487 relations: A language is a dialect with an army and navy, Accusative case, Acoustics, Adjective, Affix, Africa, Afroasiatic languages, Age of Enlightenment, Agglutinative language, Agreement (linguistics), Ainu language, Akkadian language, Alfred Tarski, Algonquian languages, Allophone, Alveolar ridge, American Civil War, American Sign Language, Americas, Ancient Greece, Animal cognition, Animal communication, Animal language, Anthropological linguistics, Aphorism, Apophony, Approximant consonant, Arabic, Arabic script, Arawakan languages, Areal feature, Argument, Article (grammar), Aspirated consonant, Australian Aboriginal languages, Australopithecine, Austroasiatic languages, Austronesian languages, Babbling, Balkan sprachbund, Bantu languages, Basque language, Bee, Bee learning and communication, Behavioral modernity, Bengali language, Berber languages, Berlin, Bertrand Russell, Blombos Cave, ..., Bodo language, Bonobo, Brahmi script, Braille, Broca's area, Bronze Age, Burmese language, Burushaski, Cambridge University Press, Cantonese, Caribbean Spanish, Chain shift, Charles Darwin, Charles F. Hockett, Cherokee language, Cherology, Chinese characters, Chinese language, Christian mythology, Cipher, Classifier (linguistics), Close vowel, Code, Code (semiotics), Cognition, Cognitive linguistics, Cognitive science, Communication, Communicative competence, Comparative linguistics, Comparative method, Computational linguistics, Conjunction (grammar), Consonant, Constructed language, Course in General Linguistics, Cree language, Creole language, Croatian language, Culture, Cuneiform script, Danish language, Deixis, Developmental verbal dyspraxia, Dialect, Diffusion, Displacement (linguistics), Distinctive feature, Dog, Dravidian languages, Drift (linguistics), Dyirbal language, Eardrum, Egyptian hieroglyphs, Electrophysiology, Emotion, Encoding (semiotics), Endangered language, English language, Entertainment, Ergative–absolutive language, Esperanto, Ethiopian language area, Ethnologue, Eurasia, Evolution, Expressive aphasia, Extinct language, Father Tongue hypothesis, Ferdinand de Saussure, Fetus, First language, Focus (linguistics), Formal grammar, Formal language, Formal learning, Formal system, Formant, Formosan languages, FOXP2, French language, Fricative consonant, Front rounded vowel, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, Functional theories of grammar, Fusional language, Gamilaraay language, Generative grammar, Genetics, Germanic languages, Globalization, Glottis, Gorgias, Grammar, Grammatical category, Grammatical person, Grammatical tense, Grammaticalization, Great ape language, Great Vowel Shift, Grimm's law, Haiti, Haitian Creole, Hakka Chinese, Handshape, Hangul, Hausa language, Hebrew language, Hindi, Hindustani language, Historical linguistics, History of colonialism, History of the world, Hockett's design features, Holophrasis, Hominidae, Hominini, Homo, Homo erectus, Homo habilis, Homo heidelbergensis, Homo sapiens, Human, Human brain, Human communication, Human development (biology), Identity (social science), Ideophone, Idiom, Immanuel Kant, Implicature, India, Indo-European languages, Indonesia, Indonesian language, Inferior frontal gyrus, Infix, Inflection, Information, Innatism, Intentionality, Interjection, International auxiliary language, International Phonetic Alphabet, Intonation (linguistics), Inuktitut, Iroquoian languages, Isolating language, Italic languages, J. L. Austin, Japanese language, Javanese language, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Jerry Fodor, Johann Gottfried Herder, John Searle, Jutlandic dialect, Kannada, Kanzi, Khmer language, Koko (gorilla), Korean language, Korean manual alphabet, Korean Sign Language, Kra–Dai languages, Language acquisition, Language attrition, Language change, Language contact, Language convergence, Language death, Language family, Language ideology, Language isolate, Language policy, Language revitalization, Language shift, Langue and parole, Larynx, Lateral consonant, Latin, Latin alphabet, Lexeme, Lexicon, Lingua franca, Linguistic anthropology, Linguistic description, Linguistic Diversity in Space and Time, Linguistic turn, Linguistic typology, Linguistic universal, Linguistics, List of language regulators, List of languages by number of native speakers, List of official languages, Loanword, Logogram, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Madagascar, Malagasy language, Malay language, Malayo-Polynesian languages, Mandarin Chinese, Manner of articulation, Maritime Southeast Asia, Mathematical logic, Max Weinreich, Maya script, Mayan languages, Māori language, Meaning (linguistics), Meaning (semiotics), Mesoamerica, Mesoamerican language area, Mesoamerican writing systems, Michael Tomasello, Michif, Migration Period, Mind, Minimal pair, Mixed language, Modality (semiotics), Morpheme, Morphological derivation, Morphology (linguistics), Morphosyntactic alignment, Multilingualism, Music, Mutation, Mutual intelligibility, Na-Dene languages, Nasal consonant, Nasalization, Nation state, Natural language, Neocolonialism, Neurolinguistics, New Mexico, Nicaraguan Sign Language, Niger–Congo languages, Noam Chomsky, Nominative case, Nominative–absolutive language, North America, North Carolina, Norwegian language, Noun, Object (grammar), Occlusive, Oceania, Old French, Old Javanese, Old Testament, Olmecs, Open vowel, Operant conditioning, Oto-Manguean languages, Outline of linguistics, Pacific Ocean, Pakistan, Palate, Palatine uvula, Pama–Nyungan languages, Papua New Guinea, Paradigmatic analysis, Part of speech, Paul Grice, Pāṇini, Persian language, Philology, Philosophy of language, Phonation, Phone (phonetics), Phoneme, Phonetics, Phonological change, Phonology, Phrase, Phylogenetic tree, Pidgin, Pieter Bruegel the Elder, Pirahã language, Pitch-accent language, Plato, Polysynthetic language, Port-Royal Grammar, Portuguese language, Pragmatics, Pre-Columbian era, Predicate (grammar), Prefix, Prehistory, Preposition and postposition, Preschool, Problem of religious language, Productivity (linguistics), Programming language, Prosody (linguistics), Proto-Indo-European language, Psycholinguistics, Purépecha language, Qualla Boundary, Quechumaran languages, Receptive aphasia, Register (sociolinguistics), Relexification, René Descartes, Rhotic consonant, Robert M. W. Dixon, Root (linguistics), Rotokas language, Roundedness, Russian language, Rwanda, Sahara, Samoan language, Sanskrit, Science, Scientific American, Segment (linguistics), Semantics, Semiosis, Semiotics, Semitic languages, Sentence (linguistics), Serbian language, Serbo-Croatian, Shona language, Sibilant, Sign (linguistics), Sign (semiotics), Sign language, Sino-Tibetan languages, Social class, Social grooming, Social stratification, Sociolinguistics, Soft palate, Somali language, Somatosensory system, Sound, Sound change, South Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Spanish language, Speaker types, Spectrogram, Speech, Speech act, Speech community, Speech repetition, Speech scroll, Speech-language pathology, Spoken language, Sprachbund, Standard Spanish, Standard Tibetan, Stephen R. Anderson, Steven Mithen, Steven Pinker, Stimulus (physiology), Stop consonant, Stress (linguistics), Structural linguistics, Structuralism, Style (sociolinguistics), Subculture, Subject–object–verb, Subject–verb–object, Suffix, Sumer, Sumerian language, Superior temporal gyrus, Suprasegmentals, Swahili language, Swedish language, Syllable, Symbolic communication, Synchrony and diachrony, Syntactic Structures, Syntagmatic analysis, Syntax, System, Tagalog language, Tamil language, Telegraphic speech, Telugu language, Teotihuacan, Thai language, The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, The Language Instinct, The Symbolic Species, Theoretical linguistics, Theory of mind, Timbre, Tok Pisin, Tone (linguistics), Tower of Babel, Trans-cultural diffusion, Transitive verb, Transitivity (grammar), Tripartite language, Truth value, Tupi–Guarani languages, Turkic languages, Turkish language, UNESCO, Universal grammar, Urdu, Uto-Aztecan languages, Utterance, Variety (linguistics), Verb, Vocabulary, Voice (phonetics), Vowel, Vowel length, Wernicke's area, West Africa, Wh-movement, Whistled language, Wilhelm von Humboldt, Willard Van Orman Quine, William Jones (philologist), Word, Word order, Writing system, Written language, Yerkish, Yoruba language, Yugoslav Wars, Yupik languages, Zulu language, Zuni language, 26th century BC, 4th millennium BC. 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"A language is a dialect with an army and navy" is a quipVictor H. Mair, The Columbia History of Chinese Literature, p. 24: "It has often been facetiously remarked...
The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.
Acoustics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound.
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
In linguistics, an affix is a morpheme that is attached to a word stem to form a new word or word form.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
An agglutinative language is a type of synthetic language with morphology that primarily uses agglutination.
Agreement or concord (abbreviated) happens when a word changes form depending on the other words to which it relates.
Ainu (Ainu: アイヌ・イタㇰ Aynu.
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
Alfred Tarski (January 14, 1901 – October 26, 1983), born Alfred Teitelbaum,School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews,, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews.
The Algonquian languages (or; also Algonkian) are a subfamily of Native American languages which includes most of the languages in the Algic language family.
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
The alveolar ridge (also known as the alveolar margin) is one of the two jaw ridges either on the roof of the mouth between the upper teeth and the hard palate or on the bottom of the mouth behind the lower teeth.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
American Sign Language (ASL) is a natural language that serves as the predominant sign language of Deaf communities in the United States and most of Anglophone Canada.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Animal cognition describes the mental capacities of non-human animals and the study of those capacities.
Animal communication is the transfer of information from one or a group of animals (sender or senders) to one or more other animals (receiver or receivers) that affects the current or future behavior of the receivers.
Animal languages are forms of non-human animal communication that show similarities to human language.
Anthropological linguistics is the subfield of linguistics and anthropology, which deals with the place of language in its wider social and cultural context, and its role in making and maintaining cultural practices and societal structures.
An aphorism (from Greek ἀφορισμός: aphorismos, denoting "delimitation", "distinction", and "definition") is a concise, terse, laconic, and/or memorable expression of a general truth or principle.
In linguistics, apophony (also known as ablaut, (vowel) gradation, (vowel) mutation, alternation, internal modification, stem modification, stem alternation, replacive morphology, stem mutation, internal inflection etc.) is any sound change within a word that indicates grammatical information (often inflectional).
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.
Arawakan (Arahuacan, Maipuran Arawakan, "mainstream" Arawakan, Arawakan proper), also known as Maipurean (also Maipuran, Maipureano, Maipúre), is a language family that developed among ancient indigenous peoples in South America.
In linguistics, areal features are elements shared by languages or dialects in a geographic area, particularly when the languages are not descended from a common ancestor language.
In logic and philosophy, an argument is a series of statements typically used to persuade someone of something or to present reasons for accepting a conclusion.
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
The Australian Aboriginal languages consist of around 290–363 languages belonging to an estimated twenty-eight language families and isolates, spoken by Aboriginal Australians of mainland Australia and a few nearby islands.
Australopithecines are generally all species in the related Australopithecus and Paranthropus genera, and it typically includes Kenyanthropus, Ardipithecus, and Praeanthropus.
The Austroasiatic languages, formerly known as Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers.
The Austronesian languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.
Babbling is a stage in child development and a state in language acquisition during which an infant appears to be experimenting with uttering articulate sounds, but does not yet produce any recognizable words.
The Balkan sprachbund or Balkan language area is the ensemble of areal features—similarities in grammar, syntax, vocabulary and phonology—among the languages of the Balkans.
The Bantu languages (English:, Proto-Bantu: */baⁿtʊ̀/) technically the Narrow Bantu languages, as opposed to "Wide Bantu", a loosely defined categorization which includes other "Bantoid" languages are a large family of languages spoken by the Bantu peoples throughout Sub-Saharan Africa.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, known for their role in pollination and, in the case of the best-known bee species, the European honey bee, for producing honey and beeswax.
Honey bees are sensitive to odors (including pheromones), tastes, and colors, including ultraviolet.
Behavioral modernity is a suite of behavioral and cognitive traits that distinguishes current Homo sapiens from other anatomically modern humans, hominins, and primates.
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.
The Berber languages, also known as Berber or the Amazigh languages (Berber name: Tamaziɣt, Tamazight; Neo-Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵜ, Tuareg Tifinagh: ⵜⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵜ, ⵝⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⵝ), are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.
Blombos Cave is an archaeological site located in Blombosfontein Nature Reserve, about 300 km east of Cape Town on the Southern Cape coastline, South Africa.
Boro (बर'), or Mech, is the Sino-Tibetan language spoken primarily by the Boro people of North East India, Nepal and Bengal.
The bonobo (Pan paniscus), formerly called the pygmy chimpanzee and less often, the dwarf or gracile chimpanzee, is an endangered great ape and one of the two species making up the genus Pan; the other is Pan troglodytes, or the common chimpanzee.
Brahmi (IAST) is the modern name given to one of the oldest writing systems used in Ancient India and present South and Central Asia from the 1st millennium BCE.
Braille is a tactile writing system used by people who are visually impaired.
Broca's area or the Broca area or is a region in the frontal lobe of the dominant hemisphere, usually the left, of the hominid brain with functions linked to speech production.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
The Burmese language (မြန်မာဘာသာ, MLCTS: mranmabhasa, IPA) is the official language of Myanmar.
Burushaski (بروشسکی) is a language isolate spoken by Burusho people who reside almost entirely in northern Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, with a few hundred speakers in northern Jammu and Kashmir, India.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Cantonese language is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton) and its surrounding area in southeastern China.
Caribbean Spanish (Spanish: español caribeño) is the general name of the Spanish dialects spoken in the Caribbean region.
In historical linguistics, a chain shift is a set of sound changes in which the change in pronunciation of one speech sound (typically, a phoneme) is linked to, and presumably causes, the change in pronunciation of other sounds as well.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
Charles Francis Hockett (January 17, 1916 – November 3, 2000) was an American linguist who developed many influential ideas in American structuralist linguistics.
Cherokee (ᏣᎳᎩ ᎦᏬᏂᎯᏍᏗ, Tsalagi Gawonihisdi) is an endangered Iroquoian language and the native language of the Cherokee people.
Cherology and chereme (from "hand") are synonyms of phonology and phoneme previously used in the study of sign languages.
Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Christian mythology is the body of myths associated with Christianity.
In cryptography, a cipher (or cypher) is an algorithm for performing encryption or decryption—a series of well-defined steps that can be followed as a procedure.
A classifier (abbreviated or), sometimes called a measure word or counter word, is a word or affix that is used to accompany nouns and can be considered to "classify" a noun depending on the type of its referent.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
In communications and information processing, code is a system of rules to convert information—such as a letter, word, sound, image, or gesture—into another form or representation, sometimes shortened or secret, for communication through a communication channel or storage in a storage medium.
In semiotics, a code is a set of conventions or sub-codes currently in use to communicate meaning.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
Cognitive linguistics (CL) is an interdisciplinary branch of linguistics, combining knowledge and research from both psychology and linguistics.
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.
Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.
Communicative competence is a term in linguistics which refers to a language user's grammatical knowledge of syntax, morphology, phonology and the like, as well as social knowledge about how and when to use utterances appropriately.
Comparative linguistics (originally comparative philology) is a branch of historical linguistics that is concerned with comparing languages to establish their historical relatedness.
In linguistics, the comparative method is a technique for studying the development of languages by performing a feature-by-feature comparison of two or more languages with common descent from a shared ancestor, in order to extrapolate back to infer the properties of that ancestor.
Computational linguistics is an interdisciplinary field concerned with the statistical or rule-based modeling of natural language from a computational perspective, as well as the study of appropriate computational approaches to linguistic questions.
In grammar, a conjunction (abbreviated or) is a part of speech that connects words, phrases, or clauses that are called the conjuncts of the conjoining construction.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
A constructed language (sometimes called a conlang) is a language whose phonology, grammar, and vocabulary have been consciously devised for human or human-like communication, instead of having developed naturally.
Course in General Linguistics (Cours de linguistique générale) is a book compiled by Charles Bally and Albert Sechehaye from notes on lectures given by Ferdinand de Saussure at the University of Geneva between 1906 and 1911.
Cree (also known as Cree–Montagnais–Naskapi) is a dialect continuum of Algonquian languages spoken by approximately 117,000 people across Canada, from the Northwest Territories to Alberta to Labrador.
A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages at a fairly sudden point in time: often, a pidgin transitioned into a full, native language.
Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
Cuneiform script, one of the earliest systems of writing, was invented by the Sumerians.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
In linguistics, deixis refers to words and phrases, such as “me” or “here”, that cannot be fully understood without additional contextual information -- in this case, the identity of the speaker (“me”) and the speaker's location (“here”).
Developmental verbal dyspraxia (DVD), also known as childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) and developmental apraxia of speech (DAS), is when children have problems saying sounds, syllables, and words.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.
In linguistics, displacement is the capability of language to communicate about things that are not immediately present (spatially or temporally); i.e., things that are either not here or are not here now.
In linguistics, a distinctive feature is the most basic unit of phonological structure that may be analyzed in phonological theory.
The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris when considered a subspecies of the gray wolf or Canis familiaris when considered a distinct species) is a member of the genus Canis (canines), which forms part of the wolf-like canids, and is the most widely abundant terrestrial carnivore.
The Dravidian languages are a language family spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India, as well as in Sri Lanka with small pockets in southwestern Pakistan, southern Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan, and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore.
Two types of language change can be characterized as linguistic drift: a unidirectional short-term and cyclic long-term drift.
Dyirbal (also Djirubal) is an Australian Aboriginal language spoken in northeast Queensland by about 29 speakers of the Dyirbal tribe.
In the anatomy of humans and various other tetrapods, the eardrum, also called the tympanic membrane or myringa, is a thin, cone-shaped membrane that separates the external ear from the middle ear.
Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt.
Electrophysiology (from Greek ἥλεκτρον, ēlektron, "amber"; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia) is the study of the electrical properties of biological cells and tissues.
Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure.
Encoding, in semiotics, is the process of creating a message for transmission by an addresser to an addressee.
An endangered language, or moribund language, is a language that is at risk of falling out of use as its speakers die out or shift to speaking another language.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Entertainment is a form of activity that holds the attention and interest of an audience, or gives pleasure and delight.
Ergative–absolutive languages, or ergative languages are languages that share a certain distinctive pattern relating to the subjects (technically, arguments) of verbs.
Esperanto (or; Esperanto) is a constructed international auxiliary language.
The Ethiopian language area is a hypothesized linguistic area that was first proposed by Charles A. Ferguson (1970, 1976), who posited a number of phonological and morphosyntactic features that were found widely across Ethiopia, which then included Eritrea, including the Ethio-Semitic, Cushitic and Omotic languages but not the Nilo-Saharan languages.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Expressive aphasia, also known as Broca's aphasia, is a type of aphasia characterized by partial loss of the ability to produce language (spoken, manual, or written), although comprehension generally remains intact.
An extinct language is a language that no longer has any speakers, especially if the language has no living descendants.
The Father Tongue hypothesis proposes that humans tend to speak their fathers' language.
Ferdinand de Saussure (26 November 1857 – 22 February 1913) was a Swiss linguist and semiotician.
A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
Focus (abbreviated) is a grammatical category that determines which part of the sentence contributes new, non-derivable, or contrastive information.
In formal language theory, a grammar (when the context is not given, often called a formal grammar for clarity) is a set of production rules for strings in a formal language.
In mathematics, computer science, and linguistics, a formal language is a set of strings of symbols together with a set of rules that are specific to it.
Formal learning is education normally delivered by trained teachers in a systematic intentional way within a school, higher education or university.
A formal system is the name of a logic system usually defined in the mathematical way.
A formant, as defined by James Jeans, is a harmonic of a note that is augmented by a resonance.
"Formosan languages" is a cover term for the languages of the indigenous peoples of Taiwan, all of which belong to the Austronesian language family.
Forkhead box protein P2 (FOXP2) is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the FOXP2 gene, also known as CAGH44, SPCH1 or TNRC10, and is required for proper development of speech and language.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
A front rounded vowel is a particular type of vowel that is both front and rounded.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow.
Functional theories of grammar are those approaches to the study of language that see functionality of language and its elements to be the key to understanding linguistic processes and structures.
Fusional languages or inflected languages are a type of synthetic languages, distinguished from agglutinative languages by their tendency to use a single inflectional morpheme to denote multiple grammatical, syntactic, or semantic features.
The Gamilaraay or Kamilaroi (see below for other spellings) language is a Pama–Nyungan language of the Wiradhuric subgroup found mostly in south-east Australia.
Generative grammar is a linguistic theory that regards grammar as a system of rules that generates exactly those combinations of words that form grammatical sentences in a given language.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
The glottis is defined as the opening between the vocal folds (the rima glottidis).
Gorgias (Γοργίας; c. 485 – c. 380 BC) was a Greek sophist, Siceliote, pre-Socratic philosopher and rhetorician who was a native of Leontini in Sicily.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
A grammatical category is a property of items within the grammar of a language; it has a number of possible values (sometimes called grammemes), which are normally mutually exclusive within a given category.
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person).
In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.
In historical linguistics and language change, grammaticalization (also known as grammatization or grammaticization) is a process of language change by which words representing objects and actions (i.e. nouns and verbs) become grammatical markers (affixes, prepositions, etc.). Thus it creates new function words by a process other than deriving them from existing bound, inflectional constructions, instead deriving them from content words.
Research into great ape language has involved teaching chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans to communicate with human beings and with each other using sign language, physical tokens, and lexigrams (Yerkish).
The Great Vowel Shift was a major series of changes in the pronunciation of the English language that took place, beginning in southern England, primarily between 1350 and the 1600s and 1700s, today influencing effectively all dialects of English.
Grimm's law (also known as the First Germanic Sound Shift or Rask's rule) is a set of statements named after Jacob Grimm and Rasmus Rask describing the inherited Proto-Indo-European (PIE) stop consonants as they developed in Proto-Germanic (the common ancestor of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family) in the 1st millennium BC.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
Haitian Creole (kreyòl ayisyen,; créole haïtien) is a French-based creole language spoken by 9.6–12million people worldwide, and the only language of most Haitians.
Hakka, also rendered Kejia, is one of the major groups of varieties of Chinese, spoken natively by the Hakka people throughout southern China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and throughout the diaspora areas of East Asia, Southeast Asia, and in overseas Chinese communities around the world.
In sign languages, handshape, or dez, refers to the distinctive configurations that the hands take as they are used to form words.
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul (from Korean hangeul 한글), has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by Sejong the Great.
Hausa (Yaren Hausa or Harshen Hausa) is the Chadic language (a branch of the Afroasiatic language family) with the largest number of speakers, spoken as a first language by some 27 million people, and as a second language by another 20 million.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hindustani (हिन्दुस्तानी, ہندوستانی, ||lit.
Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.
The historical phenomenon of colonization is one that stretches around the globe and across time.
The history of the world is the history of humanity (or human history), as determined from archaeology, anthropology, genetics, linguistics, and other disciplines; and, for periods since the invention of writing, from recorded history and from secondary sources and studies.
In the 1960s, linguistic anthropologist Charles F. Hockett defined a set of features that characterize human language and set it apart from animal communication.
Holophrasis is the prelinguistic use of a single word to express a complex idea.
The Hominidae, whose members are known as great apes or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, which includes modern humans and its extinct relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal), and ancestors, such as Homo erectus.
The Hominini, or hominins, form a taxonomic tribe of the subfamily Homininae ("hominines").
Homo (Latin homō "human being") is the genus that encompasses the extant species Homo sapiens (modern humans), plus several extinct species classified as either ancestral to or closely related to modern humans (depending on a species), most notably Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis.
Homo erectus (meaning "upright man") is an extinct species of archaic humans that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch.
Homo habilis was a species of early humans, who lived between roughly 2.1 and 1.5 million years ago.
Homo heidelbergensis is an extinct species or subspecies of archaic humans in the genus Homo of the Middle Pleistocene (between about 700,000 and 200,000-300,000 years ago), known from fossils found in Southern Africa, East Africa and Europe.
Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.
Human communication, or anthroposemiotics, is the field dedicated to understanding how humans communicate.
Human development is the process of growing to maturity.
In psychology, identity is the qualities, beliefs, personality, looks and/or expressions that make a person (self-identity) or group (particular social category or social group).
Ideophones are words that evoke an idea in sound, often a vivid impression of certain sensations or sensory perceptions, e.g. sound (onomatopoeia), movement, color, shape, or action.
An idiom (idiom, "special property", from translite, "special feature, special phrasing, a peculiarity", f. translit, "one's own") is a phrase or an expression that has a figurative, or sometimes literal, meaning.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
Implicature is a technical term in the pragmatics linguistics, coined by H. P. Grice, which refers to what is suggested in an utterance, even though neither expressed nor strictly implied (that is, entailed) by the utterance.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia.
The inferior frontal gyrus is a part of the frontal gyrus of the frontal lobe (the yellow area of the human brain image to the right).
An infix is an affix inserted inside a word stem (an existing word).
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.
Innatism is a philosophical and epistemological doctrine that holds that the mind is born with ideas/knowledge, and that therefore the mind is not a "blank slate" at birth, as early empiricists such as John Locke claimed.
Intentionality is a philosophical concept and is defined by the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy as "the power of minds to be about, to represent, or to stand for, things, properties and states of affairs".
In linguistics, an interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling or reaction.
An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) or interlanguage is a language meant for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common first language.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
In linguistics, intonation is variation in spoken pitch when used, not for distinguishing words (a concept known as tone), but, rather, for a range of other functions such as indicating the attitudes and emotions of the speaker, signalling the difference between statements and questions, and between different types of questions, focusing attention on important elements of the spoken message and also helping to regulate conversational interaction.
Inuktitut (syllabics ᐃᓄᒃᑎᑐᑦ; from inuk, "person" + -titut, "like", "in the manner of"), also Eastern Canadian Inuktitut, is one of the principal Inuit languages of Canada.
The Iroquoian languages are a language family of indigenous peoples of North America.
An isolating language is a type of language with a very low morpheme per word ratio and no inflectional morphology whatsoever.
The Italic languages are a subfamily of the Indo-European language family, originally spoken by Italic peoples.
John Langshaw "J.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Javanese (colloquially known as) is the language of the Javanese people from the central and eastern parts of the island of Java, in Indonesia.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
Jerry Alan Fodor (April 22, 1935 – November 29, 2017) was an American philosopher and cognitive scientist.
Johann Gottfried (after 1802, von) Herder (25 August 174418 December 1803) was a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic.
John Rogers Searle (born 31 July 1932) is an American philosopher.
Jutlandic or Jutish (Danish: jysk) is the western dialect of Danish, spoken on the peninsula of Jutland.
Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in India, mainly in the state of Karnataka, and by significant linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Kerala, Goa and abroad.
Kanzi (born October 28, 1980), also known by the lexigram (from the character 太), is a male bonobo who has been featured in several studies on great ape language.
Khmer or Cambodian (natively ភាសាខ្មែរ phiəsaa khmae, or more formally ខេមរភាសា kheemaʾraʾ phiəsaa) is the language of the Khmer people and the official language of Cambodia.
Hanabiko "Koko" (July 4, 1971 – June 19, 2018) was a female western lowland gorilla who was known for having learned a large number of hand signs from a modified version of American Sign Language (ASL).
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
The Korean manual alphabet is used by the Deaf in South Korea who speak Korean Sign Language.
Korean Sign Language or KSL (Korean: 한국 수화 언어 韓國手話言語 Hanguk Suhwa Eoneo or 한국 수어 韓國手語 Hanguk Sueo) is the deaf sign language of South Korea.
The Kra–Dai languages (also known as Tai–Kadai, Daic and Kadai) are a language family of tonal languages found in southern China, Northeast India and Southeast Asia.
Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate.
Language attrition is the process of losing a native, or first, language.
Language change is variation over time in a language's phonological, morphological, semantic, syntactic, and other features.
Language contact occurs when speakers of two or more languages or varieties interact and influence each other.
Language convergence is a type of linguistic change in which languages come to structurally resemble one another as a result of prolonged language contact and mutual interference.
In linguistics, language death occurs when a language loses its last native speaker.
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.
Language ideology (also referred to as linguistic ideology) is a concept used primarily within the fields of anthropology (esp. Linguistic anthropology), sociolinguistics, and cross-cultural studies to characterize any set of beliefs or feelings about languages as used in their social worlds.
A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other languages, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common with any other language.
Many countries have a language policy designed to favor or discourage the use of a particular language or set of languages.
Language revitalization, also referred to as language revival or reversing language shift, is an attempt to halt or reverse the decline of a language or to revive an extinct one.
Language shift, also known as language transfer or language replacement or language assimilation, is the process whereby a community of speakers of a language shifts to speaking a completely different language, usually over an extended period of time.
Langue (French, meaning "language") and parole (meaning "speaking") are linguistic terms distinguished by Ferdinand de Saussure in his Course in General Linguistics.
The larynx, commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the top of the neck of tetrapods involved in breathing, producing sound, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration.
A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
A lexeme is a unit of lexical meaning that exists regardless of the number of inflectional endings it may have or the number of words it may contain.
A lexicon, word-hoard, wordbook, or word-stock is the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or medical).
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
Linguistic anthropology is the interdisciplinary study of how language influences social life.
In the study of language, description or descriptive linguistics is the work of objectively analyzing and describing how language is actually used (or how it was used in the past) by a group of people in a speech community.
Linguistic Diversity in Space and Time is a 1992 book by linguist Johanna Nichols.
The linguistic turn was a major development in Western philosophy during the early 20th century, the most important characteristic of which is the focusing of philosophy and the other humanities primarily on the relationship between philosophy and language.
Linguistic typology is a field of linguistics that studies and classifies languages according to their structural and functional features.
A linguistic universal is a pattern that occurs systematically across natural languages, potentially true for all of them.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
This is a list of bodies that regulate standard languages, often called language academies.
This article ranks human languages by their number of native speakers.
This is a list of official languages of sovereign countries.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase.
Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
Malagasy is an Austronesian language and the national language of Madagascar.
Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.
The Malayo-Polynesian languages are a subgroup of the Austronesian languages, with approximately 385.5 million speakers.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
In articulatory phonetics, the manner of articulation is the configuration and interaction of the articulators (speech organs such as the tongue, lips, and palate) when making a speech sound.
Maritime Southeast Asia is the maritime region of Southeast Asia as opposed to mainland Southeast Asia and comprises what is now Malaysia, Brunei, Philippines, Singapore, Indonesia, and Timor Leste.
Mathematical logic is a subfield of mathematics exploring the applications of formal logic to mathematics.
Max Weinreich (22 April 1894 in Kuldīga, Russian Empire, now Latvia – 29 January 1969 in New York City, United States) was a Russian Jewish linguist, specializing in sociolinguistics and Yiddish, and the father of the linguist Uriel Weinreich, who edited the Modern Yiddish-English English-Yiddish Dictionary.
Maya script, also known as Maya glyphs, was the writing system of the Maya civilization of Mesoamerica and is the only Mesoamerican writing system that has been substantially deciphered.
The Mayan languagesIn linguistics, it is conventional to use Mayan when referring to the languages, or an aspect of a language.
Māori, also known as te reo ("the language"), is an Eastern Polynesian language spoken by the Māori people, the indigenous population of New Zealand.
In linguistics, meaning is the information or concepts that a sender intends to convey, or does convey, in communication with a receiver.
In semiotics, the meaning of a sign is its place in a sign relation, in other words, the set of roles that it occupies within a given sign relation.
Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.
The Mesoamerican language area is a sprachbund containing many of the languages natively spoken in the cultural area of Mesoamerica.
Mesoamerica, along with Mesopotamia and China, is among the three known places in the world where writing has developed independently.
Michael Tomasello (born January 18, 1950) is an American developmental and comparative psychologist; as well a linguist.
Michif (also Mitchif, Mechif, Michif-Cree, Métif, Métchif, French Cree) is the language of the Métis people of Canada and the United States, who are the descendants of First Nations women (mainly Cree, Nakota, and Ojibwe) and fur trade workers of European ancestry (mainly French and Scottish Canadians).
The Migration Period was a period during the decline of the Roman Empire around the 4th to 6th centuries AD in which there were widespread migrations of peoples within or into Europe, mostly into Roman territory, notably the Germanic tribes and the Huns.
The mind is a set of cognitive faculties including consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, language and memory.
In phonology, minimal pairs are pairs of words or phrases in a particular language that differ in only one phonological element, such as a phoneme, toneme or chroneme, and have distinct meanings.
Although every language is mixed to some extent, by virtue of containing loanwords, it is a matter of controversy whether a term mixed language can meaningfully distinguish the contact phenomena of certain languages (such as those listed below) from the type of contact and borrowing seen in all languages.
In semiotics, a modality is a particular way in which information is to be encoded for presentation to humans, i.e. to the type of sign and to the status of reality ascribed to or claimed by a sign, text, or genre.
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
Morphological derivation, in linguistics, is the process of forming a new word from an existing word, often by adding a prefix or suffix, such as For example, happiness and unhappy derive from the root word happy.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
In linguistics, morphosyntactic alignment is the grammatical relationship between arguments—specifically, between the two arguments (in English, subject and object) of transitive verbs like the dog chased the cat, and the single argument of intransitive verbs like the cat ran away.
Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers.
Music is an art form and cultural activity whose medium is sound organized in time.
In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
Na-Dene (also Nadene, Na-Dené, Athabaskan–Eyak–Tlingit, Tlina–Dene) is a family of Native American languages that includes at least the Athabaskan languages, Eyak, and Tlingit languages.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
In phonetics, nasalization (or nasalisation) is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered, so that some air escapes through the nose during the production of the sound by the mouth.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
In neuropsychology, linguistics, and the philosophy of language, a natural language or ordinary language is any language that has evolved naturally in humans through use and repetition without conscious planning or premeditation.
Neocolonialism, neo-colonialism or neo-imperialism is the practice of using capitalism, globalization and cultural imperialism to influence a developing country in lieu of direct military control (imperialism) or indirect political control (hegemony).
Neurolinguistics is the study of the neural mechanisms in the human brain that control the comprehension, production, and acquisition of language.
New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.
Nicaraguan Sign Language (ISN; Idioma de Señas de Nicaragua) is a sign language that was largely spontaneously developed by deaf children in a number of schools in western Nicaragua in the 1970s and 1980s.
The Niger–Congo languages constitute one of the world's major language families and Africa's largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers and number of distinct languages.
Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.
The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.
A nominative–absolutive language, also called a marked nominative language, is a language with an unusual morphosyntactic alignment similar to, and often considered a subtype of, a nominative–accusative alignment.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
North Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.
In phonetics, an occlusive, sometimes known as a stop, is a consonant sound produced by blocking (occluding) airflow in the vocal tract, but not necessarily in the nasal tract.
Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
Old Javanese is the oldest phase of the Javanese language that was spoken in areas in what is now the eastern part of Central Java and the whole of East Java.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
The Olmecs were the earliest known major civilization in Mexico following a progressive development in Soconusco.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
Operant conditioning (also called "instrumental conditioning") is a learning process through which the strength of a behavior is modified by reinforcement or punishment.
Oto-Manguean languages (also Otomanguean) are a large family comprising several subfamilies of indigenous languages of the Americas.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to linguistics: Linguistics is the scientific study of natural language.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The palate is the roof of the mouth in humans and other mammals.
The palatine uvula, usually referred to as simply the uvula, is a conic projection from the posterior edge of the middle of the soft palate, composed of connective tissue containing a number of racemose glands, and some muscular fibers (musculus uvulae).
The Pama–Nyungan languages are the most widespread family of indigenous Australian languages, containing perhaps 300 languages.
Papua New Guinea (PNG;,; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.
Paradigmatic analysis is the analysis of paradigms embedded in the text rather than of the surface structure (syntax) of the text which is termed syntagmatic analysis.
In traditional grammar, a part of speech (abbreviated form: PoS or POS) is a category of words (or, more generally, of lexical items) which have similar grammatical properties.
Herbert Paul Grice (13 March 1913 – 28 August 1988), usually publishing under the name H. P. Grice, H. Paul Grice, or Paul Grice, was a British philosopher of language, whose work on meaning has influenced the philosophical study of semantics.
(पाणिनि, Frits Staal (1965),, Philosophy East and West, Vol. 15, No. 2 (Apr., 1965), pp. 99-116) is an ancient Sanskrit philologist, grammarian, and a revered scholar in Hinduism.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.
Philosophy of language explores the relationship between language and reality.
The term phonation has slightly different meanings depending on the subfield of phonetics.
In phonetics and linguistics, a phone is any distinct speech sound or gesture, regardless of whether the exact sound is critical to the meanings of words.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.
In historical linguistics, phonological change is any sound change which alters the distribution of phonemes in a language.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
In everyday speech, a phrase may be any group of words, often carrying a special idiomatic meaning; in this sense it is roughly synonymous with expression.
A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.
A pidgin, or pidgin language, is a grammatically simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in common: typically, its vocabulary and grammar are limited and often drawn from several languages.
Pieter Bruegel (also Brueghel) the Elder (c. 1525-1530 – 9 September 1569) was the most significant artist of Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting, a painter and printmaker from Brabant, known for his landscapes and peasant scenes (so called genre painting); he was a pioneer in making both types of subject the focus in large paintings.
Pirahã (also spelled Pirahá, Pirahán), or Múra-Pirahã, is the indigenous language of the isolated Pirahã of Amazonas, Brazil.
A pitch-accent language is a language that has word-accents—that is, where one syllable in a word or morpheme is more prominent than the others, but the accentuated syllable is indicated by a particular pitch contour (linguistic tones) rather than by stress.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
In linguistic typology, polysynthetic languages are highly synthetic languages, i.e. languages in which words are composed of many morphemes (word parts that have independent meaning but may or may not be able to stand alone).
The Port-Royal Grammar (originally Grammaire générale et raisonnée contenant les fondemens de l'art de parler, expliqués d'une manière claire et naturelle, "General and Rational Grammar, containing the fundamentals of the art of speaking, explained in a clear and natural manner") was a pioneering work in the philosophy of language.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Pragmatics is a subfield of linguistics and semiotics that studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning.
The Pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents, spanning the time of the original settlement in the Upper Paleolithic period to European colonization during the Early Modern period.
There are two competing notions of the predicate in theories of grammar.
A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word.
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).
A preschool, also known as nursery school, pre-primary school, playschool or kindergarten, is an educational establishment or learning space offering early childhood education to children before they begin compulsory education at primary school.
The problem of religious language considers whether it is possible to talk about God meaningfully if the traditional conceptions of God as being incorporeal, infinite, and timeless, are accepted.
In linguistics, productivity is the degree to which native speakers use a particular grammatical process, especially in word formation.
A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.
In linguistics, prosody is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual phonetic segments (vowels and consonants) but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
Psycholinguistics or psychology of language is the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, comprehend and produce language.
Purépecha P'urhépecha (Phorhé, Phorhépecha), often called Tarascan (Tarasco), is a language isolate or small language family that is spoken by a quarter-million Purépecha in the highlands of Michoacán, Mexico.
The Qualla Boundary or The Qualla is territory held as a land trust for the federally recognized Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, who reside in western North Carolina.
Quechumaran or Kechumaran is a language-family proposal that unites Quechua and Aymara.
Wernicke's aphasia, also known as receptive aphasia, sensory aphasia, or posterior aphasia, is a type of aphasia in which individuals have difficulty understanding written and spoken language.
In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.
In linguistics, relexification is a mechanism of language change by which one language changes much or all of its lexicon, including basic vocabulary, with the lexicon of another language, without drastically changing the relexified language's grammar.
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
In phonetics, rhotic consonants, or "R-like" sounds, are liquid consonants that are traditionally represented orthographically by symbols derived from the Greek letter rho, including r in the Latin script and p in the Cyrillic script.
Robert Malcolm Ward Dixon (Gloucester, England, 25 January 1939) is a Professor of Linguistics in the College of Arts, Society, and Education and The Cairns Institute, James Cook University, Queensland.
A root (or root word) is a word that does not have a prefix in front of the word or a suffix at the end of the word.
Rotokas is a North Bougainville language spoken by about 4,320 people on the island of Bougainville, an island located to the east of New Guinea which is part of Papua New Guinea.
In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Rwanda (U Rwanda), officially the Republic of Rwanda (Repubulika y'u Rwanda; République du Rwanda), is a sovereign state in Central and East Africa and one of the smallest countries on the African mainland.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
Samoan (Gagana faʻa Sāmoa or Gagana Sāmoa – IPA) is the language of the Samoan Islands, comprising the Independent State of Samoa and the United States territory of American Samoa.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
In linguistics, a segment is "any discrete unit that can be identified, either physically or auditorily, in the stream of speech".
Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
Semiosis (from the σημείωσις, sēmeíōsis, a derivation of the verb σημειῶ, sēmeiô, "to mark") is any form of activity, conduct, or process that involves signs, including the production of meaning.
Semiotics (also called semiotic studies) is the study of meaning-making, the study of sign process (semiosis) and meaningful communication.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
In non-functional linguistics, a sentence is a textual unit consisting of one or more words that are grammatically linked.
Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.
Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
Shona (chiShona) is the most widely spoken Bantu language as a first language and is native to the Shona people of Zimbabwe.
Sibilance is an acoustic characteristic of fricative and affricate consonants of higher amplitude and pitch, made by directing a stream of air with the tongue towards the sharp edge of the teeth, which are held close together; a consonant that uses sibilance may be called a sibilant.
A linguistic sign is a part of language used to indicate a being.
In semiotics, a sign is anything that communicates a meaning that is not the sign itself to the interpreter of the sign.
Sign languages (also known as signed languages) are languages that use manual communication to convey meaning.
The Sino-Tibetan languages, in a few sources also known as Trans-Himalayan, are a family of more than 400 languages spoken in East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia.
A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.
Social grooming is a behaviour in which social animals, including humans, clean or maintain one another's body or appearance.
Social stratification is a kind of social differentiation whereby a society groups people into socioeconomic strata, based upon their occupation and income, wealth and social status, or derived power (social and political).
Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and society's effect on language.
The soft palate (also known as the velum or muscular palate) is, in mammals, the soft tissue constituting the back of the roof of the mouth.
Somali Retrieved on 21 September 2013 (Af-Soomaali) is an Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic branch.
The somatosensory system is a part of the sensory nervous system.
In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.
Sound change includes any processes of language change that affect pronunciation (phonetic change) or sound system structures (phonological change).
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Within the linguistic study of endangered languages, sociolinguists distinguish between different speaker types based on the type of competence they have acquired of the endangered language.
A spectrogram is a visual representation of the spectrum of frequencies of sound or other signal as they vary with time.
Speech is the vocalized form of communication used by humans and some animals, which is based upon the syntactic combination of items drawn from the lexicon.
A speech act in linguistics and the philosophy of language is an utterance that has performative function in language and communication.
A speech community is a group of people who share a set of linguistic norms and expectations regarding the use of language.
Children copy with their own mouths the words spoken by the mouths of those around them. This enables them to learn the pronunciation of words not already in their vocabulary. Speech repetition is the saying by one individual of the spoken vocalizations made by another individual.
In art history, speech scroll (also called a banderole or phylactery) is an illustrative device denoting speech, song, or, in rarer cases, other types of sound.
Speech-language pathology is a field of expertise practiced by a clinician known as a speech-language pathologist (SLP), also sometimes referred to as a speech and language therapist or a speech therapist. SLP is considered a "related health profession" along with audiology, optometry, occupational therapy, clinical psychology, physical therapy, and others.
A spoken language is a language produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to a written language.
A sprachbund ("federation of languages") – also known as a linguistic area, area of linguistic convergence, diffusion area or language crossroads – is a group of languages that have common features resulting from geographical proximity and language contact.
Standard Spanish is a linguistic variety, or lect, that is considered a correct educated standard for the Spanish language, mainly in its written form.
Standard Tibetan is the most widely spoken form of the Tibetic languages.
Stephen Robert Anderson (born 1943) is an American linguist.
Steven Mithen is a Professor of Archaeology at the University of Reading.
Steven Arthur Pinker (born September 18, 1954) is a Canadian-American cognitive psychologist, linguist, and popular science author.
In physiology, a stimulus (plural stimuli) is a detectable change in the internal or external environment.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.
Structural linguistics is an approach to linguistics originating from the work of Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure and is part of the overall approach of structuralism.
In sociology, anthropology, and linguistics, structuralism is the methodology that implies elements of human culture must be understood by way of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure.
In sociolinguistics, a style is a set of linguistic variants with specific social meanings.
A subculture is a group of people within a culture that differentiates itself from the parent culture to which it belongs, often maintaining some of its founding principles.
In linguistic typology, a subject–object–verb (SOV) language is one in which the subject, object, and verb of a sentence always or usually appear in that order.
In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
Sumerian (𒅴𒂠 "native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer and a language isolate that was spoken in southern Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).
The superior temporal gyrus is one of three (sometimes two) gyri in the temporal lobe of the human brain, which is located laterally to the head, situated somewhat above the external ear.
In linguistics, suprasegmentals are contrastive elements of speech that cannot be easily analyzed as distinct segments but rather belong to a syllable or word.
Swahili, also known as Kiswahili (translation: coast language), is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
Symbolic communication is exchange of messages that change a priori expectation of events.
Synchrony and diachrony are two different and complementary viewpoints in linguistic analysis.
Syntactic Structures is a major work in linguistics by American linguist Noam Chomsky.
In semiotics, syntagmatic analysis is analysis of syntax or surface structure (syntagmatic structure) as opposed to paradigms (paradigmatic analysis).
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
A system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items forming an integrated whole.
Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a quarter of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by the majority.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
Telegraphic speech, according to linguistics and psychology, is speech during the two-word stage of language acquisition in children, which is laconic and efficient.
Telugu (తెలుగు) is a South-central Dravidian language native to India.
Teotihuacan, (in Spanish: Teotihuacán), is an ancient Mesoamerican city located in a sub-valley of the Valley of Mexico, located in the State of Mexico northeast of modern-day Mexico City, known today as the site of many of the most architecturally significant Mesoamerican pyramids built in the pre-Columbian Americas.
Thai, Central Thai, or Siamese, is the national and official language of Thailand and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority Thai of Chinese origin.
The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex is a book by English naturalist Charles Darwin, first published in 1871, which applies evolutionary theory to human evolution, and details his theory of sexual selection, a form of biological adaptation distinct from, yet interconnected with, natural selection.
The Language Instinct is a 1994 book by Steven Pinker, written for a general audience.
The Symbolic Species is a 1997 book by biological anthropologist Terrence Deacon on the evolution of language.
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Theory of mind is the ability to attribute mental states—beliefs, intents, desires, emotions, knowledge, etc.—to oneself, and to others, and to understand that others have beliefs, desires, intentions, and perspectives that are different from one's own.
In music, timbre (also known as tone color or tone quality from psychoacoustics) is the perceived sound quality of a musical note, sound or tone.
Tok Pisin is a creole language spoken throughout Papua New Guinea.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
The Tower of Babel (מִגְדַּל בָּבֶל, Migdal Bāḇēl) as told in Genesis 11:1-9 is an origin myth meant to explain why the world's peoples speak different languages.
In cultural anthropology and cultural geography, cultural diffusion, as conceptualized by Leo Frobenius in his 1897/98 publication Der westafrikanische Kulturkreis, is the spread of cultural items—such as ideas, styles, religions, technologies, languages—between individuals, whether within a single culture or from one culture to another.
A transitive verb is a verb that requires one or more objects.
In linguistics, transitivity is a property of verbs that relates to whether a verb can take direct objects and how many such objects a verb can take.
A tripartite language, also called an ergative–accusative language, is one that treats the agent of a transitive verb, the patient of a transitive verb, and the single argument of an intransitive verb each in different ways.
In logic and mathematics, a truth value, sometimes called a logical value, is a value indicating the relation of a proposition to truth.
Tupi–Guarani is the name of the most widely distributed subfamily of the Tupian languages of South America.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
Universal grammar (UG) in linguistics, is the theory of the genetic component of the language faculty, usually credited to Noam Chomsky.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
Uto-Aztecan or Uto-Aztekan is a family of Indigenous languages of the Americas, consisting of over 30 languages.
In spoken language analysis, an utterance is the smallest unit of speech.
In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster.
A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).
A vocabulary is a set of familiar words within a person's language.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
Wernicke's area, also called Wernicke's speech area, is one of the two parts of the cerebral cortex that are linked to speech (the other is Broca's area).
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
In linguistics, wh-movement (also known as wh-fronting or wh-extraction or long-distance dependency) concerns special rules of syntax, observed in many languages around the world, involving the placement of interrogative words.
Whistled languages use whistling to emulate speech and facilitate communication.
Friedrich Wilhelm Christian Karl Ferdinand von Humboldt (22 June 1767 – 8 April 1835) was a Prussian philosopher, linguist, government functionary, diplomat, and founder of the Humboldt University of Berlin, which was named after him in 1949 (and also after his younger brother, Alexander von Humboldt, a naturalist).
Willard Van Orman Quine (known to intimates as "Van"; June 25, 1908 – December 25, 2000) was an American philosopher and logician in the analytic tradition, recognized as "one of the most influential philosophers of the twentieth century." From 1930 until his death 70 years later, Quine was continually affiliated with Harvard University in one way or another, first as a student, then as a professor of philosophy and a teacher of logic and set theory, and finally as a professor emeritus who published or revised several books in retirement.
Sir William Jones FRS FRSE (28 September 1746 – 27 April 1794) was an Anglo-Welsh philologist, a puisne judge on the Supreme Court of Judicature at Fort William in Bengal, and a scholar of ancient India, particularly known for his proposition of the existence of a relationship among European and Indian languages, which would later be known as Indo-European languages.
In linguistics, a word is the smallest element that can be uttered in isolation with objective or practical meaning.
In linguistics, word order typology is the study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language, and how different languages can employ different orders.
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.
A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language by means of a writing system.
Yerkish is an artificial language developed for use by non-human primates.
Yoruba (Yor. èdè Yorùbá) is a language spoken in West Africa.
The Yugoslav Wars were a series of ethnic conflicts, wars of independence and insurgencies fought from 1991 to 1999/2001 in the former Yugoslavia.
The Yupik languages are the several distinct languages of the several Yupik peoples of western and south-central Alaska and northeastern Siberia.
Zulu (Zulu: isiZulu) is the language of the Zulu people, with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa.
Zuni (also formerly Zuñi) is a language of the Zuni people, indigenous to western New Mexico and eastern Arizona in the United States.
The 26th century BC was a century which lasted from the year 2600 BC to 2501 BC.
The 4th millennium BC spanned the years 4000 through 3001 BC.
Anatomy of speech, Complex language, Development of speech and language, Formal notation, Human language, Human languages, Lanauge, Language and dialect, Language diversity, Languages, Languge, Languoid, Linguistic diversity, Lnguage, Lnguages, Neural architecture of language, Speakers of other languages, Spoken words.