274 relations: A (Cyrillic), A with breve (Cyrillic), Abkhaz language, ALA-LC romanization, Alaska, Aleut language, Alphabet, Armenian alphabet, Azerbaijan, Azerbaijani language, Baroque, Bashkir language, Bashkir Qa, Be (Cyrillic), Belarusian language, BGN/PCGN romanization, Bit numbering, Bosnian language, Bulgarian language, Byzantine Empire, Caucasus, Central Asia, Central Siberian Yupik language, Character encoding, Che (Cyrillic), Chechen language, Church Slavonic language, Chuvash language, Code page 866, Combining character, Combining Half Marks, Coptic alphabet, Cursive, Cyrillic (Unicode block), Cyrillic alphabets, Cyrillic digraphs, Cyrillic Extended-A, Cyrillic Extended-B, Cyrillic Extended-C, Cyrillic numerals, Cyrillic Supplement, Cyrillization, De (Cyrillic), Dhe (Cyrillic), Dje, DOS, Dotted I (Cyrillic), Dungan language, Dze, Dzhe, ..., E (Cyrillic), Early Cyrillic alphabet, Eastern Catholic Churches, Eastern Europe, Eastern Orthodox Church, Ef (Cyrillic), Egyptian hieroglyphs, El (Cyrillic), Em (Cyrillic), En (Cyrillic), En with descender, En-ghe, Er (Cyrillic), Erzya language, Es (Cyrillic), Eurasia, Eurasiatic languages, European Union, Faux Cyrillic, Federal subjects of Russia, First Bulgarian Empire, Fita, Gaj's Latin alphabet, GB 2312, Ge (Cyrillic), Ghayn (Cyrillic), Ghe with upturn, Gje, Glagolitic script, Glyph, GNU, GOST 16876-71, Grand Embassy of Peter the Great, Greek alphabet, Greek numerals, Homonym, I (Cyrillic), I with grave (Cyrillic), Icon, Ingush language, International Organization for Standardization, Iotated A, Iotated E, Iotation, ISO 9, ISO/IEC 8859-5, Italic type, Izhitsa, Je (Cyrillic), JIS encoding, Ka (Cyrillic), Ka with descender, Kazakh language, Kazakh Short U, Kazakhstan, Keyboard layout, Kha (Cyrillic), Kha with descender, Kibibyte, Kildin Sami language, Kje, KOI8-R, KOI8-U, Komi language, Koppa (Cyrillic), Ksi (Cyrillic), Kurdish languages, Kyrgyz language, Languages of the Balkans, Languages of the Caucasus, Latin, Latin alphabet, Latin script, Letter case, Lingua franca, Linux, List of countries and dependencies by population, List of Cyrillic digraphs and trigraphs, List of Cyrillic letters, Lje, Macedonian language, Mandarin Chinese, Manuscript, Mari language, Microsoft, Microsoft Windows, Middle Ages, MIK (character set), Moksha language, Moldova, Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet, Molodtsov alphabet, Mongolian language, Montenegrin language, MS-DOS, Nje, North Asia, O (Cyrillic), Oe (Cyrillic), Old Church Slavonic, Old East Slavic, Old Permic alphabet, Omega (Cyrillic), Orthodox Slavs, Ossetian language, Ot (Cyrillic), Palochka, Pe (Cyrillic), Peter the Great, Phoenician alphabet, Phonetic Extensions, Preslav Literary School, Pronunciation, Proto-Sinaitic script, Psi (Cyrillic), QWERTY, Renaissance, Robert Bringhurst, Roman type, Romani alphabets, Romania, Romanian language, Romanization, Romanization of Belarusian, Romanization of Bulgarian, Romanization of Kyrgyz, Romanization of Macedonian, Romanization of Russian, Romanization of Ukrainian, Russia, Russian alphabet, Russian Braille, Russian cursive, Russian Far East, Russian language, Russian manual alphabet, Rusyn language, Saints Cyril and Methodius, Sans-serif, Schwa (Cyrillic), Scientific transliteration of Cyrillic, Segoe, Serbian Cyrillic alphabet, Serbian language, Serbo-Croatian, Serif, Sha (Cyrillic), Shcha, Shha, Shift JIS, Short I, Short U (Cyrillic), Siberia, Simeon I of Bulgaria, Sje, Slavs, Small caps, Soft sign, South Slavs, Standard Zhuang, Stefan Tsanev, Tajik language, Tatar language, Te (Cyrillic), The (Cyrillic), The Elements of Typographic Style, Transcription (linguistics), Transliteration, Transnistria, Tse (Cyrillic), Tshe, Turkmenistan, Tuvan language, Typewriter, Typographic ligature, Typography, U (Cyrillic), Udmurt language, Ue (Cyrillic), Uk (Cyrillic), Ukrainian language, Ukrainian Ye, Uncial script, Unicode, Unicode block, United Nations, Unix, UTF-8, Uzbek language, Uzbekistan, Ve (Cyrillic), Vlachs, Vladislav the Grammarian, Volapuk encoding, Vuk Karadžić, West Slavs, Western Europe, Windows-1251, Writing system, Ya (Cyrillic), Yakut language, Yat, Ye (Cyrillic), Ye with grave, Yer, Yery, Yi (Cyrillic), Yn, Yo (Cyrillic), Yu (Cyrillic), Yugoslav Braille, Yugoslav manual alphabet, Yus, Ze (Cyrillic), Zhe (Cyrillic), Zhje, Zje, .бг, .мон, .рф, .срб, .укр, .қаз, 2007 enlargement of the European Union. Expand index (224 more) » « Shrink index
A (А а; italics: А а) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
A with breve (Ӑ ӑ; italics: Ӑ ӑ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Abkhaz (sometimes spelled Abxaz; Аԥсуа бызшәа //), also known as Abkhazian, is a Northwest Caucasian language most closely related to Abaza.
ALA-LC (American Library Association - Library of Congress) is a set of standards for romanization, the representation of text in other writing systems using the Latin script.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
Aleut (Unangam Tunuu) is the language spoken by the Aleut people (Unangax̂) living in the Aleutian Islands, Pribilof Islands, Commander Islands, and the Alaskan Peninsula (in Aleut Alaxsxa, the origin of the state name Alaska).
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
The Armenian alphabet (Հայոց գրեր Hayoc' grer or Հայոց այբուբեն Hayoc' aybowben; Eastern Armenian:; Western Armenian) is an alphabetical writing system used to write Armenian.
Azerbaijani or Azeri, also referred to as Azeri Turkic or Azeri Turkish, is a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Azerbaijanis, who are concentrated mainly in Transcaucasia and Iranian Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan).
The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
The Bashkir language (Башҡорт теле) is a Turkic language belonging to the Kipchak branch.
Bashkir Qa or Bashkir Ka (Ҡ ҡ; italics: Ҡ ҡ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Be (Б б italics: Б б б) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.
BGN/PCGN romanization refers to the systems for romanization (transliteration into the Latin script) and Roman-script spelling conventions adopted by the United States Board on Geographic Names (BGN) and the Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use (PCGN).
In computing, bit numbering (or sometimes bit endianness) is the convention used to identify the bit positions in a binary number or a container for such a value.
The Bosnian language (bosanski / босански) is the standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian mainly used by Bosniaks.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Central Siberian Yupik, (also known as Siberian Yupik, Bering Strait Yupik, Yuit, Yoit, "St. Lawrence Island Yupik", and in Russia "Chaplinski Yupik" or Yuk) is an endangered Yupik language spoken by the indigenous Siberian Yupik people along the coast of the Chukchi Peninsula in the Russian Far East and in the villages of Savoonga and Gambell in St. Lawrence Island.
Character encoding is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of encoding system.
Che or Cha (Ч ч; italics: Ч ч) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Chechen (нохчийн мотт / noxçiyn mott / نَاخچیین موٓتت / ნახჩიე მუოთთ, Nokhchiin mott) is a Northeast Caucasian language spoken by more than 1.4 million people, mostly in the Chechen Republic and by members of the Chechen diaspora throughout Russia, Jordan, Central Asia (mainly Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan), and Georgia.
Church Slavonic, also known as Church Slavic, New Church Slavonic or New Church Slavic, is the conservative Slavic liturgical language used by the Orthodox Church in Bulgaria, Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, Russia, Belarus, Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Republic of Macedonia and Ukraine.
Chuvash (Чӑвашла, Čăvašla) is a Turkic language spoken in European Russia, primarily in the Chuvash Republic and adjacent areas.
Code page 866 (CP 866; Альтернативная кодировка) is a code page used under DOS and OS/2 to write Cyrillic script.
In digital typography, combining characters are characters that are intended to modify other characters.
Combining Half Marks is a Unicode block containing diacritic mark parts for spanning multiple characters.
The Coptic alphabet is the script used for writing the Coptic language.
Cursive (also known as script or longhand, among other names) is any style of penmanship in which some characters are written joined together in a flowing manner, generally for the purpose of making writing faster.
Cyrillic is a Unicode block containing the characters used to write the most widely used languages with a Cyrillic orthography.
Numerous Cyrillic alphabets are based on the Cyrillic script.
The Cyrillic script family contains a large number of specially treated two-letter combinations, or digraphs, but few of these are used in Slavic languages.
Cyrillic Extended-A is a Unicode block containing combining Cyrillic letters used in Old Church Slavonic texts.
Cyrillic Extended-B is a Unicode block containing Cyrillic characters for writing Old Cyrillic and Old Abkhazian, and combining numeric signs.
Cyrillic Extended-C is a Unicode block containing Cyrillic characters for writing Old Cyrillic.
Cyrillic numerals are a numeral system derived from the Cyrillic script, developed in the First Bulgarian Empire in the late 10th century.
Cyrillic Supplement is a Unicode block containing Cyrillic letters for writing several minority languages, including Abkhaz, Kurdish, Komi, Mordvin, Aleut, Azerbaijani, and Jakovlev's Chuvash orthography.
Cyrillization is the process of rendering words of a language that normally uses a writing system other than Cyrillic script into (a version of) the Cyrillic alphabet.
De (Д д; italics: Д д) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Ze with descender (Ҙ ҙ; italics: Ҙ ҙ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Dje (Ђ ђ; italics: Ђ ђ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
DOS is a family of disk operating systems.
The dotted i (І і; italics: І і ), also called decimal i (и десятеричное), is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The Dungan language is a Sinitic language spoken primarily in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan by the Dungan people, an ethnic group related to the Hui people of China.
Dze (Ѕ ѕ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script, used in the Macedonian language to represent the voiced alveolar affricate, pronounced like ⟨ds⟩ in "pods".
Dzhe or Gea (Џ џ; italics: Џ џ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script used in Macedonian and varieties of Serbo-Croatian (Bosnian, Montenegrin, and Serbian) to represent the voiced retroflex affricate, something like the pronunciation of in “jump”.
E (Э э; italics:; also known as backwards e, from Russian э оборо́тное, e oborótnoye) is a letter found in two Slavic languages: Russian and Belarusian.
The Early Cyrillic alphabet is a writing system that was developed during the late ninth century on the basis of the Greek alphabet for the Orthodox Slavic population in Europe.
The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, and in some historical cases Uniate Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian particular churches sui iuris in full communion with the Pope in Rome, as part of the worldwide Catholic Church.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Ef (Ф ф; italics: Ф ф) is a Cyrillic letter, commonly representing the voiceless labiodental fricative, like the pronunciation of in "fill".
Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt.
El (Л л; italics: Л л) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Em (М м; italics: М м) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
En (Н н; italics: Н н) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
En with descender (Ң ң; italics: Ң ң) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
En-ghe (Ҥ ҥ; italics: Ҥ ҥ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script used only in non-Slavic languages.
Er (Р р; italics: Р р) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The Erzya language (erzänj kelj) is spoken by about 37,000 people in the northern, eastern and north-western parts of the Republic of Mordovia and adjacent regions of Nizhny Novgorod, Chuvashia, Penza, Samara, Saratov, Orenburg, Ulyanovsk, Tatarstan and Bashkortostan in Russia.
Es (С с; italics: С с) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
Eurasiatic is a proposed language macrofamily that would include many language families historically spoken in northern, western, and southern Eurasia.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Faux Cyrillic, pseudo-Cyrillic, pseudo-Russian or faux Russian typography is the use of Cyrillic letters in Latin text to evoke the Soviet Union or Russia.
The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (субъекты Российской Федерации subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (субъекты федерации subyekty federatsii), are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia.
The First Bulgarian Empire (Old Bulgarian: ц︢рьство бл︢гарское, ts'rstvo bl'garskoe) was a medieval Bulgarian state that existed in southeastern Europe between the 7th and 11th centuries AD.
Fita (Ѳ ѳ; italics: Ѳ ѳ) is a letter of the Early Cyrillic alphabet.
Gaj's Latin alphabet (gâj); abeceda, latinica, or gajica) is the form of the Latin script used for Serbo-Croatian (Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, and Montenegrin). It was devised by Croatian linguist Ljudevit Gaj in 1835, based on Jan Hus's Czech alphabet. A slightly reduced version is used as the script of the Slovene language, and a slightly expanded version is used as a script of the modern standard Montenegrin language. A modified version is used for the romanization of the Macedonian language. Pavao Ritter Vitezović had proposed an idea for the orthography of the Croatian language, stating that every sound should have only one letter. Gaj's alphabet is currently used in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, and Serbia.
GB2312 is the registered internet name for a key official character set of the People's Republic of China, used for simplified Chinese characters.
Ghe or Ge (Г г; italics: Г г) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Ghayn (Ғ ғ; italics: Ғ ғ) also known as Ge with stroke, or as Ayn (in Kazakh), is a letter of the Cyrillic script. In Unicode this letter is called "Ghe with stroke". It is used in the Bashkir, Karakalpak, Kazakh, Uzbek and Tajik languages, where it represents the voiced uvular fricative. Despite having a similar shape, it is not related to the Latin letter F (F f) or the Greek letter Digamma (Ϝ ϝ). In Kazakh and Tofa, this letter may also represent the voiced velar fricative. In Nivkh, ғ represents, while is represented by ӻ, which looks like ғ with a hook. The Khakas language also uses ғ. In earlier, Arabic-alphabet-based orthographies for some of these languages, the same sound was written with the letter ﻍ (ġayn/ghain).
Ghe with upturn (Ґ ґ; italics: Ґ ґ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Gje (Ѓ ѓ; italics: Ѓ ѓ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The Glagolitic script (Ⰳⰾⰰⰳⱁⰾⰹⱌⰰ Glagolitsa) is the oldest known Slavic alphabet.
In typography, a glyph is an elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable character for the purposes of writing.
GNU is an operating system and an extensive collection of computer software.
GOST 16876-71 (ГОСТ 16876-71) is a romanization system (for transliteration of Russian Cyrillic alphabet texts into the Latin alphabet) devised by the National Administration for Geodesy and Cartography of the Soviet Union.
The Grand Embassy (translit) was a Russian diplomatic mission to Western Europe in 1697–98 led by Peter the Great.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
Greek numerals, also known as Ionic, Ionian, Milesian, or Alexandrian numerals, are a system of writing numbers using the letters of the Greek alphabet.
In linguistics, homonyms, broadly defined, are words which sound alike or are spelled alike, but have different meanings.
I (И и; italics: И и) is a letter used in almost all Cyrillic alphabets.
I with grave (Ѝ ѝ; italics: Ѝ ѝ) is a character representing a stressed variant of the regular letter in some Cyrillic alphabets, but none (either modern or archaic) includes it as a separate letter.
An icon (from Greek εἰκών eikōn "image") is a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, from the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, and certain Eastern Catholic churches.
Ingush (ГӀалгӀай,, pronounced) is a Northeast Caucasian language spoken by about 500,000 people, known as the Ingush, across a region covering the Russian republics of Ingushetia and Chechnya.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
Iotated A is a letter of the Cyrillic script, used today only in Church Slavonic.
Iotated E is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
In Slavic languages, iotation is a form of palatalization that occurs when a consonant comes into contact with a palatal approximant from the succeeding morpheme.
The ISO international standard ISO 9 establishes a system for the transliteration into Latin characters of Cyrillic characters constituting the alphabets of many Slavic and non-Slavic languages.
ISO/IEC 8859-5:1999, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 5: Latin/Cyrillic alphabet, is part of the ISO/IEC 8859 series of ASCII-based standard character encodings, first edition published in 1988.
In typography, italic type is a cursive font based on a stylized form of calligraphic handwriting.
Izhitsa (Ѵ, ѵ; OCS Ѷжица, И́жица) is a letter of the early Cyrillic alphabet and several later alphabets, usually the last in the row.
Je (Ј ј; italics: Ј ј) is a letter of the Cyrillic script, taken over from the Latin letter J.Maretić, Tomislav.
In computing, JIS encoding refers to several Japanese Industrial Standards for encoding the Japanese language.
Ka (К к; italics: К к) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Ka with descender (Қ қ; italics: Қ қ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script used in a number of non-Slavic languages spoken on the territory of the former Soviet Union, including.
Kazakh (natively italic, qazaq tili) belongs to the Kipchak branch of the Turkic languages.
Kazakh Short U (Ұ ұ; italics: Ұ ұ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
A keyboard layout is any specific mechanical, visual, or functional arrangement of the keys, legends, or key-meaning associations (respectively) of a computer, typewriter, or other typographic keyboard.
Kha or Ha (Х х; italics: Х х) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Kha with descender (Ҳ ҳ; italics: Ҳ ҳ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The kibibyte is a multiple of the unit byte for quantities of digital information.
Kildin Saami (also known by its other synonymous names Saami, Kola Saami, Eastern Saami and Lappish), is a Saami language that is spoken on the Kola Peninsula in northwestern Russia that today is and historically was once inhabited by this group.
Kje (Ќ ќ; italics: Ќ ќ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script, used only in the Macedonian alphabet, where it represents the voiceless palatal plosive, or the voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate.
KOI8-R (RFC 1489) is an 8-bit character encoding, designed to cover Russian, which uses a Cyrillic alphabet.
KOI8-U (RFC 2319) is an 8-bit character encoding, designed to cover Ukrainian, which uses a Cyrillic alphabet.
The Komi language (endonym: Коми кыв, tr. Komi kyv) is a Uralic macrolanguage spoken by the Komi peoples in the northeastern European part of Russia.
Early Cyrillic numeral character Koppa (.
Ksi (Ѯ, ѯ) is a letter of the early Cyrillic alphabet, derived from the Greek letter Xi (Ξ, ξ).
Kurdish (Kurdî) is a continuum of Northwestern Iranian languages spoken by the Kurds in Western Asia.
Kyrgyz (natively кыргызча, قىرعىزچه, kyrgyzcha or кыргыз тили, قىرعىز تيلى, kyrgyz tili) is a Turkic language spoken by about four million people in Kyrgyzstan as well as China, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Uzbekistan, Pakistan and Russia.
This is a list of languages spoken in regions ruled by Balkan countries.
The Caucasian languages are a large and extremely varied array of languages spoken by more than ten million people in and around the Caucasus Mountains, which lie between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population.
The following digraphs (and trigraphs) are used in the Cyrillic script.
Variants of Cyrillic are used by the writing systems of many languages, especially languages used in the former Soviet Union.
Lje (Љ љ; italics: Љ љ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Macedonian (македонски, tr. makedonski) is a South Slavic language spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in the Republic of Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) was, traditionally, any document written by hand -- or, once practical typewriters became available, typewritten -- as opposed to being mechanically printed or reproduced in some indirect or automated way.
The Mari language (Mari: марий йылме, marii jõlme; марийский язык, marijskij jazyk), spoken by approximately 400,000 people, belongs to the Uralic language family.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
MIK (МИК) is a 8-bit Cyrillic code page used with DOS.
The Moksha language (mokšenj kälj) is a member of the Mordvinic branch of the Uralic languages, with around 2,000 native speakers (2010 Russian census).
Moldova (or sometimes), officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south (by way of the disputed territory of Transnistria).
The Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet is a Cyrillic alphabet designed for the Moldovan language in the Soviet Union and was in official use from 1924 to 1932 and 1938 to 1989 (and still in use today in the Moldovan region of Transnistria).
The Cyrillic Molodtsov alphabet (Молодцов анбур, Molodcov anbur) is an alphabet derived from Cyrillic that was used in the 1920s and 1930s to write two versions of the Komi language; Komi-Zyrian and Komi-Permyak.
The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script: Moŋɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: монгол хэл, mongol khel.) is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family.
Montenegrin (црногорски / crnogorski) is the variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used as the official language of Montenegro.
MS-DOS (acronym for Microsoft Disk Operating System) is an operating system for x86-based personal computers mostly developed by Microsoft.
Nje (Њ њ; italics: Њ њ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
North Asia or Northern Asia, sometimes known as Siberia, is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the Russian regions of Siberia, Ural and the Russian Far East – an area east of the Ural Mountains.
O (О о; italics: О о) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Oe or barred O (Ө ө; italics: Ө ө) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Old Church Slavonic, also known as Old Church Slavic (or Ancient/Old Slavonic often abbreviated to OCS; (autonym словѣ́ньскъ ѩꙁꙑ́къ, slověnĭskŭ językŭ), not to be confused with the Proto-Slavic, was the first Slavic literary language. The 9th-century Byzantine missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius are credited with standardizing the language and using it in translating the Bible and other Ancient Greek ecclesiastical texts as part of the Christianization of the Slavs. It is thought to have been based primarily on the dialect of the 9th century Byzantine Slavs living in the Province of Thessalonica (now in Greece). It played an important role in the history of the Slavic languages and served as a basis and model for later Church Slavonic traditions, and some Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches use this later Church Slavonic as a liturgical language to this day. As the oldest attested Slavic language, OCS provides important evidence for the features of Proto-Slavic, the reconstructed common ancestor of all Slavic languages.
Old East Slavic or Old Russian was a language used during the 10th–15th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus' and states which evolved after the collapse of Kievan Rus'.
The Old Permic script (Важ Перым гижӧм), sometimes called Abur or Anbur, is a "highly idiosyncratic adaptation" of the Cyrillic script once used to write medieval Komi (Permic).
Omega (Ѡ ѡ or Ѡ ѡ; italics: Ѡ ѡ or Ѡ ѡ) is a letter used in the early Cyrillic alphabet.
The Orthodox Slavs form a religious grouping of the Slavic peoples, including ethnic groups and nations that predominantly adhere to the Eastern Orthodox Christian faith and whose Churches follow the Byzantine Rite liturgy.
Ossetian, also known as Ossete and Ossetic, is an Eastern Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the northern slopes of the Caucasus Mountains.
Ot (Ѿ ѿ; italics: Ѿ ѿ) is a letter of the early Cyrillic alphabet.
The palochka or palotchka (Ӏ ӏ; italics: Ӏ ӏ) (r, literally "a stick") is a letter in the Cyrillic script.
Pe (П п; italics: П п) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
The Phoenician alphabet, called by convention the Proto-Canaanite alphabet for inscriptions older than around 1050 BC, is the oldest verified alphabet.
Phonetic Extensions is a Unicode block containing phonetic characters used in the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet, Old Irish phonetic notation, the Oxford English dictionary and American dictionaries, and Americanist and Russianist phonetic notations.
The Preslav Literary School (Преславска книжовна школа), also known as the Pliska Literary School, was the first literary school in the medieval Bulgarian Empire.
Pronunciation is the way in which a word or a language is spoken.
Proto-Sinaitic, also referred to as Sinaitic, Proto-Canaanite, Old Canaanite, or Canaanite, is a term for both a Middle Bronze Age (Middle Kingdom) script attested in a small corpus of inscriptions found at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, and the reconstructed common ancestor of the Paleo-Hebrew, Phoenician and South Arabian scripts (and, by extension, of most historical and modern alphabets).
Psi (Ѱ, ѱ) is a letter in the early Cyrillic alphabet, derived from the Greek letter psi (Ψ, ψ).
QWERTY is a keyboard design for Latin-script alphabets.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Robert Bringhurst Appointments to the Order of Canada (2013).
In Latin script typography, roman is one of the three main kinds of historical type, alongside blackletter and italic.
The Romani language has for most of its history been an entirely oral language, with no written form in common use.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so.
Romanization or Latinization of Belarusian is any system for transliterating written Belarusian from Cyrillic to the Latin.
Romanization of Bulgarian is the practice of transliteration of text in Bulgarian from its conventional Cyrillic orthography into the Latin alphabet.
The Kyrgyz language is written in the Kyrgyz alphabet, a modification of Cyrillic.
The Romanization of Macedonian is the transliteration of text in the Macedonian language from the Macedonian Cyrillic alphabet into the Latin alphabet.
Romanization of Russian is the process of transliterating the Russian language from the Cyrillic script into the Latin script.
The romanization or Latinization of Ukrainian is the representation of the Ukrainian language using Latin letters.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian alphabet (ˈruskʲɪj ɐɫfɐˈvʲit̪) uses letters from the Cyrillic script.
Russian Braille is the braille alphabet of the Russian language.
The Russian cursive A printed variant of the Russian cursive (when it is reproduced in ABC books and other places) is typically referred to as (ру́сский) рукопи́сный шрифт, "(Russian) handwritten font".
The Russian Far East (p) comprises the Russian part of the Far East - the extreme eastern territory of Russia, between Lake Baikal in Eastern Siberia and the Pacific Ocean.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Russian Manual Alphabet (RMA) is used for fingerspelling in Russian sign language.
Rusyn (Carpathian Rusyn), по нашому (po našomu); Pannonian Rusyn)), also known in English as Ruthene (sometimes Ruthenian), is a Slavic language spoken by the Rusyns of Eastern Europe.
Saints Cyril and Methodius (826–869, 815–885; Κύριλλος καὶ Μεθόδιος; Old Church Slavonic) were two brothers who were Byzantine Christian theologians and Christian missionaries.
In typography and lettering, a sans-serif, sans serif, gothic, or simply sans letterform is one that does not have extending features called "serifs" at the end of strokes.
Schwa (Ә ә; italics: Ә ә) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Scientific transliteration, variously called academic, linguistic, international, or scholarly transliteration, is an international system for transliteration of text from the Cyrillic script to the Latin script (romanization).
Segoe is a typeface, or family of fonts, that is best known for its use by Microsoft.
The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet (српска ћирилица/srpska ćirilica, pronounced) is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script for the Serbian language, developed in 1818 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić.
Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.
Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
In typography, a serif is a small line attached to the end of a stroke in a letter or symbol.
Sha (Ш ш; italics: Ш ш) is a letter of the Glagolitic and Cyrillic script.
Shcha (Щ щ; italics: Щ щ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Shha (Һ һ; italics: Һ һ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
--> Shift JIS (Shift Japanese Industrial Standards, also SJIS, MIME name Shift_JIS) is a character encoding for the Japanese language, originally developed by a Japanese company called ASCII Corporation in conjunction with Microsoft and standardized as JIS X 0208 Appendix 1.
Short I or Yot (Й й; italics: Й й) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Short U (Ў ў; italics: Ў ў) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Simeon (also Symeon) I the Great (Симеон I Велики, transliterated Simeon I Veliki) ruled over Bulgaria from 893 to 927,Lalkov, Rulers of Bulgaria, pp.
Sje (С́ с́; italics: С́ с́) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, formed from С with the addition of an acute accent.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
In typography, small capitals (usually abbreviated small caps) are lowercase characters typeset with glyphs that resemble uppercase letters ("capitals") but reduced in height and weight, close to the surrounding lowercase (small) letters or text figures, for example:.
The soft sign (Ь, ь, italics Ь, ь; Russian: мягкий знак) also known as the front yer or front er, is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The South Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the South Slavic languages.
Standard Zhuang (autonym) is the official standardized form of the Zhuang languages, which are a branch of the Northern Tai languages.
Stefan Nedelchev Tsanev (Стефан Неделчев Цанев) (b. 7 August 1936) is a contemporary Bulgarian writer, known for his essays, plays, poems, and historical novels.
Tajik or Tajiki (Tajik: забо́ни тоҷикӣ́, zaboni tojikī), also called Tajiki Persian (Tajik: форси́и тоҷикӣ́, forsii tojikī), is the variety of Persian spoken in Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
The Tatar language (татар теле, tatar tele; татарча, tatarça) is a Turkic language spoken by Tatars mainly located in modern Tatarstan, Bashkortostan (European Russia), as well as Siberia.
Te (Т т; italics: Т т) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The (Ҫ ҫ; italics: Ҫ ҫ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The Elements of Typographic Style is the authoritative book on typography and style by Canadian typographer, poet and translator Robert Bringhurst.
Transcription in the linguistic sense is the systematic representation of language in written form.
Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e).
Transnistria, the self-proclaimed Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR; Приднестровская Молдавская Республика, ПМР; Republica Moldovenească Nistreană, RMN; Република Молдовеняскэ Нистрянэ; Придністровська Молдавська Республіка), and also called Transdniester, Trans-Dniestr, Transdniestria, or Pridnestrovie, is a non-recognized state which controls part of the geographical region Transnistria (the area between the Dniester river and Ukraine) and also the city of Bender and its surrounding localities on the west bank.
Tse (Ц ц; italics: Ц ц) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Tshe (Ћ ћ; italics: Ћ ћ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script, used only in the Serbian Cyrillic alphabet, where it represents the voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate, somewhat like the pronunciation of in "chew"; however, it must not be confused with the voiceless retroflex affricate Che (Ч ч), which sounds and which also exists in Serbian Cyrillic script.
Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
Tuvan (Tuvan: Тыва дыл, Tıwa dıl; tʰɯˈʋa tɯl), also known as Tuvinian, Tyvan or Tuvin, is a Turkic language spoken in the Republic of Tuva in south-central Siberia in Russia.
A typewriter is a mechanical or electromechanical machine for writing characters similar to those produced by printer's movable type.
In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph.
Typography is the art and technique of arranging type to make written language legible, readable, and appealing when displayed.
U (У у; italics: У у) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Udmurt (удмурт кыл, udmurt kyl) is a Uralic language, part of the Permic subgroup, spoken by the Udmurt natives of the Russian constituent republic of Udmurtia, where it is co-official with Russian.
Ue or Straight U (Ү ү; italics: Ү ү) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Uk (Оу оу; italics: Оу оу) is a digraph of the early Cyrillic alphabet, although commonly considered and used as a single letter.
Ukrainian Ye (Є є; italics: Є є) is a character of the Cyrillic script.
Uncial is a majusculeGlaister, Geoffrey Ashall.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
In Unicode, a block is defined as one contiguous range of code points.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.
UTF-8 is a variable width character encoding capable of encoding all 1,112,064 valid code points in Unicode using one to four 8-bit bytes.
Uzbek is a Turkic language that is the sole official language of Uzbekistan.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
Ve (В в; italics: В в) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Vlachs (or, or rarely), also Wallachians (and many other variants), is a historical term from the Middle Ages which designates an exonym (a name given by foreigners) used mostly for the Romanians who lived north and south of the Danube.
Vladislav the Grammarian (Bulgarian and Владислав Граматик; 1456–79) was a Bulgarian Orthodox Christian monk, scribe, historian and theologian active in medieval Serbia and Bulgaria, regarded part of both the Serbian and Bulgarian literary corpus.
Volapuk encoding (кодировка "волапюк", kodirovka "volapük") or latinica (латиница) is a slang term for rendering the letters of the Cyrillic script with Latin ones.
Vuk Stefanović Karadžić (Вук Стефановић Караџић; 7 November 1787 – 7 February 1864) was a Serbian philologist and linguist who was the major reformer of the Serbian language.
The West Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the West Slavic languages.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
Windows-1251 is a 8-bit character encoding, designed to cover languages that use the Cyrillic script such as Russian, Bulgarian, Serbian Cyrillic and other languages.
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.
Ya (Я я; italics: Я я) is a letter of the Cyrillic script, the civil script variant of Old Cyrillic Little Yus.
Yakut, also known as Sakha, is a Turkic language with around 450,000 native speakers spoken in the Sakha Republic in the Russian Federation by the Yakuts.
Yat or jat (Ѣ ѣ; italics: Ѣ ѣ) is the thirty-second letter of the old Cyrillic alphabet, as well as the name of the sound it represented.
Ye (Е е; italics: Е е) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Ye with grave (Ѐ ѐ; italics: Ѐ ѐ) is a regular combination of Cyrillic letter Ye (Е е) and grave accent.
A yer is one of two letters in Cyrillic alphabets: ъ (ѥръ, jerŭ) and ь (ѥрь, jerĭ).
Yery, Yeru, Ery or Eru (Ы ы; italics: Ы ы, usually called "Ы" in modern Russian or "еры" yerý historically and in modern Church Slavonic) is a letter in the Cyrillic script.
Yi (Ї ї; italics: Ї ї) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Yn is an archaic Cyrillic letter.
Yo (Ё ё; italics: Ё ё) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Yu (Ю ю; italics: Ю ю) is a letter of the Cyrillic script used in East Slavic and Bulgarian alphabets.
Yugoslav Braille is a family of closely related braille alphabets used for the Bosnian, Serbian, Croatian, Slovene, and Macedonian languages.
The Yugoslav manual alphabet is two-handed manual alphabet that is used to spell in Yugoslav Sign Language.
Little yus (Ѧ ѧ) and big yus (Ѫ ѫ), or jus, are letters of the Cyrillic script representing two Common Slavonic nasal vowels in the early Cyrillic and Glagolitic alphabets.
Ze (З з; italics: З з) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Zhe (Ж ж; italics: Ж ж) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Zhje or Zhe with descender (Җ җ; italics: Җ җ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Zje (З́ з́; italics: З́ з́) is a letter of the Cyrillic alphabet, formed from З with the addition of an acute accent.
The domain name.бг (romanized as.bg; abbreviation of България, tr. Bălgarija) is an internationalized country code top-level domain (IDN ccTLD) for Bulgaria.
.мон is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Mongolia.
The domain name.рф (romanized as.rf; abbreviation of) is the Cyrillic country code top-level domain for the Russian Federation, in the Domain Name System of the Internet.
.срб (romanized as.srb; abbreviation of Србија/Srbija) is the Internationalised (Cyrillic) Internet country code top-level domain (IDN ccTLD) for Serbia.
The domain name.укр (romanized as.ukr; abbreviation of Україна, tr. Ukrayina) is an approved internationalized country code top-level domain (IDN ccTLD) for Ukraine.
.қаз (abbreviation of Қазақстан, tr. Qazaqstan) are the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Kazakhstan,.қаз ("qaz") for Kazakhstan is now active.
The 2007 enlargement of the European Union saw Bulgaria and Romania join the European Union (EU) on 1 January 2007.
Azbuka, Cirilicna Azbuka, Cirilicna azbuka, Cirilicna-Azbuka, Cirilicna-azbuka, Cirillic, Cirillic script, Crillic, Crylic, Cryllic, Cryllic alphabet, Cyrilic, Cyrilic alphabet, Cyrillic, Cyrillic (script), Cyrillic Alphabet, Cyrillic Azbuka, Cyrillic Letters, Cyrillic Script, Cyrillic alphabet, Cyrillic azbuka, Cyrillic characters, Cyrillic language, Cyrillic letter, Cyrillic letters, Cyrillic-Azbuka, Cyrillic-alphabet, Cyrillic-azbuka, Cyrillic-based alphabet, Cyrillics, Cyrl (script), Cyrlic, Cyrrilic, Kirillic alphabet, Kyrylytsia, Ćirilična Azbuka, Ćirilična azbuka, Ćirilična-Azbuka, Ćirilična-azbuka, Ћирилична Азбука, Ћирилична азбука, Ћирилична-Азбука, Ћирилична-азбука, Кириллица.