390 relations: A, A Dictionary of the English Language, Accent (sociolinguistics), Accusative case, Acronym, Aeon (digital magazine), Affricate consonant, African American Vernacular English, Afrikaans, Agreement (linguistics), Alfred the Great, Allophone, Alveolar consonant, American and British English spelling differences, American English, An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, Analytic language, Anaphora (linguistics), Angles, Anglo-Frisian languages, Anglo-Norman language, Anglo-Saxon runes, Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain, Anglo-Saxons, Apophony, Approximant consonant, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Aspirated consonant, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Australia, Australian English, Auxiliary verb, Æ, B, Bantu languages, Barbados, BBC, Belize, Beowulf, Braj Kachru, Breathy voice, British Empire, British Isles, C, Caesar's invasions of Britain, Calque, Cambridge University Press, Canada, Canadian English, Canadian raising, ..., Canadian Shift, Caribbean, Cayman Islands, Cædmon's Hymn, Celtic languages, Chain shift, Charles University in Prague, Cleft sentence, Clipping (phonetics), Clitic, Close vowel, Cockney, Code-switching, Cognate, Cohesion (linguistics), Common Brittonic, Commonwealth of Nations, Comparison (grammar), Consonant cluster, Constructed language, Controlled natural language, Copula (linguistics), Corpus linguistics, Council of Europe, Count noun, County Wexford, Court of Chancery, Creole language, D, Danelaw, David Crystal, Definiteness, Dialect continuum, Digraph (orthography), Diphthong, Discourse marker, Do-support, Dublin, Dummy pronoun, Dutch language, E, Early Modern English, East Midlands English, Economic Cooperation Organization, End of Roman rule in Britain, English alphabet, English Braille, English language in England, English language in northern England, English language in southern England, English languages, English modal verbs, English-based creole languages, Epic poetry, Esperanto, Essex, Estuary English, Eth, European Free Trade Association, European Union, F, Faroese language, Fingallian, Finite verb, First language, Focus (linguistics), Foreign language, Forth and Bargy dialect, Fortis and lenis, French language, Fricative consonant, Frisia, Frisian languages, G, General American, Genitive case, Geoffrey Chaucer, Geordie, German language, Germanic languages, Germanic strong verb, Germanic weak verb, Glottal consonant, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical case, Grammatical number, Grammatical person, Great Britain, Great Vowel Shift, Grimm's law, GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development, H, Hard and soft C, Hard and soft G, Henry Sweet, Henry V of England, Hiberno-English, History of Anglo-Saxon England, History of the Scots language, I, Icelandic language, Indian English, Indigenous language, Indo-European languages, Inflection, Ingvaeonic languages, Interdental consonant, International auxiliary language, International Criminal Court, International Olympic Committee, International Organization for Standardization, International Phonetic Alphabet, International scientific vocabulary, Ireland, Isolating language, J, Jamaica, Jamaican English, Jamaican Patois, James VI and I, John Trevisa, Jutes, Jutland, K, Kentish dialect, Khoe languages, King James Version, Kingdom of Lindsey, Koiné language, L, Labial consonant, Language contact, Language death, Languages of the European Union, Lateral consonant, Latin, Latin alphabet, Latin script, Le Morte d'Arthur, Leeward Islands, Letter case, Letterform, Lexical set, Lexicography, Lexis (linguistics), Lingua franca, Linguistic imperialism, Linking and intrusive R, List of dialects of the English language, List of languages by number of native speakers, List of territorial entities where English is an official language, Liverpool, Loanword, Low German, Lower Saxony, M, Manchester, Manchester dialect, Manually coded English, Mass noun, Mercian dialect, Mid vowel, Middle English, Middle English creole hypothesis, Mixed language, Modal verb, Modern English, Morphosyntactic alignment, Mutual intelligibility, N, Nasal consonant, NATO, Neologism, New Zealand, New Zealand English, Nigeria, Noah Webster, Nominative case, Nominative–accusative language, Norman conquest of England, Norman invasion of Ireland, Norman language, North America, North American Free Trade Agreement, North Germanic languages, Northern Cities Vowel Shift, Northumbrian dialect, Noun phrase, O, Object (grammar), Oblique case, Obstruent, Oceania, Official language, Official languages of the United Nations, Old English, Old English grammar, Old English Latin alphabet, Old Norman, Old Norse, Old Saxon, OPEC, Open vowel, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Organization of American States, Orthography, Otto Jespersen, Oxford, Oxford University Press, P, Pacific Islands Forum, Palatal consonant, Palatalization (sound change), Periphrasis, Philippines, Phone (phonetics), Phoneme, Phonetics, Phonological history of English, Phonological history of English low back vowels, Phonological history of English short A, Phonology, Phrasal verb, Pluricentric language, Possession (linguistics), Postalveolar consonant, Present tense, Printing press, Proper noun, Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Indo-European language, Punctuation, Q, R, Raising (phonology), Received Pronunciation, Regional accents of English, Register (sociolinguistics), Relative clause, Renfrewshire, Republic of Ireland, Rhoticity in English, Rhythm, Roman Britain, Romance languages, Russell Brand, Russian language, S, Samuel Johnson, Sanskrit, Saxons, ScienceDirect, Scots language, Scottish English, Scottish Gaelic, Scouse, Seaspeak, Second language, Silent e, Sonorant, Sound change, South Africa, South African English, South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, South East England, South Island, Southern American English, Spanish language, Stance (linguistics), Standard Chinese, Standard language, Standard written English, Stop consonant, Stress (linguistics), Strong inflection, Subject–auxiliary inversion, Subject–verb–object, Suffix, Superpower, Survey of English Dialects, Sweden, Swedish language, Syllable, Syntax, T, T-glottalization, Th-fronting, Th-stopping, The Canterbury Tales, The Midlands, Thomas Malory, Thorn (letter), Topic and comment, Treaty of Versailles, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkic Council, U, UKUSA Agreement, Ulster English, Unified English Braille, United Kingdom, United Nations, United States, V, V2 word order, Variation in Australian English, Velar consonant, Verner's law, Voice (grammar), Voice (phonetics), Voicelessness, Vowel breaking, Vowel length, Vowel reduction, W, Walter de Gruyter, Webster's Dictionary, Welsh English, Wessex, West Country English, West Germanic languages, West Saxon dialect, Westminster, Wh-movement, William Caxton, William Labov, William Shakespeare, William the Conqueror, Windward Islands, Word order, Word stem, World language, World War II, Writ, Wycliffe's Bible, Wynn, X, Y, Z. Expand index (340 more) » « Shrink index
A (named a, plural aes) is the 1st letter and the first vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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Published on 15 April 1755 and written by Samuel Johnson, A Dictionary of the English Language, sometimes published as Johnson's Dictionary, is among the most influential dictionaries in the history of the English language.
In sociolinguistics, an accent is a manner of pronunciation peculiar to a particular individual, location, or nation.
The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.
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An acronym is an abbreviation, used as a word, which is formed from the initial components in a phrase or a word.
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Aeon Magazine is a digital magazine of ideas and culture, founded by Paul and Brigid Hains in 2012.
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
African American Vernacular English (AAVE)—also called African American English; less precisely Black English, Black Vernacular, Black English Vernacular (BEV), or Black Vernacular English (BVE)—is a variety (dialect, ethnolect and sociolect) of American English, most commonly spoken today by urban working-class and largely bi-dialectal middle-class African Americans.
Afrikaans is one of the official languages of South Africa.
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Agreement or concord happens when a word changes form depending on the other words to which it relates.
Alfred the Great (849 – 26 October 899) (Ælfrēd, Ælfrǣd, "elf counsel" or "wise elf") was King of Wessex from 871 to 899.
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds (or phones) or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
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Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
Many of the differences between American and British English date back to a time when spelling was not widely standardized.
American English, or United States (U.S.) English, is the set of dialects of the English language native to the United States.
An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary is a dictionary of Old English, a language that is also known as Anglo-Saxon.
An analytic language is a language that conveys grammatical relationships without using inflectional morphemes.
In linguistics, anaphora is the use of an expression the interpretation of which depends upon another expression in context (its antecedent or postcedent).
The Angles (Anglii) were one of the main Germanic peoples who settled in Britain in the post-Roman period.
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The Anglo-Frisian languages is the group of West Germanic languages that includes English and Frisian.
Anglo-Norman, also known as Anglo-Norman French, is a variety of the langues d'oïl that was used in England and, to a lesser extent, elsewhere in the British Isles during the Anglo-Norman period.
Anglo-Saxon runes are runes used by the early Anglo-Saxons as an alphabet in their writing.
The Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain was the process, from the mid 5th to early 7th centuries, by which the coastal lowlands of Britain developed from a Romano-British to a Germanic culture following the Roman withdrawal in the early 5th century.
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
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In linguistics, apophony (also known as ablaut, (vowel) gradation, (vowel) mutation, alternation, internal modification, stem modification, stem alternation, replacive morphology, stem mutation, internal inflection etc.) is the alternation of sounds within a word that indicates grammatical information (often inflectional).
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Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a forum for 21 Pacific Rim member economies.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a political and economic organisation of ten Southeast Asian countries.
Australia (colloquially), officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is an Oceanian country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands.
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Australian English (AusE, AuE, AusEng, en-AU) is a major variety of the English language and is used throughout Australia.
An auxiliary verb is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears—for example, to express tense, aspect, modality, voice, emphasis, etc.
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Æ (minuscule: æ) is a grapheme named aesc or ash, formed from the letters a and e. Originally a ligature representing a Latin diphthong, it has been promoted to the full status of a letter in the alphabets of some languages, including Danish, Norwegian, Icelandic and Faroese.
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B or b (pronounced) is the 2nd letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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The Bantu languages, technically the Narrow Bantu languages, constitute a traditional branch of the Niger–Congo languages.
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Barbados is a sovereign island country in the Lesser Antilles.
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The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is the public-service broadcaster of the United Kingdom, headquartered at Broadcasting House in London.
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Belize is a country on the eastern coast of Central America.
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Beowulf (in Old English) is an Old English epic poem consisting of 3182 alliterative long lines.
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Braj Kachru (born 1932 in Srinagar, Kashmir, India) is Jubilee Professor Emeritus of Linguistics, faculty of Liberal Arts and Sciences at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
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Breathy voice (also called murmured voice, soughing, or susurration) is a phonation in which the vocal cords vibrate, as they do in normal (modal) voicing, but are held further apart, so that a larger volume of air escapes between them.
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The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom.
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The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland and over six thousand smaller isles.
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C is the third letter in the English alphabet and a letter of the alphabets of many other writing systems which inherited it from the Latin alphabet.
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In the course of his Gallic Wars, Julius Caesar invaded Britain twice: in 55 and 54 BC.
In linguistics, a calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word (verbum pro verbo) or root-for-root translation.
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Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Canada is a country, consisting of ten provinces and three territories, in the northern part of the continent of North America.
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Canadian English (CanE, CE, en-CA) is the variety of English spoken in Canada.
Canadian raising is a vowel shift in many dialects of North American English that changes the pronunciation of diphthongs with open-vowel starting points.
The Canadian Shift is a chain shift of vowel sounds found primarily in Canadian English, but also possibly in some other dialects (for example, younger Pacific Northwest English).
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The Caribbean (or; Caribe; Caraïben; Caribbean Hindustani: कैरिबियन (Kairibiyana); Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles) is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean), and the surrounding coasts.
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The Cayman Islands are a British Overseas Territory in the western Caribbean Sea.
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Cædmon's Hymn is a short Old English poem originally composed by Cædmon, in honour of God the Creator.
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The Celtic languages (usually pronounced but sometimes) are descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
In phonology, a chain shift is a phenomenon in which several sounds move stepwise along a phonetic scale.
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Charles University in Prague (also simply Charles University; Univerzita Karlova v Praze; Universitas Carolina Pragensis; Karls-Universität Prag) is the oldest and largest university in the Czech Republic.
A cleft sentence is a complex sentence (one having a main clause and a dependent clause) that has a meaning that could be expressed by a simple sentence.
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In phonetics, clipping is the process of shortening the articulation of a phonetic segment, usually a vowel.
In morphology and syntax, a clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.
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A close vowel, also known as a high vowel, is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
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The term Cockney has had several distinct geographical, social, and linguistic associations.
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In linguistics, code-switching occurs when a speaker alternates between two or more languages, or language varieties, in the context of a single conversation.
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In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
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Cohesion is the grammatical and lexical linking within a text or sentence that holds a text together and gives it meaning.
Common Brittonic was an ancient Celtic language spoken in Britain.
The Commonwealth of Nations, commonly known as the Commonwealth (formerly the British Commonwealth), is an intergovernmental organization of 53 member states that were mostly territories of the former British Empire.
Comparison is a feature in the morphology of some languages, whereby adjectives and adverbs are inflected or modified to produce forms that indicate the relative degree of the designated properties.
In linguistics, a consonant cluster or consonant sequence is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel.
A planned or constructed language (sometimes called a conlang) is a language whose phonology, grammar, and vocabulary have been consciously devised for human or human-like communication, instead of having developed naturally.
Controlled natural languages (CNLs) are subsets of natural languages that are obtained by restricting the grammar and vocabulary in order to reduce or eliminate ambiguity and complexity.
In linguistics, a copula (plural: copulas or copulae) is a word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement), such as the word is in the sentence "The sky is blue." The word copula derives from the Latin noun for a "link" or "tie" that connects two different things.
Corpus linguistics is the study of language as expressed in samples (corpora) of "real world" text.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe), founded in 1949, is a regional intergovernmental organisation which promotes human rights, democracy and the rule of law in its 47 member states, covering 820 million citizens.
In linguistics, a count noun (also countable noun) is a noun that can be modified by a numeral and that occurs in both singular and plural forms, and that co-occurs with quantificational determiners like every, each, several, etc.
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County Wexford (Contae Loch Garman) is a county in Ireland.
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The Court of Chancery was a court of equity in England and Wales that followed a set of loose rules to avoid the slow pace of change and possible harshness (or "inequity") of the common law.
A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language that has developed from a pidgin (i.e. a simplified language or simplified mixture of languages used by non-native speakers) becoming nativized by children as their first language, with the accompanying effect of a fully developed vocabulary and system of grammar.
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D (named dee) is the 4th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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The Danelaw (also known as the Danelagh; Old English: Dena lagu; Danelagen), as recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, is a historical name given to the part of England in which the laws of the Danes held sway and dominated those of the Anglo-Saxons.
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David Crystal, OBE, FBA, FLSW (born 6 July 1941) is a British linguist, academic and author.
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In linguistics, definiteness is a semantic feature of noun phrases (NPs), distinguishing between referents/entities that are identifiable in a given context (definite noun phrases) and entities which are not (indefinite noun phrases).
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A dialect continuum or dialect area was defined by Leonard Bloomfield as a range of dialects spoken across some geographical area that differ only slightly between neighboring areas, but as one travels in any direction, these differences accumulate in such a way that speakers from opposite ends of the continuum are no longer mutually intelligible.
A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used to write one phoneme (distinct sound) or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
A diphthong (Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, refers to two adjacent vowel sounds occurring within the same syllable.
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A discourse marker is a word or phrase that is relatively syntax-independent and does not change the truth conditional meaning of the sentence, and has a somewhat empty meaning.
In the grammar of English, the term do-support (or do-insertion) refers to the use of the auxiliary verb do, including its inflected forms does and did, to produce negated clauses and questions, as well as other constructions in which subject–auxiliary inversion is required.
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Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland.
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A dummy pronoun, also called an expletive pronoun or pleonastic pronoun, is a pronoun used for syntax without adding further meaning.
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Dutch is a West Germanic language that is spoken in the European Union by about 23 million people as a first language—including most of the population of the Netherlands and about sixty percent of that of Belgium—and by another 5 million as a second language.
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E (named e, plural ees) is the 5th letter and the second vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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Early Modern English (sometimes abbreviated to EModE, EMnE or ENE) is the stage of the English language used from the beginning of the Tudor period until the English Interregnum and Restoration, or from the transition from Middle English in the late 15th century to the transition to Modern English during the mid- to late 17th century.
East Midlands English is a traditional dialect with modern local and social variations spoken in those parts of the Midlands loosely lying east of Watling Street separating it from West Midlands English, north of a variable isogloss of the variant of Southern English of Oxfordshire and East Anglian English of Cambridgeshire and south of another that separates it from Yorkshire dialect.
The Economic Cooperation Organisation or ECO (سازمان همکاری اقتصادی, اقتصادی تعاون تنظیم, Ekonomik İşbirliği Teşkilatı, Экономикалық ынтымақтастық ұйымы, Iqtisodiy Hamkorlik Tashkiloti, İqtisadi Əməkdaşlıq Təşkilatı, Tajik: Ташкилоти ҳамкории иқтисодӣ) is a Eurasian political and economic intergovernmental organization which was founded in 1985 in Tehran by the leaders of Iran, Pakistan and Turkey.
The end of Roman rule in Britain is the period during which the Roman Empire ended its relationship with Britain, thus marking the transition from Roman Britain to post-Roman Britain.
The modern English alphabet is a Latin alphabet consisting of 26 letters (each having an uppercase and a lowercase form) – the same letters that are found in the ISO basic Latin alphabet: The exact shape of printed letters varies depending on the typeface.
English Braille, also known as Grade-2 Braille, is the braille alphabet used for English.
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The English language spoken and written in England encompasses a diverse range of accents and dialects.
Northern England English (or, simply, Northern English in the United Kingdom) is a group of related dialects of the English language found in Northern England.
English in southern England (also, rarely, Southern English English, or in the UK, simply, Southern English) is the collective set of different dialects and accents of the English spoken in southern England.
The English languages (also called the Anglic languages or Insular Germanic languages) are a group of linguistic varieties including Old English and the languages descended from it.
The modal verbs of English are a small class of auxiliary verbs used mostly to express modality (properties such as possibility, obligation, etc.). They can be distinguished from other verbs by their defectiveness (they do not have participle or infinitive forms) and by the fact that they do not take the ending -(e)s in the third-person singular.
An English-based creole language (often shortened to English creole) is a creole language derived from the English language – i.e. for which English is the lexifier.
An epic (from the Ancient Greek adjective ἐπικός (epikos), from ἔπος (epos) "word, story, poem") is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation.
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Esperanto is a constructed international auxiliary language.
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Essex is a county in England, immediately north-east of London.
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Estuary English is claimed to be an accent of English widely spoken in South East England, especially along the River Thames and its estuary.
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Eth (uppercase: Ð, lowercase: ð; also spelled edh or eð) is a letter used in Old English, Middle English, Icelandic, Faroese (in which it is called edd), and Elfdalian.
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The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) is a common market consisting of four European countries that operates in parallel withand is linked tothe European Union (EU).
The European Union (EU) is a politico-economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
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F (named ef) is the 6th letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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Faroese (føroyskt) is a North Germanic language spoken as a native language by about 66,000 people, 45,000 of whom reside on the Faroe Islands and 21,000 in other areas, mainly Denmark.
Fingallian or the Fingal dialect is an extinct variety of English formerly spoken in Fingal, Ireland.
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A finite verb is a form of a verb that has a subject (expressed or implied) and can function as the root of an independent clause; an independent clause can, in turn, stand alone as a complete sentence.
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A first language (also native language, mother tongue, arterial language, or L1) is the language or are the languages a person has learned from birth or within the critical period, or that a person speaks the best and so is often the basis for sociolinguistic identity.
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Focus is a grammatical category that determines which part of the sentence contributes new, non-derivable, or contrastive information.
A foreign language is a language indigenous to another country.
The Forth and Bargy dialect, also known as Yola, is an extinct variety of English once spoken in the baronies of Forth and Bargy in County Wexford, Ireland.
In linguistics, fortis and lenis (Latin for "strong" and "weak"), sometimes identified with '''tense''' and '''lax''', are pronunciations of consonants with relatively greater and lesser energy.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language, belonging to the Indo-European family.
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Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
Frisia or Friesland is a coastal region along the southeastern corner of the North Sea in what today is mostly a large part of the Netherlands, including modern Friesland, and smaller parts of Germany.
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The Frisian languages are a closely related group of Germanic languages, spoken by about 500,000 Frisian people, who live on the southern fringes of the North Sea in the Netherlands, Germany, and Denmark.
G (named gee) is the 7th letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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General American (abbreviated as GA or GenAm) is an umbrella variety of American English—a continuum of accents—commonly attributed to a majority of Americans and perceived as lacking any notably regional, ethnic, or socioeconomic characteristics.
In grammar, genitive (abbreviated; also called the possessive case or second case) is the grammatical case that marks a noun as modifying another noun.
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Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1343 – 25 October 1400), known as the Father of English literature, is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages and was the first poet to be buried in Poets' Corner of Westminster Abbey.
Geordie is both a regional nickname for a person from the larger Tyneside region of North East England and the name of the Northern English dialect spoken by its inhabitants.
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German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.
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The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of approximately 500 million people mainly in North America, Oceania, Central Europe, Western and Northern Europe.
In the Germanic languages, a strong verb is one which marks its past tense by means of changes to the stem vowel (ablaut).
In Germanic languages, including English, weak verbs are by far the largest group of verbs, which are therefore often regarded as the norm (the regular verbs), though historically they are not the oldest or most original group.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event or state, denoted by a verb, relates to the flow of time.
Case is a grammatical category whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by a noun or pronoun in a phrase, clause, or sentence.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker, the addressee, and others.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is an island in the North Atlantic off the north-west coast of continental Europe.
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The Great Vowel Shift was a major change in the pronunciation of the English language that took place in England between 1350 and 1700.
Grimm's Law (also known as the First Germanic Sound Shift or Rask's rule), named after Jakob Grimm, is a set of statements describing the inherited Proto-Indo-European (PIE) stop consonants as they developed in Proto-Germanic (the common ancestor of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family) in the 1st millennium BC.
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The GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development (GUAM, სუამი, GUAM, ГУАМ) is a regional organization of four post-Soviet states: '''G'''eorgia, '''U'''kraine, '''A'''zerbaijan, and '''M'''oldova.
H (named aitch or haitch in Ireland and parts of Australasia and the United Kingdom; plural aitches or haitches)"H" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nOd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "aitch", op.
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In the Latin-based orthographies of many European languages (including English), a distinction between hard and soft occurs in which represents two distinct phonemes.
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In the Latin-based orthographies of many European languages (including English), a distinction between hard and soft occurs in which represents two distinct phonemes.
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Henry Sweet (15 September 1845 – 30 April 1912) was an English philologist, phonetician and grammarian.
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Henry V (9 August 1387 – 31 August 1422) was King of England from 1413 until his death at the age of 35 in 1422.
Hiberno‐English or Irish English is the set of English dialects natively written and spoken within the Republic of Ireland as well as Northern Ireland.
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In the history of Great Britain, Anglo-Saxon England refers to the historical land roughly corresponding to present-day England, as it existed from the 5th to the 11th century, but not including Devon and Cornwall until the 9th century.
The history of the Scots language refers to how Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland developed into modern Scots.
I (named i, plural ies) is the 9th letter and the third vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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Icelandic is a North Germanic language, the language of Iceland.
Indian English is any of the forms of English characteristic of the Indian subcontinent.
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An indigenous language or autochthonous language is a language that is native to a region and spoken by indigenous people, often reduced to the status of a minority language.
The Indo-European languages are a family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
In grammar, inflection or inflexion is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, mood, voice, aspect, person, number, gender and case.
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Ingvaeonic, also known as North Sea Germanic, is a postulated grouping of the northern West Germanic languages, comprising Old Frisian, Old English and Old Saxon.
Interdental consonants are produced by placing the tip of the tongue between the upper and lower front teeth.
An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) or interlanguage is a language meant for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common first language.
The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt) is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands.
The International Olympic Committee (IOC; Comité international olympique, CIO) is an international, non-profit, non-governmental organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre, Baron de Coubertin, on 23 June 1894 with Demetrios Vikelas as its first president.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (unofficially—though commonly—abbreviated IPA)"The acronym 'IPA' strictly refers to the 'International Phonetic Association'.
International scientific vocabulary (ISV) comprises scientific and specialized words whose language of origin may or may not be certain, but which are in current use in several modern languages.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, and St George's Channel.
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An isolating language is a type of language with a very low morpheme per word ratio.
J is the 10th letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea, comprising the third-largest island of the Greater Antilles.
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Jamaican English which includes Jamaican Standard English is a variety of English spoken in Jamaica.
Jamaican Patois, known locally as Patois (Patwa or Patwah) and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English-based creole language with West African influences (a majority of loan words of Akan origin) spoken primarily in Jamaica and the Jamaican diaspora.
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James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death.
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Polychronicon Ranulphi Higdin, Monachi Cestrensis, 1865 John Trevisa (or John of Trevisa) (1342–1402) was a Cornish writer and translator.
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The Jutes, Iuti, or Iutæ were a Germanic people.
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Jutland (Jylland; Jütland), also known as Cimbrian Peninsula (Den Kimbriske Halvø Kimbrische Halbinsel), is a peninsula of Northern Europe that forms the continental portion of Denmark and the northern portion of Germany.
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K (named kay) is the 11th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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The Kentish dialect combines many features of other speech patterns, particularly those of East Anglia, the Southern Counties and London.
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The Khoe languages are the largest of the non-Bantu language families indigenous to southern Africa.
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The King James Version (KJV), also known as the Authorized Version (AV) or King James Bible (KJB), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England begun in 1604 and completed in 1611.
The kingdom of Lindsey or Linnuis (Old English Lindesege) was a lesser Anglo-Saxon kingdom, which was absorbed into Northumbria in the 7th century.
In linguistics, a koiné language (κοινή common language in Koiné Greek) is a standard language or dialect that has arisen as a result of contact between two or more mutually intelligible varieties (dialects) of the same language.
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L (named el) is the 12th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
Language contact occurs when two or more languages or varieties interact.
In linguistics, language death (also language extinction, linguistic extinction or linguicide,Zuckermann, Ghil'ad,, The Australian Higher Education, June 6, 2012. and rarely also glottophagy) occurs when a language loses its last native speaker.
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The languages of the European Union are languages used by people within the member states of the European Union. They include the twenty-four official languages of the European Union along with a range of others. The EU asserts that it is in favour of linguistic diversity. In the European Union, language policy is the responsibility of member states and EU does not have a common language policy; European Union institutions play a supporting role in this field, based on the principle of "subsidiarity", they promote a European dimension in the member states' language policies. The EU encourages all its citizens to be multilingual; specifically, it encourages them to be able to speak two languages in addition to their native language. Though the EU has very limited influence in this area as the content of educational systems is the responsibility of individual member states, a number of EU funding programmes actively promote language learning and linguistic diversity. The most widely spoken language in the EU is English, which is understood by 51% of all adults, while German is the most widely used mother tongue, spoken by 18%. All 24 official languages of the EU are accepted as working languages, but in practice only two – English and French – are in wide general use and of these English is the more commonly used. French is an official language in all three of the cities that are political centres of the Union: Brussels (Belgium), Strasbourg (France) and Luxembourg city (Luxembourg). Basque, Catalan, and Galician are among regional languages that are not official working languages of the EU.
A lateral is an L-like consonant, in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
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The classical Latin alphabet, also known as the Roman alphabet, is a writing system that evolved from the visually similar Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet.
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Latin script, or Roman script, is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet.
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Le Morte d'Arthur (originally spelled Le Morte Darthur, Middle French for “the death of Arthur”) is a compilation by Sir Thomas Malory of traditional tales about the legendary King Arthur, Guinevere, Lancelot, and the Knights of the Round Table.
The Leeward Islands are a group of islands in the West Indies.
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In orthography and typography, letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule (see ''Terminology'') and smaller lower case (also small letters, or more formally minuscule, see ''Terminology'') in the written representation of certain languages. Here is a comparison of the upper and lower case versions of each letter included in the English alphabet (the exact representation will vary according to the font used): Typographically, the basic difference between the majuscules and minuscules is not that the majuscules are big and minuscules small, but that the majuscules generally have the same height, whilst the height of the minuscules varies, as some of them have parts higher or lower than the average, i.e. ascenders and descenders. In Times New Roman, for instance, b, d, f, h, k, l, t are the letters with ascenders, and g, j, p, q, y are the ones with descenders. Further to this, with old-style numerals still used by some traditional or classical fonts—although most do have a set of alternative Lining Figures— 6 and 8 make up the ascender set, and 3, 4, 5, 7 and 9 the descender set. Letter case is often prescribed by the grammar of a language or by the conventions of a particular discipline. In orthography, the uppercase is primarily reserved for special purposes, such as the first letter of a sentence or of a proper noun, which makes the lowercase the more common variant in text. In mathematics, letter case may indicate the relationship between objects with uppercase letters often representing "superior" objects (e.g. X could be a set containing the generic member x). Engineering design drawings are typically labelled entirely in upper-case letters, which are easier to distinguish than lowercase, especially when space restrictions require that the lettering be small.
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A letterform, letter-form or letter form, is a term used especially in typography, paleography, calligraphy and epigraphy to mean a letter's shape.
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A lexical set is a group of words that share a similar feature.
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Lexicography is divided into two separate but equally important groups.
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In linguistics, a lexis (from the Greek: λέξις "word") is the total word-stock or lexicon having items of lexical, rather than grammatical, meaning.
A lingua franca (plural lingua francas), also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language or vehicular language, is a language or dialect systematically (as opposed to occasionally, or casually) used to make communication possible between persons not sharing a native language or dialect, in particular when it is a third language, distinct from both native languages.
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Linguistic imperialism, or language imperialism, refers to "the transfer of a dominant language to other people".
Linking R and intrusive R are sandhi or linking phenomena involving the appearance of the rhotic consonant (which normally corresponds to the letter) between two consecutive morphemes where it would not normally be pronounced.
This is a partial list of dialects of the English language.
This article ranks human languages by their number of speakers.
The following is a list of territories where English is an official language, that is, a language used in citizen interactions with government officials.
Liverpool is a city in Merseyside, England, on the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary.
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A loanword (or loan word or loan-word) is a word borrowed from a donor language and incorporated into a recipient language without translation.
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Low German or Low Saxon (Plattdüütsch, Nedderdüütsch, Platduuts, Nedderduuts; Standard German: Plattdeutsch or Niederdeutsch; Dutch: Nederduits in the wider sense, see Nomenclature below) is an Ingvaeonic West Germanic language spoken mainly in northern Germany and the eastern part of the Netherlands.
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Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen, Neddersassen; Nedersaksen) is a German state (Bundesland) situated in northwestern Germany and is second in area, with, and fourth in population (8 million) among the sixteen Länder of Germany.
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M (named em) is the 13th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 514,417 in 2013.
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Mancunian (or Manc) is a dialect, and the name given to the people of Manchester, England, and its environs.
Manually coded English (MCE) is a variety of visual communication methods expressed through the hands which attempt to represent the English language.
In linguistics, a mass noun, uncountable noun, or non-count noun is a noun with the syntactic property that any quantity of it is treated as an undifferentiated unit, rather than as something with discrete subsets.
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Mercian was a language spoken in the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Mercia (roughly speaking the Midlands of England an area in which four kingdoms had been united under one monarchy).
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A mid vowel is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.
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Middle English (ME) refers to the dialects of the English language spoken in parts of the British Isles after the Norman conquest (1066) until the late 15th century.
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The Middle English creole hypothesis is the concept that the English language is a creole, i.e. a language that developed from a pidgin.
A mixed language is a language that arises through the fusion of usually two source languages, normally in situations of thorough bilingualism (Meakins, 2013), so that it is not possible to classify the resulting language as belonging to either of the language families that were its sources.
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A modal verb (also 'modal','modal auxiliary verb', 'modal auxiliary') is a type of auxiliary verb that is used to indicate modality – that is, likelihood, ability, permission, and obligation.
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Modern English (sometimes New English or NE as opposed to Middle English and Old English) is the form of the English language spoken since the Great Vowel Shift in England, which began in the late 15th century and was completed in roughly 1550.
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In linguistics, morphosyntactic alignment is the grammatical relationship between arguments—specifically, between the two arguments (in English, subject and object) of transitive verbs like the dog chased the cat, and the single argument of intransitive verbs like the cat ran away.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without intentional study or special effort.
N (named en) is the 14th letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
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The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949.
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A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is the name for a relatively new or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been accepted into mainstream language.
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New Zealand (Aotearoa) is an island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
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New Zealand English (NZE, en-NZ) is the dialect of the English language used in New Zealand.
Federal Republic of Nigeria, commonly referred to as Nigeria, is a federal constitutional republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
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Noah Webster, Jr. (October 16, 1758 – May 28, 1843), was an American lexicographer, textbook pioneer, English-language spelling reformer, political writer, editor, and prolific author.
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The nominative case (abbreviated) is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.
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Nominative–accusative is a form of morphosyntactic alignment in which subjects of transitive and intransitive verbs are distinguished from objects of transitive verbs through word order, case marking, and/or verb agreement.
The Norman conquest of England was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled as William the Conqueror.
The Norman (or Anglo-Norman) invasion of Ireland took place in stages during the late 12th century.
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North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere.
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The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA; Spanish: Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte, TLCAN; French: Accord de libre-échange nord-américain, ALÉNA) is an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America.
The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.
The Northern Cities Vowel Shift (or simply Northern Cities Shift) is a chain shift in the sounds of some vowels of the Inland North, Upper Midwest, and traditional southwestern New England dialects of American English, most heavily centering around the Great Lakes region.
Northumbrian was a dialect of the Old English language spoken in the Anglian Kingdom of Northumbria.
A noun phrase or nominal phrase (abbreviated NP) is a phrase which has a noun (or indefinite pronoun) as its head word, or which performs the same grammatical function as such a phrase.
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O (named o, plural oes) is the 15th letter and the second-to-last vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.
In grammar, an oblique (abbreviated; from casus obliquus) or objective case (abbr.), is a nominal case that is used when a noun phrase is the object of either a verb or a preposition.
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An obstruent is a speech sound such as,, or that is formed by obstructing airflow.
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Oceania (Pronunciation: The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) ISBN 0-19-861263-X — p.1282 "Oceania /ˌəʊsɪˈɑːnɪə, -ʃɪ-/". or), also known as Oceanica, is a region centered on the islands of the tropical Pacific Ocean.
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An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
The official languages of the United Nations are the six languages that are used in UN meetings, and in which all official UN documents are written when budget allows.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc) or Anglo-Saxon is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
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The grammar of Old English is quite different from that of Modern English, predominantly by being much more inflected.
The Old English Latin alphabet—though it had no standard orthography—generally consisted of 24 letters, and was used for writing Old English from the 9th to the 12th centuries.
Old Norman, also called Old Northern French or Old Norman French, was one of many langues d'oïl dialects.
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Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during about the 9th to 13th centuries.
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Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German, is a Germanic language and the earliest recorded form of Low German.
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Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), is an international organization headquartered in Vienna, Austria.
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An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
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The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an international economic organisation of 34 countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; منظمة التعاون الإسلامي; Organisation de la coopération islamique, OCI)Upon the groups's renaming, some sources provided the English-language translation "Organisation of the Islamic Cooperation", but and have since indicated the preferred English translation omits the "the".
The Organization of American States (Organización de los Estados Americanos, Organização dos Estados Americanos, Organisation des États Américains), or the OAS or OEA, is an inter-continental organization founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states.
An orthography is a set of conventions for how to write a language.
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Jens Otto Harry Jespersen or Otto Jespersen (16 July 1860 – 30 April 1943) was a Danish linguist who specialized in the grammar of the English language.
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Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.
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Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second-oldest, after Cambridge University Press.
P (named pee) is the 16th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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The Pacific Islands Forum is an inter-governmental organization that aims to enhance cooperation between the independent countries of the Pacific Ocean.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
In historical linguistics, palatalization is a sound change that either results in a palatal or palatalized consonant or a front vowel, or is triggered by one of these.
In linguistics, periphrasis is a device by which grammatical meaning is expressed by one or more free morphemes (typically one or more function words accompanying a content word), instead of by inflectional affixes or derivation.
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The Philippines (Pilipinas), officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean.
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In phonetics and linguistics, the word phone may refer to any speech sound or gesture considered as a physical event without regard to its place in the phonology of a language.
A phoneme is all the phones that share the same signifier for a particular language's phonology.
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Phonetics (pronounced, from the φωνή, phōnē, 'sound, voice') is a branch of linguistics that comprises the study of the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.
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The phonological history of English describes the changing phonology of the English language over time, starting from its roots in proto-Germanic to diverse changes in different dialects of modern English.
The phonology of the low back vowels of the English language has undergone changes both overall and with regional variations, dating from Late Middle English (c. 1400) to the present.
The pronunciation of "short A" varies in English.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
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The term phrasal verb is commonly applied to two or three distinct but related constructions in English: a verb and a particle and/or a preposition co-occur forming a single semantic unit.
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A pluricentric language or polycentric language is a language with several standard versions.
Possession, in the context of linguistics, is an asymmetric relationship between two constituents, the referent of one of which (the possessor) in some sense possesses (owns, has as a part, rules over, etc.) the referent of the other (the possessed).
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, further back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself, but not as far back as the hard palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants).
The present tense is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to locate a situation or event in present time.
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A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink.
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A proper noun is a noun that in its primary application refers to a unique entity, such as London, Jupiter, Sarah, or Microsoft, as distinguished from a common noun, which usually refers to a class of entities (city, planet, person, corporation), or non-unique instances of a specific class (a city, another planet, these persons, our corporation).
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Proto-Germanic (PGmc; German Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family of languages.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the common ancestor of the Indo-European languages.
Punctuation is "the use of spacing, conventional signs, and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and correct reading, both silently and aloud, of handwritten and printed texts." Another description is: "The practice, action, or system of inserting points or other small marks into texts, in order to aid interpretation; division of text into sentences, clauses, etc., by means of such marks." In written English, punctuation is vital to disambiguate the meaning of sentences.
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Q (named cue) is the 17th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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R (named ar/or) is the 18th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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In phonology and phonetics, raising is a sound change in which a vowel or consonant becomes higher or raised, meaning that the tongue becomes more elevated or positioned closer to the roof of the mouth than before.
Received Pronunciation (RP) is regarded as the standard accent of Standard English in the United Kingdom, with a relationship to regional accents similar to the relationship in other European languages between their standard varieties and their regional forms.
The regional accents of English speakers show great variation across the areas where English is spoken as a first language.
In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.
A relative clause is a kind of subordinate clause that contains an element whose interpretation is provided by an antecedent on which the subordinate clause is grammatically dependent; that is, there is an anaphoric relation between the relativized element in the relative clause, and the antecedent on which it depends.
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Renfrewshire (or; Siorrachd Rinn Friù) is one of 32 council areas of Scotland.
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Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying about five-sixths of the island of Ireland.
Rhoticity in English refers to the situations in which English speakers pronounce the historical rhotic consonant, and is one of the most prominent distinctions by which English varieties can be classified.
Rhythm (from Greek ῥυθμός, rhythmos, "any regular recurring motion, symmetry") generally means a "movement marked by the regulated succession of strong and weak elements, or of opposite or different conditions".
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Roman Britain (Britannia or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") is the name given to the areas of the island of Great Britain that were governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 409 or 410.
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The Romance languages— sometimes called the Latin languages, and occasionally the Romanic or Neo-Latin languages—are the modern languages that evolved from spoken Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries A.D. and that thus form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Russell Edward Brand (born 4 June 1975) is an English comedian, actor, radio host, author, and activist.
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Russian (ру́сский язы́к, russkiy yazyk, pronounced) is an East Slavic language and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan.
S (named 'ess, plural esses) is the 19th letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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Samuel Johnson (18 September 1709 – 13 December 1784), often referred to as Dr Johnson, was an English writer who made lasting contributions to English literature as a poet, essayist, moralist, literary critic, biographer, editor and lexicographer.
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Sanskrit (Sanskrit: or, originally, "refined speech") is the primary sacred language of Hinduism, a philosophical language in Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism, and a literary language that was in use as a lingua franca in Greater India.
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The Saxons (Saxones, Seaxe, Sahson, Sassen, Sachsen, Saksen) were a confederation of Germanic tribes on the North German Plain.
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ScienceDirect is a website operated by the Anglo-Dutch publisher Elsevier.
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Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots).
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Scottish English refers to the varieties of English spoken in Scotland.
Scottish Gaelic, sometimes also referred to as Gaelic (Gàidhlig), is a Celtic language native to Scotland.
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Scouse (also, in academic sources, called Liverpool English or Merseyside English) is an accent and dialect of English found primarily in the Metropolitan county of Merseyside, and closely associated with the city of Liverpool.
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Seaspeak is a controlled natural language based on the English language, designed to facilitate communication between ships whose captains' native tongues differ.
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A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.
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In English orthography, many words feature a silent e, most commonly at the end of a word or morpheme.
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In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant or resonant is a speech sound that is produced with continuous, non-turbulent airflow in the vocal tract; these are the manners of articulation that are most often voiced in the world's languages.
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Sound change includes any processes of language change that affect pronunciation (phonetic change) or sound system structures (phonological change).
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South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa.
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South African English (SAfrE, SAfrEng, SAE, en-ZA) is the set of English dialects spoken by South Africans.
The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is an economic and geopolitical organisation of eight countries that are primarily located in South Asia or the Indian subcontinent.
South East England is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes.
The South Island or Te Waipounamu is the larger of the two major islands of New Zealand, the other being the smaller but more populous North Island.
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Southern American English or Southern U.S. English is a collection of related American English dialects spoken throughout the Southern United States, though increasingly in more rural areas and primarily by White Americans.
Spanish (español), also called Castilian, is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native-speakers.
In linguistics, stance is the way in which speakers position themselves in relation to the ongoing interaction, in terms of evaluation, intentionality, epistemology or social relations.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin and Putonghua, sometimes simply referred to as "Mandarin", is a standard language that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan, and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
A standard language (also standard dialect or standardized dialect) is a language variety used by a group of people in their public discourse.
Standard written English refers to the preferred form of English as it is written according to prescriptive authorities associated with publishing houses and schools.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive, is an oral occlusive, a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
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In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word, or to certain words in a phrase or sentence.
A strong inflection is a system of verb conjugation or noun/adjective declension which can be contrasted with an alternative system in the same language, which is then known as a weak inflection.
Subject–auxiliary inversion (also called subject–operator inversion) is a frequently occurring type of inversion in English, whereby a finite auxiliary verb – taken here to include finite forms of the copula be – appears to "invert" (change places) with the subject.
In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.
In linguistics, a suffix (also sometimes termed postfix or ending or, in older literature, affix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
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A superpower is a state with a dominant position in international relations and is characterised by its unparalleled ability to exert influence or project power on a global scale.
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The Survey of English Dialects was undertaken between 1950 and 1961 under the direction of Professor Harold Orton of the English department of the University of Leeds.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
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Swedish is a North Germanic language, spoken natively by about 9 million people predominantly in Sweden and parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
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In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language.
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T (named tee) is the 20th letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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In English phonology, t-glottalization or t-glottaling is a sound change in certain English dialects and accents that causes the phoneme to be pronounced as the glottal stop in certain positions.
Th-fronting refers to the pronunciation of the English "th" as "f" or "v".
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Th-stopping is the realization of the dental fricatives as stops—either dental or alveolar—which occurs in several dialects of English.
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The Canterbury Tales (Middle English: Tales of Caunterbury) is a collection of 24 stories that runs to over 17,000 lines written in Middle English by Geoffrey Chaucer.
The Midlands is an area spanning central England that broadly corresponds to the early medieval Kingdom of Mercia.
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Sir Thomas Malory (died 14 March 1471) was an English writer, the author or compiler of Le Morte d'Arthur.
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Thorn or þorn (Þ, þ) is a letter in the Old English, Gothic, Old Norse and modern Icelandic alphabets, as well as some dialects of Middle English.
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In linguistics, the topic, or theme, of a sentence is what is being talked about, and the comment (rheme or focus) is what is being said about the topic.
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers.
Trinidad and Tobago, officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island country off the northern edge of South America, lying just off the coast of northeastern Venezuela and south of Grenada in the Lesser Antilles.
The Turkic Council (Türk Şurası; Түрік кеңесі; Түрк кеңеш; Türk Keneşi) or, in full, the Cooperation Council of Turkic-Speaking States (CCTS; Turkish: Türk Dili Konuşan Ülkeler İşbirliği Konseyi), is an international organization comprising some of the Turkic countries.
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U (named u, plural ues) is the 21st letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet and the fifth and last vowel in the English alphabet (if W and Y are not counted as vowels).
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The United Kingdom – United States of America Agreement (UKUSA) is a multilateral agreement for cooperation in signals intelligence between the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand.
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Ulster English (also called Northern Hiberno-English or Northern Irish English) is a major variety of Hiberno-English, spoken in the province of Ulster: Northern Ireland and three counties of the Republic of Ireland.
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Unified English Braille Code (UEBC, now usually just UEB, formerly UBC) is an English language Braille code standard, developed to permit representing the wide variety of literary and technical material in use in the English-speaking world today, in uniform fashion.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign state in Europe.
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The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation.
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The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.
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V (named vee) is the 22nd letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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In syntax, verb-second (V2) word order is a specific restriction on the placement of the finite verb within a given sentence or clause.
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Australian English is relatively homogeneous when compared with British and American English.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
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Verner's law, stated by Karl Verner in 1875, describes a historical sound change in the Proto-Germanic language whereby voiceless fricatives *f, *þ, *s, *h, *hʷ, when immediately following an unstressed syllable in the same word, underwent voicing and became respectively the fricatives *b, *d, *z, *g, *gʷ.
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In grammar, the voice (also called diathesis and (rarely) gender (of verbs)) of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or doer of the action, the verb is in the active voice.
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Voice or voicing is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds, with sounds described as either voiceless (unvoiced) or voiced.
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
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In historical linguistics, vowel breaking, vowel fracture, or diphthongization is the change of a monophthong into a diphthong or triphthong.
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In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
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In phonetics, vowel reduction is any of various changes in the acoustic quality of vowels, which are related to changes in stress, sonority, duration, loudness, articulation, or position in the word (e.g. for Creek language), and which are perceived as "weakening".
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W (named double-u,Pronounced,,, or plural double-ues) is the 23rd letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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Walter de Gruyter GmbH (or; brand name: De Gruyter) is a scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature.
The name Webster's Dictionary may refer to any of the line of dictionaries first developed by Noah Webster in the early nineteenth century and numerous unrelated dictionaries that adopted Webster's name just to share his prestige.
Welsh English, Anglo-Welsh, or Wenglish refers to the dialects of English spoken in Wales by Welsh people.
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Wessex (Westseaxna rīce, "kingdom of the West Saxons") was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom in the south of Great Britain, from 519 until England was unified by Æthelstan in the early 10th century.
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West Country English refers collectively to the English language varieties and accents used by much of the native population of South West England, the area popularly known as the West Country.
The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages and include German, English, Scots, Dutch, Afrikaans, the Frisian languages, Low German languages and Yiddish.
West Saxon was one of four distinct dialects of Old English.
Westminster is an area of central London within the City of Westminster on the north bank of the River Thames.
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Wh-movement (or wh-fronting or wh-extraction or long-distance dependency) is a mechanism of syntax that helps express a question (or form a relative clause).
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William Caxton (c. 1422 – c. 1491) was an English merchant, diplomat, writer and printer.
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William Labov (born December 4, 1927) is an American linguist, widely regarded as the founder of the discipline of variationist sociolinguistics.
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William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised) – 23 April 1616) was an English:poet,:playwright, actor and an Italophile, who is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
William I (Old Norman: Williame I; c. 1028Bates William the Conqueror p. 33 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087.
The Windward Islands are the southern, generally larger islands of the Lesser Antilles, within the West Indies.
In linguistics, word order typology is the study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language, and how different languages can employ different orders.
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In linguistics, a stem is a part of a word.
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A world language is a language spoken internationally and that is learned by many people as a second language.
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World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.
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In English common law, a writ is a formal written order issued by a body with administrative or judicial jurisdiction; in modern usage, this body is generally a court.
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Wycliffe's Bible is the name now given to a group of Bible translations into Middle English that were made under the direction of, or at the might of, John Wycliffe.
Wynn (Ƿ ƿ) (also spelled wen, ƿynn, or ƿen) is a letter of the Old English alphabet, where it is used to represent the sound.
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X (named ex, plural exes) is the 24th letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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Y (named wye, plural wyes) is the 25th and next-to-last letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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Z (named zed ' or zee "Z", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "zee", op. cit.) is the 26th and final letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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