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Language is the ability to acquire and use complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so, and a language is any specific example of such a system. [1]

478 relations: A language is a dialect with an army and navy, Abugida, Accusative case, Acoustics, Adjective, Affix, Africa, Afroasiatic languages, Age of Enlightenment, Agglutinative language, Agreement (linguistics), Ainu language, Akkadian language, Alfred Tarski, Algonquian languages, Allophone, Alveolar ridge, American Civil War, American Sign Language, Americas, Amharic, Anatomically modern human, Ancient Greece, Animal cognition, Animal communication, Animal language, Anthropological linguistics, Aphorism, Apophony, Approximant consonant, Arabic, Arabic script, Arawakan languages, Areal feature, Argument, Article (grammar), Aspirated consonant, Auditory cortex, Australian Aboriginal languages, Australopithecine, Austroasiatic languages, Austronesian languages, Babbling, Balkan sprachbund, Bantu languages, Basque language, Bee, Bee learning and communication, Behavioral modernity, Bengali language, ..., Berber languages, Berlin, Bertrand Russell, Blombos Cave, Bonobo, Braille, Broca's area, Bronze Age, Burmese language, Burushaski, Cambridge University Press, Canadian Aboriginal syllabics, Cantonese, Caribbean Spanish, Chain shift, Charles Darwin, Cherokee language, Cherology, Chinese characters, Christian mythology, Cipher, Classifier (linguistics), Close vowel, Code, Code (semiotics), Cognition, Cognitive linguistics, Cognitive science, Communication, Communicative competence, Comparative linguistics, Comparative method (linguistics), Computational linguistics, Conjunction (grammar), Consonant, Constructed language, Course in General Linguistics, Cree language, Creole language, Croatian language, Culture, Cuneiform, Danish language, Deixis, Developmental verbal dyspraxia, Dialect, Diffusion, Displacement (linguistics), Distinctive feature, Dog, Dravidian languages, Drift (linguistics), Dyirbal language, Eardrum, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Electrophysiology, Endangered language, English language, Entertainment, Ergative–absolutive language, Esperanto, Ethiopian language area, Ethnologue, Eurasia, Evolution, Expressive aphasia, Extinct language, Ferdinand de Saussure, First language, Focus (linguistics), Formal grammar, Formal learning, Formal system, Formant, Formosan languages, FOXP2, French language, Fricative consonant, Front rounded vowel, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, Functional theories of grammar, Fusional language, Gamilaraay language, Generative grammar, Genetics, Germanic languages, Globalization, Glottis, Gorgias, Grammar, Grammatical category, Grammatical person, Grammatical tense, Grammaticalization, Great ape language, Great Vowel Shift, Grimm's law, Haiti, Haitian Creole, Handshape, Hangul, Hausa language, Hebrew language, Hindi, Hindustani language, Historical linguistics, History of colonialism, History of the world, Holophrasis, Hominidae, Hominini, Homo, Homo erectus, Homo habilis, Homo heidelbergensis, Human, Human brain, Human communication, Human development (biology), Identity (social science), Ideophone, Idiom, Immanuel Kant, Implicature, India, Indo-European languages, Indonesia, Indonesian language, Inferior frontal gyrus, Infix, Inflection, Information, Innatism, Intentionality, Interjection, International auxiliary language, International Phonetic Alphabet, Intonation (linguistics), Inuktitut, Isolating language, Italic languages, J. L. Austin, Japanese language, Javanese language, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Jerry Fodor, Johann Gottfried Herder, John Searle, Jutlandic dialect, Kannada, Kanzi, Khmer language, Koko (gorilla), Korean language, Korean Sign Language, Language acquisition, Language attrition, Language change, Language contact, Language convergence, Language death, Language family, Language ideology, Language isolate, Language policy, Language revitalization, Language shift, Langue and parole, Larynx, Lateral consonant, Latin, Latin alphabet, Lexeme, Lexicon, Lingua franca, Linguistic anthropology, Linguistic description, Linguistic Diversity in Space and Time, Linguistic turn, Linguistic typology, Linguistic universal, Linguistics, List of language regulators, List of languages by number of native speakers, List of official languages, Loanword, Logic, Logogram, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Madagascar, Malagasy language, Malay language, Malayalam, Malayo-Polynesian languages, Mandarin Chinese, Manner of articulation, Maritime Southeast Asia, Max Weinreich, Maya script, Mayan languages, Māori language, Meaning (linguistics), Meaning (semiotics), Mesoamerica, Mesoamerican language area, Mesoamerican writing systems, Michael Tomasello, Michif language, Migration Period, Mind, Minimal pair, Mixed language, Modality (semiotics), Morpheme, Morphological derivation, Morphology (linguistics), Morphosyntactic alignment, Multilingualism, Music, Mutation, Mutual intelligibility, Na-Dene languages, Nasal consonant, Nasalization, Nation state, Natural language, Neocolonialism, Neurolinguistics, New Mexico, Nicaraguan Sign Language, Niger–Congo languages, Noam Chomsky, Nominative case, Nominative–absolutive language, North America, North Carolina, Norwegian language, Noun, Object (grammar), Occlusive, Oceania, Old English, Old French, Old Javanese, Olmec, Open vowel, Operant conditioning, Oto-Manguean languages, Outline of linguistics, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Palate, Palatine uvula, Pama–Nyungan languages, Papua New Guinea, Paradigmatic analysis, Part of speech, Paul Grice, Pāṇini, Persian language, Philology, Philosophy of language, Phonation, Phone (phonetics), Phoneme, Phonetics, Phonological change, Phonology, Phrase, Phylogenetic tree, Pidgin, Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Pirahã language, Pitch accent, Plato, Polysynthetic language, Port-Royal Grammar, Portuguese language, Pragmatics, Pre-Columbian era, Predicate (grammar), Prefix, Preposition and postposition, Preschool, Problem of religious language, Productivity (linguistics), Programming language, Prosody (linguistics), Proto-Indo-European language, Psycholinguistics, Purépecha language, Qualla Boundary, Quechumaran languages, Receptive aphasia, Recursion, Register (sociolinguistics), Relexification, René Descartes, Rhotic consonant, Robert M. W. Dixon, Root (linguistics), Rotokas language, Roundedness, Russian language, Rwanda, Sahara, Samoan language, Sanskrit, Segment (linguistics), Semantics, Semi-speaker, Semiosis, Semiotics, Semitic languages, Sentence (linguistics), Serbian language, Serbo-Croatian, Shona language, Sibilant, Sign (linguistics), Sign (semiotics), Sign language, Sino-Tibetan languages, Social class, Social grooming, Social stratification, Sociolinguistics, Soft palate, Somali language, Somatosensory system, Sound change, South Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Spanish language, Spectrogram, Speech, Speech act, Speech community, Speech repetition, Speech scroll, Speech-language pathology, Spoken language, Sprachbund, Standard Spanish, Standard Tibetan, Stephen R. Anderson, Steven Mithen, Steven Pinker, Stimulus (physiology), Stop consonant, Stress (linguistics), Structural linguistics, Structuralism, Style-shifting, Subculture, Subject–object–verb, Subject–verb–object, Suffix, Sumer, Sumerian language, Superior temporal gyrus, Supramarginal gyrus, Swahili language, Swedish language, Syllable, Symbolic communication, Synchrony and diachrony, Syntactic Structures, Syntagmatic analysis, Syntax, System, Tagalog language, Tai–Kadai languages, Tamil language, Telegraphic speech, Telugu language, Teotihuacan, Thai language, Thanjavur, The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, The Language Instinct, The Symbolic Species, Theoretical linguistics, Theory of mind, Timbre, Tok Pisin, Tone (linguistics), Tower of Babel, Trans-cultural diffusion, Transitive verb, Transitivity (grammar), Tripartite language, Truth value, Tupi–Guarani languages, Turkic languages, Turkish language, UNESCO, Universal grammar, Urdu, Uto-Aztecan languages, Utterance, Variety (linguistics), Verb, Vocabulary, Voice (phonetics), Vowel, Vowel length, Wernicke's area, West Africa, Wh-movement, Whistled language, Wilhelm von Humboldt, Willard Van Orman Quine, William Jones (philologist), William Stokoe, Word, Word order, Writing system, Written language, Yerkish, Yoruba language, Yugoslav Wars, Yupik languages, Zulu language, Zuni language, 26th century BC, 4th millennium BC. 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A language is a dialect with an army and navy

"A language is a dialect with an army and navy" is a quipVictor H. Mair, The Columbia History of Chinese Literature, p. 24: "It has often been facetiously remarked...

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An abugida (from Ge'ez አቡጊዳ ’äbugida), also called an alphasyllabary, is a segmental writing system in which consonant–vowel sequences are written as a unit: each unit is based on a consonant letter, and vowel notation is secondary.

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Accusative case

The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.

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Acoustics is the interdisciplinary science that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound.

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In linguistics, an adjective is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.

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An affix (in modern sense) is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word.

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Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent.

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Afroasiatic languages

Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic),Daniel Don Nanjira,, (ABC-CLIO: 2010).

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Age of Enlightenment

The Age of Enlightenment or simply the Enlightenment or Age of Reason is an era from the 1620s to the 1780s in which cultural and intellectual forces in Western Europe emphasized reason, analysis, and individualism rather than traditional lines of authority.

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Agglutinative language

An agglutinative language is a type of synthetic language with morphology that primarily uses agglutination: words may contain different morphemes to determine their meaning, but each of these morphemes (including stems and affixes) remains in every aspect unchanged after their union, thus resulting in generally easier deducible word meanings if compared to fusional languages, which allow modifications in the phonetics and/or spelling of one or more morphemes within a word, generally for shortening the word on behalf of an easier pronunciation.

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Agreement (linguistics)

Agreement or concord happens when a word changes form depending on the other words to which it relates.

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Ainu language

Ainu (Ainu: アィヌ・イタㇰ Aynu.

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Akkadian language

Akkadian (akkadû, ak.kADû) is an extinct east Semitic language (part of the greater Afroasiatic language family) that was spoken in ancient Mesopotamia.

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Alfred Tarski

Alfred Tarski (January 14, 1901 – October 26, 1983) was a Polish logician, mathematician and philosopher.

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Algonquian languages

The Algonquian languages (or; also Algonkian) are a subfamily of Native American languages which includes most of the languages in the Algic language family.

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In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds (or phones) or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.

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Alveolar ridge

An alveolar ridge (or; also known as the alveolar margin) is one of the two jaw ridges either on the roof of the mouth between the upper teeth and the hard palate or on the bottom of the mouth behind the lower teeth.

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American Civil War

The American Civil War, widely known in the United States as simply the Civil War as well as other sectional names, was a civil war fought from 1861 to 1865 to determine the survival of the Union or independence for the Confederacy.

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American Sign Language

American Sign Language (ASL) is the predominant sign language of deaf communities in the United States and most of anglophone Canada.

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The Americas, or America,"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language (ISBN 0-19-214183-X).

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Amharic (or; Amharic: አማርኛ) is a Semitic language spoken in Ethiopia.

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Anatomically modern human

The term anatomically modern humans (AMH) or anatomically modern Homo sapiens (AMHS) refers in paleoanthropology to individual members of the species Homo sapiens with an appearance consistent with the range of phenotypes in modern humans.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (circa 600 AD).

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Animal cognition

Animal cognition describes the mental capacities of animals and its study.

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Animal communication

Animal communication is the transfer of information from one or a group of animals (sender or senders) to one or more other animals (receiver or receivers) which affects either the current or future behavior of the receivers.

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Animal language

Animal language are forms of non-human animal communication that show similarities to human language.

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Anthropological linguistics

Anthropological linguistics is the study of the relations between language and culture and the relations between human biology, cognition and language.

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An aphorism (from Greek ἀφορισμός aphorismos, "delimitation") is a terse saying, expressing a general truth, principle, or astute observation, and spoken or written in a laconic and memorable form.

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In linguistics, apophony (also known as ablaut, (vowel) gradation, (vowel) mutation, alternation, internal modification, stem modification, stem alternation, replacive morphology, stem mutation, internal inflection etc.) is the alternation of sounds within a word that indicates grammatical information (often inflectional).

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Approximant consonant

Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.

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Arabic (العَرَبِية, or عربي,عربى) is the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century and its modern descendants excluding Maltese.

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Arabic script

The Arabic script is a writing system used for writing several languages of Asia and Africa, such as Arabic, dialects of Mandinka, the Sorani and Luri dialects of Kurdish, Persian, Urdu, Pashto, and others.

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Arawakan languages

Arawakan (Arahuacan, Maipuran Arawakan, "mainstream" Arawakan, Arawakan proper), also known as Maipurean (also Maipuran, Maipureano, Maipúre), is a language family that developed among ancient indigenous peoples in South America.

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Areal feature

In linguistics, an areal feature is shared by languages within the same geographical area as a consequence of diffusion.

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In logic and philosophy, an argument is a series of statements typically used to persuade someone of something or to present reasons for accepting a conclusion.

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Article (grammar)

An article (abbreviated) is a word (or prefix or suffix) that is used with a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun.

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Aspirated consonant

In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.

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Auditory cortex

The primary auditory cortex is the part of the temporal lobe that processes auditory information in humans and other vertebrates.

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Australian Aboriginal languages

The Australian Aboriginal languages comprise up to twenty-seven language families and isolates native to the Australian Aborigines of Australia and a few nearby islands, but by convention excluding the languages of Tasmania and the eastern Torres Strait Island language Meriam Mer.

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The term australopithecines refers generally to all species in the related genera of Australopithecus and Paranthropus, and it is typically intended to include members of Kenyanthropus, Ardipithecus, and Praeanthropus.

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Austroasiatic languages

The Austroasiatic languages, in recent classifications synonymous with Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of continental Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China.

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Austronesian languages

The Austronesian languages is a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members on continental Asia.

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Babbling is a stage in child development and a state in language acquisition, during which an infant appears to be experimenting with uttering articulate sounds, but not yet producing any recognizable words.

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Balkan sprachbund

The Balkan sprachbund or Balkan language area is the ensemble of areal features—similarities in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and phonology—among the languages of the Balkans.

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Bantu languages

The Bantu languages, technically the Narrow Bantu languages, constitute a traditional branch of the Niger–Congo languages.

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Basque language

Basque (Basque: Euskara) is a language isolate ancestral to the Basque people.

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Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax.

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Bee learning and communication

Honey bees are sensitive to odors (including pheromones), tastes, and colors, including ultraviolet.

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Behavioral modernity

Behavioral modernity is a suite of behavioral and cognitive traits that distinguishes current Homo sapiens from anatomically modern humans, hominins, and other primates.

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Bengali language

Bengali or Bangla (বাংলা) is the language native to the region of Bengal, which comprises the present-day nation of Bangladesh and of the Indian states West Bengal, Tripura and southern Assam.

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Berber languages

Berber or the Amazigh languages or dialects (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight, ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ.

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Berlin is the capital of Germany and one of the 16 states of Germany.

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Bertrand Russell

Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic and political activist.

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Blombos Cave

Blombos Cave is an archaeological site located in Blombosfontein Nature Reserve, about 300 km east of Cape Town on the Southern Cape coastline, South Africa.

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The bonobo (Pan paniscus), formerly called the pygmy chimpanzee and less often, the dwarf or gracile chimpanzee, is an endangered great ape and one of the two species making up the genus Pan; the other is Pan troglodytes, or the common chimpanzee.

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Braille is a tactile writing system used by people who are blind and low vision.

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Broca's area

Broca's area or the Broca area or is a region in the frontal lobe of the dominant hemisphere (usually the left) of the hominid brain with functions linked to speech production.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a time period characterized by the use of bronze, proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Burmese language

The Burmese language (မြန်မာဘာသာ, MLCTS: myanma bhasa) is the official language of Myanmar.

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Burushaski (بروشسکی), the language of the Burusho people, is a language isolate spoken in northern Gilgit–Baltistan, Pakistan.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Canadian Aboriginal syllabics

Canadian Aboriginal syllabic writing, or simply syllabics, is a family of abugidas (consonant-based alphabets) used to write a number of Aboriginal Canadian languages of the Algonquian, Inuit, and (formerly) Athabaskan language families.

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Cantonese, or Standard Cantonese (廣東話, 广东话; originally known as 廣州話, 广州话), is the dialect of Yue Chinese spoken in the vicinity of Canton (Guangzhou) in southern China.

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Caribbean Spanish

Caribbean Spanish (Spanish: español caribeño) is the general name of the Spanish dialects spoken in the Caribbean region.

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Chain shift

In phonology, a chain shift is a phenomenon in which several sounds move stepwise along a phonetic scale.

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Charles Darwin

Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist and geologist, best known for his contributions to evolutionary theory.

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Cherokee language

Cherokee (ᏣᎳᎩ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ Tsalagi Gawonihisdi) is the Native American Iroquoian language spoken by the Cherokee people.

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Cherology and chereme (from "hand") are synonyms of phonology and phoneme previously used in the study of sign languages.

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Chinese characters

Chinese characters are logograms used in the writing of Chinese and some other Asian languages.

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Christian mythology

Christian mythology is the body of myths associated with Christianity.

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In cryptography, a cipher (or cypher) is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption—a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure.

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Classifier (linguistics)

A classifier, sometimes called a counter word, is a word or affix that is used to accompany nouns and can be considered to "classify" the noun depending on the type of its referent.

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Close vowel

A close vowel, also known as a high vowel, is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.

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In communications and information processing, code is a system of rules to convert information—such as a letter, word, sound, image, or gesture—into another form or representation, sometimes shortened or secret, for communication through a channel or storage in a medium.

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Code (semiotics)

In semiotics, a code is a set of conventions or sub-codes currently in use to communicate meaning.

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Cognition is the set of all mental abilities and processes related to knowledge, attention, memory and working memory, judgment and evaluation, reasoning and "computation", problem solving and decision making, comprehension and production of language, etc.

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Cognitive linguistics

Cognitive linguistics (CL) refers to the branch of linguistics that interprets language in terms of the concepts, sometimes universal, sometimes specific to a particular tongue, which underlie its forms.

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Cognitive science

Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary scientific study of the mind and its processes.

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Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the purposeful activity of information exchange between two or more participants in order to convey or receive the intended meanings through a shared system of signs and semiotic rules.

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Communicative competence

Communicative competence is a term in linguistics which refers to a language user's grammatical knowledge of syntax, morphology, phonology and the like, as well as social knowledge about how and when to use utterances appropriately.

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Comparative linguistics

Comparative linguistics (originally comparative philology) is a branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages to establish their historical relatedness.

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Comparative method (linguistics)

In linguistics, the comparative method is a technique for studying the development of languages by performing a feature-by-feature comparison of two or more languages with common descent from a shared ancestor, as opposed to the method of internal reconstruction, which analyses the internal development of a single language over time.

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Computational linguistics

Computational linguistics is an interdisciplinary field concerned with the statistical or rule-based modeling of natural language from a computational perspective.

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Conjunction (grammar)

In grammar, a conjunction (abbreviated or) is a part of speech that connects words, sentences, phrases, or clauses.

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In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.

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Constructed language

A planned or constructed language (sometimes called a conlang) is a language whose phonology, grammar, and vocabulary have been consciously devised for human or human-like communication, instead of having developed naturally.

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Course in General Linguistics

Course in General Linguistics (Cours de linguistique générale) is an influential book compiled by Charles Bally and Albert Sechehaye from notes on lectures given by Ferdinand de Saussure at the University of Geneva between 1906 and 1911.

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Cree language

Cree (also known as Cree–Montagnais–Naskapi) is an Algonquian language spoken by approximately 117,000 people across Canada, from the Northwest Territories and Alberta to Labrador, making it the aboriginal language with the highest number of speakers in Canada.

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Creole language

A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language that has developed from a pidgin (i.e. a simplified language or simplified mixture of languages used by non-native speakers) becoming nativized by children as their first language, with the accompanying effect of a fully developed vocabulary and system of grammar.

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Croatian language

Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighbouring countries.

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Culture is, in the words of E.B. Tylor, "that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." Cambridge English Dictionary states that culture is, "the way of life, especially the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular time." As a defining aspect of what it means to be human, culture is a central concept in anthropology, encompassing the range of phenomena that are transmitted through social learning in human societies.

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Cuneiform script or is one of the earliest systems of writing, distinguished by its wedge-shaped marks on clay tablets, made by means of a blunt reed for a stylus.

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Danish language

Danish (dansk; dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.

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In linguistics, deixis refers to words and phrases that cannot be fully understood without additional contextual information.

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Developmental verbal dyspraxia

Developmental verbal dyspraxia (DVD), also known as childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) and developmental apraxia of speech (DAS), is when children have problems saying sounds, syllables, and words.

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The term dialect (from the ancient Greek word διάλεκτος diálektos, "discourse", from διά diá, "through" and λέγω legō, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways.

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Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration.

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Displacement (linguistics)

In linguistics, displacement is the capability of language to communicate about things that are not immediately present (spatially or temporally); i.e., things that are either not here or are not here now.

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Distinctive feature

In linguistics, a distinctive feature is the most basic unit of phonological structure that may be analyzed in phonological theory.

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The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris or Canis familiaris) is a domesticated canid which has been selectively bred for millennia for various behaviors, sensory capabilities, and physical attributes.

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Dravidian languages

The Dravidian languages are a language family spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India as well as in northeastern Sri Lanka, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia and Singapore.

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Drift (linguistics)

Two types of language change can be characterized as linguistic drift: a unidirectional short-term and cyclic long-term drift.

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Dyirbal language

Dyirbal (also Djirubal) is an Australian Aboriginal language spoken in northeast Queensland by about 29 speakers of the Dyirbal tribe.

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In human anatomy, the eardrum, or tympanic membrane, is a thin, cone-shaped membrane that separates the external ear from the middle ear in humans and other tetrapods.

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Egyptian hieroglyphs

Egyptian hieroglyphs (Egyptian: mdw·w-nṯr, "god's words") were a formal writing system used by the ancient Egyptians that combined logographic and alphabetic elements.

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Electrophysiology (from Greek ἥλεκτρον, ēlektron, "amber"; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of the electrical properties of biological cells and tissues.

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Endangered language

An endangered language is a language that is at risk of falling out of use as its speakers die out or shift to speaking another language.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and interest of an audience, or gives pleasure and delight.

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Ergative–absolutive language

An ergative–absolutive language, also simply called an ergative language, is a language in which the single argument ("subject") of an intransitive verb behaves like the object of a transitive verb, and differently from the agent ("subject") of a transitive verb.

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Esperanto is a constructed international auxiliary language.

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Ethiopian language area

Charles Ferguson first proposed the Ethiopian language area (1970, 1976).

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Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web-based publication that contains statistics for 7,472 languages and dialects in the 18th edition, released in 2015.

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Eurasia is the combined continental landmass of Asia and Europe.

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Evolution is change in the heritable traits of biological populations over successive generations.

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Expressive aphasia

Expressive aphasia (non-fluent aphasia) is characterized by the loss of the ability to produce language (spoken or written).

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Extinct language

An extinct language is a language that no longer has any speakers, or that is no longer in current use.

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Ferdinand de Saussure

Ferdinand de Saussure (or;; 26 November 1857 – 22 February 1913) was a Swiss linguist and semiotician whose ideas laid a foundation for many significant developments both in linguistics and semiology in the 20th century.

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First language

A first language (also native language, mother tongue, arterial language, or L1) is the language or are the languages a person has learned from birth or within the critical period, or that a person speaks the best and so is often the basis for sociolinguistic identity.

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Focus (linguistics)

Focus is a grammatical category that determines which part of the sentence contributes new, non-derivable, or contrastive information.

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Formal grammar

In formal language theory, a grammar (when the context is not given, often called a formal grammar for clarity) is a set of production rules for strings in a formal language.

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Formal learning

Formal learning, normally delivered by trained teachers in a systematic intentional way within a school, academy/college/institute or university, is one of three forms of learning as defined by the OECD, the others being informal learning, which typically takes place naturally as part of some other activity, and non-formal learning, which includes everything else, such as sports instruction provided by non-trained educators without a formal curriculum.

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Formal system

A formal system is broadly defined as any well-defined system of abstract thought based on the model of mathematics.

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A formant, as used by James Jeans, is a harmonic of a note that is augmented by a resonance.

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Formosan languages

The Formosan languages are the languages of the indigenous peoples of Taiwan.

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Forkhead box protein P2 (FOXP2) is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the FOXP2 gene, also known as CAGH44, SPCH1 or TNRC10, and is required for proper development of speech and language.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language, belonging to the Indo-European family.

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Fricative consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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Front rounded vowel

A front rounded vowel is a particular type of vowel that is both front and rounded.

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Functional magnetic resonance imaging

Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) is a functional neuroimaging procedure using MRI technology that measures brain activity by detecting associated changes in blood flow.

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Functional theories of grammar

Functional theories of grammar are those approaches to the study of language that see the functions of language and its elements to be the key to understanding linguistic processes and structures.

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Fusional language

A fusional language is a type of synthetic language, distinguished from agglutinative languages by their tendency to overlay many morphemes to denote grammatical, syntactic, or semantic change.

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Gamilaraay language

The Gamilaraay or Kamilaroi (see below for other spellings) language is a Pama–Nyungan language of the Wiradhuric subgroup found mostly in south-east Australia.

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Generative grammar

Generative grammar is a linguistic theory that considers grammar to be a system of rules that is intended to generate exactly those combinations of words which form grammatical sentences in a given language.

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Genetics is the study of genes, heredity, and genetic variation in living organisms.

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Germanic languages

The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of approximately 500 million people mainly in North America, Oceania, Central Europe, Western and Northern Europe.

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Globalization (or globalisation) is the process of international integration arising from the interchange of world views, products, ideas and other aspects of culture.

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The glottis is defined as the vocal folds and the opening between them (the rima glottidis).

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Gorgias (Γοργίας,; c. 485 – c. 380 BC), was a Greek sophist, Italiote, pre-Socratic philosopher and rhetorician who was a native of Leontini in Sicily.

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In linguistics, grammar is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.

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Grammatical category

A grammatical category is a property of items within the grammar of a language; it has a number of possible values (sometimes called grammemes), which are normally mutually exclusive within a given category.

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Grammatical person

Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker, the addressee, and others.

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Grammatical tense

In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference.

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In linguistics, grammaticalization (also known as grammatization, grammaticization) is a process of language change by which words representing objects and actions (i.e. nouns and verbs) transform to become grammatical markers (affixes, prepositions, etc.). Grammaticalization is a powerful aspect of language, as it creates new function words within language, by separating functions from their original inflectional and bound constructions (i.e. from content words).

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Great ape language

Research into great ape language has involved teaching chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans to communicate with human beings and with each other using sign language, physical tokens, and lexigrams; see Yerkish.

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Great Vowel Shift

The Great Vowel Shift was a major change in the pronunciation of the English language that took place in England between 1350 and 1700.

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Grimm's law

Grimm's Law (also known as the First Germanic Sound Shift or Rask's rule), named after Jakob Grimm, is a set of statements describing the inherited Proto-Indo-European (PIE) stop consonants as they developed in Proto-Germanic (the common ancestor of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family) in the 1st millennium BC.

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Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti, is a country in the western hemisphere, and is located on the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean.

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Haitian Creole

Haitian Creole (kreyòl,; créole haïtien; often called simply Creole or Kreyòl) is a French-based creole and is one of Haiti's two official languages, along with French.

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In sign languages, handshape, or dez, refers to the distinctive configuration of that the hands take as they are used to form words.

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The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul in South Korea and elsewhere and as Chosŏn'gŭl in North Korea and China, is the alphabet that has been used to write the Korean language since the 15th century.

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Hausa language

Hausa (Yaren Hausa or Harshen Hausa) is the Chadic language (a branch of the Afroasiatic language family) with the largest number of speakers, spoken as a first language by about 35 million people, and as a second language by 15 million in Nigeria, and millions more in other countries, for a total of at least 50 million speakers.

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Hebrew language

Hebrew is a West Semitic language of the Afroasiatic language family.

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Hindi (हिन्दी hindī), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (मानक हिन्दी mānak hindī), is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.

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Hindustani language

Hindustani (हिन्दुस्तानी, ||lit.

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Historical linguistics

Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.

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History of colonialism

The historical phenomenon of colonisation is one that stretches around the globe and across time, including such disparate peoples as the Hittites, the Incas and the British.

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History of the world

The history of the world (or world history) describes the history of humanity (or human history) as determined by the study of archaeological and written records.

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Holophrasis is the prelinguistic use of a single word to express a complex idea.

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The Hominidae, also known as great apes"Great ape" is a common name rather than a taxonomic label, and there are differences in usage.

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The Hominini is a tribe of the subfamily Homininae; it comprises three subtribes: Hominina, with its one genus ''Homo''; Australopithecina, comprising several extinct genera (see taxobox); and Panina, with its one genus Pan, the chimpanzees (see the evolutionary tree below).

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Homo is the genus comprising the species Homo sapiens, which includes modern humans, plus several extinct species classified as ancestral to or closely related to modern humans—as for example from Homo habilis to Homo neanderthalensis.

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Homo erectus

Homo erectus (meaning "upright man", from the Latin ērigere, "to put up, set upright") is an extinct species of hominid that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch.

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Homo habilis

Homo habilis is a species of the tribe Hominini, during the Gelasian and early Calabrian stages of the Pleistocene period, between roughly 2.8 and 1.5 million years ago.

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Homo heidelbergensis

Homo heidelbergensis – sometimes called Homo rhodesiensis – is an extinct species of the genus Homo which lived in Africa, Europe and western Asia between 600 and 200 thousand years ago.

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Modern humans (Homo sapiens, primarily ssp. Homo sapiens sapiens) are the only extant members of the hominin clade (or human clade), a branch of the great apes; they are characterized by erect posture and bipedal locomotion, manual dexterity and increased tool use, and a general trend toward larger, more complex brains and societies.

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Human brain

The human brain is the main organ of the human nervous system.

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Human communication

Human communication, or anthroposemiotics, is the field dedicated to understanding how humans communicate.

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Human development (biology)

Human development is the process of growing to maturity.

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Identity (social science)

In psychology, sociology, and anthropology, identity is a person's conception and expression of their own (self-identity) and others' individuality or group affiliations (such as national identity and cultural identity).

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Ideophones are words that evoke an idea in sound, often a vivid impression of certain sensations or sensory perceptions, e.g. sound, movement, color, shape, or action.

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An idiom (idioma, "special property", from ἰδίωμα – idíōma, "special feature, special phrasing, a peculiarity", f. ἴδιος – ídios, "one’s own") is a phrase or a fixed expression that has a figurative, or sometimes literal, meaning.

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Immanuel Kant

Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher, who is considered the central figure of modern philosophy.

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Implicature is a technical term in the pragmatics subfield of linguistics, coined by H. P. Grice, which refers to what is suggested in an utterance, even though neither expressed nor strictly implied (that is, entailed) by the utterance.

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India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.

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Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.

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Indonesian language

Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia.

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Inferior frontal gyrus

The inferior frontal gyrus is a gyrus of the frontal lobe (the yellow area of the human brain image to the right).

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An infix is an affix inserted inside a word stem (an existing word).

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In grammar, inflection or inflexion is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, mood, voice, aspect, person, number, gender and case.

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Information (shortened as info or info.) is that which informs, i.e. an answer to a question, as well as that from which knowledge and data can be derived (as data represents values attributed to parameters, and knowledge signifies understanding of real things or abstract concepts).

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Innatism is a philosophical and epistemological doctrine that holds that the mind is born with ideas/knowledge, and that therefore the mind is not a "blank slate" at birth, as early empiricists such as John Locke claimed.

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Intentionality is a philosophical concept defined by the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy as "the power of minds to be about, to represent, or to stand for, things, properties and states of affairs".

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In grammar, an interjection or exclamation is a word used to express a particular emotion or sentiment on the part of the speaker (although most interjections have clear definitions).

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International auxiliary language

An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) or interlanguage is a language meant for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common first language.

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International Phonetic Alphabet

The International Phonetic Alphabet (unofficially—though commonly—abbreviated IPA)"The acronym 'IPA' strictly refers to the 'International Phonetic Association'.

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Intonation (linguistics)

In linguistics, intonation is variation of spoken pitch that is not used to distinguish words; instead it is used for a range of functions such as indicating the attitudes and emotions of the speaker, signalling the difference between statements and questions, and between different types of questions, focusing attention on important elements of the spoken message and also helping to regulate conversational interaction.

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Inuktitut (Inuktitut, syllabics ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ; from inuk person + -titut like, in the manner of), also Eastern Canadian Inuktitut or Eastern Canadian Inuit, is one of the principal Inuit languages of Canada.

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Isolating language

An isolating language is a type of language with a very low morpheme per word ratio.

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Italic languages

The Italic languages are a subfamily of the Indo-European language family originally spoken by Italic peoples.

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J. L. Austin

John Langshaw "J.

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Japanese language

is an East Asian language spoken by about 125 million speakers, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.

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Javanese language

Javanese (colloquially known as) is the language of the Javanese people from the central and eastern parts of the island of Java, in Indonesia.

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Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a philosopher, writer, and composer of the 18th century.

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Jerry Fodor

Jerry Alan Fodor (born 1935) is an American philosopher and cognitive scientist.

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Johann Gottfried Herder

Johann Gottfried von Herder (25 August 174418 December 1803) was a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic.

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John Searle

John Rogers Searle (born July 31, 1932) is an American philosopher and currently the Slusser Professor of Philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley.

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Jutlandic dialect

Jutlandic or Jutish (Danish: jysk) is the western dialect of Danish, spoken on the peninsula of Jutland.

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Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ kannaḍa) or Canarese/Kanarese, is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in the South Indian state of Karnataka, and by linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Kerala, and Goa.

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Kanzi (born October 28, 1980), also known by the lexigram (from the character 太), is a male bonobo who has been featured in several studies on great ape language.

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Khmer language

Khmer or Cambodian (natively ភាសាខ្មែរ, or more formally ខេមរភាសា) is the language of the Khmer people and the official language of Cambodia.

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Koko (gorilla)

Hanabiko "Koko" (born July 4, 1971) is a female western lowland gorilla who is known for having learned a large number of hand signs from a modified version of American Sign Language (ASL).

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Korean language

Korean (조선말, see below) is the official language of both South Korea and North Korea, as well as one of the two official languages in China's Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture.

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Korean Sign Language

Korean Sign Language or KSL (Korean: 手話 수화 Suhwa) is the deaf sign language of Korea.

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Language acquisition

Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate.

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Language attrition

Language attrition is the loss of a first or second language or a portion of that language.

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Language change

Language change is variation over time in a language's phonetic, morphological, semantic, syntactic, and other features.

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Language contact

Language contact occurs when two or more languages or varieties interact.

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Language convergence

Language convergence is a type of language contact-induced change whereby languages with many bilingual speakers mutually borrow morphological and syntactic features, making their typology more similar.

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Language death

In linguistics, language death (also language extinction, linguistic extinction or linguicide,Zuckermann, Ghil'ad,, The Australian Higher Education, June 6, 2012. and rarely also glottophagy) occurs when a language loses its last native speaker.

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Language family

A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestor, called the proto-language of that family.

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Language ideology

Language ideology (also referred to as linguistic ideology) is a concept used primarily within the fields of anthropology, sociolinguistics, and cross-cultural studies to characterize any set of beliefs or feelings about languages as used in their social worlds.

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Language isolate

A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other languages, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common with any other language.

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Language policy

Many countries have a language policy designed to favor or discourage the use of a particular language or set of languages.

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Language revitalization

Language revitalization, also referred to as language revival or reversing language shift, is an attempt to halt or reverse the decline of a language or to revive an extinct one.

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Language shift

Language shift, sometimes referred to as language transfer or language replacement or assimilation, is the process whereby a speech community of a language shifts to speaking another language.

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Langue and parole

Langue (French, meaning "language") and parole (meaning "speaking") are linguistic terms distinguished by Ferdinand de Saussure in his Course in General Linguistics.

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The larynx (plural larynges; from the Greek λάρυγξ lárynx), commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the neck of amphibians, reptiles, and mammals involved in breathing, sound production, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration.

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Lateral consonant

A lateral is an L-like consonant, in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Latin alphabet

The classical Latin alphabet, also known as the Roman alphabet, is a writing system that evolved from the visually similar Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet.

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A lexeme is a unit of lexical meaning that exists regardless of the number of inflectional endings it may have or the number of words it may contain.

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A lexicon is the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or medical).

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Lingua franca

A lingua franca (plural lingua francas), also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language or vehicular language, is a language or dialect systematically (as opposed to occasionally, or casually) used to make communication possible between persons not sharing a native language or dialect, in particular when it is a third language, distinct from both native languages.

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Linguistic anthropology

Linguistic anthropology is the interdisciplinary study of how language influences social life.

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Linguistic description

In the study of language, description or descriptive linguistics is the work of objectively analyzing and describing how language is actually used (or how it was used in the past) by a group of people in a speech community.

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Linguistic Diversity in Space and Time

(University of Chicago Press, 1992) is linguist Johanna Nichols's best known work, pioneering the use of linguistic typology as a tool for understanding human migrations in prehistory.

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Linguistic turn

The linguistic turn was a major development in Western philosophy during the early 20th century, the most important characteristic of which is the focusing of philosophy and the other humanities primarily on the relationship between philosophy and language.

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Linguistic typology

Linguistic typology is a subfield of linguistics that studies and classifies languages according to their structural and functional features.

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Linguistic universal

A linguistic universal is a pattern that occurs systematically across natural languages, potentially true for all of them.

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Linguistics is the scientific study of language.

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List of language regulators

This is a list of bodies that regulate standard languages, often called language academies.

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List of languages by number of native speakers

This article ranks human languages by their number of speakers.

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List of official languages

This is a list of official languages.

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A loanword (or loan word or loan-word) is a word borrowed from a donor language and incorporated into a recipient language without translation.

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Logic (from the λογική, logike) is the branch of philosophy concerned with the use and study of valid reasoning.

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Logographic systems, or logographies, are writing systems in which each symbol represents a concept rather than a sound, as in syllabaric or phonographic systems.

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Ludwig Wittgenstein

Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.

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Madagascar (or; Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of Southeast Africa.

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Malagasy language

Malagasy is an Austronesian language and the national language of Madagascar.

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Malay language

Malay (Bahasa Melayu; Jawi script: بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family.

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Malayalam, sometimes referred to as Kairali, is a language spoken in India, predominantly in the state of Kerala.

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Malayo-Polynesian languages

The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages, with approximately 385.5 million speakers.

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Mandarin Chinese

Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.

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Manner of articulation

In articulatory phonetics, the manner of articulation is the configuration and interaction of the articulators (speech organs such as the tongue, lips, and palate) when making a speech sound.

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Maritime Southeast Asia

Maritime Southeast Asia is the maritime region of Southeast Asia as opposed to mainland Southeast Asia and comprises Brunei, East Malaysia, East Timor, Indonesia, Singapore, and the Philippines.

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Max Weinreich

Max Weinreich (22 April 1894 in Kuldīga, Russian Empire, now Latvia – 29 January 1969 in New York City, USA) was a linguist, specializing in sociolinguistics and the Yiddish language, and the father of the linguist Uriel Weinreich, who edited the Modern Yiddish-English English-Yiddish Dictionary.

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Maya script

The Mayan script, also known as Mayan glyphs or Mayan hieroglyphs, is the writing system of the Maya civilization of Mesoamerica, currently the only Mesoamerican writing system that has been substantially deciphered.

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Mayan languages

The Mayan languages form a language family spoken in Mesoamerica and northern Central America.

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Māori language

Maori or Māori is an Eastern Polynesian language spoken by the Māori people, the indigenous population of New Zealand.

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Meaning (linguistics)

In linguistics, meaning is what the source or sender expresses, communicates, or conveys in their message to the observer or receiver, and what the receiver infers from the current context.

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Meaning (semiotics)

Semiotics approaches meaning by studying the signs that make up sign systems.

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Mesoamerica is a region and cultural area in the Americas, extending approximately from central Mexico to Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.

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Mesoamerican language area

The Mesoamerican language area is a sprachbund containing many of the languages natively spoken in the cultural area of Mesoamerica.

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Mesoamerican writing systems

Mesoamerica, along with Mesopotamia and China, are among the few known places in the world where writing has developed independently.

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Michael Tomasello

Michael Tomasello (born January 18, 1950) is an American developmental and comparative psychologist.

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Michif language

Michif (also Mitchif, Mechif, Michif-Cree, Métif, Métchif, French Cree) is the language of the Métis people of Canada and the United States, who are the descendants of First Nations women (mainly Cree, Nakota and Ojibwe) and fur trade workers of European ancestry (mainly French Canadians and Scottish Canadians).

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Migration Period

The Migration Period, better known as the Barbarian Invasions also referred to as the Völkerwanderung (in German), was a period of intensified barbarian invasion in Europe, often defined from the period when it seriously impacted the Roman world, as running from about 376 to 800 AD during the transition from Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages.

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A mind is the set of cognitive faculties that enables consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, and memory—a characteristic of humans, but which also may apply to other life forms.

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Minimal pair

In phonology, minimal pairs are pairs of words or phrases in a particular language that differ in only one phonological element, such as a phoneme, toneme or chroneme, and have distinct meanings.

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Mixed language

A mixed language is a language that arises through the fusion of usually two source languages, normally in situations of thorough bilingualism (Meakins, 2013), so that it is not possible to classify the resulting language as belonging to either of the language families that were its sources.

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Modality (semiotics)

In semiotics, a modality is a particular way in which information is to be encoded for presentation to humans, i.e. to the type of sign and to the status of reality ascribed to or claimed by a sign, text or genre.

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In linguistics, a morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.

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Morphological derivation

In linguistics, morphological derivation is the process of forming a new word on the basis of an existing word, e.g. happiness and unhappy from the root word happy, or determination from determine.

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Morphology (linguistics)

In linguistics, morphology is the identification, analysis and description of the structure of a given language's morphemes and other linguistic units, such as root words, affixes, parts of speech, intonations and stresses, or implied context.

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Morphosyntactic alignment

In linguistics, morphosyntactic alignment is the grammatical relationship between arguments—specifically, between the two arguments (in English, subject and object) of transitive verbs like the dog chased the cat, and the single argument of intransitive verbs like the cat ran away.

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Multilingualism is the use of more than two languages, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers.

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Music is an art form whose medium is sound and silence.

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In biology, a mutation is a permanent change of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

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Mutual intelligibility

In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without intentional study or special effort.

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Na-Dene languages

Na-Dene (also Nadene, Na-Dené, Athabaskan–Eyak–Tlingit, Tlina–Dene) is a Native American language family that includes at least the Athabaskan languages, Eyak, and Tlingit languages.

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Nasal consonant

In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.

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In phonetics, nasalization (or nasalisation) is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered, so that some air escapes through the nose during the production of the sound by the mouth.

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Nation state

A nation state is a geographical area that can be identified as deriving its political legitimacy from serving as a sovereign nation.

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Natural language

In neuropsychology, linguistics and the philosophy of language, a natural language or ordinary language is any language that develops naturally in humans through use and repetition (typically, in their first few years of life) without any conscious planning or premeditation of their own.

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Neocolonialism, neo-colonialism or neo-imperialism is the geopolitical practice of using capitalism, business globalization, and cultural imperialism to influence a country, in lieu of either direct military control (imperialism) or indirect political control (hegemony).

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Neurolinguistics is the study of the neural mechanisms in the human brain that control the comprehension, production, and acquisition of language.

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New Mexico

New Mexico (Nuevo México; Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state located in the southwestern and western regions of the United States, admitted to the union as the 47th state on January 6, 1912.

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Nicaraguan Sign Language

Nicaraguan Sign Language (ISN; Idioma de Señas de Nicaragua) is a sign language largely spontaneously developed by deaf children in a number of schools in western Nicaragua in the 1970s and 1980s.

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Niger–Congo languages

The Niger–Congo languages constitute one of the world's major language families, and Africa's largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers, and number of distinct languages.

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Noam Chomsky

Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher,, by Zoltán Gendler Szabó, in Dictionary of Modern American Philosophers, 1860–1960, ed.

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Nominative case

The nominative case (abbreviated) is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.

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Nominative–absolutive language

A nominative–absolutive language, also called a marked nominative language, is a language with an unusual morphosyntactic alignment similar to, and often considered a subtype of, a nominative–accusative alignment.

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North America

North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere.

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North Carolina

North Carolina is a state in the Southeastern United States.

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Norwegian language

Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the sole official language.

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A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.

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Object (grammar)

Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.

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In phonetics, an occlusive, sometimes known as a stop, is a consonant sound produced by blocking (occluding) airflow in the vocal tract, but not necessarily in the nasal tract.

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Oceania (Pronunciation: The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) ISBN 0-19-861263-X — p.1282 "Oceania /ˌəʊsɪˈɑːnɪə, -ʃɪ-/". or), also known as Oceanica, is a region centered on the islands of the tropical Pacific Ocean.

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Old English

Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc) or Anglo-Saxon is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

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Old French

Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French ancien français) was the Gallo-Romance dialect continuum spoken from the 9th century to the 14th century.

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Old Javanese

Old Javanese is the oldest phase of the Javanese language that was spoken in areas in what is now the eastern part of Central Java and the whole of East Java.

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The Olmec were the first major civilization in Mexico following a progressive development in Soconusco.

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Open vowel

An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.

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Operant conditioning

Operant conditioning (also, “instrumental conditioning”) is a learning process in which behavior is sensitive to, or controlled by its consequences.

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Oto-Manguean languages

Oto-Manguean languages (also Otomanguean) are a large family comprising several families of Native American languages.

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Outline of linguistics

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to linguistics: Linguistics is the scientific study of natural language.

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Pacific Ocean

The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions.

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Pakistan (or; پاكستان ALA-LC), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاكستان ALA-LC), is a sovereign country in South Asia.

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The palate is the roof the mouth in humans and other mammals.

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Palatine uvula

The palatine uvula, usually referred to as simply the uvula, is a conic projection from the posterior edge of the middle of the soft palate, composed of connective tissue containing a number of racemose glands, and some muscular fibers (musculus uvulae).

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Pama–Nyungan languages

The Pama–Nyungan languages are the most widespread family of Indigenous Australian languages, containing perhaps 300 languages.

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Papua New Guinea

Papua New Guinea (PNG;; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.

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Paradigmatic analysis

Paradigmatic analysis is the analysis of paradigms embedded in the text rather than of the surface structure (syntax) of the text which is termed syntagmatic analysis.

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Part of speech

A part of speech is a category of words (or, more generally, of lexical items) which have similar grammatical properties.

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Paul Grice

Herbert Paul Grice (March 13, 1913 – August 28, 1988), usually publishing under the name H. P. Grice, H. Paul Grice, or Paul Grice, was a British philosopher of language, who spent the final two decades of his career in the United States.

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(a patronymic meaning "descendant of "; fl. 4th century BCEFrits Staal, Euclid and Pāṇini, Philosophy East and West, 1965 The Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 2 (1909), p. 263.), or Panini, was a Vyākaraṇin from the early mahajanapada era of ancient India.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi or Parsi (English:; Persian: فارسی), is the predominant modern descendant of Old Persian, a southwestern Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Philology is the study of language in written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.

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Philosophy of language

Philosophy of language is concerned with four central problems: the nature of meaning, language use, language cognition, and the relationship between language and reality.

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The term phonation has slightly different meanings depending on the subfield of phonetics.

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Phone (phonetics)

In phonetics and linguistics, the word phone may refer to any speech sound or gesture considered as a physical event without regard to its place in the phonology of a language.

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A phoneme is all the phones that share the same signifier for a particular language's phonology.

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Phonetics (pronounced, from the φωνή, phōnē, 'sound, voice') is a branch of linguistics that comprises the study of the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.

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Phonological change

In historical linguistics, phonological change is any sound change which alters the number or distribution of phonemes in a language.

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Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.

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In everyday speech, a phrase may be any group of words, often carrying a special idiomatic meaning; in this sense it is roughly synonymous with expression.

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Phylogenetic tree

A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the inferred evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.

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A pidgin, or pidgin language, is a grammatically simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in common: typically, a mixture of simplified languages or a simplified primary language with other languages' elements included.

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Pieter Bruegel the Elder

Pieter Bruegel (also Breughel) the Elder (c. 1525 – 9 September 1569) was a Netherlandish Renaissance painter and printmaker from Brabant, known for his landscapes and peasant scenes (so called genre painting).

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Pirahã language

Pirahã (also spelled Pirahá, Pirahán), or Múra-Pirahã, is the indigenous language of the isolated Pirahã people of Amazonas, Brazil.

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Pitch accent

Pitch accent is a feature of certain languages whereby variations in pitch (linguistic tones) can be used to differentiate words, but where the potentially distinctive tones are restricted to only one or two syllables within a word – as opposed to fully tonal languages like Standard Chinese, where each syllable can have an independent tone.

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Plato (Greek: Πλάτων Plátōn "broad" in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher and mathematician in Classical Greece, and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.

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Polysynthetic language

In linguistic typology, polysynthetic languages are highly synthetic languages, i.e. languages in which words are composed of many morphemes (word parts that have independent meaning but may or may not be able to stand alone).

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Port-Royal Grammar

The Port-Royal Grammar (originally Grammaire générale et raisonnée contenant les fondemens de l'art de parler, expliqués d'une manière claire et naturelle, "General and Rational Grammar, containing the fundamentals of the art of speaking, explained in a clear and natural manner") was a pioneering work in the philosophy of language.

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Portuguese language

Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Romance language and the sole official language of Portugal, Brazil, Mozambique, Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau and São Tomé and Príncipe.

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Pragmatics is a subfield of linguistics and semiotics that studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning.

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Pre-Columbian era

The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.

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Predicate (grammar)

There are two competing notions of the predicate in theories of grammar.

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A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word.

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Preposition and postposition

Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions, are a class of words that express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or marking various semantic roles (of, for).

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A preschool (also nursery school, kindergarten outside the US and UK) is an educational establishment offering early childhood education to children between the ages of three and five, prior to the commencement of compulsory education at primary school.

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Problem of religious language

The problem of religious language considers whether it is possible to talk about God meaningfully if the traditional conceptions of God as being incorporeal, infinite, and timeless, are accepted.

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Productivity (linguistics)

In linguistics, productivity is the degree to which native speakers use a particular grammatical process, especially in word formation.

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Programming language

A programming language is a formal constructed language designed to communicate instructions to a machine, particularly a computer.

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Prosody (linguistics)

In linguistics, prosody (from Ancient Greek προσῳδία prosōidía, "song sung to music; tone or accent of a syllable") is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual vowels and consonants but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech.

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Proto-Indo-European language

Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the common ancestor of the Indo-European languages.

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Psycholinguistics or psychology of language is the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, comprehend and produce language.

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Purépecha language

Purépecha P'urhépecha (Phorhé, Phorhépecha), more popularly known as Tarascan (Spanish Tarasco), is a language isolate or small language family spoken by a quarter million Purépecha people in the highlands of the Mexican state of Michoacán.

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Qualla Boundary

The Qualla Boundary or The Qualla is territory held as a land trust for the federally recognized Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, who reside in western North Carolina.

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Quechumaran languages

Quechumaran is a language-family proposal that unites Quechua and Aymara.

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Receptive aphasia

Receptive aphasia, also known as Wernicke’s aphasia, fluent aphasia, or sensory aphasia, is a type of aphasia in which people with the condition are unable to understand language in its written or spoken form, and even though they can speak with normal grammar, syntax, rate, and intonation, they cannot express themselves meaningfully using language.

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Recursion is the process of repeating items in a self-similar way.

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Register (sociolinguistics)

In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.

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In linguistics, relexification is the mechanism of language change by which one language replaces much or all of its lexicon, including basic vocabulary, with that of another language, without drastic change to its grammar.

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René Descartes

René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 159611 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist who spent about 20 years of his life in the Dutch Republic.

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Rhotic consonant

In phonetics, rhotic consonants, also called tremulants or "R-like" sounds, are liquid consonants that are traditionally represented orthographically by symbols derived from the Greek letter rho, including r in the Latin script and p in the Cyrillic script.

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Robert M. W. Dixon

Robert Malcolm Ward Dixon (Gloucester, England, 25 January 1939) is a Professor of Linguistics at The Cairns Institute, James Cook University, Queensland, and formerly Director of the Research Centre for Linguistic Typology at La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia.

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Root (linguistics)

A root, or a root word, is a word that does not have a prefix (in front of the word) or a suffix (at the end of a word).

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Rotokas language

Rotokas is an East Papuan language spoken by some 4,000 people in Bougainville, an island to the east of New Guinea, part of Papua New Guinea.

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In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel.

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Russian language

Russian (ру́сский язы́к, russkiy yazyk, pronounced) is an East Slavic language and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan.

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Rwanda (or; U Rwanda), officially the Republic of Rwanda (Repubulika y'u Rwanda; République du Rwanda), is a sovereign state in central and east Africa.

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The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Greatest Desert') is the largest hot desert and third largest desert after Antarctica and the Arctic.

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Samoan language

Samoan (Gagana fa'a Sāmoa or Gagana Sāmoa — IPA) is the language of the Samoan Islands, comprising the independent country of Samoa and the United States territory of American Samoa.

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Sanskrit (Sanskrit: or, originally, "refined speech") is the primary sacred language of Hinduism, a philosophical language in Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism, and a literary language that was in use as a lingua franca in Greater India.

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Segment (linguistics)

In linguistics (specifically, phonetics and phonology), a segment is "any discrete unit that can be identified, either physically or auditorily, in the stream of speech".

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Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the study of meaning.

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In linguistics, a semi-speaker is a speaker of an endangered language who has a partial linguistic competence in the language.

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Semiosis (from the σημείωσις, sēmeíōsis, a derivation of the verb σημειῶ, sēmeiô, "to mark") is any form of activity, conduct, or process that involves signs, including the production of meaning.

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Semiotics (also called semiotic studies; not to be confused with the Saussurean tradition called semiology which is a part of semiotics) is the study of meaning-making, the study of sign processes and meaningful communication.

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Semitic languages

The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.

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Sentence (linguistics)

A sentence is a linguistic unit consisting of one or more words that are grammatically linked.

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Serbian language

Serbian (српски, Latin: srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used chiefly by Serbs in Serbia, Montenegro, and Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.

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Shona language

Shona, or chiShona, is a Bantu language, native to the Shona people of Zimbabwe.

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Sibilance is a manner of articulation of fricative and affricate consonants, made by directing a stream of air with the tongue towards the sharp edge of the teeth, which are held close together; a consonant that uses sibilance may be called a sibilant, or a strident.

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Sign (linguistics)

There are many models of the linguistic sign (see also sign (semiotics)).

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Sign (semiotics)

In semiotics, a sign is something that can be interpreted as having a meaning, which is something other than itself, and which is therefore able to communicate information to the one interpreting or decoding the sign.

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Sign language

A sign language (also signed language or simply signing) is a language which uses manual communication and body language to convey meaning, as opposed to acoustically conveyed sound patterns.

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Sino-Tibetan languages

The Sino-Tibetan languages are a family of more than 400 languages spoken in East Asia, Southeast Asia and parts of South Asia. The family is second only to the Indo-European languages in terms of the number of native speakers. The Sino-Tibetan languages with the most native speakers are the varieties of Chinese (1.2 billion speakers), Burmese (33 million) and the Tibetic languages (8 million). Many Sino-Tibetan languages are spoken by small communities in remote mountain areas and are poorly documented. Several low-level groupings are well established, but the higher-level structure of the family remains unclear. Although the family is often presented as divided into Sinitic and Tibeto-Burman branches, a common origin of the non-Sinitic languages has never been demonstrated, and is rejected by an increasing number of researchers. A minority of researchers call the whole family "Tibeto-Burman", and the name "Trans-Himalayan" has also been proposed.

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Social class

Social class (or simply "class"), as in a class society, is a set of concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle, and lower classes.

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Social grooming

In social animals, including humans, social grooming is an activity in which individuals in a group clean or maintain one another's body or appearance.

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Social stratification

Social stratification is a society's categorization of people into socioeconomic strata, based upon their occupation and income, wealth and social status, or derived power (social and political).

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Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and the effects of language use on society.

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Soft palate

The soft palate (also known as velum or muscular palate) is, in mammals, the soft tissue constituting the back of the roof of the mouth.

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Somali language

Somali Retrieved on 21 September 2013 (Af-Soomaali) is an Afroasiatic language, belonging to that family's Cushitic branch.

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Somatosensory system

The somatosensory system is a complex sensory system.

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Sound change

Sound change includes any processes of language change that affect pronunciation (phonetic change) or sound system structures (phonological change).

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa.

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South Asia

South Asia or Southern Asia is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.

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Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.

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Spanish language

Spanish (español), also called Castilian, is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native-speakers.

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A spectrogram is a visual representation of the spectrum of frequencies in a sound or other signal as they vary with time or some other variable.

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Speech is the vocalized form of human communication.

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Speech act

A speech act in linguistics and the philosophy of language is an utterance that has performative function in language and communication.

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Speech community

A speech community is a group of people who share a set of norms and expectations regarding the use of language.

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Speech repetition

Children copy with their own mouths the words spoken by the mouths of those around them. This enables them to learn the pronunciation of words not already in their vocabulary. Speech repetition is the saying by one individual of the spoken vocalizations made by another individual.

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Speech scroll

A speech scroll, also called a banderole or phylactery in art history, is an illustrative device denoting speech, song, or, in rarer cases, other types of sound.

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Speech-language pathology

Speech-language pathology is a field of expertise practiced by a clinician known as a Speech-language pathologist (SLP), also called speech and language therapist, or speech therapist, who specializes in the evaluation and treatment of communication disorders and swallowing disorders.

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Spoken language

Spoken language, is language produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to written language.

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A sprachbund ("federation of languages") – also known as a linguistic area, area of linguistic convergence, diffusion area or language crossroads – is a group of languages that have common features resulting from geographical proximity and language contact.

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Standard Spanish

Standard Spanish is a linguistic variety, or lect, that is considered a correct educated standard for the Spanish language.

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Standard Tibetan

Standard Tibetan is the most widely spoken form of the Tibetic languages.

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Stephen R. Anderson

Stephen Robert Anderson (born 1943) is an American linguist.

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Steven Mithen

Steven Mithen is a Professor of Archaeology at the University of Reading.

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Steven Pinker

Steven Arthur "Steve" Pinker (born September 18, 1954) is a Canadian-born American experimental psychologist, cognitive scientist, linguist, and popular science author.

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Stimulus (physiology)

In physiology, a stimulus (plural stimuli) is a detectable change in the internal or external environment.

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive, is an oral occlusive, a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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Stress (linguistics)

In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word, or to certain words in a phrase or sentence.

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Structural linguistics

Structural linguistics is an approach to linguistics originating from the work of Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure and is part of the overall approach of structuralism.

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In sociology, anthropology and linguistics, structuralism is the theory that elements of human culture must be understood in terms of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure.

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Style-shifting is a term in sociolinguistics referring to alternation between styles of speech included in a linguistic repertoire of an individual speaker.

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In sociology and cultural studies, a subculture is a group of people within a culture that differentiates itself from the parent culture to which it belongs, often maintaining some of its founding principles.

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In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence appear or usually appear in that order.

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In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.

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In linguistics, a suffix (also sometimes termed postfix or ending or, in older literature, affix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.

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SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".

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Sumerian language

Sumerian ("native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer, a language isolate which was spoken in northern Mesopotamia (modern Iraq).

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Superior temporal gyrus

The superior temporal gyrus is one of three (sometimes two) gyri in the temporal lobe of the human brain, which is located laterally to the head, situated somewhat above the external ear.

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Supramarginal gyrus

The supramarginal gyrus is a portion of the parietal lobe.

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Swahili language

Swahili, also known as Kiswahili, is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people.

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Swedish language

Swedish is a North Germanic language, spoken natively by about 9 million people predominantly in Sweden and parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.

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A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.

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Symbolic communication

Symbolic communication is exchange of messages that change a priori expectation of events.

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Synchrony and diachrony

Synchrony and diachrony are two different and complementary viewpoints in linguistic analysis.

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Syntactic Structures

Syntactic Structures is a book in linguistics by American linguist Noam Chomsky, first published in 1957.

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Syntagmatic analysis

In semiotics, syntagmatic analysis is analysis of syntax or surface structure (syntagmatic structure) as opposed to paradigms (paradigmatic analysis).

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In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language.

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A system is a set of interacting or interdependent component parts forming a complex/intricate whole.

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Tagalog language

Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a quarter of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by the majority.

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Tai–Kadai languages

The Tai–Kadai languages, also known as Kra–Dai, Daic, and Kadai are a language family of highly tonal languages found in southern China and Southeast Asia.

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Tamil language

Tamil also spelt Thamizh is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka.

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Telegraphic speech

Telegraphic speech, according to linguistics and psychology, is speech during the two-word stage of language acquisition in children, which is laconic and efficient.

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Telugu language

Telugu (తెలుగు telugu) is a Dravidian language and is the only language other than Hindi, English and Bengali that is predominantly spoken in more than one Indian state, being the primary language in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, as well as in the town of Yanam where it is also an official language.

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Teotihuacan, also written Teotihuacán (Spanish), was an ancient Mesoamerican city located in a sub valley of the Valley of Mexico, located in the State of Mexico northeast of modern-day Mexico City, known today as the site of many of the most architecturally significant Mesoamerican pyramids built in the pre-Columbian Americas.

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Thai language

Thai, also known precisely as Siamese or Central Thai, is the national and official language of Thailand and the native language of the Thai people and the vast majority of Thai Chinese.

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Thanjavur, formerly Tanjore,Pletcher 2010, p. 195 is a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu.

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The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex

The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex is a book by English naturalist Charles Darwin, first published in 1871, which applies evolutionary theory to human evolution, and details his theory of sexual selection, a form of biological adaptation distinct from, yet interconnected with, natural selection.

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The Language Instinct

The Language Instinct is a 1994 book by Steven Pinker, written for a general audience.

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The Symbolic Species

The Symbolic Species is a 1997 book by biological anthropologist Terrence Deacon on the evolution of language.

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Theoretical linguistics

Theoretical linguistics is the branch of linguistics that is most concerned with developing models of linguistic knowledge.

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Theory of mind

Theory of mind (often abbreviated ToM) is the ability to attribute mental states — beliefs, intents, desires, pretending, knowledge, etc.

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In music, timbre also known as tone color or tone quality from psychoacoustics, is the quality of a musical note, sound, or tone that distinguishes different types of sound production, such as voices and musical instruments, string instruments, wind instruments, and percussion instruments.

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Tok Pisin

Tok Pisin (Tok Pisin) is a creole language spoken throughout Papua New Guinea.

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Tone (linguistics)

Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.

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Tower of Babel

The Tower of Babel (or; מִגְדַּל בָּבֶל, Migddal Bāḇēl) is a story told in the Book of Genesis of the Tanakh (also referred to as the Hebrew Bible or the Old Testament) meant to explain the origin of different languages.

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Trans-cultural diffusion

In cultural anthropology and cultural geography, cultural diffusion, as first conceptualized by Leo Frobenius in his 1897/98 publication Der westafrikanische Kulturkreis, is the spread of cultural items—such as ideas, styles, religions, technologies, languages etc.—between individuals, whether within a single culture or from one culture to another.

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Transitive verb

A transitive verb is a verb that takes one or more objects.

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Transitivity (grammar)

In linguistics, transitivity is a property of verbs that relates to whether a verb can take direct objects and how many such objects a verb can take.

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Tripartite language

A tripartite language, also called an ergative–accusative language, is one that treats the agent of a transitive verb, the patient of a transitive verb, and the single argument of an intransitive verb each in different ways.

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Truth value

In logic and mathematics, a truth value, sometimes called a logical value, is a value indicating the relation of a proposition to truth.

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Tupi–Guarani languages

Tupí–Guaraní is the name of the most widely distributed subfamily of the Tupian languages of South America.

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Turkic languages

The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five languages, spoken by Turkic peoples from Southeastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are proposed to be part of the controversial Altaic language family.

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Turkish language

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeastern Europe and 55–60 million native speakers in Western Asia.

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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN).

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Universal grammar

Universal Grammar (UG) is a theory in linguistics, usually credited to Noam Chomsky, proposing that the ability to learn grammar is hard-wired into the brain.

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Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:;, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a standardised register of the Hindustani language.

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Uto-Aztecan languages

Uto-Aztecan or Uto-Aztekan is a Native American language family consisting of over 30 languages.

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In spoken language analysis an utterance is a smallest unit of speech.

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Variety (linguistics)

In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster.

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A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).

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A person's vocabulary is the set of words within a language that are familiar to that person.

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Voice (phonetics)

Voice or voicing is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds, with sounds described as either voiceless (unvoiced) or voiced.

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In phonetics, a vowel is a sound in spoken language, such as an English "ah!" or "oh!", pronounced with an open vocal tract so that there is no build-up of air pressure at any point above the glottis.

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Vowel length

In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.

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Wernicke's area

Wernicke's area, also called Wernicke's speech area, is one of the two parts of the cerebral cortex linked, since the late nineteenth century, to speech (the other is Broca's area).

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West Africa

West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost subcontinent of Africa.

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Wh-movement (or wh-fronting or wh-extraction or long-distance dependency) is a mechanism of syntax that helps express a question (or form a relative clause).

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Whistled language

Whistled languages use whistling to emulate speech and facilitate communication.

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Wilhelm von Humboldt

Friedrich Wilhelm Christian Karl Ferdinand von Humboldt (22 June 1767 – 8 April 1835) was a Prussian philosopher, government functionary, diplomat, and founder of the Humboldt University of Berlin, which was named after him in 1949 (and also after his brother, Alexander von Humboldt, a naturalist).

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Willard Van Orman Quine

Willard Van Orman Quine (June 25, 1908 – December 25, 2000) (known to intimates as "Van") was an American philosopher and logician in the analytic tradition, recognized as "one of the most influential philosophers of the twentieth century." From 1930 until his death 70 years later, Quine was continually affiliated with Harvard University in one way or another, first as a student, then as a professor of philosophy and a teacher of logic and set theory, and finally as a professor emeritus who published or revised several books in retirement.

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William Jones (philologist)

Sir William Jones (28 September 1746 – 27 April 1794) was an Anglo-Welsh philologist, a puisne judge on the Supreme Court of Judicature at Fort William in Bengal, and a scholar of ancient India, particularly known for his proposition of the existence of a relationship among Indo-European languages.

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William Stokoe

William C. Stokoe, Jr. (July 21, 1919, in New Hampshire – April 4, 2000, in Chevy Chase, Maryland), a long-time professor at Gallaudet University, was one of the most significant linguists of the 20th century.

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In linguistics a word is the smallest element that may be uttered in isolation with semantic or pragmatic content (with literal or practical meaning).

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Word order

In linguistics, word order typology is the study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language, and how different languages can employ different orders.

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Writing system

A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.

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Written language

A written language is the representation of a language by means of a writing system.

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Yerkish is an artificial language developed for use by non-human primates.

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Yoruba language

Yoruba (Yor. èdè Yorùbá) is a language spoken in West Africa mainly in Nigeria.

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Yugoslav Wars

The Yugoslav Wars were ethnic conflicts fought from 1991 to 2001 inside the territory of the former Yugoslavia.

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Yupik languages

The Yupik languages are the several distinct languages of the several Yupik peoples of western and southcentral Alaska and northeastern Siberia.

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Zulu language

Zulu or isiZulu is the language of the Zulu people with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa.

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Zuni language

Zuni (also formerly Zuñi) is a language of the Zuni people, indigenous to western New Mexico and eastern Arizona in the United States.

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26th century BC

The 26th century BC is a century which lasted from the year 2600 BC to 2501 BC.

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4th millennium BC

The 4th millennium BC saw major changes in human culture.

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Complex language, Development of speech and language, Formal notation, Human language, Human languages, Lanauge, Language and dialect, Language diversity, Languages, Languge, Languoid, Linguistic diversity, Lnguage, Lnguages, Speakers of other languages, Spoken words.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language

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