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Monoclonal antibody

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Monoclonal antibodies (mAb or moAb) are monospecific antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell, in contrast to polyclonal antibodies which are made from several different immune cells. [1]

158 relations: Abciximab, Acronym, Acute myeloid leukemia, Adalimumab, Affimer, Affinity chromatography, Albumin, Alemtuzumab, Amgen, Amino acid, Aminopterin, Angiogenesis inhibitor, Anion-exchange chromatography, Ankylosing spondylitis, Antibody, Antibody mimetic, Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, Antigen, Apoptosis, Aptamer, Ascites, Asthma, Autoimmune disease, Auxotrophy, Élie Metchnikoff, B cell, Basiliximab, Bavituximab, Bevacizumab, Bioavailability, Biochemistry, Bispecific monoclonal antibody, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Cancer, Cardiovascular disease, César Milstein, CD20, CD33, CD52, Cell culture, Cetuximab, CiteAb, Cloning, Coagulation, Colorectal cancer, Crohn's disease, Cysteine, Cytokine, Daclizumab, David Chiswell, ..., De novo synthesis, Deamidation, Dialysis (biochemistry), Dihydrofolate reductase, Dilution cloning, Displacement chromatography, Dot blot, Eculizumab, ELISA, Elsevier, Epidermal growth factor receptor, Epitope, Ethics, Filtration, Food and Drug Administration, Fragment antigen-binding, Fragment crystallizable region, Gemtuzumab ozogamicin, Georges J. F. Köhler, Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, Glycosylation, Greg Winter, HAT medium, House mouse, Human anti-mouse antibody, Human respiratory syncytial virus, Humanized antibody, Hybridoma technology, Hypoxanthine, Immune system, Immunofluorescence, Immunogenicity, Immunoglobulin E, Immunohistochemistry, Immunotherapy, Immunotoxin, Infection, Infliximab, Interleukin 2, Ion chromatography, Ipilimumab, Isoelectric point, John McCafferty, Keyhole limpet hemocyanin, Leukemia, List of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, Lymphocyte, Lymphoid leukemia, Macular degeneration, Medarex, Medicine, Membrane fouling, Molecular biology, Monoclonal antibody therapy, Monospecific antibody, Mouse, Multiple myeloma, Multiple sclerosis, Murinae, Myeloma protein, Nimotuzumab, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Nomenclature of monoclonal antibodies, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Nucleic acid, Nucleotide salvage, Ofatumumab, Omalizumab, Palivizumab, Panitumumab, Paul Ehrlich, Pembrolizumab, Percutaneous coronary intervention, Peritoneum, Phage display, Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, Pharmacokinetics, Phosphatidylserine, Platelet, Polyclonal antibodies, Polyethylene glycol, Protein A/G, Quality by Design, Queen Mab, Rabbit hybridoma, Radionuclide, Recombinant DNA, Regeneron, Rheumatoid arthritis, Rituximab, Size-exclusion chromatography, Squamous-cell carcinoma, Syphilis, T cell, Thymidine, Toxin, Transferrin, Transplant rejection, Trastuzumab, Tumor necrosis factor alpha, Ulcerative colitis, Ultrafiltration, Vascular endothelial growth factor, Virus, Western blot, White blood cell, Yeast, Yeast display. Expand index (108 more) »


Abciximab (previously known as c7E3 Fab), a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist manufactured by Janssen Biologics BV and distributed by Eli Lilly under the trade name ReoPro, is a platelet aggregation inhibitor mainly used during and after coronary artery procedures like angioplasty to prevent platelets from sticking together and causing thrombus (blood clot) formation within the coronary artery.

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An acronym is an abbreviation, used as a word, which is formed from the initial components in a phrase or a word.

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Acute myeloid leukemia

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), also known as acute myelogenous leukemia or acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL), is a cancer of the myeloid line of blood cells, characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal white blood cells that accumulate in the bone marrow and interfere with the production of normal blood cells.

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Adalimumab, trade names Humira ("human monoclonal antibody in rheumatoid arthritis") and Exemptia are TNF inhibiting anti-inflammatory drug manufactured by AbbVie and Zydus Cadila respectively.

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Affimers are small, highly stable proteins engineered to display peptide loops which provide a high affinity binding surface for a specific target protein.

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Affinity chromatography

Affinity chromatography is a method of separating biochemical mixtures based on a highly specific interaction such as that between antigen and antibody, enzyme and substrate, or receptor and ligand.

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The albumins (formed from Latin: albumen "(egg) white; dried egg white") are a family of globular proteins, the most common of which are the serum albumins.

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Alemtuzumab is a drug used in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) and T-cell lymphoma under the trade names Campath, MabCampath and Campath-1H, and in the treatment of multiple sclerosis as Lemtrada.

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AMGen (formerly Applied Molecular Genetics) is an American multinational biopharmaceutical company headquartered in Thousand Oaks, California.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are biologically important organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxylic acid (-COOH) functional groups, usually along with a side-chain specific to each amino acid.

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Aminopterin (or 4-aminopteroic acid), the 4-amino derivative of folic acid, is an antineoplastic drug with immunosuppressive properties often used in chemotherapy.

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Angiogenesis inhibitor

An angiogenesis inhibitor is a substance that inhibits the growth of new blood vessels (angiogenesis).

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Anion-exchange chromatography

Anion-exchange chromatography is a process that separates substances based on their charges using an ion-exchange resin containing positively charged groups, such as diethyl-aminoethyl groups (DEAE).

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Ankylosing spondylitis

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS, from Greek ankylos, crooked; spondylos, vertebra; -itis, inflammation), previously known as Bekhterev's disease and Marie-Strümpell disease, is a chronic inflammatory disease of the axial skeleton, with variable involvement of peripheral joints and nonarticular structures.

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An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shape protein produced by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to identify and neutralize pathogens such as bacteria and viruses.

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Antibody mimetic

Antibody mimetics are organic compounds that, like antibodies, can specifically bind antigens, but that are not structurally related to antibodies.

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Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity

The antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a mechanism of cell-mediated immune defense whereby an effector cell of the immune system actively lyses a target cell, whose membrane-surface antigens have been bound by specific antibodies.

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In immunology, an antigen (Ag) is any structural substance that serves as a target for the receptors of an adaptive immune response, TCR or BCR or its secreted form antibody.

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Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπό apo, "by, from, of, since, than" and πτῶσις ptōsis, "fall") is the process of programmed cell death that may occur in multicellular organisms.

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Aptamers (from the Latin aptus - fit, and Greek meros - part) are oligonucleotide or peptide molecules that bind to a specific target molecule.

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Ascites (from Greek askites, "baglike") is a gastroenterological term for an accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity.

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Asthma (from the Greek ἅσθμα, ásthma, "panting") is a common chronic inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction and bronchospasm.

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Autoimmune disease

Autoimmune diseases arise from an abnormal immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body (autoimmunity).

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Auxotrophy (Gr. αὐξάνω "to increase"; τροφή "nourishment") is the inability of an organism to synthesize a particular organic compound required for its growth (as defined by IUPAC).

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Élie Metchnikoff

Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (Илья́ Ильи́ч Ме́чников, also written as Élie Metchnikoff) (16 July 1916) was a Russian zoologist best known for his pioneering research into the immune system.

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B cell

B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype.

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Basiliximab (trade name Simulect) is a chimeric mouse-human monoclonal antibody to the α chain (CD25) of the IL-2 receptor of T cells.

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Bavituximab (PGN401) is a chimeric monoclonal antibody designed for the treatment of cancers and viral infections.

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Bevacizumab (pronounced /bev-a-Sizz-uh-mab/, trade name Avastin, Genentech/Roche) is an angiogenesis inhibitor, a drug that slows the growth of new blood vessels.

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In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.

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Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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Bispecific monoclonal antibody

A bispecific monoclonal antibody (BsMAb, BsAb) is an artificial protein that is composed of fragments of two different monoclonal antibodies and consequently binds to two different types of antigen.

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Bristol-Myers Squibb

Bristol-Myers Squibb, often referred to as BMS, is an American pharmaceutical company, headquartered in New York City.

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Cancer, also known as a malignant tumor or malignant neoplasm, is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.

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César Milstein

César Milstein, CH, FRS (8 October 1927 – 24 March 2002) was an Argentinian biochemist - nationalized British - in the field of antibody research.

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B-lymphocyte antigen CD20 or CD20 is an activated-glycosylated phosphoprotein expressed on the surface of all B-cells beginning at the pro-B phase (CD45R+, CD117+) and progressively increasing in concentration until maturity.

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CD33 or Siglec-3 is a transmembrane receptor expressed on cells of myeloid lineage.

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CAMPATH-1 antigen, also known as cluster of differentiation 52 (CD52), is a glycoprotein that in humans is encoded by the CD52 gene.

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Cell culture

Cell culture is the process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions, generally outside of their natural environment.

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Cetuximab (INN) is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor used for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer, metastatic non-small cell lung cancer and head and neck cancer.

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CiteAb Ltd is a biotechnology company located in Bath, England that offers an antibody search facility.

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In biology, cloning is the process of producing similar populations of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects or plants reproduce asexually.

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Coagulation (also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a clot.

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Colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer (also known as colon cancer, rectal cancer, or bowel cancer) is the development of cancer in the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine).

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Crohn's disease

Crohn's disease, also known as Crohn syndrome and regional enteritis, is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus.

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Cysteine (abbreviated as Cys or C) is a semi-essential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH.

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Cytokines (Greek:Cyto from Greek "κύτταρο" kyttaro "cell" + Kines from Greek "κίνηση" kinisi "movement") are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.

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Daclizumab (trade name Zenapax) is a therapeutic humanized monoclonal antibody.

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David Chiswell

David Chiswell is a British business executive and scientist who co-founded Cambridge Antibody Technology, a biosciences company in operation from 1990 to 2007.

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De novo synthesis

De novo synthesis refers to the synthesis of complex molecules from simple molecules such as sugars or amino acids, as opposed to their being recycled after partial degradation.

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Deamidation is a chemical reaction in which an amide functional group is removed from an organic compound.

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Dialysis (biochemistry)

In biochemistry, dialysis is the process of separating molecules in solution by the difference in their rates of diffusion through a semipermeable membrane, such as dialysis tubing.

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Dihydrofolate reductase

Dihydrofolate reductase, or DHFR, is an enzyme that reduces dihydrofolic acid to tetrahydrofolic acid, using NADPH as electron donor, which can be converted to the kinds of tetrahydrofolate cofactors used in 1-carbon transfer chemistry.

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Dilution cloning

Dilution cloning or cloning by limiting dilution describes a procedure to obtain a monoclonal cell population starting from a polyclonal mass of cells.

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Displacement chromatography

Displacement chromatography is a chromatography technique in which a sample is placed onto the head of the column and is then displaced by a solute that is more strongly sorbed than the components of the original mixture.

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Dot blot

ASO probes on duplicate dot blot filters. A dot blot (or slot blot) is a technique in molecular biology used to detect biomolecules, and for detecting, analyzing, and identifying proteins.

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Eculizumab (INN and USAN; trade name Soliris) is a humanized monoclonal antibody that is a terminal complement inhibitor.

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The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a test that uses antibodies and color change to identify a substance.

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Elsevier B.V. is an academic publishing company that publishes medical and scientific literature.

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Epidermal growth factor receptor

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR; ErbB-1; HER1 in humans) is the cell-surface receptor for members of the epidermal growth factor family (EGF-family) of extracellular protein ligands.

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An epitope, also known as antigenic determinant, is the part of an antigen that is recognized by the immune system, specifically by antibodies, B cells, or T cells.

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Ethics, or moral philosophy, is the branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.

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Filtration is commonly the mechanical or physical operation which is used for the separation of solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by interposing a medium through which only the fluid can pass.

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Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.

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Fragment antigen-binding

The fragment antigen-binding (Fab fragment) is a region on an antibody that binds to antigens.

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Fragment crystallizable region

The fragment crystallizable region (Fc region) is the tail region of an antibody that interacts with cell surface receptors called Fc receptors and some proteins of the complement system.

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Gemtuzumab ozogamicin

Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (marketed by Wyeth as Mylotarg) is a drug-linked monoclonal antibody (an antibody-drug conjugate) that was used to treat acute myelogenous leukemia from 2000 to 2010.

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Georges J. F. Köhler

Georges Jean Franz Köhler (April 17, 1946 in Munich – March 1, 1995 in Freiburg im Breisgau) was a German biologist.

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Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa

In medicine, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIb/IIIa, also known as integrin αIIbβ3) is an integrin complex found on platelets.

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Glycosylation (see also chemical glycosylation) is the reaction in which a carbohydrate, i.e. a glycosyl donor, is attached to a hydroxyl or other functional group of another molecule (a glycosyl acceptor).

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Greg Winter

Sir Gregory Paul "Greg" Winter (born 14 April 1951) is a British biochemist, a pioneer of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies.

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HAT medium

HAT Medium (hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine medium) is a selection medium for mammalian cell culture, which relies on the combination of aminopterin, a drug that acts as a powerful folate metabolism inhibitor by inhibiting dihydrofolate reductase, with hypoxanthine (a purine derivative) and thymidine (a deoxynucleoside) which are intermediates in DNA synthesis.

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House mouse

The house mouse (Mus musculus) is a small mammal of the order Rodentia, characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, and a long naked or almost hairless tail.

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Human anti-mouse antibody

Human anti-mouse antibody (HAMA) is an antibody found in humans which reacts to immunoglobins found in mice.

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Human respiratory syncytial virus

Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a virus that causes respiratory tract infections.

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Humanized antibody

Humanized antibodies are antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to increase their similarity to antibody variants produced naturally in humans.

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Hybridoma technology

Hybridoma technology is a technology of forming hybrid cell lines (called hybridomas) by fusing an antibody-producing B cell with a myeloma (B cell cancer) cell that is selected for its ability to grow in tissue culture and for an absence of antibody chain synthesis.

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Hypoxanthine is a naturally occurring purine derivative.

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Immune system

The immune system is a system of many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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Immunofluorescence is a technique used for light microscopy with a fluorescence microscope and is used primarily on microbiological samples.

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Immunogenicity is the ability of a particular substance, such as an antigen or epitope, to provoke an immune response in the body of a human or animal.

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Immunoglobulin E

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a kind of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) "isotype") that has only been found in mammals.

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Immunohistochemistry or IHC refers to the process of detecting antigens (e.g., proteins) in cells of a tissue section by exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues.

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Immunotherapy is the "treatment of disease by inducing, enhancing, or suppressing an immune response".

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An immunotoxin is a human-made protein that consists of a targeting portion linked to a toxin.

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Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to these organisms and the toxins they produce.

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Infliximab (INN; trade names Remicade, Remsima, Inflectra) is a chimeric monoclonal antibody against tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) used to treat autoimmune diseases.

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Interleukin 2

Interleukin 2 (IL-2) is an interleukin, a type of cytokine signaling molecule in the immune system.

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Ion chromatography

Ion-exchange chromatography (or ion chromatography) is a process that allows the separation of ions and polar molecules based on their affinity to the ion exchanger.

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Ipilimumab (trade name Yervoy, formerly known as MDX-010 and MDX-101), is a monoclonal antibody that works to activate the immune system by targeting CTLA-4, a protein receptor that downregulates the immune system.

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Isoelectric point

The isoelectric point (pI, pH(I), IEP), is the pH at which a particular molecule carries no net electrical charge.

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John McCafferty

John McCafferty is a British scientist, one of the founders of Cambridge Antibody Technology, well known as one of the inventors of scFv antibody fragment phage display, a technology that revolutionised the monoclonal antibody drug discovery.

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Keyhole limpet hemocyanin

Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) is a large, multisubunit, oxygen-carrying, metalloprotein that is found in the hemolymph of the giant keyhole limpet, Megathura crenulata, a species of keyhole limpet that lives off the coast of California, from Monterey Bay to Isla Asuncion off Baja California.

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Leukemia (American English) or leukaemia (British English) is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.

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List of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies

This is a list of therapeutic, diagnostic and preventive monoclonal antibodies, antibodies which are clones of a single parent cell.

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A lymphocyte is one of the three subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.

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Lymphoid leukemia

Lymphoid leukemias (also called lymphocytic, lymphogenous, or lymphoblastic leukemias) are a group of leukemias affecting circulating lymphocytes, a type of white blood cells.

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Macular degeneration

Macular degeneration, often age-related macular degeneration (AMD or ARMD), is a medical condition that usually affects older adults and results in a loss of vision in the center of the visual field (the macula) because of damage to the retina.

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Medarex (former NASDAQ symbol: MEDX) was an American biotechnology company based in Princeton, New Jersey, with manufacturing facilities in Bloomsbury and Annandale, New Jersey, and research facilities in Milpitas and Sunnyvale, California.

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Medicine (British English; American English) is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

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Membrane fouling

Membrane fouling is a process whereby a solution or a particle is deposited on a membrane surface or in membrane pores in a process such as in a Membrane bioreactor, so that the membrane's performance is degraded.

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Molecular biology

Molecular biology concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between the different types of DNA, RNA and proteins and their biosynthesis, and studies how these interactions are regulated.

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Monoclonal antibody therapy

Monoclonal antibody therapy is a form of immunotherapy that uses monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to specifically bind to specific cells or proteins.

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Monospecific antibody

Monospecific antibodies are antibodies that all have affinity for the same antigen.

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A mouse (plural: mice) is a small rodent characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail and a high breeding rate.

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Multiple myeloma

Multiple myeloma (myelo- + -oma, "marrow" + "tumor"), also known as plasma cell myeloma, myelomatosis, or Kahler's disease (after Otto Kahler), is a cancer of plasma cells, a type of white blood cell normally responsible for producing antibodies.

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Multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS), also known as disseminated sclerosis or encephalomyelitis disseminata, is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.

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The Old World rats and mice, part of the subfamily Murinae in the family Muridae, comprise at least 519 species.

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Myeloma protein

A myeloma protein is an abnormal immunoglobulin fragment or immunoglobulin light chain that is produced in excess by an abnormal clonal proliferation of plasma cells, typically in multiple myeloma.

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Nimotuzumab (h-R3, BIOMAb EGFR, Biocon, India; TheraCIM, CIMYM Biosciences, Canada; Theraloc, Oncoscience, Europe, CIMAher, Center of Molecular Immunology, Havana, Cuba) is a humanized monoclonal antibody that as of 2014 had orphan status in the US and EU for glioma, and marketing approval in India, China, and other countries for squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck, and was undergoing several clinical trials.

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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin) administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.

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Nomenclature of monoclonal antibodies

The nomenclature of monoclonal antibodies is a naming scheme for assigning generic, or nonproprietary, names to monoclonal antibodies.

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Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs), also known as non-Hodgkin disease are diverse group of blood cancers that include any kind of lymphoma except Hodgkin's lymphomas.

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Nucleic acid

Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or large biomolecules, essential for all known forms of life.

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Nucleotide salvage

A salvage pathway is a pathway in which nucleotides (purine and pyrimidine) are synthesized from intermediates in the degradative pathway for nucleotides.

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Ofatumumab (trade name Arzerra, also known as HuMax-CD20) is a fully human monoclonal antibody (for the CD20 protein) which appears to inhibit early-stage B lymphocyte activation.

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Omalizumab (trade name Xolair, Roche/Genentech and Novartis) is a humanized antibody originally designed to reduce sensitivity to inhaled or ingested allergens, especially in the control of moderate to severe allergic asthma, which does not respond to high doses of corticosteroids.

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Palivizumab (brand name Synagis which is manufactured by MedImmune) is a monoclonal antibody produced by recombinant DNA technology.

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Panitumumab (INN), formerly ABX-EGF, is a fully human monoclonal antibody specific to the epidermal growth factor receptor (also known as EGF receptor, EGFR, ErbB-1 and HER1 in humans).

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Paul Ehrlich

(14 March 1854 – 20 August 1915) was a German physician and scientist who worked in the fields of hematology, immunology, and antimicrobial chemotherapy.

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Pembrolizumab (formerly MK-3475 and lambrolizumab, trade name Keytruda) is a human antibody used in cancer immunotherapy.

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Percutaneous coronary intervention

Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), commonly known as coronary angioplasty or simply angioplasty, is a non-surgical procedure used to treat the stenotic (narrowed) coronary arteries of the heart found in coronary heart disease.

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The peritoneum is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity or coelom in amniotes and some invertebrates, such as annelids.

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Phage display

Phage display is a laboratory technique for the study of protein–protein, protein–peptide, and protein–DNA interactions that uses bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to connect proteins with the genetic information that encodes them.

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Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America

Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA, pronounced), founded in 1958, is a trade group representing the pharmaceutical research and biopharmaceutical companies in the United States.

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Pharmacokinetics, sometimes abbreviated as PK (from Ancient Greek pharmakon "drug" and kinetikos "moving, putting in motion"; see chemical kinetics), is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to determining the fate of substances administered externally to a living organism.

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Phosphatidylserine (abbreviated Ptd-L-Ser or PS) is an important phospholipid membrane component (i.e. component of the cell membrane) which plays a key role in cell cycle signaling, specifically in relationship to apoptosis.

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Platelets, also called thrombocytes, are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to stop bleeding by clumping and clogging blood vessel injuries.

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Polyclonal antibodies

Polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) are antibodies that are secreted by different B cell lineages within the body (whereas monoclonal antibodies come from a single cell lineage).

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Polyethylene glycol

Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a polyether compound with many applications from industrial manufacturing to medicine.

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Protein A/G

Protein A/G is a recombinant fusion protein that combines IgG binding domains of both Protein A and Protein G. Protein A/G contains four Fc binding domains from Protein A and two from Protein G, yielding a final mass of 50,460 daltons.

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Quality by Design

Quality by Design (QbD) is a concept first outlined by quality expert Joseph M. Juran in publications, most notably Juran on Quality by Design.

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Queen Mab

Queen Mab is a fairy referred to in Shakespeare's play Romeo and Juliet.

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Rabbit hybridoma

A rabbit hybridoma is a hybrid cell line formed by the fusion of an antibody producing rabbit B cell with a cancerous B-cell (myeloma).

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A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.

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Recombinant DNA

Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome.

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Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. is a biotechnology company headquartered in Tarrytown, New York.

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Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long lasting autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints.

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Rituximab (trade names Rituxan, MabThera and Zytux) is a chimeric monoclonal antibody against the protein CD20, which is primarily found on the surface of immune system B cells.

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Size-exclusion chromatography

Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) is a chromatographic method in which molecules in solution are separated by their size, and in some cases molecular weight.

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Squamous-cell carcinoma

Squamous-cell carcinoma or squamous-cell cancer (SCC or SqCC) is a cancer of a kind of epithelial cell, the squamous cell.

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Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.

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T cell

T cells or T lymphocytes are a type of lymphocyte (in turn, a type of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.

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Thymidine (deoxythymidine; other names deoxyribosylthymine, thymine deoxyriboside) is a pyrimidine deoxynucleoside.

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A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.

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Transferrins are iron-binding blood plasma glycoproteins that control the level of free iron in biological fluids.

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Transplant rejection

Transplant rejection occurs when transplanted tissue is rejected by the recipient's immune system, which destroys the transplanted tissue.

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Trastuzumab (INN; trade names Herclon, Herceptin) is a monoclonal antibody that interferes with the HER2/neu receptor.

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Tumor necrosis factor alpha

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) involved in systemic inflammation and is one of the cytokines that make up the acute phase reaction.

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Ulcerative colitis

Ulcerative colitis (Colitis ulcerosa, UC) is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that causes inflammation and ulcers in the colon.

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Ultrafiltration (UF) is a variety of membrane filtration in which forces like pressure or concentration gradients lead to a separation through a semipermeable membrane.

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Vascular endothelial growth factor

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), originally known as vascular permeability factor (VPF), is a signal protein produced by cells that stimulates vasculogenesis and angiogenesis.

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A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.

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Western blot

The western blot (sometimes called the protein immunoblot) is a widely used analytical technique used to detect specific proteins in a sample of tissue homogenate or extract.

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White blood cell

White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.

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Yeasts are eukaryotic microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom with 1,500 species currently identified and are estimated to constitute 1% of all described fungal species.

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Yeast display

Yeast display (or yeast surface display) is a technique used in the field of protein engineering.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monoclonal_antibody

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