devanagari: वन्दे मातरम्)—literally, "I praise thee, Mother"—is a poem from Bankim Chandra Chatterjee's 1882 novel Anandamath.

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Varma kalai (Tamil: varmakkalai, Malayalam: marmakkala, Sinhala: maru kalā, Telugu: marmavidyakaḷa, Sanskrit: marmavidya) is a Indian term meaning "art of vital points".

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Vastu shastra is a traditional Hindu system of architecture, which literally translates to "science of architecture." These are texts found on the Indian subcontinent that describe principles of design, layout, measurements, ground preparation, space arrangement and spatial geometry.

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The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of texts originating in ancient India.

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The Vedic period (or Vedic age) (ca. 1500–500 BCE) was the period in Indian history during which the Vedas, the oldest scriptures of Hinduism, were composed.

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The Vice President of India is the second-highest constitutional office in India, after the President.

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Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (SRV), is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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The Vijayanagara Empire (also called Karnata Empire and the Kingdom of Bisnegar by the Portuguese) was an empire based in South India, in the Deccan Plateau region.

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The Vikrant class (विक्रान्त) (formerly Project 71 Air Defence Ship (ADS) or Indigenous Aircraft Carrier (IAC)) is a class of two aircraft carriers being built for the Indian Navy.

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The Vindhya Range refers to a complex, discontinuous chain of mountain ridges, hill ranges, highlands and plateau escarpments in west-central India.

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West Bengal is a state in eastern India and is the nation's fourth-most populous state, with over 91 million inhabitants.

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Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.

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The Western Ghats or Sahyadri (Tamil: சஹ்யாற்றி, Kannada: ಸಹ್ಯಾದ್ರಿ, Malayalam: സഹ്യാദ്രി, Marathi: सह्याद्री) are a mountain range that runs almost parallel to the western coast of the Indian peninsula, located entirely in India.

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The Westminster system is a democratic parliamentary system of government modelled after that which developed in the United Kingdom.

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The white-rumped vulture (Gyps bengalensis) is an Old World vulture closely related to the European griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus).

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The wildlife in India comprises a mix of species of different types of organisms.

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The Wildlife Protection Act, 1972 is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted for protection of plants and animal species.

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India has 515 animal sanctuaries referred to as wildlife sanctuaries category IV protected areas.

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William Morrow and Company is an American publishing company founded by William Morrow in 1926.

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The status of women in India has been subject to many great changes over the past few millennia.

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The Works of Rabindranath Tagore consist of poems, novels, short stories, dramas, paintings, drawings, and music that Bengali poet and Brahmo philosopher Rabindranath Tagore created over his lifetime.

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The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programs.

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The World Economic Forum (WEF) is a Swiss nonprofit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva.

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The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is concerned with international public health.

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A World Heritage Site is a place (such as a building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, or mountain) that is listed by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as being of special cultural or physical significance.

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The UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves (WNBR) covers internationally designated protected areas, each known as biosphere reserves, that are meant to demonstrate a balanced relationship between people and nature (e.g. encourage sustainable development).

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The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization which regulates international trade.

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Yakshagana (kannada: ಯಕ್ಷಗಾನ) is a folk theater form that combines dance, music, dialogue, costume, make-up, and stage techniques with a unique style and form.

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The Yamuna (/jəmʊnaː/; Sanskrit and Hindi: यमुना), sometimes called Jamuna (Hindi: जमुना; /d͡ʒəmʊna:/), is the largest tributary river of the Ganges (Ganga) in northern India.

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Yoga (Sanskrit) is a physical, mental, and spiritual practice or discipline which originated in India.

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The Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali are 196 Indian sutras (aphorisms).

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Zoogeography is the branch of the science of biogeography that is concerned with the geographic distribution (present and past) of animal species.

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The Zoological Survey of India (ZSI) is a premier Indian organisation in zoological research and studies.

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Zoroastrianism in India shares more than a thousand year of history with the culture and people of India.

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.in is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for India.

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The 1951 Asian Games, officially known as the First Asian Games, was a multi-sport event celebrated in Delhi, India from 4 to 11 March 1951.

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The 9th Asian Games were held from November 19, 1982 to December 4, 1982 in Delhi, India.

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The 1983 ICC Cricket World Cup (also known as Prudential World Cup) was the 3rd edition of the ICC Cricket World Cup tournament.

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The 1987 Cricket World Cup (also known as the Reliance World Cup for sponsorship reasons) was the fourth edition of the ICC Cricket World Cup tournament.

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The 1988 Maldives coup d'état, was the attempt by a group of Maldivians led by Abdullah Luthufi and assisted by armed mercenaries of a Tamil secessionist organisation from Sri Lanka, the People's Liberation Organisation of Tamil Eelam (PLOTE), to overthrow the government in the island republic of Maldives.

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By 1985, India had started having balance of payments problems.

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The 1996 Cricket World Cup, also called the Wills World Cup after its official sponsors, ITC's Wills brand, was the sixth Cricket World Cup, organised by the International Cricket Council (ICC).

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The 2002 ICC Champions Trophy was a cricket tournament that was held in Sri Lanka in 2002.

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The 2003 Afro-Asian Games, officially known as the First Afro-Asian Games or I Afro-Asian Games and unofficially known as the Inaugural Afro-Asian Games, was a major international multi-sport event held in Hyderabad, India, from October 24 (excluding football and hockey, which began on October 22 and October 23 respectively) to November 1, 2003.

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The 2006 ICC Champions Trophy was a One Day International cricket tournament held in India from 7 October to 5 November 2006.

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The 2007 ICC World Twenty20 was the inaugural Twenty20 cricket world championship, contested in South Africa from 11 to 24 September 2007.

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The 2010 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XIX Commonwealth Games, were held in Delhi, India, from 3 to 14 October 2010.

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The 2010 Men's Hockey World Cup was the 12th edition of Hockey World Cup men's field hockey tournament.

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The 2011 ICC Cricket World Cup was the tenth Cricket World Cup.

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The 2013 ICC Champions Trophy was a One Day International cricket tournament held in England and Wales between 6 and 23 June 2013.

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596, originally named by the US intelligence agencies Chic-1,Communist China's Weapons Program for Strategic Attack, NIE 13-8-71 (Top Secret, declassified June 2004), Central Intelligence Agency, Washington D.C., 1971.

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Redirects here:

Bharat Ganrajya, Bhart, Bhārat Gaṇarājya, Bhārtiya Prajāsattāk, Etymology of India, Hindio, Hindistan, INDIA, ISO 3166-1 alpha-3/IND, ISO 3166-1:IN, Indea, India (country), India's, India., Indian Republic, Indian State, Indian republic, Indya, Les Indes, Republic Of India, Republic of India, Republic of india, The Republic of India, Union of India, جمہوریہ بھارت, جمہوٗرِیت بًارت, هندستانڀارت،, जुम्हूरियत भारत, भारत गणराज्य, भारतमहाराज्यम्, भारतीय गणराज्याच्या, भारतीय प्रजासत्ताक, ভারত, ভারত গণরাজ্য, ভারতরাষ্টৃ, ভারতীয় প্রজাতন্ত্র, ভাৰত গণৰাজ্য, ਭਾਰਤ ਗਣਤੰਤਰ, ભારતીય ગણતંત્ર, ଭାରତ ଗଣରାଜ୍ଯ, இந்திய, இந்தியக் குடியரசு, భారత గణతంత్ర రాజ్యము, భారత రిపబ్లిక్, ಭಾರತ ಗಣರಾಜ್ಯ, ഭാരത മഹാരാജ്യം.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/India

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