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Index Sinusitis

Sinusitis, also known as a sinus infection or rhinosinusitis, is inflammation of the sinuses resulting in symptoms. [1]

142 relations: Abscess, Acute (medicine), Adenoviridae, Air pollution, Allergy, American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology, Amoxicillin, Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, Anaerobic infection, Anaerobic organism, Analgesic, Anastomosis, Angioplasty, Anosmia, Antibiotic, Antihistamine, Antimicrobial resistance, Antral lavage, Asthma, Azithromycin, Bacteria, Bad breath, Balloon sinuplasty, Biofilm, Bioresorbable stent, Blurred vision, Caldwell-luc antrostomy, Canthus, Cheek, Choosing Wisely, Chronic condition, Clarithromycin, Cleveland Clinic, Consumer Reports, Coronavirus, Corticosteroid, Cough, CT scan, Culture, Cystic fibrosis, Decongestant, Diabetes mellitus, Disease, Doxycycline, Endoscopy, Enterovirus, Eosinophil, Ethmoid sinus, Eustachian tube, Fever, ..., Frontal sinus, Functional endoscopic sinus surgery, Fungal sinusitis, Fungus, Gargling, Gram-negative bacteria, Granulomatosis with polyangiitis, Haemophilus influenzae, Headache, Histology, HIV/AIDS, Hounsfield scale, Human eye, Human metapneumovirus, Human parainfluenza viruses, Human respiratory syncytial virus, Immunization, Immunodeficiency, Infection, Inflammation, John Niparko, Lightheadedness, Macrolide, Malaise, Mastoid part of the temporal bone, Maxillary sinus, Medical microbiology, Meninges, Meningitis, Microbiological culture, Microorganism, Migraine, Moraxella catarrhalis, Mucormycosis, Mucous membrane, Naproxen, Nasal concha, Nasal congestion, Nasal irrigation, Nasal meatus, Nasal polyp, Nasal spray, Nose-blowing, Odontogenic infection, Olfaction, Orbit (anatomy), Organ transplantation, Orthomyxoviridae, Osteomyelitis, Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery, Otorhinolaryngology, Oxymetazoline, Pain, Paranasal sinuses, Passive smoking, Pathogen, Pathogenic bacteria, Patient, Periorbital cellulitis, Phlegm, Placebo, Post-nasal drip, Pott's puffy tumor, Propel mometasone furoate implant, Pulpitis, Quinolone antibiotic, Radiodensity, Radiography, Respiratory tract, Rhinitis medicamentosa, Rhinorrhea, Rhinovirus, Saline (medicine), Species, Sphenoidal sinus, Staphylococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Supine position, Surgery, Symptom, Toothache, Trigeminal nerve, Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, Upper respiratory tract infection, Valsalva maneuver, Vertex (anatomy), Vertigo, Viral disease, Virus, Watchful waiting. Expand index (92 more) »


An abscess is a collection of pus that has built up within the tissue of the body.

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Acute (medicine)

In medicine, describing a disease as acute denotes that it is of short duration and, as a corollary of that, of recent onset.

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Adenoviruses (members of the family Adenoviridae) are medium-sized (90–100 nm), nonenveloped (without an outer lipid bilayer) viruses with an icosahedral nucleocapsid containing a double stranded DNA genome.

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Air pollution

Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.

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Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.

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American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology

Founded in 1943, the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI) is a professional medical membership organization of nearly 6,800 allergist/immunologists and related professionals around the world with advanced training and experience in allergy, asthma and other immunologic diseases.

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Amoxicillin, also spelled amoxycillin, is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.

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Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid

Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, also known as co-amoxiclav, is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.

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Anaerobic infection

Anaerobic infections are caused by anaerobic bacteria.

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Anaerobic organism

An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth.

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An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.

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An anastomosis (plural anastomoses) is a connection or opening between two things (especially cavities or passages) that are normally diverging or branching, such as between blood vessels, leaf veins, or streams.

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Angioplasty, also known as balloon angioplasty and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), is a minimally invasive, endovascular procedure to widen narrowed or obstructed arteries or veins, typically to treat arterial atherosclerosis.

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Anosmia is the inability to perceive odor or a lack of functioning olfaction—the loss of the sense of smell.

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An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.

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Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies.

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Antimicrobial resistance

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.

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Antral lavage

Antral lavage is a surgical procedure in which a cannula is inserted into the opening of the maxillary sinus via the inferior meatus to allow irrigation and drainage of the sinus.

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Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.

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Azithromycin is an antibiotic useful for the treatment of a number of bacterial infections.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Bad breath

Bad breath, also known as halitosis, is a symptom in which a noticeably unpleasant odor is present on the breath.

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Balloon sinuplasty

Balloon sinuplasty is a procedure that ear, nose and throat surgeons may use for the treatment of blocked sinuses.

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A biofilm comprises any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface.

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Bioresorbable stent

In medicine, a stent is any device which is inserted into a blood vessel or other internal duct in order to expand the vessel to prevent or alleviate a blockage.

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Blurred vision

Blurred vision is an ocular symptom.

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Caldwell-luc antrostomy

Caldwell-luc antrostomy —also known as Radical antrostomy— is an operation to remove irreversibly damaged mucosa of the maxillary sinus.

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Canthus (pl. canthi, palpebral commissures) is either corner of the eye where the upper and lower eyelids meet.

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Cheeks (buccae) constitute the area of the face below the eyes and between the nose and the left or right ear.

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Choosing Wisely

Choosing Wisely is a United States-based health educational campaign, led by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM).

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Chronic condition

A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.

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Clarithromycin, sold under the brand name Biaxin among others, is an antibiotic used to treat various bacterial infections.

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Cleveland Clinic

The Cleveland Clinic is a multispecialty academic hospital in Cleveland, Ohio, that is owned and operated by the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, an Ohio nonprofit corporation established in 1921.

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Consumer Reports

Consumer Reports is an American magazine published since 1930 by Consumers Union, a nonprofit organization dedicated to unbiased product testing, consumer-oriented research, public education, and advocacy.

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Coronaviruses are species of virus belonging to the subfamily Coronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.

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Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.

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A cough is a sudden and often repetitively occurring, protective reflex, which helps to clear the large breathing passages from fluids, irritants, foreign particles and microbes.

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CT scan

A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.

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Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.

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Cystic fibrosis

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that affects mostly the lungs, but also the pancreas, liver, kidneys, and intestine.

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A decongestant, or nasal decongestant, is a type of pharmaceutical drug that is used to relieve nasal congestion in the upper respiratory tract.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.

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Doxycycline is an antibiotic that is used in the treatment of a number of types of infections caused by bacteria and protozoa.

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An endoscopy (looking inside) is used in medicine to look inside the body.

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Enteroviruses are a genus of positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses associated with several human and mammalian diseases.

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Eosinophils sometimes called eosinophiles or, less commonly, acidophils, are a variety of white blood cells and one of the immune system components responsible for combating multicellular parasites and certain infections in vertebrates. Along with mast cells and basophils, they also control mechanisms associated with allergy and asthma. They are granulocytes that develop during hematopoiesis in the bone marrow before migrating into blood, after which they are terminally differentiated and do not multiply. These cells are eosinophilic or "acid-loving" due to their large acidophilic cytoplasmic granules, which show their affinity for acids by their affinity to coal tar dyes: Normally transparent, it is this affinity that causes them to appear brick-red after staining with eosin, a red dye, using the Romanowsky method. The staining is concentrated in small granules within the cellular cytoplasm, which contain many chemical mediators, such as eosinophil peroxidase, ribonuclease (RNase), deoxyribonucleases (DNase), lipase, plasminogen, and major basic protein. These mediators are released by a process called degranulation following activation of the eosinophil, and are toxic to both parasite and host tissues. In normal individuals, eosinophils make up about 1–3% of white blood cells, and are about 12–17 micrometres in size with bilobed nuclei. While they are released into the bloodstream as neutrophils are, eosinophils reside in tissue They are found in the medulla and the junction between the cortex and medulla of the thymus, and, in the lower gastrointestinal tract, ovary, uterus, spleen, and lymph nodes, but not in the lung, skin, esophagus, or some other internal organs under normal conditions. The presence of eosinophils in these latter organs is associated with disease. For instance, patients with eosinophilic asthma have high levels of eosinophils that lead to inflammation and tissue damage, making it more difficult for patients to breathe. Eosinophils persist in the circulation for 8–12 hours, and can survive in tissue for an additional 8–12 days in the absence of stimulation. Pioneering work in the 1980s elucidated that eosinophils were unique granulocytes, having the capacity to survive for extended periods of time after their maturation as demonstrated by ex-vivo culture experiments.

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Ethmoid sinus

The ethmoidal sinuses or ethmoidal air cells of the ethmoid bone are one of the four paired paranasal sinuses.

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Eustachian tube

The Eustachian tube, also known as the auditory tube or pharyngotympanic tube, is a tube that links the nasopharynx to the middle ear.

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Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.

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Frontal sinus

The frontal sinuses are situated behind the brow ridges.

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Functional endoscopic sinus surgery

Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is a minimally invasive surgical treatment which uses nasal endoscopes to enlarge the nasal drainage pathways of the paranasal sinuses to improve sinus ventilation.

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Fungal sinusitis

Fungal sinusitis is the inflammation of the lining mucosa of the paranasal sinuses due to fungal infection.

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A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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Gargling (same root as 'gurgle') is the act of bubbling liquid in the mouth.

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Gram-negative bacteria

Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the gram-staining method of bacterial differentiation.

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Granulomatosis with polyangiitis

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), formerly known as Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), is a long-term systemic disorder that involves both granulomatosis and polyangiitis.

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Haemophilus influenzae

Haemophilus influenzae (formerly called Pfeiffer's bacillus or Bacillus influenzae) is a Gram-negative, coccobacillary, facultatively anaerobic pathogenic bacterium belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family.

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Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.

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Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.

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Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

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Hounsfield scale

The Hounsfield scale or CT numbers, named after Sir Godfrey Hounsfield, is a quantitative scale for describing radiodensity.

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Human eye

The human eye is an organ which reacts to light and pressure.

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Human metapneumovirus

Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus of the family Pneumoviridae and is closely related to the avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) subgroup C. It was isolated for the first time in 2001 in the Netherlands by using the RAP-PCR (RNA arbitrarily primed PCR) technique for identification of unknown viruses growing in cultured cells.

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Human parainfluenza viruses

Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are the viruses that cause human parainfluenza.

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Human respiratory syncytial virus

Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a syncytial virus that causes respiratory tract infections.

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Immunization, or immunisation, is the process by which an individual's immune system becomes fortified against an agent (known as the immunogen).

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Immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the immune system's ability to fight infectious disease and cancer is compromised or entirely absent.

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Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.

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Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.

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John Niparko

John K. Niparko (1955 – April 25, 2016) was an American surgeon-scientist who specialized in cochlear implants, and edited, and wrote several chapters of, the book Cochlear Implants: Principles & Practices.

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Lightheadedness is a common and typically unpleasant sensation of dizziness and/or a feeling that one may faint.

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The macrolides are a class of natural products that consist of a large macrocyclic lactone ring to which one or more deoxy sugars, usually cladinose and desosamine, may be attached.

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Malaise is a feeling of general discomfort, uneasiness or pain, often the first indication of an infection or other disease.

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Mastoid part of the temporal bone

The mastoid part of the temporal bone is the back part of the temporal bone.

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Maxillary sinus

The pyramid-shaped maxillary sinus (or antrum of Highmore) is the largest of the paranasal sinuses, and drains into the middle meatus of the nose.

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Medical microbiology

Medical microbiology, the large subset of microbiology that is applied to medicine, is a branch of medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases.

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The meninges (singular: meninx, from membrane, adjectival: meningeal) are the three membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord.

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Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.

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Microbiological culture

A microbiological culture, or microbial culture, is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined culture medium under controlled laboratory conditions.

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A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.

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A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.

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Moraxella catarrhalis

Moraxella catarrhalis is a fastidious, nonmotile, Gram-negative, aerobic, oxidase-positive diplococcus that can cause infections of the respiratory system, middle ear, eye, central nervous system, and joints of humans.

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Mucormycosis is any fungal infection caused by fungi in the order Mucorales.

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Mucous membrane

A mucous membrane or mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs.

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Naproxen (brand names: Aleve, Naprosyn, and many others) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the propionic acid class (the same class as ibuprofen) that relieves pain, fever, swelling, and stiffness.

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Nasal concha

In anatomy, a nasal concha, plural conchae, also called a turbinate or turbinal, is a long, narrow, curled shelf of bone that protrudes into the breathing passage of the nose in humans and various animals.

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Nasal congestion

Nasal congestion is the blockage of the nasal passages usually due to membranes lining the nose becoming swollen from inflamed blood vessels.

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Nasal irrigation

Nasal irrigation, or nasal lavage or nasal douche, is a personal hygiene practice in which the nasal cavity is washed to flush out mucus and debris from the nose and sinuses.

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Nasal meatus

A nasal meatus is a nasal passage of the nasal cavity, of which there are three; the superior meatus, middle meatus and inferior meatus.

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Nasal polyp

Nasal polyps (NP) are noncancerous growths within the nose or sinuses.

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Nasal spray

Nasal sprays, or nasal drops, are used as local treatments for conditions such as nasal congestion and allergic rhinitis.

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Nose-blowing is the act of expelling nasal mucus by exhaling forcefully through the nose, usually into a facial tissue or handkerchief.

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Odontogenic infection

An odontogenic infection is an infection that originates within a tooth or in the closely surrounding tissues.

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Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.

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Orbit (anatomy)

In anatomy, the orbit is the cavity or socket of the skull in which the eye and its appendages are situated.

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Organ transplantation

Organ transplantation is a medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ.

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The Orthomyxoviruses (ὀρθός, orthós, Greek for "straight"; μύξα, mýxa, Greek for "mucus") are a family of RNA viruses that includes seven genera: Influenza virus A, Influenza virus B, Influenza virus C, Influenza virus D, Isavirus, Thogotovirus and Quaranjavirus.

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Osteomyelitis (OM) is an infection of bone.

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Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery

Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal that covers the field of otolaryngology, especially surgery of the head and neck.

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Otorhinolaryngology (also called otolaryngology and otolaryngology–head and neck surgery) is a surgical subspecialty within medicine that deals with conditions of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) and related structures of the head and neck.

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Oxymetazoline is a selective α1 adrenergic receptor agonist and α2 adrenergic receptor partial agonist.

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Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.

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Paranasal sinuses

Paranasal sinuses are a group of four paired air-filled spaces that surround the nasal cavity.

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Passive smoking

Passive smoking is the inhalation of smoke, called second-hand smoke (SHS), or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), by persons other than the intended "active" smoker.

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In biology, a pathogen (πάθος pathos "suffering, passion" and -γενής -genēs "producer of") or a '''germ''' in the oldest and broadest sense is anything that can produce disease; the term came into use in the 1880s.

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Pathogenic bacteria

Pathogenic bacteria are bacteria that can cause disease.

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A patient is any recipient of health care services.

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Periorbital cellulitis

Periorbital cellulitis, also known as preseptal cellulitis (and not to be confused with orbital cellulitis, which is posterior to the orbital septum), is an inflammation and infection of the eyelid and portions of skin around the eye anterior to the orbital septum.

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Phlegm (φλέγμα "inflammation, humour caused by heat") is a liquid secreted by the mucous membranes of mammals.

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A placebo is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value.

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Post-nasal drip

Post-nasal drip (PND, also termed upper airway cough syndrome, UACS, or post nasal drip syndrome, PNDS) occurs when excessive mucus is produced by the nasal mucosa.

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Pott's puffy tumor

Pott's puffy tumor, first described by Sir Percivall Pott in 1760, is a rare clinical entity characterized by subperiosteal abscess associated with osteomyelitis.

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Propel mometasone furoate implant

PROPEL mometasone furoate implant (trade name PROPEL), is a bioabsorbable steroid-eluting stent developed by Intersect ENT.

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Pulpitis is inflammation of dental pulp tissue.

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Quinolone antibiotic

A quinolone antibiotic is any member of a large group of broad-spectrum bactericides that share a bicyclic core structure related to the compound 4-quinolone.

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Radiodensity (or radiopacity) is opacity to the radio wave and X-ray portion of the electromagnetic spectrum: that is, the relative inability of those kinds of electromagnetic radiation to pass through a particular material.

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Radiography is an imaging technique using X-rays to view the internal form of an object.

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Respiratory tract

In humans, the respiratory tract is the part of the anatomy of the respiratory system involved with the process of respiration.

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Rhinitis medicamentosa

Rhinitis medicamentosa (or RM) is a condition of rebound nasal congestion brought on by extended use of topical decongestants (e.g., oxymetazoline, phenylephrine, xylometazoline, and naphazoline nasal sprays) and certain oral medications (e.g., sympathomimetic amines and various 2-imidazolines) that constrict blood vessels in the lining of the nose.

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Rhinorrhea or rhinorrhoea is a condition where the nasal cavity is filled with a significant amount of mucus fluid.

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The rhinovirus (from the Greek ῥίς rhis "nose", ῥινός rhinos "of the nose", and the Latin vīrus) is the most common viral infectious agent in humans and is the predominant cause of the common cold.

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Saline (medicine)

Saline, also known as saline solution, is a mixture of sodium chloride in water and has a number of uses in medicine.

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In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

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Sphenoidal sinus

Each of the paired sphenoidal sinuses (components of the paranasal sinuses) is contained within the body of the sphenoid.

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Staphylococcus (from the σταφυλή, staphylē, "grape" and κόκκος, kókkos, "granule") is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria.

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Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive, round-shaped bacterium that is a member of the Firmicutes, and it is a member of the normal flora of the body, frequently found in the nose, respiratory tract, and on the skin.

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Streptococcus (term coined by Viennese surgeon Albert Theodor Billroth (1829-1894) from strepto- "twisted" + Modern Latin coccus "spherical bacterium," from Greek kokkos meaning "berry") is a genus of coccus (spherical) Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and the order Lactobacillales (lactic acid bacteria).

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Streptococcus pneumoniae

Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic (under aerobic conditions) or beta-hemolytic (under anaerobic conditions), facultative anaerobic member of the genus Streptococcus.

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Supine position

The supine position means lying horizontally with the face and torso facing up, as opposed to the prone position, which is face down.

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Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.

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A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.

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Toothache, also known as dental pain,Segen JC.

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Trigeminal nerve

The trigeminal nerve (the fifth cranial nerve, or simply CN V) is a nerve responsible for sensation in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing; it is the largest of the cranial nerves.

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Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX), also known as co-trimoxazole among other names, is an antibiotic used to treat a variety of bacterial infections.

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Upper respiratory tract infection

Upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) are illnesses caused by an acute infection which involves the upper respiratory tract including the nose, sinuses, pharynx or larynx.

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Valsalva maneuver

The Valsalva maneuver or Valsalva manoeuvre is performed by moderately forceful attempted exhalation against a closed airway, usually done by closing one's mouth, pinching one's nose shut while pressing out as if blowing up a balloon.

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Vertex (anatomy)

In arthropod and vertebrate anatomy, the vertex (or cranial vertex) is the upper surface of the head.

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Vertigo is a symptom where a person feels as if they or the objects around them are moving when they are not.

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Viral disease

A viral disease (or viral infection) occurs when an organism's body is invaded by pathogenic viruses, and infectious virus particles (virions) attach to and enter susceptible cells.

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A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.

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Watchful waiting

Watchful waiting (also watch and wait or WAW) is an approach to a medical problem in which time is allowed to pass before medical intervention or therapy is used.

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Redirects here:

Acute Sinustis, Acute bacterial rhinosinusitis, Acute bacterial sinusitis, Acute maxillary sinusitis, Acute rhinosinusitis, Acute sinusitis, Allergic Fungal Sinusitis, Allergic fungal sinusitis, Caldwell-Luc operation, Chronic rhinosinusitis, Chronic sinusitis, Lateral sinus thrombophlebitis, Nasal infection, Paranasal sinusitis, Rhinosinusitis, Sinuitis, Sinus headache, Sinus infection, Sinus infections.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sinusitis

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