146 relations: A-weighting, Absolute threshold of hearing, Absorbance, Acoustics, Alexander Graham Bell, American National Standards Institute, Amplifier, Amplitude, Antenna (radio), Antenna aperture, Antenna factor, Antenna gain, Antenna gain-to-noise-temperature, Apparent magnitude, Arithmetic, Attenuation, Attenuator (electronics), Audiogram, Average, Bell Labs, Bell System, Bell System Technical Journal, Bode plot, Broadcasting, Cable television, Capacitance, Carrier-to-noise ratio, Carrier-to-noise-density ratio, Cent (music), Charge-coupled device, Circuit noise level, Circular polarization, Clipping (signal processing), Coaxial cable, Common logarithm, Communications satellite, Control theory, David Van Nostrand, DB drag racing, DBc, DBFS, DBm, DBm0, DBrn, DBZ (meteorology), Decade (log scale), Deci-, Decibel, Deprecation, Dimensional analysis, ..., Dipole antenna, Dynamic range, E (mathematical constant), Electric current, Electric field, Electrical impedance, Electronic circuit, Electronics, Engineering, FAQ, Field, power, and root-power quantities, Figure of merit, Fisher equation, Focal Press, Fraction (mathematics), Free-space optical communication, Full scale, Gain (electronics), Half-power point, Hertz, IEC 60027, Image sensor, International Committee for Weights and Measures, International Electrotechnical Commission, International Organization for Standardization, International System of Quantities, International System of Units, ISO/IEC 80000, Isotropic radiator, ITU-R 468 noise weighting, Joule, Kelvin, Level (logarithmic quantity), Linear polarization, Link budget, Linux, LKFS, Logarithm, Logarithmic mean, Logarithmic scale, Loudness, Metre, Metric prefix, Mile, Minimum audibility curve, Multiplicative inverse, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Neper, Noise temperature, Optical fiber, Optical link, Optics, Pascal (unit), Path loss, Percentage, PH, Phon, Physical property, Power (physics), Professional audio, Psophometric weighting, Radar cross-section, Radian, Radio propagation, Radio receiver, Reference noise, Richter magnitude scale, Root mean square, Scientific notation, Semi-log plot, Shunt (electrical), Signal-to-noise ratio, Significant figures, Sine wave, Slide rule, Sone, Sound intensity, Sound power, Sound pressure, Spectral density, Square wave, Stevens's power law, Stimulus (psychology), Telecommunication, Telephony, Television, Underwater acoustics, Unit of measurement, Volt, Voltage, VU meter, Watt, Waveguide, Weber–Fechner law, Weighting filter, Wire gauge. Expand index (96 more) »

## A-weighting

A-weighting is the most commonly used of a family of curves defined in the International standard IEC 61672:2003 and various national standards relating to the measurement of sound pressure level.

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## Absolute threshold of hearing

The absolute threshold of hearing (ATH) is the minimum sound level of a pure tone that an average human ear with normal hearing can hear with no other sound present.

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## Absorbance

In chemistry, absorbance or decadic absorbance is the common logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted radiant power through a material, and spectral absorbance or spectral decadic absorbance is the common logarithm of the ratio of incident to transmitted spectral radiant power through a material.

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## Acoustics

Acoustics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound.

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## Alexander Graham Bell

Alexander Graham Bell (March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922) was a Scottish-born scientist, inventor, engineer, and innovator who is credited with inventing and patenting the first practical telephone.

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## American National Standards Institute

The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States.

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## Amplifier

An amplifier, electronic amplifier or (informally) amp is an electronic device that can increase the power of a signal (a time-varying voltage or current).

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## Amplitude

The amplitude of a periodic variable is a measure of its change over a single period (such as time or spatial period).

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## Antenna (radio)

In radio, an antenna is the interface between radio waves propagating through space and electric currents moving in metal conductors, used with a transmitter or receiver.

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## Antenna aperture

In electromagnetics and antenna theory, antenna aperture, effective area, or receiving cross section, is a measure of how effective an antenna is at receiving the power of electromagnetic radiation (such as radio waves).

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## Antenna factor

In electromagnetics, the antenna factor is defined as the ratio of the electric field strength to the voltage V (units: V or µV) induced across the terminals of an antenna.

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## Antenna gain

In electromagnetics, an antenna's power gain or simply gain is a key performance number which combines the antenna's directivity and electrical efficiency.

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## Antenna gain-to-noise-temperature

Antenna gain-to-noise-temperature (G/T) is a figure of merit in the characterization of antenna performance, where G is the antenna gain in decibels at the receive frequency, and T is the equivalent noise temperature of the receiving system in kelvins.

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## Apparent magnitude

The apparent magnitude of a celestial object is a number that is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth.

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## Arithmetic

Arithmetic (from the Greek ἀριθμός arithmos, "number") is a branch of mathematics that consists of the study of numbers, especially the properties of the traditional operations on them—addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.

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## Attenuation

In physics, attenuation or, in some contexts, extinction is the gradual loss of flux intensity through a medium.

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## Attenuator (electronics)

An attenuator is an electronic device that reduces the power of a signal without appreciably distorting its waveform.

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## Audiogram

An audiogram is a graph that shows the audible threshold for standardized frequencies as measured by an audiometer.

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## Average

In colloquial language, an average is a middle or typical number of a list of numbers.

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## Bell Labs

Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.

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## Bell System

The Bell System was the system of companies, led by the Bell Telephone Company and later by AT&T, which provided telephone services to much of the United States and Canada from 1877 to 1984, at various times as a monopoly.

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## Bell System Technical Journal

The Bell System Technical Journal was a periodical publication by the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) in New York devoted to the scientific and engineering aspects of electrical communication.

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## Bode plot

In electrical engineering and control theory, a Bode plot is a graph of the frequency response of a system.

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## Broadcasting

Broadcasting is the distribution of audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves), in a one-to-many model.

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## Cable television

Cable television is a system of delivering television programming to paying subscribers via radio frequency (RF) signals transmitted through coaxial cables, or in more recent systems, light pulses through fiber-optic cables.

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## Capacitance

Capacitance is the ratio of the change in an electric charge in a system to the corresponding change in its electric potential.

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## Carrier-to-noise ratio

In telecommunications, the carrier-to-noise ratio, often written CNR or C/N, is the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a modulated signal.

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## Carrier-to-noise-density ratio

In satellite communications, carrier-to-noise-density ratio (C/N0) is the ratio of the carrier power C to the noise power density N0, expressed in dB-Hz.

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## Cent (music)

The cent is a logarithmic unit of measure used for musical intervals.

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## Charge-coupled device

A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value.

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## Circuit noise level

At any point in a transmission system, the ratio of the circuit noise at that point to an arbitrary level chosen as a reference.

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## Circular polarization

In electrodynamics, circular polarization of an electromagnetic wave is a polarization state in which, at each point, the electric field of the wave has a constant magnitude but its direction rotates with time at a steady rate in a plane perpendicular to the direction of the wave.

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## Clipping (signal processing)

Clipping is a form of distortion that limits a signal once it exceeds a threshold.

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## Coaxial cable

Cross-sectional view of a coaxial cable Coaxial cable, or coax (pronounced), is a type of electrical cable that has an inner conductor surrounded by a tubular insulating layer, surrounded by a tubular conducting shield.

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## Common logarithm

In mathematics, the common logarithm is the logarithm with base 10.

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## Communications satellite

A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth.

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## Control theory

Control theory in control systems engineering deals with the control of continuously operating dynamical systems in engineered processes and machines.

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## David Van Nostrand

David Van Nostrand (December 5, 1811, New York City – June 14, 1886, New York City) was a New York City publisher.

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## DB drag racing

dB drag racing is a competition rewarding the person who can produce the loudest sound inside a vehicle.

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## DBc

dBc (decibels relative to the carrier) is the power ratio of a signal to a carrier signal, expressed in decibels.

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## DBFS

Decibels relative to full scale (dBFS) is a unit of measurement for amplitude levels in digital systems, such as pulse-code modulation (PCM), which have a defined maximum peak level.

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## DBm

dBm (sometimes dBmW or decibel-milliwatts) is unit of level used to indicate that a power ratio is expressed in decibels (dB) with reference to one milliwatt (mW).

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## DBm0

dBm0 is an abbreviation for the power in dBm measured at a zero transmission level point.

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## DBrn

The symbol dBrn or dB(rn) is an abbreviation for decibels above reference noise.

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## DBZ (meteorology)

dBZ stands for decibel relative to Z. It is a logarithmic dimensionless technical unit used in radar, mostly in weather radar, to compare the equivalent reflectivity factor (Z) of a radar signal reflected off a remote object (in mm6 per m3) to the return of a droplet of rain with a diameter of 1 mm (1 mm6 per m3).

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## Decade (log scale)

One decade (symbol dec) is a unit for measuring frequency ratios on a logarithmic scale, with one decade corresponding to a ratio of 10 between two frequencies (an order of magnitude difference).

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## Deci-

Deci- (symbol d) is a decimal unit prefix in the metric system denoting a factor of one tenth.

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## Decibel

The decibel (symbol: dB) is a unit of measurement used to express the ratio of one value of a physical property to another on a logarithmic scale.

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## Deprecation

In several fields, deprecation is the discouragement of use of some terminology, feature, design, or practice, typically because it has been superseded or is no longer considered efficient or safe, without completely removing it or prohibiting its use.

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## Dimensional analysis

In engineering and science, dimensional analysis is the analysis of the relationships between different physical quantities by identifying their base quantities (such as length, mass, time, and electric charge) and units of measure (such as miles vs. kilometers, or pounds vs. kilograms) and tracking these dimensions as calculations or comparisons are performed.

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## Dipole antenna

In radio and telecommunications a dipole antenna or doublet is the simplest and most widely used class of antenna.

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## Dynamic range

Dynamic range, abbreviated DR, DNR, or DYR is the ratio between the largest and smallest values that a certain quantity can assume.

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## E (mathematical constant)

The number is a mathematical constant, approximately equal to 2.71828, which appears in many different settings throughout mathematics.

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## Electric current

An electric current is a flow of electric charge.

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## Electric field

An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.

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## Electrical impedance

Electrical impedance is the measure of the opposition that a circuit presents to a current when a voltage is applied.

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## Electronic circuit

An electronic circuit is composed of individual electronic components, such as resistors, transistors, capacitors, inductors and diodes, connected by conductive wires or traces through which electric current can flow.

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## Electronics

Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.

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## Engineering

Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.

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## FAQ

Frequently asked questions (FAQ) or Questions and Answers (Q&A), are listed questions and answers, all supposed to be commonly asked in some context, and pertaining to a particular topic.

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## Field, power, and root-power quantities

A power quantity is a power or a quantity directly proportional to power, e.g., energy density, acoustic intensity, and luminous intensity.

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## Figure of merit

A figure of merit is a quantity used to characterize the performance of a device, system or method, relative to its alternatives.

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## Fisher equation

The Fisher equation in financial mathematics and economics estimates the relationship between nominal and real interest rates under inflation.

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## Focal Press

Focal Press is a publisher of media technology books and it is an imprint of Taylor & Francis.

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## Fraction (mathematics)

A fraction (from Latin fractus, "broken") represents a part of a whole or, more generally, any number of equal parts.

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## Free-space optical communication

Free-space optical communication (FSO) is an optical communication technology that uses light propagating in free space to wirelessly transmit data for telecommunications or computer networking.

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## Full scale

In electronics and signal processing, full scale or full code represents the maximum amplitude a system can present.

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## Gain (electronics)

In electronics, gain is a measure of the ability of a two-port circuit (often an amplifier) to increase the power or amplitude of a signal from the input to the output port by adding energy converted from some power supply to the signal.

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## Half-power point

The half-power point or half-power bandwidth is the frequency at which the output power has dropped to half of its peak value; that is, at a level of approximately -3 dB.

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## Hertz

The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.

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## IEC 60027

IEC 60027 (formerly IEC 27) is a technical international standard for letter symbols published by the International Electrotechnical Commission, comprising the following parts.

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## Image sensor

An image sensor or imaging sensor is a sensor that detects and conveys the information that constitutes an image.

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## International Committee for Weights and Measures

The International Committee for Weights and Measures (abbreviated CIPM from the French Comité international des poids et mesures) consists of eighteen persons, each of a different nationality, from Member States of the Metre Convention (Convention du Mètre) appointed by the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) whose principal task is to promote worldwide uniformity in units of measurement by taking direct action or by submitting proposals to the CGPM.

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## International Electrotechnical Commission

The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC; in French: Commission électrotechnique internationale) is an international standards organization that prepares and publishes International Standards for all electrical, electronic and related technologies – collectively known as "electrotechnology".

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## International Organization for Standardization

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.

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## International System of Quantities

The International System of Quantities (ISQ) is a system based on seven base quantities: length, mass, time, electric current, thermodynamic temperature, amount of substance, and luminous intensity.

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## International System of Units

The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.

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## ISO/IEC 80000

ISO 80000 or IEC 80000 is an international standard promulgated jointly by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).

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## Isotropic radiator

An isotropic radiator is a theoretical point source of electromagnetic or sound waves which radiates the same intensity of radiation in all directions.

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## ITU-R 468 noise weighting

ITU-R 468 (originally defined in CCIR recommendation 468-4; sometimes referred to as CCIR-1k) is a standard relating to noise measurement, widely used when measuring noise in audio systems.

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## Joule

The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.

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## Kelvin

The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.

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## Level (logarithmic quantity)

In the International System of Quantities, the level of a quantity is the logarithm of the ratio of the value of that quantity to a reference value of the same quantity.

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## Linear polarization

In electrodynamics, linear polarization or plane polarization of electromagnetic radiation is a confinement of the electric field vector or magnetic field vector to a given plane along the direction of propagation.

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## Link budget

A link budget is accounting of all of the gains and losses from the transmitter, through the medium (free space, cable, waveguide, fiber, etc.) to the receiver in a telecommunication system.

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## Linux

Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.

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## LKFS

Loudness, K-weighted, relative to full scale (LKFS) is a loudness standard designed to enable normalization of audio levels for delivery of broadcast TV and other video.

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## Logarithm

In mathematics, the logarithm is the inverse function to exponentiation.

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## Logarithmic mean

In mathematics, the logarithmic mean is a function of two non-negative numbers which is equal to their difference divided by the logarithm of their quotient.

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## Logarithmic scale

A logarithmic scale is a nonlinear scale used when there is a large range of quantities.

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## Loudness

In acoustics, loudness is the subjective perception of sound pressure.

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## Metre

The metre (British spelling and BIPM spelling) or meter (American spelling) (from the French unit mètre, from the Greek noun μέτρον, "measure") is the base unit of length in some metric systems, including the International System of Units (SI).

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## Metric prefix

A metric prefix is a unit prefix that precedes a basic unit of measure to indicate a multiple or fraction of the unit.

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## Mile

The mile is an English unit of length of linear measure equal to 5,280 feet, or 1,760 yards, and standardised as exactly 1,609.344 metres by international agreement in 1959.

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## Minimum audibility curve

Minimum audibility curve is a standardized graph of the threshold of hearing frequency for an average human, and is used as the reference level when measuring hearing loss with an audiometer as shown on an audiogram.

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## Multiplicative inverse

In mathematics, a multiplicative inverse or reciprocal for a number x, denoted by 1/x or x−1, is a number which when multiplied by x yields the multiplicative identity, 1.

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## National Institute of Standards and Technology

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.

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## Neper

The neper (symbol: Np) is a logarithmic unit for ratios of measurements of physical field and power quantities, such as gain and loss of electronic signals.

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## Noise temperature

In electronics, noise temperature is one way of expressing the level of available noise power introduced by a component or source.

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## Optical fiber

An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.

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## Optical link

An optical link is a telecommunications link that consists of a single end-to-end optical circuit.

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## Optics

Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.

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## Pascal (unit)

The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.

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## Path loss

Path loss (or path attenuation) is the reduction in power density (attenuation) of an electromagnetic wave as it propagates through space.

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## Percentage

In mathematics, a percentage is a number or ratio expressed as a fraction of 100.

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## PH

In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.

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## Phon

The phon is a unit of loudness level for pure tones.

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## Physical property

A physical property is any property that is measurable, whose value describes a state of a physical system.

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## Power (physics)

In physics, power is the rate of doing work, the amount of energy transferred per unit time.

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## Professional audio

Professional audio, abbreviated as pro audio, refers to both an activity and a category of high quality, studio-grade audio equipment.

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## Psophometric weighting

Psophometric weighting refers to any weighting curve used in the measurement of noise.

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## Radar cross-section

Radar cross-section (RCS) is a measure of how detectable an object is by radar.

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## Radian

The radian (SI symbol rad) is the SI unit for measuring angles, and is the standard unit of angular measure used in many areas of mathematics.

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## Radio propagation

Radio propagation is the behavior of radio waves as they travel, or are propagated, from one point to another, or into various parts of the atmosphere.

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## Radio receiver

In radio communications, a radio receiver (receiver or simply radio) is an electronic device that receives radio waves and converts the information carried by them to a usable form.

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## Reference noise

In telecommunication, reference noise is the magnitude of circuit noise chosen as a reference for measurement.

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## Richter magnitude scale

The so-called Richter magnitude scale – more accurately, Richter's magnitude scale, or just Richter magnitude – for measuring the strength ("size") of earthquakes refers to the original "magnitude scale" developed by Charles F. Richter and presented in his landmark 1935 paper, and later revised and renamed the Local magnitude scale, denoted as "ML" or "ML".

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## Root mean square

In statistics and its applications, the root mean square (abbreviated RMS or rms) is defined as the square root of the mean square (the arithmetic mean of the squares of a set of numbers).

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## Scientific notation

Scientific notation (also referred to as scientific form or standard index form, or standard form in the UK) is a way of expressing numbers that are too big or too small to be conveniently written in decimal form.

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## Semi-log plot

In science and engineering, a semi-log graph or semi-log plot is a way of visualizing data that are related according to an exponential relationship.

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## Shunt (electrical)

In electronics, a shunt is a device which allows electric current to pass around another point in the circuit by creating a low resistance path.

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## Signal-to-noise ratio

Signal-to-noise ratio (abbreviated SNR or S/N) is a measure used in science and engineering that compares the level of a desired signal to the level of background noise.

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## Significant figures

The significant figures (also known as the significant digits) of a number are digits that carry meaning contributing to its measurement resolution.

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## Sine wave

A sine wave or sinusoid is a mathematical curve that describes a smooth periodic oscillation.

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## Slide rule

The slide rule, also known colloquially in the United States as a slipstick, is a mechanical analog computer.

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## Sone

The sone is a unit of loudness, how loud a sound is perceived.

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## Sound intensity

Sound intensity level also known as acoustic intensity is defined as the power carried by sound waves per unit area in a direction perpendicular to that area.

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## Sound power

Sound power or acoustic power is the rate at which sound energy is emitted, reflected, transmitted or received, per unit time.

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## Sound pressure

Sound pressure or acoustic pressure is the local pressure deviation from the ambient (average or equilibrium) atmospheric pressure, caused by a sound wave.

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## Spectral density

The power spectrum S_(f) of a time series x(t) describes the distribution of power into frequency components composing that signal.

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## Square wave

A square wave is a non-sinusoidal periodic waveform in which the amplitude alternates at a steady frequency between fixed minimum and maximum values, with the same duration at minimum and maximum.

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## Stevens's power law

Stevens's power law is a proposed relationship between the magnitude of a physical stimulus and its perceived intensity or strength.

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## Stimulus (psychology)

In psychology, a stimulus is any object or event that elicits a sensory or behavioral response in an organism.

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## Telecommunication

Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.

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## Telephony

Telephony is the field of technology involving the development, application, and deployment of telecommunication services for the purpose of electronic transmission of voice, fax, or data, between distant parties.

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## Television

Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.

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## Underwater acoustics

Underwater acoustics is the study of the propagation of sound in water and the interaction of the mechanical waves that constitute sound with the water and its boundaries.

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## Unit of measurement

A unit of measurement is a definite magnitude of a quantity, defined and adopted by convention or by law, that is used as a standard for measurement of the same kind of quantity.

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## Volt

The volt (symbol: V) is the derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference (voltage), and electromotive force.

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## Voltage

Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.

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## VU meter

A volume unit (VU) meter or standard volume indicator (SVI) is a device displaying a representation of the signal level in audio equipment.

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## Watt

The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.

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## Waveguide

A waveguide is a structure that guides waves, such as electromagnetic waves or sound, with minimal loss of energy by restricting expansion to one dimension or two.

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## Weber–Fechner law

The Weber–Fechner law refers to two related laws in the field of psychophysics, known as Weber's law and Fechner's law.

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## Weighting filter

A weighting filter is used to emphasize or suppress some aspects of a phenomenon compared to others, for measurement or other purposes.

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## Wire gauge

Wire gauge is a measurement of wire diameter.

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## Redirects here:

20 log rule, Absolute dB, Bel (acoustics), Bel (unit), Bell unit, DB-Hz, DBd, DBi, DBi1, DBrnC, DBu, DBuV, DBv, DBμV, Dbhz, Decibal, Decibel (Acoustics), Decibel (acoustics), Decibel Scale, Decibel scale, Decibels, Decible, MSC (unit of loss), MSC (unit), Miles of Standard Cable, Millibel, Relative dB, TU (transmission unit), TU (unit of loss), Transmission Unit, Transmission unit, ㏈.

## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decibel