107 relations: Adenoviridae, Adenovirus vaccine, Alcohol-induced respiratory reactions, Allergen, Allergic rhinitis, Ancient Greek, Ancient Rome, Anthrax vaccines, Antibody, Antihistamine, Asthma, Atmospheric pressure, Atrophy, Azelastine, Bacteria, Bacterial pneumonia, Balsam of Peru, Budesonide, Capsaicin, Chlorine, Cilium, Conjunctiva, Coronavirus, Corticosteroid, Cough, Cyclooxygenase, Cyproheptadine, Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I, Dander, Degranulation, Diphtheria vaccine, Effusion, Enterovirus, Erythema, Fatigue, Fluticasone propionate, Goblet cell, Haemophilus influenzae, Headache, Hib vaccine, Histamine, Hives, Hormone, Human metapneumovirus, Human nose, Human parainfluenza viruses, Human respiratory syncytial virus, Immunology, Infectious coryza in chickens, Infectious disease (medical specialty), ..., Inflammation, Influenza vaccine, Malaise, Mast cell, Measles, Measles virus, Metaplasia, Middle ear, Mold, Moraxella catarrhalis, Mucous membrane of nose, Mucus, Naphazoline, Nasal concha, Nasal congestion, Nasal polyp, Nasal spray, Neurogenic inflammation, Nonallergic rhinitis, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, NSAID hypersensitivity reactions, Occupational asthma, Orthomyxoviridae, Oxymetazoline, Patch test, Pathogenic bacteria, Pertussis vaccine, Pharyngitis, Phenylephrine, Pneumococcal vaccine, Pneumonia, Pollen, Post-nasal drip, Pre-Greek substrate, Proto-Indo-European language, Radioallergosorbent test, Rash, Rhinitis medicamentosa, Rhinorrhea, Rhinovirus, Robert S. P. Beekes, Rubella, Serotonin receptor antagonist, Sinusitis, Skin allergy test, Sneeze, Steroid, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Sympathomimetic drug, Taste, Topical decongestant, Transient receptor potential channel, Venous stasis, Viral pneumonia, Virus, Xylometazoline, 2-Imidazoline. Expand index (57 more) »
Adenoviruses (members of the family Adenoviridae) are medium-sized (90–100 nm), nonenveloped (without an outer lipid bilayer) viruses with an icosahedral nucleocapsid containing a double stranded DNA genome.
An adenovirus vaccine is a vaccine against Adenovirus.
Alcohol-induced respiratory reactions, also termed alcohol-induced asthma and alcohol-induced respiratory symptoms, are increasingly recognized as a pathological bronchoconstriction response to the consumption of alcohol that afflicts many people with a "classical" form of asthma, the airway constriction disease evoked by the inhalation of allergens.
An allergen is a type of antigen that produces an abnormally vigorous immune response in which the immune system fights off a perceived threat that would otherwise be harmless to the body.
Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever, is a type of inflammation in the nose which occurs when the immune system overreacts to allergens in the air.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Vaccines against the livestock and human disease anthrax—caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis—have had a prominent place in the history of medicine, from Pasteur’s pioneering 19th-century work with cattle (the first effective bacterial vaccine and the second effective vaccine ever) to the controversial late 20th century use of a modern product to protect American troops against the use of anthrax in biological warfare.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies.
Asthma is a common long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs.
Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).
Atrophy is the partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body.
Azelastine is a potent, second-generation, selective, histamine antagonist (histamine-H1-receptor antagonist) used as a first line therapy of mild intermittent, moderate/severe intermittent and mild persistent rhinitis (new classification system for rhinitis).
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bacterial pneumonia is a type of pneumonia caused by bacterial infection.
Balsam of Peru, also known and marketed by many other names, is a balsam derived from a tree known as Myroxylon balsamum var.
Budesonide (BUD), sold under the brand name Pulmicort among others, is a medication of the corticosteroid type.
Capsaicin ((INN); 8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is an active component of chili peppers, which are plants belonging to the genus Capsicum.
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
A cilium (the plural is cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells.
The conjunctiva lines the inside of the eyelids and covers the sclera (the white of the eye).
Coronaviruses are species of virus belonging to the subfamily Coronavirinae in the family Coronaviridae, in the order Nidovirales.
Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.
A cough is a sudden and often repetitively occurring, protective reflex, which helps to clear the large breathing passages from fluids, irritants, foreign particles and microbes.
Cyclooxygenase (COX), officially known as prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (PTGS), is an enzyme (specifically, a family of isozymes) that is responsible for formation of prostanoids, including thromboxane and prostaglandins such as prostacyclin, from arachidonic acid.
Cyproheptadine, sold under the brand name Periactin among others, is a first-generation antihistamine with additional anticholinergic, antiserotonergic, and local anesthetic properties.
Cytochrome c oxidase I (COX1) also known as mitochondrially encoded cytochrome c oxidase I (MT-CO1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MT-CO1 gene.
Dander is material shed from the body of humans and various animals that have fur, hair, or feathers.
Degranulation is a cellular process that releases antimicrobial cytotoxic or other molecules from secretory vesicles called granules found inside some cells.
Diphtheria vaccine is a vaccine against Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the bacterium that causes diphtheria.
In physics and chemistry, effusion is the process in which a gas escapes through a hole of diameter considerably smaller than the mean free path of the molecules.
Enteroviruses are a genus of positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses associated with several human and mammalian diseases.
Erythema (from the Greek erythros, meaning red) is redness of the skin or mucous membranes, caused by hyperemia (increased blood flow) in superficial capillaries.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
Fluticasone propionate belongs to a class of drugs known as corticosteroids, specifically glucocorticoids, which are hormones that predominantly affect the metabolism of carbohydrates and, to a lesser extent, fat and protein.
Goblet cells are simple columnar epithelial cells that secrete gel-forming mucins, like mucin MUC5AC.
Haemophilus influenzae (formerly called Pfeiffer's bacillus or Bacillus influenzae) is a Gram-negative, coccobacillary, facultatively anaerobic pathogenic bacterium belonging to the Pasteurellaceae family.
Headache is the symptom of pain anywhere in the region of the head or neck.
The Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine, often called Hib vaccine, is a vaccine used to prevent Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) infection.
Histamine is an organic nitrogenous compound involved in local immune responses, as well as regulating physiological function in the gut and acting as a neurotransmitter for the brain, spinal cord, and uterus.
Hives, also known as urticaria, is a kind of skin rash with red, raised, itchy bumps.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus of the family Pneumoviridae and is closely related to the avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) subgroup C. It was isolated for the first time in 2001 in the Netherlands by using the RAP-PCR (RNA arbitrarily primed PCR) technique for identification of unknown viruses growing in cultured cells.
The human nose is the protruding part of the face that bears the nostrils.
Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are the viruses that cause human parainfluenza.
Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a syncytial virus that causes respiratory tract infections.
Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.
Infectious coryza is a serious bacterial disease of chickens which affects respiratory system and it is manifested by inflammation of the area below the eye, nasal discharge and sneezing.
Infectious disease, also known as infectious diseases, infectious medicine, infectious disease medicine or infectiology, is a medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis, control and treatment of infections.
Inflammation (from inflammatio) is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, and is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, and molecular mediators.
Influenza vaccines, also known as flu shots or flu jabs, are vaccines that protect against infection by Influenza viruses.
Malaise is a feeling of general discomfort, uneasiness or pain, often the first indication of an infection or other disease.
A mast cell (also known as a mastocyte or a labrocyte) is a type of white blood cell.
Measles is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by the measles virus.
Measles virus (MeV) is a single-stranded, negative-sense, enveloped (non-segmented) RNA virus of the genus Morbillivirus within the family Paramyxoviridae.
Metaplasia ("change in form") is the reversible transformation of one differentiated cell type to another differentiated cell type.
The middle ear is the portion of the ear internal to the eardrum, and external to the oval window of the inner ear.
A mold or mould (is a fungus that grows in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae.
Moraxella catarrhalis is a fastidious, nonmotile, Gram-negative, aerobic, oxidase-positive diplococcus that can cause infections of the respiratory system, middle ear, eye, central nervous system, and joints of humans.
The nasal mucous membrane lines the nasal cavities, and is intimately adherent to the periosteum or perichondrium of the nasal conchae.
Mucus is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes.
Naphazoline (in the hydrochloride form) is the common name for 2-(1-naphthylmethyl)-2-imidazoline hydrochloride.
In anatomy, a nasal concha, plural conchae, also called a turbinate or turbinal, is a long, narrow, curled shelf of bone that protrudes into the breathing passage of the nose in humans and various animals.
Nasal congestion is the blockage of the nasal passages usually due to membranes lining the nose becoming swollen from inflamed blood vessels.
Nasal polyps (NP) are noncancerous growths within the nose or sinuses.
Nasal sprays, or nasal drops, are used as local treatments for conditions such as nasal congestion and allergic rhinitis.
Neurogenic inflammation is inflammation arising from the local release by afferent neurons of inflammatory mediators such as Substance P, Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP), neurokinin A (NKA), and endothelin-3 (ET-3).
Nonallergic rhinitis is inflammation of the inner part of the nose that is not caused by an allergy.
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.
NSAID or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug hypersensitivity reactions encompasses a broad range of allergic or allergic-like symptoms that occur within minutes to hours after ingesting aspirin or other NSAID nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Occupational asthma refers to new onset asthma or the recurrence of previously quiescent asthma directly caused by exposure to an agent at workplace.
The Orthomyxoviruses (ὀρθός, orthós, Greek for "straight"; μύξα, mýxa, Greek for "mucus") are a family of RNA viruses that includes seven genera: Influenza virus A, Influenza virus B, Influenza virus C, Influenza virus D, Isavirus, Thogotovirus and Quaranjavirus.
Oxymetazoline is a selective α1 adrenergic receptor agonist and α2 adrenergic receptor partial agonist.
A patch test is a method used to determine whether a specific substance causes allergic inflammation of a patient's skin.
Pathogenic bacteria are bacteria that can cause disease.
Pertussis vaccine is a vaccine that protects against whooping cough (pertussis).
Pharyngitis is inflammation of the back of the throat, known as the pharynx.
Phenylephrine is a selective α1-adrenergic receptor agonist of the phenethylamine class used primarily as a decongestant, as an agent to dilate the pupil, to increase blood pressure, and to relieve hemorrhoids.
Pneumococcal vaccines are vaccines against the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells).
Post-nasal drip (PND, also termed upper airway cough syndrome, UACS, or post nasal drip syndrome, PNDS) occurs when excessive mucus is produced by the nasal mucosa.
The Pre-Greek substrate (or Pre-Greek substratum) consists of the unknown language or languages spoken in prehistoric ancient Greece before the settlement of Proto-Hellenic speakers in the area.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
A radioallergosorbent test (RAST) is a blood test using radioimmunoassay test to detect specific IgE antibodies, to determine the substances a subject is allergic to.
A rash is a change of the human skin which affects its color, appearance, or texture.
Rhinitis medicamentosa (or RM) is a condition of rebound nasal congestion brought on by extended use of topical decongestants (e.g., oxymetazoline, phenylephrine, xylometazoline, and naphazoline nasal sprays) and certain oral medications (e.g., sympathomimetic amines and various 2-imidazolines) that constrict blood vessels in the lining of the nose.
Rhinorrhea or rhinorrhoea is a condition where the nasal cavity is filled with a significant amount of mucus fluid.
The rhinovirus (from the Greek ῥίς rhis "nose", ῥινός rhinos "of the nose", and the Latin vīrus) is the most common viral infectious agent in humans and is the predominant cause of the common cold.
Robert Stephen Paul Beekes (2 September 1937 – 21 September 2017) was Emeritus Professor of Comparative Indo-European Linguistics at Leiden University and the author of many monographs on the Proto-Indo-European language.
Rubella, also known as German measles or three-day measles, is an infection caused by the rubella virus.
A serotonin antagonist, or serotonin receptor antagonist, is a drug used to inhibit the action at serotonin (5-HT) receptors.
Sinusitis, also known as a sinus infection or rhinosinusitis, is inflammation of the sinuses resulting in symptoms.
Skin allergy testing or Skin prick test is a method for medical diagnosis of allergies that attempts to provoke a small, controlled, allergic response.
A sneeze, or sternutation, is a semi-autonomous, convulsive expulsion of air from the lungs through the nose and mouth, usually caused by foreign particles irritating the nasal mucosa.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic (under aerobic conditions) or beta-hemolytic (under anaerobic conditions), facultative anaerobic member of the genus Streptococcus.
Sympathomimetic drugs (also known as adrenergic drugs and adrenergic amines) are stimulant compounds which mimic the effects of endogenous agonists of the sympathetic nervous system.
Taste, gustatory perception, or gustation is one of the five traditional senses that belongs to the gustatory system.
Topical decongestants are decongestants applied directly to the nasal cavity.
Transient receptor potential channels (TRP channels) are a group of ion channels located mostly on the plasma membrane of numerous animal cell types.
Venous stasis, or venostasis, is a condition of slow blood flow in the veins, usually of the legs.
Viral pneumonia is a pneumonia caused by a virus.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Xylometazoline, also spelled xylomethazoline, is a medication which is used to improve symptoms of nasal congestion, allergic rhinitis, and sinusitis.
2-Imidazoline (dihydroimidazoles) is one of three isomers of the nitrogen-containing heterocycle imidazoline, with the formula C3H6N2.
Congestive non-allergic rhinitis, Coryza, Hay-Fever, Nasal allergies, Nasal allergy, Non-Allergic Rhinitis, Non-allergic Rhinitis, Non-allergic rhinitis, Perennial allergic rhinitis, Pollenitis, Rhinitis, allergic, perennial, Rhinitis, allergic, seasonal, Rhinitis, vasomotor, Rhinitus, Rhinoconjunctivitis, Seasonal allergic rhinitis.