140 relations: ABO blood group system, Acyl group, Adrenal gland, Adrenal insufficiency, Alkaline phosphatase, Amoeba, Amputation, Antibody, Antigen, Antigenic variation, Antimicrobial, Assay, B cell, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacterial outer membrane, Bacterial outer membrane vesicles, Bactericide, Bacteriophage, Bioaerosol, Bleeding, Bovinae, Bruce Beutler, Campylobacter jejuni, Cell membrane, Cell-mediated immunity, Chancroid, Cluster of differentiation, Complement system, Core oligosaccharide, Covalent bond, Cyanobacteria, Cytokine, Delta endotoxin, Dendritic cell, Depyrogenation, Disaccharide, Disseminated intravascular coagulation, DNA, Drosophila melanogaster, Ecchymosis, Eicosanoid, ELISA, Endothelium, Enterobacter, Enterobacter cloacae, Escherichia, Escherichia coli, Exotoxin, Fallopian tube, Fatty acid, ..., Fever, Fight-or-flight response, Gangrene, Glucosamine, Glycan, Glycolipid, Glycosaminoglycan, Glycosphingolipid, Gram-negative bacteria, Guillain–Barré syndrome, Haemophilus, Haemophilus ducreyi, Haemophilus influenzae, Helicobacter pylori, Heptose, HLA-B35, Horseshoe crab, Host–pathogen interaction, Human leukocyte antigen, Humoral immunity, Hydrophobe, Immune response, Immune system, Immune tolerance, Immunostimulant, Industrial fermentation, Inflammation, Innate immune system, Interleukin 10, Intestinal permeability, Limulus amebocyte lysate, Lipid, Lipid A, Lymphocyte antigen 96, Lysis, Macrophage, Membrane vesicle trafficking, Meningitis, Meningococcal disease, Mimicry, Molecular mimicry, Molecule, Monocyte, Multiple sclerosis, Neisseria, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitidis, Nesfatin-1, Neutrophil, Nitric oxide, Omptin, Ovalbumin, PD-L1, Petechia, Phagocytosis, Phase variation, Phosphorylation, Plasmid, Polymer, Polysaccharide, Programmed cell death protein 1, Purpura, Reactive oxygen species, Receptor (biochemistry), Recombinant DNA, Red blood cell, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Richard Friedrich Johannes Pfeiffer, Septic shock, Serum (blood), Shwartzman phenomenon, Sialic acid, Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, Strain (biology), Sugar, Superoxide, T helper cell, TLR2, TLR4, Toll-like receptor, Transcription factor, Transient receptor potential channel, TRPA1, TRPM3, TRPM8, TRPV1, TRPV4, Virulence, Waterhouse–Friderichsen syndrome, 3-Deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid. Expand index (90 more) » « Shrink index
The ABO blood group system is used to denote the presence of one, both, or neither of the A and B antigens on erythrocytes.
An acyl group is a moiety derived by the removal of one or more hydroxyl groups from an oxoacid, including inorganic acids.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
Adrenal insufficiency is a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate amounts of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol; but may also include impaired production of aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid), which regulates sodium conservation, potassium secretion, and water retention.
Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, ALKP, ALPase, Alk Phos) or basic phosphatase is a homodimeric protein enzyme of 86 kilodaltons.
An amoeba (rarely spelled amœba, US English spelled ameba; plural am(o)ebas or am(o)ebae), often called amoeboid, is a type of cell or organism which has the ability to alter its shape, primarily by extending and retracting pseudopods.
Amputation is the removal of a limb by trauma, medical illness, or surgery.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.
Antigenic variation refers to the mechanism by which an infectious agent such as a protozoan, bacterium or virus alters its surface proteins in order to evade a host immune response.
An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth.
An assay is an investigative (analytic) procedure in laboratory medicine, pharmacology, environmental biology and molecular biology for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence, amount, or functional activity of a target entity (the analyte).
B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype.
Bacillus thuringiensis (or Bt) is a Gram-positive, soil-dwelling bacterium, commonly used as a biological pesticide.
The bacterial outer membrane is found in gram-negative bacteria.
Bacteria communicate among themselves and with other living forms in their environment via nano-scale membrane vesicles in their bacterial outer membranes.
A bactericide or bacteriocide, sometimes abbreviated Bcidal, is a substance that kills bacteria.
A bacteriophage, also known informally as a phage, is a virus that infects and replicates within Bacteria and Archaea.
Bioaerosols (short for biological aerosols) are a subcategory of particles released from terrestrial and marine ecosystems into the atmosphere.
Bleeding, also known as hemorrhaging or haemorrhaging, is blood escaping from the circulatory system.
The biological subfamily Bovinae includes a diverse group of 10 genera of medium to large-sized ungulates, including domestic cattle, bison, African buffalo, the water buffalo, the yak, and the four-horned and spiral-horned antelopes.
Bruce Alan Beutler (born December 29, 1957) is an American immunologist and geneticist.
Campylobacter jejuni is one of the most common causes of food poisoning in the United States and in Europe.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
Cell-mediated immunity is an immune response that does not involve antibodies, but rather involves the activation of phagocytes, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to an antigen.
Chancroid (also known as soft chancre and ulcus molle) is a bacterial sexually transmitted infection characterized by painful sores on the genitalia.
The cluster of differentiation (also known as cluster of designation or classification determinant and often abbreviated as CD) is a protocol used for the identification and investigation of cell surface molecules providing targets for immunophenotyping of cells.
The complement system is a part of the immune system that enhances (complements) the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to clear microbes and damaged cells from an organism, promotes inflammation, and attacks the pathogen's cell membrane.
Lipopolysaccharide. The core includes both the inner and outer core. Core oligosaccharide (or Core-OS) is a short chain of sugar residues within Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
Delta endotoxins (δ-endotoxins, also called Cry and Cyt toxins) are pore-forming toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis species of bacteria.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (also known as accessory cells) of the mammalian immune system.
Depyrogenation refers to the removal of pyrogens from solution, most commonly from injectable pharmaceuticals.
A disaccharide (also called a double sugar or bivose) is the sugar formed when two monosaccharides (simple sugars) are joined by glycosidic linkage.
Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a condition in which blood clots form throughout the body, blocking small blood vessels.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the family Drosophilidae.
An ecchymosis is a subcutaneous spot of bleeding (from extravasation of blood) with diameter larger than.
Eicosanoids are signaling molecules made by the enzymatic or non-enzymatic oxidation of arachidonic acid or other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) that are, similar to arachidonic acid, 20 carbon units in length.
The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a test that uses antibodies and color change to identify a substance.
Endothelium refers to cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels and lymphatic vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall.
Enterobacter is a genus of common Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae.
Enterobacter cloacae is a clinically significant Gram-negative, facultatively-anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium.
Escherichia is a genus of Gram-negative, nonspore forming, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria from the family Enterobacteriaceae.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
An exotoxin is a toxin secreted by bacteria.
The Fallopian tubes, also known as uterine tubes or salpinges (singular salpinx), are two very fine tubes lined with ciliated epithelia, leading from the ovaries of female mammals into the uterus, via the uterotubal junction.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
The fight-or-flight response (also called hyperarousal, or the acute stress response) is a physiological reaction that occurs in response to a perceived harmful event, attack, or threat to survival.
Gangrene is a type of tissue death caused by a lack of blood supply.
Glucosamine (C6H13NO5) is an amino sugar and a prominent precursor in the biochemical synthesis of glycosylated proteins and lipids.
The terms glycan and polysaccharide are defined by IUPAC as synonyms meaning "compounds consisting of a large number of monosaccharides linked glycosidically".
Glycolipids are lipids with a carbohydrate attached by a glycosidic bond or covalently bonded.
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) or mucopolysaccharides are long unbranched polysaccharides consisting of a repeating disaccharide unit.
Glycosphingolipids are a subtype of glycolipids containing the amino alcohol sphingosine.
Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the gram-staining method of bacterial differentiation.
Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rapid-onset muscle weakness caused by the immune system damaging the peripheral nervous system.
Haemophilus is a genus of Gram-negative, pleomorphic, coccobacilli bacteria belonging to the family Pasteurellaceae.
Haemophilus ducreyi is a fastidious gram-negative coccobacillus bacteria, which causes the sexually transmitted disease chancroid, a major cause of genital ulceration in developing countries characterized by painful sores on the genitalia.
Haemophilus influenzae (formerly called Pfeiffer's bacillus or Bacillus influenzae) is a Gram-negative, coccobacillary, facultatively anaerobic pathogenic bacterium belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family.
Helicobacter pylori, previously known as Campylobacter pylori, is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium usually found in the stomach.
A heptose is a monosaccharide with seven carbon atoms.
HLA-B35 (B35) is an HLA-B serotype.
Horseshoe crabs are marine and brackish water arthropods of the family Limulidae, suborder Xiphosurida, and order Xiphosura.
The host-pathogen interaction is defined as how microbes or viruses sustain themselves within host organisms on a molecular, cellular, organismal or population level.
The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system or complex is a gene complex encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins in humans.
Humoral immunity or humoural immunity is the aspect of immunity that is mediated by macromolecules found in extracellular fluids such as secreted antibodies, complement proteins, and certain antimicrobial peptides.
In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.
The Immune response is the body's response caused by its immune system being activated by antigens.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Immune tolerance, or immunological tolerance, or immunotolerance, is a state of unresponsiveness of the immune system to substances or tissue that have the capacity to elicit an immune response in given organism.It is induced by prior exposure to that specific antigen.
Immunostimulants, also known as immunostimulators, are substances (drugs and nutrients) that stimulate the immune system by inducing activation or increasing activity of any of its components.
Industrial fermentation is the intentional use of fermentation by microorganisms such as bacteria and fungi as well as eukaryotic cells like CHO cells and insect cells, to make products useful to humans.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
The innate immune system, also known as the non-specific immune system or in-born immunity system, is an important subsystem of the overall immune system that comprises the cells and mechanisms involved in the defense of the host from infection by other organisms.
Interleukin 10 (IL-10), also known as human cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF), is an anti-inflammatory cytokine.
Intestinal permeability is a term describing the control of material passing from inside the gastrointestinal tract through the cells lining the gut wall, into the rest of the body.
Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) is an aqueous extract of blood cells (amoebocytes) from the Atlantic horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
Lipid A is a lipid component of an endotoxin held responsible for the toxicity of gram-negative bacteria.
Lymphocyte antigen 96, also known as "MD2," is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LY96 gene.
Lysis (Greek λύσις lýsis, "a loosing" from λύειν lýein, "to unbind") refers to the breaking down of the membrane of a cell, often by viral, enzymic, or osmotic (that is, "lytic") mechanisms that compromise its integrity.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
Membrane vesicle trafficking in eukaryotic animal cells involves movement of important biochemical signal molecules from synthesis-and-packaging locations in the Golgi body to specific 'release' locations on the inside of the plasma membrane of the secretory cell, in the form of Golgi membrane-bound micro-sized vesicles, termed membrane vesicles (MVs).
Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.
Meningococcal disease describes infections caused by the bacterium Neisseria meningitidis (also termed meningococcus).
In evolutionary biology, mimicry is a similarity of one organism, usually an animal, to another that has evolved because the resemblance is selectively favoured by the behaviour of a shared signal receiver that can respond to both.
Molecular mimicry is defined as the theoretical possibility that sequence similarities between foreign and self-peptides are sufficient to result in the cross-activation of autoreactive T or B cells by pathogen-derived peptides.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Monocytes are a type of leukocyte, or white blood cell.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.
Neisseria is a large genus of bacteria that colonize the mucosal surfaces of many animals.
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, also known as gonococcus (singular), or gonococci (plural) is a species of gram-negative diplococci bacteria isolated by Albert Neisser in 1879.
Neisseria meningitidis, often referred to as meningococcus, is a Gram-negative bacterium that can cause meningitis and other forms of meningococcal disease such as meningococcemia, a life-threatening sepsis.
Nesfatin-1 is a neuropeptide produced in the hypothalamus of mammals.
Neutrophils (also known as neutrocytes) are the most abundant type of granulocytes and the most abundant (40% to 70%) type of white blood cells in most mammals.
Nitric oxide (nitrogen oxide or nitrogen monoxide) is a colorless gas with the formula NO.
Omptins (protease VII, protease A, gene ompT proteins, ompT protease, protein a, Pla, OmpT) are a family of bacterial proteases.
Ovalbumin (abbreviated OVA) is the main protein found in egg white, making up approximately 55% of the total protein.
Programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) also known as cluster of differentiation 274 (CD274) or B7 homolog 1 (B7-H1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD274 gene.
A petechia, plural petechiae, is a small (1–2 mm) red or purple spot on the skin, caused by a minor bleed from broken capillary blood vessels.
In cell biology, phagocytosis is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome.
In biology, Phase variation is a method for dealing with rapidly varying environments without requiring random mutation.
In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.
A plasmid is a small DNA molecule within a cell that is physically separated from a chromosomal DNA and can replicate independently.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
Programmed cell death protein 1, also known as PD-1 and CD279 (cluster of differentiation 279), is a protein found on the surface of cells that has a role in regulating the immune system's response to the cells of the human body by down-regulating the immune system and promoting self tolerance by suppressing T cell inflammatory activity.
Purpura is a condition of red or purple discolored spots on the skin that do not blanch on applying pressure.
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are chemically reactive chemical species containing oxygen.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
Rhodobacter sphaeroides is a kind of purple bacterium; a group of bacteria that can obtain energy through photosynthesis.
Richard Friedrich Johannes Pfeiffer FRS (27 March 1858 – 15 September 1945) was a German physician and bacteriologist.
Septic shock is a serious medical condition that occurs when sepsis, which is organ injury or damage in response to infection, leads to dangerously low blood pressure and abnormalities in cellular metabolism.
In blood, the serum is the component that is neither a blood cell (serum does not contain white or red blood cells) nor a clotting factor; it is the blood plasma not including the fibrinogens.
Shwartzman phenomenon, also known as Shwartzman reaction, is a rare reaction of a body to particular types of toxins, called endotoxins, which cause thrombosis in the affected tissue.
Sialic acid is a generic term for the N- or O-substituted derivatives of neuraminic acid, a monosaccharide with a nine-carbon backbone.
Small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), also termed bacterial overgrowths, or small bowel bacterial overgrowth syndrome (SBBOS), is a disorder of excessive bacterial growth in the small intestine.
In biology, a strain is a low-level taxonomic rank used at the intraspecific level (within a species).
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
A superoxide is a compound that contains the superoxide anion, which has the chemical formula.
The T helper cells (Th cells) are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system.
Toll-like receptor 2 also known as TLR2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR2 gene.
Toll-like receptor 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR4 gene.
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of proteins that play a key role in the innate immune system.
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
Transient receptor potential channels (TRP channels) are a group of ion channels located mostly on the plasma membrane of numerous animal cell types.
Transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily A, member 1, also known as transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 or TRPA1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRPA1 (and in other species by the Trpa1) gene.
Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRPM3 gene.
Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 8 (TRPM8), also known as the cold and menthol receptor 1 (CMR1), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TRPM8 gene.
The transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TrpV1), also known as the capsaicin receptor and the vanilloid receptor 1, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the TRPV1 gene.
Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4 is an ion channel protein that in humans is encoded by the TRPV4 gene.
Virulence is a pathogen's or microbe's ability to infect or damage a host.
Waterhouse–Friderichsen syndrome (WFS) is defined as adrenal gland failure due to bleeding into the adrenal glands, commonly caused by severe bacterial infection: Typically it is caused by Neisseria meningitidis.
3-Deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid or keto-deoxyoctulosonate (KDO) is an ulosonic acid of a 2-ketooctose which is used by bacteria in the synthesis of lipopolysaccharides.
Core polysaccharide, Endotoxemia, Endotoxic, Endotoxic shock, Endotoxin, Endotoxins, Gram negative shock, Lipooligosaccharide, Lipopolysaccharides, Lipopolysacchride, Lipopolysacharides, O antigen, O side chain.