467 relations: A, A Dictionary of the English Language, Accent (sociolinguistics), Accusative case, Acronym, Adpositional phrase, Aeon (digital magazine), African Americans, African-American Vernacular English, Afrikaans, Agreement (linguistics), Alfred the Great, Allophone, Alveolar consonant, American and British English spelling differences, American English, An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, Analytic language, Anaphora (linguistics), Angeln, Angles, Anglic languages, Anglo-Frisian languages, Anglo-Norman language, Anglo-Saxon runes, Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain, Anglo-Saxons, Apophony, Approximant consonant, Archaism, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Aspirated consonant, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Atlantic Canada, Australia, Australian English, Auxiliary verb, Æ, B, Baltic Sea, Bantu languages, Bantu peoples, Barbados, BBC, Belize, Beowulf, Binomial nomenclature, Braj Kachru, British Empire, British English, ..., British Isles, C, Caesar's invasions of Britain, Calque, Cambridge University Press, Canada, Canadian English, Canadian raising, Canadian Shift, Caribbean, Caribbean Community, Cayman Islands, Cædmon's Hymn, Celtic language decline in England, Celtic languages, Chain shift, Charles University, Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie, Clade, Cleft sentence, Clipping (phonetics), Clitic, Close vowel, Cockney, Code-switching, Cohesion (linguistics), Colon (punctuation), Common Brittonic, Commonwealth of Nations, Comparison (grammar), Consonant cluster, Constructed language, Controlled natural language, Copula (linguistics), Corpus linguistics, Cot–caught merger, Council of Europe, Count noun, County Wexford, Court of Chancery, Creole language, D, Danelaw, David Crystal, Definiteness, Deixis, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar lateral approximants, Dialect continuum, Digraph (orthography), Diphthong, Discourse marker, Do-support, Dublin, Dummy pronoun, Dutch language, E, Early Modern English, East Midlands English, Eastern New England English, Economic Cooperation Organization, End of Roman rule in Britain, England, English alphabet, English as a lingua franca, English Braille, English grammar, English language in England, English language in Northern England, English modal verbs, English-based creole languages, English-language idioms, English-language vowel changes before historic /l/, English-speaking world, Epic poetry, Esperanto, Essex, Estuary English, Eth, European Free Trade Association, European Union, F, Faroese language, Fingallian, Finite verb, First language, Flapping, Focus (linguistics), Foreign language, Forth and Bargy dialect, Fortis and lenis, French language, Fricative consonant, Frisia, Frisian languages, G, General American, Genitive case, Geoffrey Chaucer, Geordie, George Bernard Shaw, George W. Bush, German language, Germanic languages, Germanic peoples, Germanic strong verb, Germanic weak verb, Globish (Nerrière), Glottal consonant, Grammar, Grammatical aspect, Grammatical case, Grammatical mood, Grammatical number, Grammatical person, Grammatical tense, Great Britain, Great Vowel Shift, Grimm's law, GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development, H, H-dropping, Hard and soft C, Hard and soft G, Henry Sweet, Henry V of England, Hiberno-English, History of Anglo-Saxon England, History of the Scots language, I, Icelandic language, Indian English, Indigenous language, Indo-European languages, Inflection, Inland Northern American English, Interdental consonant, International auxiliary language, International Criminal Court, International Monetary Fund, International Olympic Committee, International Organization for Standardization, International Phonetic Alphabet, International scientific vocabulary, Interrogative, Interrogative word, Ireland, Isochrony, Isolating language, J, Jamaica, Jamaican English, Jamaican Patois, James VI and I, Jargon, John Trevisa, Jutes, Jutland, K, Kentish dialect (Old English), Khoe languages, King James Version, Kingdom of Lindsey, Koiné language, L, Labial consonant, Language change, Language contact, Language death, Languages of the European Union, Latin, Latin alphabet, Latin script, Le Morte d'Arthur, Leeward Islands, Letter case, Letterform, Lexical set, Lexicography, Lexis (linguistics), Lingua franca, Linguistic imperialism, Linking and intrusive R, List of dialects of the English language, List of languages by number of native speakers, List of territorial entities where English is an official language, Liverpool, Loanword, Low German, Lower Saxony, M, Malta, Manchester, Manchester dialect, Manually coded English, Mass noun, Mercian dialect, Mid vowel, Middle English, Middle English creole hypothesis, Midland American English, Mixed language, Modal verb, Modern English, Monophthong, Morphology (linguistics), Morphosyntactic alignment, Murmured voice, Mutual intelligibility, N, Nasal consonant, NATO, Negation, Neologism, Netherlands, New York City English, New Zealand, New Zealand English, Nigeria, Noah Webster, Nominative case, Nominative–accusative language, Norman conquest of England, Norman invasion of Ireland, Norman language, North American English, North American Free Trade Agreement, North Germanic languages, North Sea, North Sea Germanic, Northern England, Northumbrian dialect (Old English), Noun phrase, O, Object (grammar), Oblique case, Obstruent, Oceania, OECD, Official language, Official languages of the United Nations, Old English, Old English grammar, Old English Latin alphabet, Old Frisian, Old Norman, Old Norse, Old South, Older Southern American English, OPEC, Open vowel, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, Organization of American States, Orthography, Otto Jespersen, Oxford, Oxford University Press, P, Pacific Islands Forum, Palatal consonant, Palatalization (sound change), Part of speech, Passive voice, PBS, Periphrasis, Personal pronoun, Philippines, Phone (phonetics), Phoneme, Phonetics, Phonological history of English, Phonological history of English consonant clusters, Phonological history of English high front vowels, Phonological history of English low back vowels, Phonology, Phrasal verb, Pidgin, Pluricentric language, Possession (linguistics), Postalveolar consonant, Prefix, Present tense, Printing press, Pronunciation of English ⟨a⟩, Pronunciation of English ⟨wh⟩, Proper noun, Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Indo-European language, Punctuation, Q, Quebec, Question, R, Raising (phonetics), Received Pronunciation, Regional accents of English, Register (sociolinguistics), Relative articulation, Relative clause, Renfrewshire, Republic of Ireland, Rhoticity in English, Rhythm, Roman Britain, Romance languages, Roundedness, Russell Brand, Russian language, S, Samuel Johnson, Sanskrit, Saxons, ScienceDirect, Scientific terminology, Scots language, Scottish English, Scottish Gaelic, Scouse, Seaspeak, Second language, Silent e, Simple English Wikipedia, Sonorant, Sound change, South Africa, South African English, South Asia, South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, South East England, South Island, Southern American English, Spanish language, Stance (linguistics), Standard Chinese, Standard English, Standard language, Standard written English, Stop consonant, Stress (linguistics), Stress and vowel reduction in English, Strong inflection, Subject–auxiliary inversion, Subject–verb–object, Suffix, Superpower, Survey of English Dialects, Sweden, Swedish language, Syllable, Synonym, Syntax, T, T-glottalization, Texas, Th-fronting, Th-stopping, The Canterbury Tales, The Guardian, The Midlands, Thomas Malory, Thorn (letter), Thou, Topic and comment, Trap-bath split, Treaty of Versailles, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkic Council, U, UKUSA Agreement, Ulster English, Uncial script, Unified English Braille, United Kingdom, United Nations, United States, V, V2 word order, Variation in Australian English, Velar consonant, Verner's law, Vocabulary, Voice (grammar), Voice (phonetics), Voicelessness, Vowel, Vowel breaking, Vowel length, Vowel reduction, W, Walter de Gruyter, Webster's Dictionary, Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Welsh English, Wessex, West Country English, West Germanic languages, West Saxon dialect, Western American English, Westminster, Wh-movement, Who (pronoun), William Caxton, William Shakespeare, William the Conqueror, Windward Islands, Word order, Word stem, World Englishes, World language, World Trade Organization, World War II, Writ, Wycliffe's Bible, Wynn, X, Y, Yes–no question, Z. 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A (named, plural As, A's, as, a's or aes) is the first letter and the first vowel of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Published on 4 April 1755 and written by Samuel Johnson, A Dictionary of the English Language, sometimes published as Johnson's Dictionary, is among the most influential dictionaries in the history of the English language.
In sociolinguistics, an accent is a manner of pronunciation peculiar to a particular individual, location, or nation.
The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.
An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux).
An adpositional phrase, in linguistics, is a syntactic category that includes prepositional phrases, postpositional phrases, and circumpositional phrases.
Aeon is a digital magazine of ideas, philosophy and culture.
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.
African-American Vernacular English (AAVE), known less precisely as Black Vernacular, Black English Vernacular (BEV), Black Vernacular English (BVE), or colloquially Ebonics (a controversial term), is the variety (dialect, ethnolect and sociolect) of English natively spoken by most working- and middle-class African Americans and some Black Canadians, particularly in urban communities.
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.
Agreement or concord (abbreviated) happens when a word changes form depending on the other words to which it relates.
Alfred the Great (Ælfrēd, Ælfrǣd, "elf counsel" or "wise elf"; 849 – 26 October 899) was King of Wessex from 871 to 899.
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
Many of the differences between American and British English date back to a time when spelling standards had not yet developed.
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary is a dictionary of Old English, a language that is also known as Anglo-Saxon.
In linguistic typology, an analytic language is a language that primarily conveys relationships between words in sentences by way of helper words (particles, prepositions, etc.) and word order, as opposed to utilizing inflections (changing the form of a word to convey its role in the sentence).
In linguistics, anaphora is the use of an expression whose interpretation depends upon another expression in context (its antecedent or postcedent).
Angeln (English and Latin: Anglia, German and Low Saxon: Angeln, Danish: Angel) is a small peninsula within the larger Jutland (Cimbric) Peninsula in the region of Southern Schleswig, which constitutes the Northern part of the northernmost German federal state of Schleswig-Holstein, protruding into the Bay of Kiel of the Baltic Sea.
The Angles (Angli) were one of the main Germanic peoples who settled in Great Britain in the post-Roman period.
The Anglic languages (also called the English languages or Insular Germanic languages) are a group of linguistic varieties including Old English and the languages descended from it.
The Anglo-Frisian languages are the West Germanic languages which include Anglic (or English) and Frisian.
Anglo-Norman, also known as Anglo-Norman French, is a variety of the Norman language that was used in England and, to a lesser extent, elsewhere in the British Isles during the Anglo-Norman period.
Anglo-Saxon runes are runes used by the early Anglo-Saxons as an alphabet in their writing.
The Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain describes the process which changed the language and culture of most of what became England from Romano-British to Germanic.
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
In linguistics, apophony (also known as ablaut, (vowel) gradation, (vowel) mutation, alternation, internal modification, stem modification, stem alternation, replacive morphology, stem mutation, internal inflection etc.) is any sound change within a word that indicates grammatical information (often inflectional).
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
In language, an archaism (from the ἀρχαϊκός, archaïkós, 'old-fashioned, antiquated', ultimately ἀρχαῖος, archaîos, 'from the beginning, ancient') is the use of a form of speech or writing that is no longer current or that is current only within a few special contexts.
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a forum for 21 Pacific Rim member economies.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional intergovernmental organization comprising ten Southeast Asian countries that promotes intergovernmental cooperation and facilitates economic, political, security, military, educational, and sociocultural integration amongst its members, other Asian countries, and globally.
Atlantic Canada is the region of Canada comprising the four provinces located on the Atlantic coast, excluding Quebec: the three Maritime provinces – New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, and Nova Scotia – and the easternmost province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Australian English (AuE, en-AU) is a major variety of the English language, used throughout Australia.
An auxiliary verb (abbreviated) is a verb that adds functional or grammatical meaning to the clause in which it appears, such as to express tense, aspect, modality, voice, emphasis, etc.
Æ (minuscule: æ) is a grapheme named æsc or ash, formed from the letters a and e, originally a ligature representing the Latin diphthong ae.
B or b (pronounced) is the second letter of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
The Bantu languages (English:, Proto-Bantu: */baⁿtʊ̀/) technically the Narrow Bantu languages, as opposed to "Wide Bantu", a loosely defined categorization which includes other "Bantoid" languages are a large family of languages spoken by the Bantu peoples throughout Sub-Saharan Africa.
The Bantu peoples are the speakers of Bantu languages, comprising several hundred ethnic groups in sub-Saharan Africa, spread over a vast area from Central Africa across the African Great Lakes to Southern Africa.
Barbados is an island country in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, in the Caribbean region of North America.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Belize, formerly British Honduras, is an independent Commonwealth realm on the eastern coast of Central America.
Beowulf is an Old English epic story consisting of 3,182 alliterative lines.
Binomial nomenclature ("two-term naming system") also called nomenclature ("two-name naming system") or binary nomenclature, is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages.
Braj Bihari Kachru (15 May 1932 – 29 July 2016) was an Indian linguist.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.
The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain, Ireland, the Isle of Man and over six thousand smaller isles.
C is the third letter in the English alphabet and a letter of the alphabets of many other writing systems which inherited it from the Latin alphabet.
In the course of his Gallic Wars, Julius Caesar invaded Britain twice: in 55 and 54 BC.
In linguistics, a calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Canadian English (CanE, CE, en-CA) is the set of varieties of the English language native to Canada.
Canadian raising is an allophonic rule of phonology in many dialects of North American English that changes the pronunciation of diphthongs with open-vowel starting points.
The Canadian Shift is a chain shift of vowel sounds found primarily in Canadian English, but also possibly in some other dialects (for example, younger Pacific Northwest English).
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
The Caribbean Community (CARICOM) is an organization of fifteen Caribbean nations and dependencies whose main objective is to promote economic integration and cooperation among its members, to ensure that the benefits of integration are equitably shared, and to coordinate foreign policy.
The Cayman Islands is an autonomous British Overseas Territory in the western Caribbean Sea.
Cædmon's "Hymn" is a short Old English poem originally composed by Cædmon, an illiterate cow-herder who was able to sing in honour of God the Creator, using words that he had never heard before.
Celtic language-death in England refers primarily to the process by which speakers of Brittonic languages in what is now England switched to speaking English.
The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
In historical linguistics, a chain shift is a set of sound changes in which the change in pronunciation of one speech sound (typically, a phoneme) is linked to, and presumably causes, the change in pronunciation of other sounds as well.
Charles University, known also as Charles University in Prague (Univerzita Karlova; Universitas Carolina; Karls-Universität) or historically as the University of Prague (Universitas Pragensis), is the oldest and largest university in the Czech Republic. Founded in 1348, it was the first university in Central Europe. It is one of the oldest universities in Europe in continuous operation and ranks in the upper 1.5 percent of the world’s best universities. Its seal shows its protector Emperor Charles IV, with his coats of arms as King of the Romans and King of Bohemia, kneeling in front of St. Wenceslas, the patron saint of Bohemia. It is surrounded by the inscription, Sigillum Universitatis Scolarium Studii Pragensis (Seal of the Prague academia).
Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie (was born on 15 September 1977) is a Nigerian novelist, writer of short stories, and nonfiction.
A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".
A cleft sentence is a complex sentence (one having a main clause and a dependent clause) that has a meaning that could be expressed by a simple sentence.
In phonetics, clipping is the process of shortening the articulation of a phonetic segment, usually a vowel.
A clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
The term cockney has had several distinct geographical, social, and linguistic associations.
In linguistics, code-switching occurs when a speaker alternates between two or more languages, or language varieties, in the context of a single conversation.
Cohesion is the grammatical and lexical linking within a text or sentence that holds a text together and gives it meaning.
The colon is a punctuation mark consisting of two equally sized dots centered on the same vertical line.
Common Brittonic was an ancient Celtic language spoken in Britain.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
Comparison is a feature in the morphology or syntax of some languages, whereby adjectives and adverbs are inflected or modified to indicate the relative degree of the property defined by the adjective or adverb.
In linguistics, a consonant cluster, consonant sequence or consonant compound is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel.
A constructed language (sometimes called a conlang) is a language whose phonology, grammar, and vocabulary have been consciously devised for human or human-like communication, instead of having developed naturally.
Controlled natural languages (CNLs) are subsets of natural languages that are obtained by restricting the grammar and vocabulary in order to reduce or eliminate ambiguity and complexity.
In linguistics, a copula (plural: copulas or copulae; abbreviated) is a word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement), such as the word is in the sentence "The sky is blue." The word copula derives from the Latin noun for a "link" or "tie" that connects two different things.
Corpus linguistics is the study of language as expressed in corpora (bodies) of "real world" text.
The cot–caught merger (also known as the low back merger or the merger) is a phonemic merger that has taken place in some varieties of English, between the phonemes which are conventionally represented in the IPA as (which is usually written with au, aw, al or ough as in caught and thought) and (which is usually written with o as in cot and lot).
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
In linguistics, a count noun (also countable noun) is a noun that can be modified by a numeral and that occurs in both singular and plural forms, and that co-occurs with quantificational determiners like every, each, several, etc.
County Wexford (Contae Loch Garman, Yola: Weiseforthe) is a county in Ireland.
The Court of Chancery was a court of equity in England and Wales that followed a set of loose rules to avoid the slow pace of change and possible harshness (or "inequity") of the common law.
A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages at a fairly sudden point in time: often, a pidgin transitioned into a full, native language.
D (named dee) is the fourth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The Danelaw (also known as the Danelagh; Dena lagu; Danelagen), as recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, is a historical name given to the part of England in which the laws of the Danes held sway and dominated those of the Anglo-Saxons.
David Crystal, (born 6 July 1941) is a British linguist, academic and author.
In linguistics, definiteness is a semantic feature of noun phrases (NPs), distinguishing between referents/entities that are identifiable in a given context (definite noun phrases) and entities which are not (indefinite noun phrases).
In linguistics, deixis refers to words and phrases, such as “me” or “here”, that cannot be fully understood without additional contextual information -- in this case, the identity of the speaker (“me”) and the speaker's location (“here”).
The alveolar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.
A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
A discourse marker is a word or a phrase that plays a role in managing the flow and structure of discourse.
Do-support (or do-insertion), in English grammar, is the use of the auxiliary verb do, including its inflected forms does and did, to form negated clauses and questions as well as other constructions in which subject–auxiliary inversion is required.
Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.
A dummy pronoun, also called an expletive pronoun or pleonastic pronoun, is a pronoun used to fulfill the syntactical requirements without providing explicit meaning.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
E (named e, plural ees) is the fifth letter and the second vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Early Modern English, Early New English (sometimes abbreviated to EModE, EMnE or EME) is the stage of the English language from the beginning of the Tudor period to the English Interregnum and Restoration, or from the transition from Middle English, in the late 15th century, to the transition to Modern English, in the mid-to-late 17th century.
East Midlands English is a traditional dialect with modern local and social variations spoken in those parts of the Midlands loosely lying east of Watling Street separating it from West Midlands English, north of a variable isogloss of the variant of Southern English of Oxfordshire and East Anglian English of Cambridgeshire and south of another that separates it from Yorkshire dialect.
Eastern New England English, historically known as the Yankee dialect since at least the nineteenth century, is the traditional regional dialect of Maine, New Hampshire, and the eastern half of Massachusetts.
The Economic Cooperation Organization or ECO is a Eurasian political and economic intergovernmental organization which was founded in 1985 in Tehran by the leaders of Iran, Pakistan and Turkey.
The end of Roman rule in Britain was the transition from Roman Britain to post-Roman Britain.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
The modern English alphabet is a Latin alphabet consisting of 26 letters, each having an uppercase and a lowercase form: The same letters constitute the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
English as a lingua franca (ELF) is the use of the English language as "a common means of communication for speakers of different first languages".
English Braille, also known as Grade 2 Braille, is the braille alphabet used for English.
English grammar is the way in which meanings are encoded into wordings in the English language.
The English language spoken and written in England encompasses a diverse range of accents and dialects.
The English language in Northern England has been shaped by the region's history of settlement and migration, and today encompasses a group of related dialects known as Northern England English (or, simply, Northern English in the United Kingdom).
The modal verbs of English are a small class of auxiliary verbs used mostly to express modality (properties such as possibility, obligation, etc.). They can be distinguished from other verbs by their defectiveness (they do not have participle or infinitive forms) and by the fact that they do not take the ending -(e)s in the third-person singular.
An English-based creole language (often shortened to English creole) is a creole language derived from the English language, for which English is the lexifier.
An idiom is a common word or phrase with a culturally understood meaning that differs from what its composite words' denotations would suggest.
In the history of English phonology, there have been many diachronic sound changes affecting vowels, especially involving phonemic splits and mergers.
Approximately 330 to 360 million people speak English as their first language.
An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.
Esperanto (or; Esperanto) is a constructed international auxiliary language.
Essex is a county in the East of England.
Estuary English is an English dialect or accent associated with South East England, especially the area along the River Thames and its estuary, centering around London.
Eth (uppercase: Ð, lowercase: ð; also spelled edh or eð) is a letter used in Old English, Middle English, Icelandic, Faroese (in which it is called edd), and Elfdalian.
The European Free Trade Association (EFTA) is a regional trade organization and free trade area consisting of four European states: Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, and Switzerland.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
F (named ef) is the sixth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Faroese (føroyskt mál,; færøsk) is a North Germanic language spoken as a first language by about 66,000 people, 45,000 of whom reside on the Faroe Islands and 21,000 in other areas, mainly Denmark.
Fingallian or the Fingal dialect is an extinct variety of English formerly spoken in Fingal, Ireland.
A finite verb is a form of a verb that has a subject (expressed or implied) and can function as the root of an independent clause; an independent clause can, in turn, stand alone as a complete sentence.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
Flapping or tapping, also known as alveolar flapping, intervocalic flapping, or t-voicing, is a phonological process found in many dialects of English, especially North American English, Australian English and New Zealand English, by which the consonants and sometimes also may be pronounced as a voiced flap in certain positions, particularly between vowels (intervocalic position).
Focus (abbreviated) is a grammatical category that determines which part of the sentence contributes new, non-derivable, or contrastive information.
A foreign language is a language originally from another country.
The Forth and Bargy dialect, also known as Yola, is an extinct variety of English once spoken in the baronies of Forth and Bargy in County Wexford, Ireland.
In linguistics, fortis and lenis (Latin for "strong" and "weak"), sometimes identified with '''tense''' and '''lax''', are pronunciations of consonants with relatively greater and lesser energy.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
Frisia (Fryslân, Dutch and Friesland) is a coastal region along the southeastern corner of the North Sea in what today is mostly a large part of the Netherlands, including modern Friesland, and smaller parts of northern Germany.
The Frisian languages are a closely related group of Germanic languages, spoken by about 500,000 Frisian people, who live on the southern fringes of the North Sea in the Netherlands and Germany.
G (named gee) is the 7th letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
General American (abbreviated as GA or GenAm) is the umbrella variety of American English—the continuum of accents—spoken by a majority of Americans and popularly perceived, among Americans, as lacking any distinctly regional, ethnic, or socioeconomic characteristics.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1343 – 25 October 1400), known as the Father of English literature, is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages.
Geordie is a nickname for a person from the Tyneside area of North East England, and the dialect spoken by its inhabitants.
George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856 – 2 November 1950), known at his insistence simply as Bernard Shaw, was an Irish playwright, critic, polemicist, and political activist.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
In the Germanic languages, a strong verb is a verb that marks its past tense by means of changes to the stem vowel (ablaut).
In Germanic languages, weak verbs are by far the largest group of verbs, which are therefore often regarded as the norm (the regular verbs), but they are not historically the oldest or most original group.
Globish is a trademarked name for a subset of the English language formalized by Jean-Paul Nerrière.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
Aspect is a grammatical category that expresses how an action, event, or state, denoted by a verb, extends over time.
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
In linguistics, grammatical mood (also mode) is a grammatical feature of verbs, used for signaling modality.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker (first person), the addressee (second person), and others (third person).
In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference with reference to the moment of speaking.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
The Great Vowel Shift was a major series of changes in the pronunciation of the English language that took place, beginning in southern England, primarily between 1350 and the 1600s and 1700s, today influencing effectively all dialects of English.
Grimm's law (also known as the First Germanic Sound Shift or Rask's rule) is a set of statements named after Jacob Grimm and Rasmus Rask describing the inherited Proto-Indo-European (PIE) stop consonants as they developed in Proto-Germanic (the common ancestor of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European family) in the 1st millennium BC.
The GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development (Организация за демократию и экономическое развитие — ГУАМ) is a regional organization of four post-Soviet states: '''G'''eorgia, '''U'''kraine, '''A'''zerbaijan, and '''M'''oldova.
H (named aitch or, regionally, haitch, plural aitches)"H" Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "aitch" or "haitch", op.
H-dropping or aitch-dropping is the deletion of the voiceless glottal fricative or "H sound",.
In the Latin-based orthographies of many European languages (including English), a distinction between hard and soft occurs in which represents two distinct phonemes.
In the Latin-based orthographies of many European languages (including English), the letter is used in different contexts to represent two distinct phonemes, often called hard and soft.
Henry Sweet (15 September 1845 – 30 April 1912) was an English philologist, phonetician and grammarian.
Henry V (9 August 1386 – 31 August 1422) was King of England from 1413 until his death at the age of 36 in 1422.
Hiberno‐English (from Latin Hibernia: "Ireland") or Irish English is the set of English dialects natively written and spoken within the island of Ireland (including both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland).
Anglo-Saxon England was early medieval England, existing from the 5th to the 11th century from the end of Roman Britain until the Norman conquest in 1066.
The history of the Scots language refers to how Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland developed into modern Scots.
I (named i, plural ies) is the ninth letter and the third vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.
Indian English is any of the forms of English characteristic of India.
An indigenous language or autochthonous language is a language that is native to a region and spoken by indigenous people, often reduced to the status of a minority language.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
Inland Northern (American) English, also known in American linguistics as the Inland North or Great Lakes dialect, is an American English dialect spoken primarily by White Americans in a geographic band reaching from Central New York westward along the Erie Canal, through much of the U.S. Great Lakes region, to eastern Iowa.
Interdental consonants are produced by placing the tip of the tongue between the upper and lower front teeth.
An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) or interlanguage is a language meant for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common first language.
The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt) is an intergovernmental organization and international tribunal that sits in The Hague in the Netherlands.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The International Olympic Committee (IOC; French: Comité International Olympique, CIO) is a Swiss private non-governmental organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, which is the authority responsible for the modern Olympic Games.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
International scientific vocabulary (ISV) comprises scientific and specialized words whose language of origin may or may not be certain, but which are in current use in several modern languages (that is, translingually).
Interrogative is a term used in grammar to refer to features that form questions.
An interrogative word or question word is a function word used to ask a question, such as what, when, where, who, whom, why, and how.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
Isochrony is the postulated rhythmic division of time into equal portions by a language.
An isolating language is a type of language with a very low morpheme per word ratio and no inflectional morphology whatsoever.
J is the tenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.
Jamaican English, which includes Jamaican Standard English, is a variety of English spoken in Jamaica.
Jamaican Patois, known locally as Patois (Patwa or Patwah) and called Jamaican Creole by linguists, is an English-based creole language with West African influences (a majority of loan words of Akan origin) spoken primarily in Jamaica and the Jamaican diaspora; it is spoken by the majority of Jamaicans as a native language.
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.
Jargon is a type of language that is used in a particular context and may not be well understood outside that context.
Polychronicon Ranulphi Higdin, Monachi Cestrensis, 1865 John Trevisa (or John of Trevisa; Ioannes Trevisa; fl. 1342 – 1402 AD) was a Cornish writer and translator.
The Jutes, Iuti, or Iutæ were a Germanic people.
Jutland (Jylland; Jütland), also known as the Cimbric or Cimbrian Peninsula (Cimbricus Chersonesus; Den Kimbriske Halvø; Kimbrische Halbinsel), is a peninsula of Northern Europe that forms the continental portion of Denmark and part of northern Germany.
K (named kay) is the eleventh letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Kentish was a southern dialect of Old English spoken in the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Kent.
The Khoe languages are the largest of the non-Bantu language families indigenous to southern Africa.
The King James Version (KJV), also known as the King James Bible (KJB) or simply the Version (AV), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, begun in 1604 and completed in 1611.
The Kingdom of Lindsey or Linnuis (Lindesege) was a lesser Anglo-Saxon kingdom, which was absorbed into Northumbria in the 7th century.
In linguistics, a koiné language, koiné dialect, or simply koiné (Ancient Greek κοινή, "common ") is a standard language or dialect that has arisen as a result of contact between two or more mutually intelligible varieties (dialects) of the same language.
L (named el) is the twelfth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet, used in words such as lagoon, lantern, and less.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
Language change is variation over time in a language's phonological, morphological, semantic, syntactic, and other features.
Language contact occurs when speakers of two or more languages or varieties interact and influence each other.
In linguistics, language death occurs when a language loses its last native speaker.
The languages of the European Union are languages used by people within the member states of the European Union (EU).
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Le Morte d'Arthur (originally spelled Le Morte Darthur, Middle French for "the death of Arthur") is a reworking of existing tales by Sir Thomas Malory about the legendary King Arthur, Guinevere, Lancelot, Merlin, and the Knights of the Round Table.
The Leeward Islands are a group of islands situated where the northeastern Caribbean Sea meets the western Atlantic Ocean.
Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.
A letterform, letter-form or letter form, is a term used especially in typography, paleography, calligraphy and epigraphy to mean a letter's shape.
A lexical set is a group of words that share a similar phonological feature.
Lexicography is divided into two separate but equally important groups.
In generative linguistics, a lexis or lexicon is the complete set of all possible words in a language (vocabulary).
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
Linguistic imperialism, or language imperialism, is defined as "the transfer of a dominant language to other people".
Linking R and intrusive R are sandhi or linking phenomena involving the appearance of the rhotic consonant (which normally corresponds to the letter) between two consecutive morphemes where it would not normally be pronounced.
This is an overview list of dialects of the English language.
This article ranks human languages by their number of native speakers.
The following is a list of territories where English is an official language, that is, a language used in citizen interactions with government officials.
Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
Low German or Low Saxon (Plattdütsch, Plattdüütsch, Plattdütsk, Plattduitsk, Nedersaksies; Plattdeutsch, Niederdeutsch; Nederduits) is a West Germanic language spoken mainly in northern Germany and the eastern part of the Netherlands.
Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen, Neddersassen) is a German state (Land) situated in northwestern Germany.
M (named em) is the thirteenth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Malta, officially known as the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta), is a Southern European island country consisting of an archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea.
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.
Mancunian (or Manc) is the dialect spoken in Manchester, North West England, and its environs.
MCE or speaking and signing at the same time has been labeled many terms--including Total Communication, Simultaneous Communication (SimCom), Signed English, Manually-Coded English, Sign Supported Speech, and Sign Supported English, none of which specify the degree to which the user is attempting to sign specific English vocabulary or correct grammar.
In linguistics, a mass noun, uncountable noun, or non-count noun is a noun with the syntactic property that any quantity of it is treated as an undifferentiated unit, rather than as something with discrete subsets.
Mercian was a dialect spoken in the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Mercia (roughly speaking the Midlands of England, an area in which four kingdoms had been united under one monarchy).
A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
The Middle English creole hypothesis is the concept that the English language is a creole, i.e. a language that developed from a pidgin.
Midland American English is a regional dialect or super-dialect of American English, geographically lying between the traditionally-defined Northern and Southern United States.
Although every language is mixed to some extent, by virtue of containing loanwords, it is a matter of controversy whether a term mixed language can meaningfully distinguish the contact phenomena of certain languages (such as those listed below) from the type of contact and borrowing seen in all languages.
A modal verb is a type of verb that is used to indicate modality – that is: likelihood, ability, permission and obligation, and advice.
Modern English (sometimes New English or NE as opposed to Middle English and Old English) is the form of the English language spoken since the Great Vowel Shift in England, which began in the late 14th century and was completed in roughly 1550.
A monophthong (Greek monóphthongos from mónos "single" and phthóngos "sound") is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
In linguistics, morphosyntactic alignment is the grammatical relationship between arguments—specifically, between the two arguments (in English, subject and object) of transitive verbs like the dog chased the cat, and the single argument of intransitive verbs like the cat ran away.
Murmur (also called breathy voice, whispery voice, soughing and susurration) is a phonation in which the vocal folds vibrate, as they do in normal (modal) voicing, but are adjusted to let more air escape which produces a sighing-like sound.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
N (named en) is the fourteenth letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
In logic, negation, also called the logical complement, is an operation that takes a proposition P to another proposition "not P", written \neg P (¬P), which is interpreted intuitively as being true when P is false, and false when P is true.
A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New York City English, or Metropolitan New York English, is a regional dialect of American English spoken by many people in New York City and much of its surrounding metropolitan area.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
New Zealand English (NZE) is the variant of the English language spoken by most English-speaking New Zealanders.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
Noah Webster Jr. (October 16, 1758 – May 28, 1843) was an American lexicographer, textbook pioneer, English-language spelling reformer, political writer, editor, and prolific author.
The nominative case (abbreviated), subjective case, straight case or upright case is one of the grammatical cases of a noun or other part of speech, which generally marks the subject of a verb or the predicate noun or predicate adjective, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments.
Nominative–accusative languages, or nominative languages have a form of morphosyntactic alignment in which subjects of transitive and intransitive verbs are distinguished from objects of transitive verbs by word order, case-marking, and/or verb agreement.
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
The Norman invasion of Ireland took place in stages during the late 12th century, at a time when Gaelic Ireland was made up of several kingdoms, with a High King claiming lordship over all.
North American English (NAmE, NAE) is the most generalized variety of the English language as spoken in the United States and Canada.
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA; Spanish: Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte, TLCAN; French: Accord de libre-échange nord-américain, ALÉNA) is an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America.
The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
North Sea Germanic, also known as Ingvaeonic, is a postulated grouping of the northern West Germanic languages, consisting of Old Frisian, Old English and Old Saxon and their descendants.
Northern England, also known simply as the North, is the northern part of England, considered as a single cultural area.
Northumbrian was a dialect of Old English spoken in the Anglian Kingdom of Northumbria.
A noun phrase or nominal phrase (abbreviated NP) is a phrase which has a noun (or indefinite pronoun) as its head, or which performs the same grammatical function as such a phrase.
O (named o, plural oes) is the 15th letter and the fourth vowel in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.
In grammar, an oblique (abbreviated; from casus obliquus) or objective case (abbr.) is a nominal case that is used when a noun phrase is the object of either a verb or a preposition.
An obstruent is a speech sound such as,, or that is formed by obstructing airflow.
Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
The official languages of the United Nations are the six languages that are used in UN meetings, and in which all official UN documents are written.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
The grammar of Old English is quite different from that of Modern English, predominantly by being much more inflected.
The Old English Latin alphabet—though it had no standard orthography—generally consisted of 24 letters, and was used for writing Old English from the 9th to the 12th centuries.
Old Frisian is a West Germanic language spoken between the 8th and 16th centuries in the area between the Rhine and Weser on the European North Sea coast.
Old Norman, also called Old Northern French or Old Norman French, was one of many langues d'oïl (Old French) dialects.
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
Geographically, the Old South is a subregion farming country of the American South, differentiated from the Deep South by being limited to those Southern laws, states represented among the original thirteen British colonies which became the first thirteen U.S. states.
Older Southern American English was a set of American English dialects of the Southern United States, primarily spoken by White Southerners up until the American Civil War, moving towards a state of decline by the turn of the nineteenth century, further accelerated by World War II and again, finally, by the Civil Rights Movement.
The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC,, or OPEP in several other languages) is an intergovernmental organization of nations, founded in 1960 in Baghdad by the first five members (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela), and headquartered since 1965 in Vienna, Austria.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; منظمة التعاون الإسلامي; Organisation de la coopération islamique) is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.3 billion as of 2009 with 47 countries being Muslim Majority countries.
The Organization of American States (Organización de los Estados Americanos, Organização dos Estados Americanos, Organisation des États américains), or the OAS or OEA, is a continental organization that was founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
Jens Otto Harry Jespersen or Otto Jespersen (16 July 1860 – 30 April 1943) was a Danish linguist who specialized in the grammar of the English language.
Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
P (named pee) is the 16th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The Pacific Islands Forum (PIF) is an inter-governmental organization that aims to enhance cooperation between the independent countries of the Pacific Ocean.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
In linguistics, palatalization is a sound change that either results in a palatal or palatalized consonant or a front vowel, or is triggered by one of them.
In traditional grammar, a part of speech (abbreviated form: PoS or POS) is a category of words (or, more generally, of lexical items) which have similar grammatical properties.
Passive voice is a grammatical voice common in many languages.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
In linguistics, periphrasis is the usage of multiple separate words to carry the meaning of prefixes, suffixes or verbs, among other things, where either would be possible.
Personal pronouns are pronouns that are associated primarily with a particular grammatical person – first person (as I), second person (as you), or third person (as he, she, it, they).
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
In phonetics and linguistics, a phone is any distinct speech sound or gesture, regardless of whether the exact sound is critical to the meanings of words.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.
The phonological history of English describes the changing phonology of the English language over time, starting from its roots in proto-Germanic to diverse changes in different dialects of modern English.
The phonological history of the English language includes various changes in the phonology of consonant clusters.
The high and mid-height front vowels of English (vowels of i and e type) have undergone a variety of changes over time, often varying from dialect to dialect.
The phonology of the low back vowels of the English language has undergone changes both overall and with regional variations, through Old and Middle English to the present.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
In English, a phrasal verb is a phrase such as turn down or ran into which combines two or three words from different grammatical categories: a verb and a particle and/or a preposition together form a single semantic unit.
A pidgin, or pidgin language, is a grammatically simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in common: typically, its vocabulary and grammar are limited and often drawn from several languages.
A pluricentric language or polycentric language is a language with several interacting codified standard versions, often corresponding to different countries.
Possession, in the context of linguistics, is an asymmetric relationship between two constituents, the referent of one of which (the possessor) in some sense possesses (owns, has as a part, rules over, etc.) the referent of the other (the possessed).
Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.
A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word.
The present tense (abbreviated or) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to locate a situation or event in present time.
A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink.
There are a variety of pronunciations in modern English and in historical forms of the language for words spelt with the a.
The pronunciation of the wh in English has changed over time, and still varies today between different regions and accents.
A proper noun is a noun that in its primary application refers to a unique entity, such as London, Jupiter, Sarah, or Microsoft, as distinguished from a common noun, which usually refers to a class of entities (city, planet, person, corporation), or non-unique instances of a specific class (a city, another planet, these persons, our corporation).
Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
Punctuation (formerly sometimes called pointing) is the use of spacing, conventional signs, and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and correct reading of handwritten and printed text, whether read silently or aloud.
Q (named cue) is the 17th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Quebec (Québec)According to the Canadian government, Québec (with the acute accent) is the official name in French and Quebec (without the accent) is the province's official name in English; the name is.
A question is a linguistic expression used to make a request for information, or the request made using such an expression.
R (named ar/or) is the 18th letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
In phonology and phonetics, raising is a sound change in which a vowel or consonant becomes higher or raised, meaning that the tongue becomes more elevated or positioned closer to the roof of the mouth than before.
Received Pronunciation (RP) is an accent of Standard English in the United Kingdom and is defined in the Concise Oxford English Dictionary as "the standard accent of English as spoken in the south of England", although it can be heard from native speakers throughout England and Wales.
Spoken English shows great variation across regions where it is the predominant language.
In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.
In phonetics and phonology, relative articulation is description of the manner and place of articulation of a speech sound relative to some reference point.
A relative clause is a kind of subordinate clause that contains the element whose interpretation is provided by an antecedent on which the subordinate clause is grammatically dependent; that is, there is an anaphora relation between the relativized element in the relative clause and antecedent on which it depends.
Renfrewshire (Siorrachd Rinn Friù, Renfrewshire) is one of 32 council areas of Scotland.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
Rhoticity in English refers to English speakers' pronunciation of the historical rhotic consonant, and is one of the most prominent distinctions by which varieties of English can be classified.
Rhythm (from Greek ῥυθμός, rhythmos, "any regular recurring motion, symmetry") generally means a "movement marked by the regulated succession of strong and weak elements, or of opposite or different conditions".
Roman Britain (Britannia or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") was the area of the island of Great Britain that was governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 410 AD.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel.
Russell Edward Brand (born 4 June 1975) is an English comedian, actor, radio host, author, and activist.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
S (named ess, plural esses) is the 19th letter in the Modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Samuel Johnson LL.D. (18 September 1709 – 13 December 1784), often referred to as Dr.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
The Saxons (Saxones, Sachsen, Seaxe, Sahson, Sassen, Saksen) were a Germanic people whose name was given in the early Middle Ages to a large country (Old Saxony, Saxonia) near the North Sea coast of what is now Germany.
ScienceDirect is a website which provides subscription-based access to a large database of scientific and medical research.
Scientific terminology is the part of the language that is used by scientists in the context of their professional activities.
Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots).
Scottish English refers to the varieties of English spoken in Scotland.
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.
Scouse (also, in academic sources, called Liverpool English or Merseyside English) is an accent and dialect of English found primarily in the Metropolitan county of Merseyside, and closely associated with the city of Liverpool.
Seaspeak is a controlled natural language (CNL) based on English, designed to facilitate communication between ships whose captains' native tongues differ.
A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.
In English orthography, many words feature a silent, most commonly at the end of a word or morpheme.
The is an English-language edition of the online encyclopedia, Wikipedia, primarily written in basic English and special English.
In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant or resonant is a speech sound that is produced with continuous, non-turbulent airflow in the vocal tract; these are the manners of articulation that are most often voiced in the world's languages.
Sound change includes any processes of language change that affect pronunciation (phonetic change) or sound system structures (phonological change).
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South African English (SAfrE, SAfrEng, SAE, en-ZA) is the set of English dialects native to South Africans.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is the regional intergovernmental organization and geopolitical union of nations in South Asia.
South East England is the most populous of the nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes.
The South Island (Māori: Te Waipounamu) is the larger of the two major islands of New Zealand, the other being the smaller but more populous North Island.
Southern American English or Southern U.S. English is a large collection of related American English dialects spoken throughout the Southern United States, though increasingly in more rural areas and primarily by white Americans.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
In linguistics, stance is the way in which speakers position themselves in relation to the ongoing interaction, in terms of evaluation, intentionality, epistemology or social relations.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
Standard English (SE) is the variety of English language that is used as the national norm in an English-speaking country, especially as the language for public and formal usage.
A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.
Standard written English refers to the preferred form of English as it is written according to prescriptive authorities associated with publishing houses and schools; the standard varieties of English around the world largely align to either British or American English spelling standards.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.
Stress is a prominent feature of the English language, both at the level of the word (lexical stress) and at the level of the phrase or sentence (prosodic stress).
A strong inflection is a system of verb conjugation or noun/adjective declension which can be contrasted with an alternative system in the same language, which is then known as a weak inflection.
Subject–auxiliary inversion (also called subject–operator inversion) is a frequently occurring type of inversion in English, whereby a finite auxiliary verb – taken here to include finite forms of the copula be – appears to "invert" (change places) with the subject.
In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
Superpower is a term used to describe a state with a dominant position, which is characterised by its extensive ability to exert influence or project power on a global scale.
The Survey of English Dialects was undertaken between 1950 and 1961 under the direction of Professor Harold Orton of the English department of the University of Leeds.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
A synonym is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
T (named tee) is the 20th letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
In English phonology, t-glottalization or t-glottaling is a sound change in certain English dialects and accents that causes the phoneme to be pronounced as the glottal stop in certain positions.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
Th-fronting refers to the pronunciation of the English "th" as "f" or "v".
Th-stopping is the realization of the dental fricatives as stops—either dental or alveolar—which occurs in several dialects of English.
The Canterbury Tales (Tales of Caunterbury) is a collection of 24 stories that runs to over 17,000 lines written in Middle English by Geoffrey Chaucer between 1387 and 1400.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Midlands is a cultural and geographic area roughly spanning central England that broadly corresponds to the early medieval Kingdom of Mercia.
Sir Thomas Malory (c. 1415 – 14 March 1471) was an English writer, the author or compiler of Le Morte d'Arthur (originally titled, The Whole Book of King Arthur and His Noble Knights of the Round table).
Thorn or þorn (Þ, þ) is a letter in the Old English, Gothic, Old Norse and modern Icelandic alphabets, as well as some dialects of Middle English.
The word thou is a second person singular pronoun in English.
In linguistics, the topic, or theme, of a sentence is what is being talked about, and the comment (rheme or focus) is what is being said about the topic.
The split is a vowel split that occurs mainly in mainstream and southeastern accents of English in England (including Received Pronunciation), in New Zealand English and South African English, and also to a lesser extent in Australian English as well as older Northeastern New England English (notably, older Boston accents), by which the Early Modern English phoneme was lengthened in certain environments and ultimately merged with the long of father.
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
Trinidad and Tobago, officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island sovereign state that is the southernmost nation of the West Indies in the Caribbean.
The Turkic Council (Türk Şurası; Түрік кеңесі; Түрк кеңеш; Türk Keneşi; Turkiy Kengash, Туркий Кенгаш; or, in full, the Cooperation Council of Turkic-Speaking States (CCTS; Turkish: Türk Dili Konuşan Ülkeler İşbirliği Konseyi), is an international organization comprising some of the Turkic countries. It was founded on 3 October 2009 in Nakhchivan. The General Secretariat is in İstanbul, Turkey. The member countries are Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Turkey. The remaining two Turkic states, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan are not currently official members of the council due to their neutral stance; however, they are possible future members of the council. Uzbekistan announced its intention to join the council on 30 April 2018. The idea of setting up this cooperative council was first put forward by Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev back in 2006.
U (named u, plural ues) is the 21st letter and the fifth vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The United Kingdom – United States of America Agreement (UKUSA) is a multilateral agreement for cooperation in signals intelligence between Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
Ulster English (also called Northern Hiberno-English or Northern Irish English) is a major variety of Irish English spoken in most of the province of Ulster.
Uncial is a majusculeGlaister, Geoffrey Ashall.
Unified English Braille Code (UEBC, formerly UBC, now usually simply UEB) is an English language Braille code standard, developed to permit representing the wide variety of literary and technical material in use in the English-speaking world today, in uniform fashion.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
V (named vee) is the 22nd letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
In syntax, verb-second (V2) word order places the finite verb of a clause or sentence in second position with a single major constituent preceding it, which functions as the clause topic.
Australian English is relatively homogeneous when compared with British and American English.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
Verner's law, stated by Karl Verner in 1875, describes a historical sound change in the Proto-Germanic language whereby voiceless fricatives *f, *þ, *s, *h, *hʷ, when immediately following an unstressed syllable in the same word, underwent voicing and became the fricatives *β, *ð, *z, *ɣ, *ɣʷ respectively.
A vocabulary is a set of familiar words within a person's language.
In grammar, the voice of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or doer of the action, the verb is in the active voice.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
In historical linguistics, vowel breaking, vowel fracture, or diphthongization is the change of a monophthong into a diphthong or triphthong.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
In phonetics, vowel reduction is any of various changes in the acoustic quality of vowels, which are related to changes in stress, sonority, duration, loudness, articulation, or position in the word (e.g. for the Creek language), and which are perceived as "weakening".
W (named double-u,Pronounced plural double-ues) is the 23rd letter of the modern English and ISO basic Latin alphabets.
Walter de Gruyter GmbH (or; brand name: De Gruyter) is a scholarly publishing house specializing in academic literature.
Webster's Dictionary is any of the dictionaries edited by Noah Webster in the early nineteenth century, and numerous related or unrelated dictionaries that have adopted the Webster's name.
Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (commonly known as Webster's Third, or W3) was published in September 1961.
Welsh English refers to the dialects of English spoken by Welsh people.
Wessex (Westseaxna rīce, the "kingdom of the West Saxons") was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom in the south of Great Britain, from 519 until England was unified by Æthelstan in the early 10th century.
West Country English is one of the English language varieties and accents used by much of the native population of South West England, the area sometimes popularly known as the West Country.
The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages).
West Saxon was one of four distinct dialects of Old English.
Western American English (also known as Western U.S. English or in the U.S., simply, Western) is a variety of American English that largely unites the entire western half of the United States as a single dialect region, including the states of California, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, New Mexico, Colorado, and Wyoming.
Westminster is an area of central London within the City of Westminster, part of the West End, on the north bank of the River Thames.
In linguistics, wh-movement (also known as wh-fronting or wh-extraction or long-distance dependency) concerns special rules of syntax, observed in many languages around the world, involving the placement of interrogative words.
The pronoun who, in English, is an interrogative pronoun and a relative pronoun, used chiefly to refer to humans.
William Caxton (c. 1422 – c. 1491) was an English merchant, diplomat, writer and printer.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
William I (c. 1028Bates William the Conqueror p. 33 – 9 September 1087), usually known as William the Conqueror and sometimes William the Bastard, was the first Norman King of England, reigning from 1066 until his death in 1087.
The Windward Islands are the southern, generally larger islands of the Lesser Antilles, within the West Indies.
In linguistics, word order typology is the study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language, and how different languages can employ different orders.
In linguistics, a stem is a part of a word.
World Englishes is a term for emerging localized or indigenized varieties of English, especially varieties that have developed in territories influenced by the United Kingdom or the United States.
A world language is a language that is spoken internationally and is learned and spoken by a large number of people as a second language.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
In common law, a writ (Anglo-Saxon gewrit, Latin breve) is a formal written order issued by a body with administrative or judicial jurisdiction; in modern usage, this body is generally a court.
Wycliffe's Bible is the name now given to a group of Bible translations into Middle English that were made under the direction of John Wycliffe.
Ƿynn (Ƿ ƿ) (also spelled wen, ƿynn, or ƿen) is a letter of the Old English alphabet, where it is used to represent the sound.
X (named ex, plural exes) is the 24th and antepenultimate letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Y (named wye, plural wyes) is the 25th and penultimate letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
In linguistics, a yes–no question, formally known as a polar question or a general question, is a question whose expected answer is either "yes" or "no".
Z (named zed or zee "Z", Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition (1989); Merriam-Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged (1993); "zee", op. cit.) is the 26th and final letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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