110 relations: Active immunization, Aerobic organism, Amoxicillin, Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, Ampicillin, Antibody, Antigen, Antimicrobial resistance, Bacilli, Bacteremia, Bacteria, Bacterial capsule, Bacterial pneumonia, Bactericide, Beta-lactamase, Branhamella, Bronchitis, Catarrh, Cell (biology), Central nervous system, Cephalosporin, Chocolate agar, Chronic condition, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Clindamycin, Colony (biology), Complement system, Cross-reactivity, Deoxyribonuclease, Diplococcus, DNA Data Bank of Japan, Endocarditis, Epithelium, Epitope, Erythromycin, European Nucleotide Archive, Exacerbation, Gammaproteobacteria, GenBank, Genome, Gram-negative bacteria, Greek language, Hemolysis, Host (biology), Human eye, Immune system, Immunization, Immunogenicity, Immunoglobulin domain, Incubator (culture), ..., Infection, Joint, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Kern Medical Center, Laboratory mouse, Laryngitis, Lipopolysaccharide, List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature, Lung, Macromolecule, Medical error, Microbiological culture, Microbiology, Middle ear, Molecular mass, Monoclonal antibody, Moraxella, Moraxellaceae, Morphology (biology), Mortality rate, Neisseria, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Nitrate, Nucleic acid hybridization, Otitis media, Oxidase test, Passive immunity, Penicillin, Peptide, Pneumonia, Porin (protein), Protein, Proteobacteria, Pseudomonadales, Pulmonary aspiration, Pulmonary contusion, Quinolone antibiotic, Respiratory system, Respiratory tract, Ribosomal RNA, Sepsis, Septic arthritis, Sinusitis, Sphere, Strain (biology), Sulfadimidine, Tetracycline, Trimeric autotransporter adhesin, Trimethoprim, Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, Unified atomic mass unit, University of California, Los Angeles, Urethritis, Vaccination, Vaccine, Victor Morax, Virulence factor, Virulence-related outer membrane protein family, Watchful waiting, 16S ribosomal RNA. Expand index (60 more) » « Shrink index
Active immunization is the induction of immunity after exposure to an antigen.
An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that can survive and grow in an oxygenated environment.
Amoxicillin, also spelled amoxycillin, is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, also known as co-amoxiclav, is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
Ampicillin is an antibiotic used to prevent and treat a number of bacterial infections, such as respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, meningitis, salmonellosis, and endocarditis.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.
Bacilli refers to a taxonomic class of bacteria.
Bacteremia (also bacteraemia) is the presence of bacteria in the blood.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Some bacterial cells are surrounded by a viscous substance forming a covering layer or envelope around the cell wall.
Bacterial pneumonia is a type of pneumonia caused by bacterial infection.
A bactericide or bacteriocide, sometimes abbreviated Bcidal, is a substance that kills bacteria.
Beta-lactamases are enzymes produced by bacteria that provide multi-resistance to β-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins, cephalosporins, cephamycins, and carbapenems (ertapenem), although carbapenems are relatively resistant to beta-lactamase.
The only species of Branhamella (Branhamella catarrhalis) is reclassified to Moraxella catarrhalis.
Bronchitis is inflammation of the bronchi (large and medium-sized airways) in the lungs.
Catarrh, or catarrhal inflammation, is inflammation of the mucous membranes in one of the airways or cavities of the body, usually with reference to the throat and paranasal sinuses.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
The cephalosporins (sg.) are a class of β-lactam antibiotics originally derived from the fungus Acremonium, which was previously known as "Cephalosporium".
Chocolate agar (CHOC) or chocolate blood agar (CBA) – is a nonselective, enriched growth medium used for isolation of pathogenic bacteria.
A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow.
Clindamycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
In biology, a colony is composed of two or more conspecific individuals living in close association with, or connected to, one another.
The complement system is a part of the immune system that enhances (complements) the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promotes inflammation, and attacks the pathogen's cell membrane.
Cross-reactivity, in a general sense, applies to the reaction between two different species as opposed to self-reactivity.
A deoxyribonuclease (DNase, for short) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of phosphodiester linkages in the DNA backbone, thus degrading DNA.
A diplococcus (plural diplococci) is a round bacterium (a coccus) that typically occurs in the form of two joined cells.
The DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) is a biological database that collects DNA sequences.
Endocarditis is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium.
Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.
An epitope, also known as antigenic determinant, is the part of an antigen that is recognized by the immune system, specifically by antibodies, B cells, or T cells.
Erythromycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.
The European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) is a repository providing free and unrestricted access to annotated DNA and RNA sequences.
An exacerbation, in medicine, is the worsening of a disease or an increase in its symptoms.
Gammaproteobacteria are a class of bacteria.
The GenBank sequence database is an open access, annotated collection of all publicly available nucleotide sequences and their protein translations.
In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.
Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the gram-staining method of bacterial differentiation.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Hemolysis or haemolysis, also known by several other names, is the rupturing (lysis) of red blood cells (erythrocytes) and the release of their contents (cytoplasm) into surrounding fluid (e.g. blood plasma).
In biology and medicine, a host is an organism that harbours a parasitic, a mutualistic, or a commensalist guest (symbiont), the guest typically being provided with nourishment and shelter.
The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Immunization, or immunisation, is the process by which an individual's immune system becomes fortified against an agent (known as the immunogen).
Immunogenicity is the ability of a particular substance, such as an antigen or epitope, to provoke an immune response in the body of a human and other animal.
The immunoglobulin domain is a type of protein domain that consists of a 2-layer sandwich of 7-9 antiparallel β-strands arranged in two β-sheets with a Greek key topology, consisting of about 125 amino acids.
In biology, an incubator is a device used to grow and maintain microbiological cultures or cell cultures.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the connection made between bones in the body which link the skeletal system into a functional whole.
The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy is a peer-reviewed medical journal which covers antimicrobial chemotherapy, including laboratory aspects and clinical use of antimicrobial agents.
Kern Medical is a 222 bed teaching hospital located in Bakersfield, California in central California's San Joaquin Valley.
The laboratory mouse is a small mammal of the order Rodentia which is bred and used for scientific research.
Laryngitis is inflammation of the larynx (voice box).
Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and endotoxins, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN) is an online database that maintains information on the naming and taxonomy of prokaryotes, following the taxonomy requirements and rulings of the International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).
A medical error is a preventable adverse effect of care, whether or not it is evident or harmful to the patient.
A microbiological culture, or microbial culture, is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined culture medium under controlled laboratory conditions.
Microbiology (from Greek μῑκρος, mīkros, "small"; βίος, bios, "life"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of microorganisms, those being unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells).
The middle ear is the portion of the ear internal to the eardrum, and external to the oval window of the inner ear.
Relative Molecular mass or molecular weight is the mass of a molecule.
Monoclonal antibodies (mAb or moAb) are antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell.
Moraxella is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria in the Moraxellaceae family.
The Moraxellaceae are a family of Gammaproteobacteria, including a few pathogenic species.
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.
Neisseria is a large genus of bacteria that colonize the mucosal surfaces of many animals.
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as gonococcus (singular), or gonococci (plural) is a species of gram-negative diplococci bacteria isolated by Albert Neisser in 1879.
Nitrate is a polyatomic ion with the molecular formula and a molecular mass of 62.0049 u.
In molecular biology, hybridization (or hybridisation) is a phenomenon in which single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules anneal to complementary DNA or RNA.
Otitis media is a group of inflammatory diseases of the middle ear.
The oxidase test is a test used in microbiology to determine if a bacterium produces certain cytochrome c oxidases.
Passive immunity is the transfer of active humoral immunity in the form of ready-made antibodies.
Penicillin (PCN or pen) is a group of antibiotics which include penicillin G (intravenous use), penicillin V (use by mouth), procaine penicillin, and benzathine penicillin (intramuscular use).
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
Porins are beta barrel proteins that cross a cellular membrane and act as a pore, through which molecules can diffuse.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Proteobacteria is a major phylum of gram-negative bacteria. They include a wide variety of pathogens, such as Escherichia, Salmonella, Vibrio, Helicobacter, Yersinia, Legionellales, and many other notable genera. Others are free-living (non-parasitic), and include many of the bacteria responsible for nitrogen fixation. Carl Woese established this grouping in 1987, calling it informally the "purple bacteria and their relatives". Because of the great diversity of forms found in this group, it was named after Proteus, a Greek god of the sea capable of assuming many different shapes and is not named after the genus Proteus. Some Alphaproteobacteria can grow at very low levels of nutrients and have unusual morphology such as stalks and buds. Others include agriculturally important bacteria capable of inducing nitrogen fixation in symbiosis with plants. The type order is the Caulobacterales, comprising stalk-forming bacteria such as Caulobacter. The Betaproteobacteria are highly metabolically diverse and contain chemolithoautotrophs, photoautotrophs, and generalist heterotrophs. The type order is the Burkholderiales, comprising an enormous range of metabolic diversity, including opportunistic pathogens. The Hydrogenophilalia are obligate thermophiles and include heterotrophs and autotrophs. The type order is the Hydrogenophilales. The Gammaproteobacteria are the largest class in terms of species with validly published names. The type order is the Pseudomonadales, which include the genera Pseudomonas and the nitrogen-fixing Azotobacter. The Acidithiobacillia contain only sulfur, iron and uranium-oxidising autotrophs. The type order is the Acidithiobacillales, which includes economically important organisms used in the mining industry such as Acidithiobacillus spp. The Deltaproteobacteria include bacteria that are predators on other bacteria and are important contributors to the anaerobic side of the sulfur cycle. The type order is the Myxococcales, which includes organisms with self-organising abilities such as Myxococcus spp. The Epsilonproteobacteria are often slender, Gram-negative rods that are helical or curved. The type order is the Campylobacterales, which includes important food pathogens such as Campylobacter spp. The Oligoflexia are filamentous aerobes. The type order is the Oligoflexales, which contains the genus Oligoflexus.
The Pseudomonadales are an order of Proteobacteria.
Pulmonary aspiration is the entry of material (such as pharyngeal secretions, food or drink, or stomach contents) from the oropharynx or gastrointestinal tract into the larynx (voice box) and lower respiratory tract (the portions of the respiratory system from the trachea—i.e., windpipe—to the lungs).
A pulmonary contusion, also known as lung contusion, is a bruise of the lung, caused by chest trauma.
A quinolone antibiotic is any member of a large group of broad-spectrum bactericides that share a bicyclic core structure related to the compound 4-quinolone.
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
In humans, the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy of the respiratory system involved with the process of respiration.
Ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) is the RNA component of the ribosome, and is essential for protein synthesis in all living organisms.
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.
Septic arthritis, also known as joint infection or infectious arthritis, is the invasion of a joint by an infectious agent resulting in joint inflammation.
Sinusitis, also known as a sinus infection or rhinosinusitis, is inflammation of the sinuses resulting in symptoms.
A sphere (from Greek σφαῖρα — sphaira, "globe, ball") is a perfectly round geometrical object in three-dimensional space that is the surface of a completely round ball (viz., analogous to the circular objects in two dimensions, where a "circle" circumscribes its "disk").
In biology, a strain is a low-level taxonomic rank used at the intraspecific level (within a species).
Sulfadimidine or sulfamethazine is a sulfonamide antibacterial.
Tetracycline, sold under the brand name Sumycin among others, is an antibiotic used to treat a number of infections.
In molecular biology, trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs), are proteins found on the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Trimethoprim (TMP) is an antibiotic used mainly in the treatment of bladder infections.
Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX), also known as co-trimoxazole among other names, is an antibiotic used to treat a variety of bacterial infections.
The unified atomic mass unit or dalton (symbol: u, or Da) is a standard unit of mass that quantifies mass on an atomic or molecular scale (atomic mass).
The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public research university in the Westwood district of Los Angeles, United States.
Urethritis is inflammation of the urethra.
Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop adaptive immunity to a pathogen.
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.
Victor Morax, Paris, 1920 Victor Morax (16 March 1866 – 14 May 1935) was a French ophthalmologist born in Morges, Switzerland.
Virulence factors are molecules produced by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa that add to their effectiveness and enable them to achieve the following.
Virulence-related outer membrane proteins are expressed in Gram-negative bacteria and are essential to bacterial survival within macrophages and for eukaryotic cell invasion.
Watchful waiting (also watch and wait or WAW) is an approach to a medical problem in which time is allowed to pass before medical intervention or therapy is used.
16S ribosomal RNA (or 16S rRNA) is the component of the 30S small subunit of a prokaryotic ribosome that binds to the Shine-Dalgarno sequence.