132 relations: Aboriginal Australians, Aboriginal Tasmanians, Afghan Australians, Africa, Americans, Ancestor, Anglicanism, Anglo-Celtic, Anglo-Celtic Australians, Antipodes, Anzac spirit, Arabic, Arthur Calwell, Asia, Asian Australians, Aussie, Australia, Australia (continent), Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian diaspora, Australian English, Australian gold rushes, Australian literature, Australian nationality law, British diaspora in Africa, British Isles, British people, British subject, Bush ballad, Canadians, Cantonese, Catholic Church, Chinese Australians, Christianity, Christianity in Australia, Colonialism, Colony of New South Wales, Commonwealth of Nations, Confidence interval, Constitution of Australia, Constitutionalism, Convict, Convicts in Australia, Cornish Australians, Croatian Australians, Crown colony, Culture of Australia, Democracy, Demographics of South Africa, Department of Immigration and Citizenship, ..., Dutch Australians, Dutch people, East Asia, Eastern Europe, Encyclopaedia of Aboriginal Australia, English Australians, English language, English-speaking world, Ethnic groups in Europe, Eureka Rebellion, Europe, Federalism, Federation of Australia, Filipino Australians, First Fleet, Freedom of religion, German Australians, Germans, Greek Australians, Harry Lourandos, History of Australia, History of Australia (1788–1850), Immigration to Australia, Indian Australians, Indigenous Australians, Irish Australians, Irish people, Italian Australians, James Cook, Kingdom of Great Britain, Kokoda Track campaign, Languages of Australia, Latin America, Lebanese Australians, List of Australian penal colonies, List of Indigenous Australian group names, Mainstream, Maltese Australians, Mandarin Chinese, Manx Australians, Māori Australians, Māori people, Melanesians, Menzies Government (1949–66), Middle East, Modern Greek, Monarchy of Australia, New Zealand, New Zealand Australians, New Zealanders, Northern England, Northern Europe, Office for National Statistics, Pacific Islands, Papua New Guinea, Pākehā, People, Polish Australians, Polynesians, Protestantism, Religion in Australia, Scandinavia, Scottish Australians, South Asia, South East England, South West England, Southern Europe, States and territories of Australia, Tasmania, The Midlands, The Sydney Morning Herald, Torres Strait, Torres Strait Islanders, Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement, United Kingdom, Vietnamese Australians, Welsh Australians, Western culture, Western world, Westminster, White Australia policy, White people in Zimbabwe. Expand index (82 more) » « Shrink index
Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members "of the Aboriginal race of Australia" (indigenous to mainland Australia or to the island of Tasmania).
The Aboriginal Tasmanians (Tasmanian: Palawa) are the indigenous people of the Australian state of Tasmania, located south of the mainland.
Afghan Australians are Australians whose ancestors came from Afghanistan or who were born in Afghanistan.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Americans are citizens of the United States of America.
An ancestor is a parent or (recursively) the parent of an antecedent (i.e., a grandparent, great-grandparent, great-great-grandparent, and so forth).
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
Anglo-Celtic citizens are those of British or English and Celtic descent.
Anglo-Celtic Australians are Australians whose ancestors originate wholly or partially in the countries of England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland.
In geography, the antipode of any spot on Earth is the point on Earth's surface diametrically opposite to it; the antipodes of a region similarly represent the area opposite it.
The Anzac spirit or Anzac legend is a concept which suggests that Australian and New Zealand soldiers possess shared characteristics, specifically the qualities those soldiers allegedly exemplified on the battlefields of World War I. These perceived qualities include endurance, courage, ingenuity, good humour, larrikinism, and mateship.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arthur Augustus Calwell KCSG (28 August 1896 – 8 July 1973) was an Australian politician who served as the leader of the Labor Party from 1960 to 1967.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Asian Australians are Australians of Asian ancestry.
Aussie or Ozzie is Australian slang for an Australian and less commonly, Australia.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The continent of Australia, sometimes known in technical contexts by the names Sahul, Australinea or Meganesia to distinguish it from the country of Australia, consists of the land masses which sit on Australia's continental shelf.
The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the independent statistical agency of the Government of Australia.
The term Australian diaspora refers to the approximately 310,000 Australian citizens (approximately 1.3% of the population) who today live outside Australia.
Australian English (AuE, en-AU) is a major variety of the English language, used throughout Australia.
During the Australian gold rushes, significant numbers of workers (both from other areas within Australia and from overseas) relocated to areas in which gold had been discovered.
Australian literature is the written or literary work produced in the area or by the people of the Commonwealth of Australia and its preceding colonies.
Australian nationality law determines who is and who is not an Australian citizen.
The British diaspora in Africa is a population group broadly defined as English-speaking white Africans of mainly (but not only) British descent who live in or come from Sub-Saharan Africa.
The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and over six thousand smaller isles.
The British people, or the Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Overseas Territories, and the Crown dependencies.
The term British subject has had a number of different legal meanings over time.
The bush ballad, bush song or bush poem is a style of poetry and folk music that depicts the life, character and scenery of the Australian bush.
Canadians (Canadiens / Canadiennes) are people identified with the country of Canada.
The Cantonese language is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton) and its surrounding area in southeastern China.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Chinese Australians are Australian citizens of Chinese ancestry.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christianity is the largest Australian religion according to the national census.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
The colony of New South Wales was a colony of the British Empire from 1788 to 1901, when it became a State in the federal Commonwealth of Australia on 1 January 1901.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
In statistics, a confidence interval (CI) is a type of interval estimate, computed from the statistics of the observed data, that might contain the true value of an unknown population parameter.
The Constitution of Australia is the supreme law under which the government of the Commonwealth of Australia operates, including its relationship to the States of Australia.
Constitutionalism is "a complex of ideas, attitudes, and patterns of behavior elaborating the principle that the authority of government derives from and is limited by a body of fundamental law".
A convict is "a person found guilty of a crime and sentenced by a court" or "a person serving a sentence in prison".
Between 1788 and 1868, about 162,000 convicts were transported by the British government to various penal colonies in Australia.
Cornish Australians are citizens of Australia who are fully or partially of Cornish heritage or descent, an ethnic group native to Cornwall in the United Kingdom.
Croatian Australians (Australski Hrvati) are Australian citizens of Croatian descent.
Crown colony, dependent territory and royal colony are terms used to describe the administration of United Kingdom overseas territories that are controlled by the British Government.
The culture of Australia is a Western culture, derived primarily from Britain but also influenced by the unique geography of Australia, the cultural input of Aboriginal, Torres Strait Islander and other Australian people.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
The demographics of South Africa encompasses about 56 million people of diverse origins, cultures, languages, and religions.
The Department of Immigration and Citizenship (also called DIAC) was an Australian government department that existed between January 2007 and September 2013, that was preceded by the Department of Immigration and Multicultural Affairs and was succeeded by the Department of Immigration and Border Protection.
Dutch Australians refers to Australians with full or partial Dutch ancestry.
The Dutch (Dutch), occasionally referred to as Netherlanders—a term that is cognate to the Dutch word for Dutch people, "Nederlanders"—are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The Encyclopaedia of Aboriginal Australia: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander history, society and culture,Paper Set Windows Macintosh edited by David Horton, is an encyclopaedia published by the "Aboriginal Studies Press" at the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS) in 1994 and available in two volumes or on CD-ROM covering all aspects of Indigenous Australians lives and world (such as biography, history, art, language, sport, education, archaeology, literature, land ownership, social organisation, health, music, law, technology, media, economy, politics, food and religion).
English Australians, also known as Anglo-Australians, are Australians of English descent, and are the largest 'ancestry' identity in the Australian census.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Approximately 330 to 360 million people speak English as their first language.
The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.
The Eureka Rebellion was a rebellion in 1854, instigated by gold miners in Ballarat, Victoria, Australia, who revolted against the colonial authority of the United Kingdom.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.
The Federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British self-governing colonies of Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, South Australia, and Western Australia agreed to unite and form the Commonwealth of Australia, establishing a system of federalism in Australia.
Filipino Australians (Filipino: Pilipino-Australyano) are Australians of Filipino ancestry.
The First Fleet was the 11 ships that departed from Portsmouth, England, on 13 May 1787 to found the penal colony that became the first European settlement in Australia.
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.
German Australians (Deutsch-Australier) are Australian citizens of ethnic German ancestry.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Greek Australians (Ελληνοαυστραλοί) comprise Australian citizens who have full or partial Greek heritage or people who sought asylum as refugees after the Greek Civil War or emigrated from Greece and reside in Australia.
Harry Lourandos (born 1945) is an Australian archaeologist, Adjunct Professor in the Department of Anthropology, Archaeology and Sociology, School of Arts and Social Sciences at James Cook University, Cairns.
The History of Australia refers to the history of the area and people of the Commonwealth of Australia and its preceding Indigenous and colonial societies.
The history of Australia from 1788–1850 covers the early colonial period of Australia's history, from the arrival in 1788 of the First Fleet of British ships at Sydney, New South Wales, who established the penal colony, the scientific exploration of the continent and later, establishment of other Australian colonies and the beginnings of representative democratic government.
Immigration to Australia began when the ancestors of Australian Aborigines arrived on the continent via the islands of Maritime Southeast Asia and New Guinea.
Indian Australians are Australians of Indian descent or heritage.
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to British colonisation.
Irish Australians (Gael-Astrálaigh) are an ethnic group of Australian citizens of Irish descent, which include immigrants from and descendants whose ancestry originates from the island of Ireland.
The Irish people (Muintir na hÉireann or Na hÉireannaigh) are a nation and ethnic group native to the island of Ireland, who share a common Irish ancestry, identity and culture.
Italian Australians comprise the sixth largest ethnic group in Australia, with the 2016 census finding 4.6% of the population (1,000,013 people) claiming ancestry from Italy be they migrants to Australia or their descendants born in Australia of Italian heritage.
Captain James Cook (7 November 1728Old style date: 27 October14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
The Kokoda Track campaign or Kokoda Trail campaign was part of the Pacific War of World War II.
Although Australia has no official languages, English has been entrenched as the de facto national language since European settlement.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
Lebanese Australians refers to citizens or permanent residents of Australia of Lebanese ancestry.
The following is a list of Australian penal colonies that existed from the establishment of European presence in the 1780s and during the nineteenth century.
Below is a list of names and collective designations which have been applied, either currently or in the past, to groups of Indigenous Australians.
Mainstream is current thought that is widespread.
Maltese Australians are Australian citizens who are fully or partially of Maltese descent or Malta-born people who reside in Australia.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
Manx Australians are Australian citizens of Manx descent or Manx people who reside in Australia.
Māori Australians are Australians of Māori heritage.
The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand.
Melanesians are the predominant indigenous inhabitants of Melanesia.
The Menzies Government (1949–1966) refers to the second period of federal executive government of Australia led by Prime Minister Robert Menzies.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική Γλώσσα "Neo-Hellenic", historically and colloquially also known as Ρωμαίικα "Romaic" or "Roman", and Γραικικά "Greek") refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era.
The monarchy of Australia is a form of government in which a hereditary king or queen serves as the nation's sovereign.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
New Zealand Australians refers to Australian citizens whose origins are in New Zealand, as well as New Zealand migrants and expatriates based in Australia.
New Zealanders, colloquially known as Kiwis, are people associated with New Zealand, sharing a common history, culture, and language (New Zealand English).
Northern England, also known simply as the North, is the northern part of England, considered as a single cultural area.
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department which reports directly to the UK Parliament.
The Pacific Islands are the islands of the Pacific Ocean.
Papua New Guinea (PNG;,; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.
Pākehā (or Pakeha) is a Māori-language term for New Zealanders of European descent.
A people is a plurality of persons considered as a whole, as is the case with an ethnic group or nation.
Polish Australians refers to Australian citizens or residents of full or partial Polish ancestry, or Polish citizens living in Australia.
The Polynesians are a subset of Austronesians native to the islands of Polynesia that speak the Polynesian languages, a branch of the Oceanic subfamily of the Austronesian language family.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Religion in Australia is diverse.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Scottish Australians are residents of Australia who are fully or partially of Scottish descent.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
South East England is the most populous of the nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes.
South West England is one of nine official regions of England.
Southern Europe is the southern region of the European continent.
Australia (officially known as the Commonwealth of Australia) is a federation of six states, together with ten federal territories.
Tasmania (abbreviated as Tas and known colloquially as Tassie) is an island state of Australia.
The Midlands is a cultural and geographic area roughly spanning central England that broadly corresponds to the early medieval Kingdom of Mercia.
The Sydney Morning Herald (SMH) is a daily compact newspaper published by Fairfax Media in Sydney, Australia.
The Torres Strait is a strait which lies between Australia and the Melanesian island of New Guinea.
Torres Strait Islanders are the indigenous people of the Torres Strait Islands, part of Queensland, Australia.
The Trans-Tasman Travel Arrangement is an arrangement between Australia and New Zealand which allows for the free movement of citizens of one of these countries to the other.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
Vietnamese Australians (Người Úc gốc Việt) are Australians of Vietnamese ancestry, or people who migrated to Australia from Vietnam.
Welsh Australians are citizens of Australia whose ancestry originates in Wales.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
Westminster is an area of central London within the City of Westminster, part of the West End, on the north bank of the River Thames.
The term White Australia policy comprises various historical policies that effectively barred people of non-European descent from emigrating into Australia.
White Zimbabweans (historically referred to as white Rhodesians or simply Rhodesians) are people from the southern African country Zimbabwe who are white.