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Monoclonal antibody

Index Monoclonal antibody

Monoclonal antibodies (mAb or moAb) are antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell. [1]

177 relations: Abciximab, Acronym, Acute myeloid leukemia, Adalimumab, Affimer, Affinity chromatography, Agarose, Albumin, Alemtuzumab, Amgen, Amino acid, Aminopterin, Anaphylaxis, Anemia, Angiogenesis inhibitor, Anion-exchange chromatography, Ankylosing spondylitis, Antibody, Antibody mimetic, Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, Antigen, Apoptosis, Aptamer, Ascites, Asthma, Autoimmune disease, Auxotrophy, Élie Metchnikoff, B cell, Basiliximab, Bavituximab, Bevacizumab, Bioavailability, Biochemistry, Bispecific monoclonal antibody, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Cancer, Cancer immunotherapy, Cardiovascular disease, César Milstein, CD20, CD33, CD52, Cell culture, Cetuximab, Chromatography, CiteAb, Cloning, Coagulation, Colorectal cancer, ..., Complement-dependent cytotoxicity, Crohn's disease, Cysteine, Cytokine, Daclizumab, De novo synthesis, Deamidation, Dialysis (biochemistry), Diarrhea, Dihydrofolate reductase, Displacement chromatography, Dot blot, ELISA, Elsevier, Elution, Epidermal growth factor receptor, Epitope, Ethics, Filtration, Folate, Food and Drug Administration, Fragment antigen-binding, Fragment crystallizable region, Gemtuzumab ozogamicin, Georges J. F. Köhler, Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa, Glycosylation, Greg Winter, HAT medium, Hepatitis C, HER2/neu, Hormone, House mouse, Human anti-mouse antibody, Human respiratory syncytial virus, Humanized antibody, Hybridoma technology, Hypothyroidism, Hypoxanthine, Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, Immunofluorescence, Immunogenicity, Immunoglobulin E, Immunohistochemistry, Immunoprecipitation, Immunotherapy, Immunotoxin, Infection, Infliximab, Interleukin 2, Ion, Ion chromatography, Ipilimumab, Isoelectric point, Keyhole limpet hemocyanin, Leukemia, Lipopolysaccharide, List of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, Lymphocyte, Lymphoid leukemia, Macular degeneration, Magic bullet (medicine), Medarex, Medicine, Membrane fouling, Molecular biology, Monoclonal, Monoclonal antibody therapy, Multiple myeloma, Multiple sclerosis, Murinae, Myeloma protein, Nimotuzumab, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Nomenclature of monoclonal antibodies, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Nuclease, Nucleic acid, Nucleotide salvage, Ofatumumab, Omalizumab, Palivizumab, Panitumumab, Paul Ehrlich, Pembrolizumab, Peptide, Percutaneous coronary intervention, Peritoneum, PH, Phage display, Phage major coat protein, Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, Pharmacokinetics, Phosphatidylserine, Plasma cell, Platelet, Polyclonal antibodies, Polyethylene glycol, Protease, Protein A, Protein A/G, Quality by Design, Rabbit hybridoma, Radionuclide, Ranibizumab, Recombinant DNA, Regeneron, Rheumatoid arthritis, Rituximab, Size-exclusion chromatography, Squamous cell carcinoma, Syphilis, T cell, Thymidine, Toxin, Transferrin, Transplant rejection, Trastuzumab, Tumor necrosis factor alpha, Ulcerative colitis, Ultrafiltration, Vascular endothelial growth factor, Virus, Western blot, White blood cell, Yeast, Yeast display. Expand index (127 more) »


Abciximab (previously known as c7E3 Fab), a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist manufactured by Janssen Biologics BV and distributed by Eli Lilly under the trade name ReoPro, is a platelet aggregation inhibitor mainly used during and after coronary artery procedures like angioplasty to prevent platelets from sticking together and causing thrombus (blood clot) formation within the coronary artery.

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An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux).

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Acute myeloid leukemia

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the myeloid line of blood cells, characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal cells that build up in the bone marrow and blood and interfere with normal blood cells.

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Adalimumab, sold under the trade name Humira among others, is a medication used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, chronic psoriasis, hidradenitis suppurativa, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

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Affimer molecules are small, highly stable proteins that bind their target molecules with similar specificity and affinity to that of antibodies.

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Affinity chromatography

Affinity chromatography is a method of separating biochemical mixtures based on a highly specific interaction between antigen and antibody, enzyme and substrate, receptor and ligand, or protein and nucleic acid.

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Agarose is a polysaccharide, generally extracted from certain red seaweed.

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The albumins (formed from Latin: albumen "(egg) white; dried egg white") are a family of globular proteins, the most common of which are the serum albumins.

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Alemtuzumab is a drug used in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) and T-cell lymphoma under the trade names Campath, MabCampath and Campath-1H, and in the treatment of multiple sclerosis as Lemtrada.

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Amgen Inc. (formerly Applied Molecular Genetics Inc.) is an American multinational biopharmaceutical company headquartered in Thousand Oaks, California.

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Amino acid

Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.

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Aminopterin (or 4-aminopteroic acid), the 4-amino derivative of folic acid, is an antineoplastic drug with immunosuppressive properties often used in chemotherapy.

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Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death.

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Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.

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Angiogenesis inhibitor

An angiogenesis inhibitor is a substance that inhibits the growth of new blood vessels (angiogenesis).

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Anion-exchange chromatography

Anion-exchange chromatography is a process that separates substances based on their charges using an ion-exchange resin containing positively charged groups, such as diethyl-aminoethyl groups (DEAE).

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Ankylosing spondylitis

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a type of arthritis in which there is long term inflammation of the joints of the spine.

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An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.

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Antibody mimetic

Antibody mimetics are organic compounds that, like antibodies, can specifically bind antigens, but that are not structurally related to antibodies.

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Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity

The antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), also referred to as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, is a mechanism of cell-mediated immune defense whereby an effector cell of the immune system actively lyses a target cell, whose membrane-surface antigens have been bound by specific antibodies.

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In immunology, an antigen is a molecule capable of inducing an immune response (to produce an antibody) in the host organism.

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Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.

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Aptamers (from the Latin aptus – fit, and Greek meros – part) are oligonucleotide or peptide molecules that bind to a specific target molecule.

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Ascites is the abnormal buildup of fluid in the abdomen.

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Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.

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Autoimmune disease

An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.

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Auxotrophy (αὐξάνω "to increase"; τροφή "nourishment") is the inability of an organism to synthesize a particular organic compound required for its growth (as defined by IUPAC).

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Élie Metchnikoff

Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (Илья́ Ильи́ч Ме́чников, also written as Élie Metchnikoff; 15 July 1916) was a Russian zoologist best known for his pioneering research in immunology.

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B cell

B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype.

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Basiliximab (trade name Simulect) is a chimeric mouse-human monoclonal antibody to the α chain (CD25) of the IL-2 receptor of T cells.

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Bavituximab (PGN401) is a human-mouse chimeric monoclonal antibody against phosphatidylserine, which is a component of cell membranes that is exposed when a cell is transformed into solid tumor cancer cell or dies, and when cells are infected with hepatitis C. The process of cell death is highly controlled and so there usually no immune response to phosphatidylserine but when bavituximab binds to it, the conjugate appears to stimulate an immune response in humans.

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Bevacizumab, sold under the trade name Avastin, is medication used to treat a number of types of cancers and a specific eye disease.

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In pharmacology, bioavailability (BA or F) is a subcategory of absorption and is the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs.

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Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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Bispecific monoclonal antibody

A bispecific monoclonal antibody (BsMAb, BsAb) is an artificial protein that can simultaneously bind to two different types of antigen.

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Bristol-Myers Squibb

Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) is an American pharmaceutical company, headquartered in New York City.

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Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Cancer immunotherapy

Cancer immunotherapy (sometimes called immuno-oncology, abbreviated IO) is the use of the immune system to treat cancer.

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Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.

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César Milstein

César Milstein, CH, FRS (8 October 1927 – 24 March 2002) was an Argentinian biochemist in the field of antibody research.

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B-lymphocyte antigen CD20 or CD20 is an activated-glycosylated phosphoprotein expressed on the surface of all B-cells beginning at the pro-B phase (CD45R+, CD117+) and progressively increasing in concentration until maturity.

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CD33 or Siglec-3 (sialic acid binding Ig-like lectin 3, SIGLEC3, SIGLEC-3, gp67, p67) is a transmembrane receptor expressed on cells of myeloid lineage.

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CAMPATH-1 antigen, also known as cluster of differentiation 52 (CD52), is a glycoprotein that in humans is encoded by the CD52 gene.

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Cell culture

Cell culture is the process by which cells are grown under controlled conditions, generally outside their natural environment.

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Cetuximab is an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor used for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer, metastatic non-small cell lung cancer and head and neck cancer.

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Chromatography is a laboratory technique for the separation of a mixture.

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CiteAb Ltd is a biotechnology company located in Bath, England that offers an antibody search tool to aid biomedical scientists in their research.

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Cloning is the process of producing genetically identical individuals of an organism either naturally or artificially.

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Coagulation (also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot.

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Colorectal cancer

Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer and colon cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine).

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Complement-dependent cytotoxicity

Complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) is a function of the complement system.

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Crohn's disease

Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus.

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Cysteine (symbol Cys or C) is a semi-essential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH.

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Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.

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Daclizumab (trade name Zinbryta, by Biogen) is a therapeutic humanized monoclonal antibody which was used for the treatment of adults with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS).

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De novo synthesis

De novo synthesis refers to the synthesis of complex molecules from simple molecules such as sugars or amino acids, as opposed to recycling after partial degradation.

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Deamidation is a chemical reaction in which an amide functional group in the side chain of the amino acids asparagine or glutamine is removed or converted to another functional group.

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Dialysis (biochemistry)

In biochemistry, dialysis is the process of separating molecules in solution by the difference in their rates of diffusion through a semipermeable membrane, such as dialysis tubing.

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Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.

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Dihydrofolate reductase

Dihydrofolate reductase, or DHFR, is an enzyme that reduces dihydrofolic acid to tetrahydrofolic acid, using NADPH as electron donor, which can be converted to the kinds of tetrahydrofolate cofactors used in 1-carbon transfer chemistry.

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Displacement chromatography

Displacement chromatography is a chromatography technique in which a sample is placed onto the head of the column and is then displaced by a solute that is more strongly sorbed than the components of the original mixture.

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Dot blot

A dot blot (or slot blot) is a technique in molecular biology used to detect proteins.

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The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a test that uses antibodies and color change to identify a substance.

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Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.

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In analytical and organic chemistry, elution is the process of extracting one material from another by washing with a solvent; as in washing of loaded ion-exchange resins to remove captured ions.

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Epidermal growth factor receptor

The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR; ErbB-1; HER1 in humans) is a transmembrane protein that is a receptor for members of the epidermal growth factor family (EGF family) of extracellular protein ligands.

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An epitope, also known as antigenic determinant, is the part of an antigen that is recognized by the immune system, specifically by antibodies, B cells, or T cells.

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Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.

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Filtration is any of various mechanical, physical or biological operations that separate solids from fluids (liquids or gases) by adding a medium through which only the fluid can pass.

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Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.

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Food and Drug Administration

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.

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Fragment antigen-binding

The antigen-binding (Fab) fragment is a region on an antibody that binds to antigens.

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Fragment crystallizable region

The fragment crystallizable region (Fc region) is the tail region of an antibody that interacts with cell surface receptors called Fc receptors and some proteins of the complement system.

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Gemtuzumab ozogamicin

Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (marketed by Wyeth as Mylotarg) is a drug-linked monoclonal antibody (an antibody-drug conjugate) that was used to treat acute myeloid leukemia from 2000 to 2010.

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Georges J. F. Köhler

Georges Jean Franz Köhler (April 17, 1946 in Munich – March 1, 1995 in Freiburg im Breisgau) was a German biologist.

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Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa

In medicine, glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (GPIIb/IIIa, also known as integrin αIIbβ3) is an integrin complex found on platelets.

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Glycosylation (see also chemical glycosylation) is the reaction in which a carbohydrate, i.e. a glycosyl donor, is attached to a hydroxyl or other functional group of another molecule (a glycosyl acceptor).

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Greg Winter

Sir Gregory Paul Winter (born 14 April 1951) is a British biochemist, a pioneer of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies.

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HAT medium

HAT Medium (hypoxanthine-aminopterin-thymidine medium) is a selection medium for mammalian cell culture, which relies on the combination of aminopterin, a drug that acts as a powerful folate metabolism inhibitor by inhibiting dihydrofolate reductase, with hypoxanthine (a purine derivative) and thymidine (a deoxynucleoside) which are intermediates in DNA synthesis.

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Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV) that primarily affects the liver.

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Receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-2, also known as CD340 (cluster of differentiation 340), proto-oncogene Neu, Erbb2 (rodent), or ERBB2 (human), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ERBB2 gene.

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A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.

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House mouse

The house mouse (Mus musculus) is a small mammal of the order Rodentia, characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, and a long naked or almost hairless tail.

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Human anti-mouse antibody

Human anti-mouse antibody (HAMA) is an antibody found in humans which reacts to immunoglobins found in mice.

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Human respiratory syncytial virus

Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a syncytial virus that causes respiratory tract infections.

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Humanized antibody

Humanized antibodies are antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to increase their similarity to antibody variants produced naturally in humans.

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Hybridoma technology

Hybridoma technology is a method for producing large numbers of identical antibodies (also called monoclonal antibodies).

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Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.

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Hypoxanthine is a naturally occurring purine derivative.

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Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase

Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) is an enzyme encoded in humans by the HPRT1 gene.

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Immunofluorescence is a technique used for light microscopy with a fluorescence microscope and is used primarily on microbiological samples.

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Immunogenicity is the ability of a particular substance, such as an antigen or epitope, to provoke an immune response in the body of a human and other animal.

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Immunoglobulin E

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is a type of antibody (or immunoglobulin (Ig) "isotype") that has only been found in mammals.

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Immunohistochemistry (IHC) involves the process of selectively imaging antigens (proteins) in cells of a tissue section by exploiting the principle of antibodies binding specifically to antigens in biological tissues.

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Immunoprecipitation (IP) is the technique of precipitating a protein antigen out of solution using an antibody that specifically binds to that particular protein.

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Immunotherapy is the "treatment of disease by inducing, enhancing, or suppressing an immune response".

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An immunotoxin is a man-made protein that consists of a targeting portion linked to a toxin.

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Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.

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Infliximab (trade names Remicade among others) is a chimeric monoclonal antibody biologic drug that works against tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and is used to treat autoimmune diseases.

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Interleukin 2

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an interleukin, a type of cytokine signaling molecule in the immune system.

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An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Ion chromatography

Ion chromatography (or ion-exchange chromatography) is a chromatography process that separates ions and polar molecules based on their affinity to the ion exchanger.

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Ipilimumab (trade name Yervoy) is a monoclonal antibody that works to activate the immune system by targeting CTLA-4, a protein receptor that downregulates the immune system.

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Isoelectric point

The isoelectric point (pI, pH(I), IEP), is the pH at which a particular molecule carries no net electrical charge or is electrically neutral in the statistical mean.

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Keyhole limpet hemocyanin

Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) is a large, multisubunit, oxygen-carrying, metalloprotein that is found in the hemolymph of the giant keyhole limpet, Megathura crenulata, a species of keyhole limpet that lives off the coast of California, from Monterey Bay to Isla Asuncion off Baja California.

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Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.

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Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as lipoglycans and endotoxins, are large molecules consisting of a lipid and a polysaccharide composed of O-antigen, outer core and inner core joined by a covalent bond; they are found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.

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List of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies

This is a list of therapeutic, diagnostic and preventive monoclonal antibodies, antibodies that are clones of a single parent cell.

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A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.

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Lymphoid leukemia

Lymphoid leukemias — also called lymphocytic, lymphogenous, or lymphoblastic leukemias — are a group of leukemias affecting circulating lymphocytes, a type of white blood cells.

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Macular degeneration

Macular degeneration, also known as age-related macular degeneration (AMD or ARMD), is a medical condition which may result in blurred or no vision in the center of the visual field.

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Magic bullet (medicine)

The magic bullet was a scientific concept developed by a German Nobel laureate Paul Ehrlich in 1900.

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Medarex (former NASDAQ symbol: MEDX) was an American biopharmaceutical company based in Princeton, New Jersey, with manufacturing facilities in Bloomsbury and Annandale, New Jersey, and research facilities in Milpitas and Sunnyvale, California.

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Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

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Membrane fouling

Membrane fouling is a process whereby a solution or a particle is deposited on a membrane surface or in membrane pores in a processes such as in a membrane bioreactor, reverse osmosis, forward osmosis, membrane distillation, ultrafiltration, microfiltration, or nanofiltration so that the membrane's performance is degraded.

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Molecular biology

Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.

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Monoclonal cells are a group of cells produced from a single ancestral cell by repeated cellular replication.

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Monoclonal antibody therapy

Monoclonal antibody therapy is a form of immunotherapy that uses monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to bind monospecifically to certain cells or proteins.

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Multiple myeloma

Multiple myeloma, also known as plasma cell myeloma, is a cancer of plasma cells, a type of white blood cell normally responsible for producing antibodies.

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Multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.

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The Old World rats and mice, part of the subfamily Murinae in the family Muridae, comprise at least 519 species.

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Myeloma protein

A myeloma protein is an abnormal immunoglobulin fragment, such as an immunoglobulin light chain, that is produced in excess by an abnormal monoclonal proliferation of plasma cells, typically in multiple myeloma.

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Nimotuzumab (h-R3, BIOMAb EGFR, Biocon, India; TheraCIM, CIMYM Biosciences, Canada; Theraloc, Oncoscience, Europe, CIMAher, Center of Molecular Immunology, Havana, Cuba) is a humanized monoclonal antibody that as of 2014 had orphan status in the US and EU for glioma, and marketing approval in India, China, and other countries for squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck, and was undergoing several clinical trials.

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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.

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Nomenclature of monoclonal antibodies

The nomenclature of monoclonal antibodies is a naming scheme for assigning generic, or nonproprietary, names to monoclonal antibodies.

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Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a group of blood cancers that includes all types of lymphoma except Hodgkin's lymphomas.

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A nuclease (also archaically known as nucleodepolymerase or polynucleotidase) is an enzyme capable of cleaving the phosphodiester bonds between monomers of nucleic acids.

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Nucleic acid

Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.

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Nucleotide salvage

A salvage pathway is a pathway in which nucleotides (purine and pyrimidine) are synthesized from intermediates in the degradative pathway for nucleotides.

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Ofatumumab (trade name Arzerra, also known as HuMax-CD20) is a fully human monoclonal antibody (for the CD20 protein) which appears to inhibit early-stage B lymphocyte activation.

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Omalizumab, sold under the trade name Xolair, is a medication originally designed to reduce sensitivity to allergens.

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Palivizumab (brand name Synagis which is manufactured by MedImmune) is a monoclonal antibody produced by recombinant DNA technology.

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Panitumumab (INN), formerly ABX-EGF, is a fully human monoclonal antibody specific to the epidermal growth factor receptor (also known as EGF receptor, EGFR, ErbB-1 and HER1 in humans).

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Paul Ehrlich

Paul Ehrlich (14 March 1854 – 20 August 1915) was a German Jewish physician and scientist who worked in the fields of hematology, immunology, and antimicrobial chemotherapy.

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Pembrolizumab (formerly MK-3475 and lambrolizumab, trade name Keytruda) is a humanized antibody used in cancer immunotherapy.

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Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.

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Percutaneous coronary intervention

Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a non-surgical procedure used to treat narrowing (stenosis) of the coronary arteries of the heart found in coronary artery disease.

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The peritoneum is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity or coelom in amniotes and some invertebrates, such as annelids.

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In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.

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Phage display

Phage display is a laboratory technique for the study of protein–protein, protein–peptide, and protein–DNA interactions that uses bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria) to connect proteins with the genetic information that encodes them.

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Phage major coat protein

In molecular biology, a phage major coat protein is an alpha-helical protein that forms a viral envelope of filamentous bacteriophages.

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Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America

Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA, pronounced), formerly known as the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers Association, is a trade group representing companies in the pharmaceutical industry in the United States founded in 1958.

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Pharmacokinetics (from Ancient Greek pharmakon "drug" and kinetikos "moving, putting in motion"; see chemical kinetics), sometimes abbreviated as PK, is a branch of pharmacology dedicated to determining the fate of substances administered to a living organism.

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Phosphatidylserine (abbreviated Ptd-L-Ser or PS) is a phospholipid and is a component of the cell membrane.

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Plasma cell

Plasma cells, also called plasma B cells, plasmocytes, plasmacytes, or effector B cells, are white blood cells that secrete large volumes of antibodies.

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Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.

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Polyclonal antibodies

Polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) are antibodies that are secreted by different B cell lineages within the body (whereas monoclonal antibodies come from a single cell lineage).

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Polyethylene glycol

Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a polyether compound with many applications from industrial manufacturing to medicine.

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A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is an enzyme that performs proteolysis: protein catabolism by hydrolysis of peptide bonds.

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Protein A

Protein A is a 42 kDa surface protein originally found in the cell wall of the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus.

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Protein A/G

Protein A/G is a recombinant fusion protein that combines IgG binding domains of both Protein A and Protein G. Protein A/G contains four Fc binding domains from Protein A and two from Protein G, yielding a final mass of 50,460 daltons.

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Quality by Design

Quality by Design (QbD) is a concept first outlined by quality expert Joseph M. Juran in publications, most notably Juran on Quality by Design.

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Rabbit hybridoma

A rabbit hybridoma is a hybrid cell line formed by the fusion of an antibody producing rabbit B cell with a cancerous B-cell (myeloma).

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A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.

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Ranibizumab (trade name Lucentis among others) is a monoclonal antibody fragment (Fab) created from the same parent mouse antibody as bevacizumab.

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Recombinant DNA

Recombinant DNA (rDNA) molecules are DNA molecules formed by laboratory methods of genetic recombination (such as molecular cloning) to bring together genetic material from multiple sources, creating sequences that would not otherwise be found in the genome.

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Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc. is a biotechnology company headquartered in Eastview, near Tarrytown, New York.

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Rheumatoid arthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints.

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Rituximab, sold under the brand name Rituxan among others, is a medication used to treat certain autoimmune diseases and types of cancer.

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Size-exclusion chromatography

Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), also known as molecular sieve chromatography, is a chromatographic method in which molecules in solution are separated by their size, and in some cases molecular weight.

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Squamous cell carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinomas, also known as epidermoid carcinoma are a number of different types of cancer that result from squamous cells.

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Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.

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T cell

A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.

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Thymidine (deoxythymidine; other names deoxyribosylthymine, thymine deoxyriboside) is a pyrimidine deoxynucleoside.

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A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.

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Transferrins are iron-binding blood plasma glycoproteins that control the level of free iron (Fe) in biological fluids.

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Transplant rejection

Transplant rejection occurs when transplanted tissue is rejected by the recipient's immune system, which destroys the transplanted tissue.

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Trastuzumab, sold under the brand name Herceptin among others, is a monoclonal antibody used to treat breast cancer.

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Tumor necrosis factor alpha

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) involved in systemic inflammation and is one of the cytokines that make up the acute phase reaction.

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Ulcerative colitis

Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a long-term condition that results in inflammation and ulcers of the colon and rectum.

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Ultrafiltration (UF) is a variety of membrane filtration in which forces like pressure or concentration gradients lead to a separation through a semipermeable membrane.

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Vascular endothelial growth factor

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), originally known as vascular permeability factor (VPF), is a signal protein produced by cells that stimulates the formation of blood vessels.

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A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.

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Western blot

The western blot (sometimes called the protein immunoblot) is a widely used analytical technique used in molecular biology, immunogenetics and other molecular biology disciplines to detect specific proteins in a sample of tissue homogenate or extract.

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White blood cell

White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.

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Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.

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Yeast display

Yeast display (or yeast surface display) is a protein engineering technique that uses the expression of recombinant proteins incorporated into the cell wall of yeast for isolating and engineering antibodies.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monoclonal_antibody

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