280 relations: Aachen, Active networking, Additive white Gaussian noise, Advanced Audio Coding, Advanced Mobile Phone System, Al-Zawraa TV, Alexander Graham Bell, AM broadcasting, Amazon (company), Amplitude modulation, Amplitude-shift keying, Analog signal, Antenna (radio), Antenna tuner, Antonio Meucci, AppleTalk, ARPANET, Asynchronous transfer mode, Atmosphere, ATSC standards, Attenuation, Audio power amplifier, Édouard Estaunié, Bandwidth (signal processing), Bangladesh, Barack Obama, BBC, Beacon, BitTorrent, Bluetooth, Broadcasting, Brussels, Busy override, C-QUAM, Carrier wave, Carrier-sense multiple access with collision detection, Cathode ray tube, Charles Wheatstone, Claude Chappe, Coaxial cable, Communication, Communication channel, Communication protocol, Communications satellite, Communications system, Computer network, Computer terminal, ComScore, Courtship, Crosstalk, ..., Dartmouth College, Data transmission, David R. Henderson, Demodulation, Digital audio broadcasting, Digital divide, Digital Radio Mondiale, Digital Revolution, Digital signal, Digital Video Broadcasting, Dolby Digital, Domain Name System, Doppler effect, Drums in communication, Dual-tone multi-frequency signaling, Duplex (telecommunications), Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, Edwin Howard Armstrong, Electrical cable, Electrical telegraph, Electromagnetic radiation, Electromagnetism, Electronics, Elisha Gray, Erbil, Ethernet, Ethernet over twisted pair, Exabyte, Federal Communications Commission, Fiber-optic communication, File Transfer Protocol, Flag signals, FM broadcasting, Forward error correction, Free-space optical communication, Frequency, Frequency modulation, Frequency-division multiplexing, Frequency-shift keying, Frontinus, Gaul, George Stibitz, Gerard Goggin, Ghosting (television), Greeks, Gross domestic product, Gross world product, GSM, Guglielmo Marconi, Handset, HD Radio, Heliograph, Hertz, High-Definition Coding, History of broadcasting, Homing pigeon, Horn (instrument), Hypertext Transfer Protocol, IBiquity, Iceland, IEEE Spectrum, In-band on-channel, Information, Information Age, Infrared, Integrated circuit, International Telecommunication Union, International Teletraffic Congress, Internet, Internet access, Internet Engineering Task Force, Internet Protocol, Internet protocol suite, Internet Relay Chat, Internetwork Packet Exchange, Inventor, IP address, IPsec, Ipsos MORI, Iran, Iraq War, ISDB, ITU Radio Regulations, Ivory Coast, Java, John Logie Baird, Julius Caesar, Kantar TNS, Karl Ferdinand Braun, Keying (telecommunications), Laboratory, Landline, Latin, Lee de Forest, Leonard Waverman, Liberty Fund, Light, Lille, List of TCP and UDP port numbers, List of telecommunications encryption terms, Local area network, Logical address, Loudspeaker, Mainframe computer, Mechanical television, Microphone, Microwave auditory effect, Microwave transmission, Military communications, Millisecond, Mobile phone, Modulation, Morse code, MPEG-1, MPEG-2, MS-DOS, Multi-mode optical fiber, Multiplexing, Multiprotocol Label Switching, Nanonetwork, National Association of Broadcasters, Net neutrality, NetBIOS, New Hampshire, New Haven, Connecticut, New media, New Oxford American Dictionary, Nipkow disk, Nobel Prize in Physics, Node (networking), Noise (signal processing), Noise (video), NTSC, OECD, Optical communication, Optical fiber, Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing, OSI model, Outline of telecommunication, Packet switching, PAL, Paul Reuter, Petabyte, Phase-shift keying, Philo Farnsworth, Pigeon post, Plymouth, Point-to-point (telecommunications), Port (computer networking), Post Office Protocol, Process (computing), Propaganda, Pulse dialing, Push-button telephone, Quadrature amplitude modulation, Quality of service, Radio, Radio masts and towers, Radio receiver, Radio station, Radio wave, Real-time Transport Protocol, Repeater, Request for Comments, Router (computing), Samuel Morse, Science (journal), Scientist, SECAM, Selfridges, Semaphore line, Shortwave radio, Signal, Sir, Smoke signal, SMS, Social networking service, Sony, Spanish Armada, Stereophonic sound, Stochastic process, Sumatra, Synchronization, TAT-8, Technology, Telecommunication, Telecommunications industry, Telecommunications Industry Association, Telecommunications network, Telecoms resilience, Telegraphy, Telephone, Telephone exchange, Teleprinter, Teletype Corporation, Television, The New York Times, Time (magazine), Time-division multiplexing, Token ring, Traffic contract, Transatlantic telegraph cable, Transmission (telecommunications), Transmission medium, Transmitter, Transport Layer Security, Twisted pair, Ultraviolet, UMTS, United States dollar, User Datagram Protocol, Vacuum, Vladimir K. Zworykin, Voice over IP, Walmart, WAN optimization, Watt, Wavelength-division multiplexing, Web browser, Wi-Fi, Wide area network, William Fothergill Cooke, Wire, Wired communication, Wireless, Wireless telegraphy, World War I, World War II, XMPP, 8VSB. Expand index (230 more) » « Shrink index
Aachen or Bad Aachen, French and traditional English: Aix-la-Chapelle, is a spa and border city.
Active networking is a communication pattern that allows packets flowing through a telecommunications network to dynamically modify the operation of the network.
Additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) is a basic noise model used in Information theory to mimic the effect of many random processes that occur in nature.
Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) is a proprietary audio coding standard for lossy digital audio compression.
Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) is an analog mobile phone system standard developed by Bell Labs, and officially introduced in the Americas on October 13, 1983,.
Al-Zawraa (or Al-Zawra) TV was an Iraqi satellite television channel that was known for airing video footage of insurgent attacks on US-led coalition forces.
Alexander Graham Bell (March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922) was a Scottish-born scientist, inventor, engineer, and innovator who is credited with inventing and patenting the first practical telephone.
AM broadcasting is a radio broadcasting technology, which employs amplitude modulation (AM) transmissions.
Amazon.com, Inc., doing business as Amazon, is an American electronic commerce and cloud computing company based in Seattle, Washington that was founded by Jeff Bezos on July 5, 1994.
Amplitude modulation (AM) is a modulation technique used in electronic communication, most commonly for transmitting information via a radio carrier wave.
Amplitude-shift keying (ASK) is a form of amplitude modulation that represents digital data as variations in the amplitude of a carrier wave.
An analog signal is any continuous signal for which the time varying feature (variable) of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity, i.e., analogous to another time varying signal.
In radio, an antenna is the interface between radio waves propagating through space and electric currents moving in metal conductors, used with a transmitter or receiver.
An antenna tuner, a matchbox, transmatch, antenna tuning unit (ATU), antenna coupler, or feedline coupler is a device connected between a radio transmitter or receiver and its antenna to improve power transfer between them by matching the impedance of the radio to the antenna's feedline.
Antonio Santi Giuseppe Meucci (13 April 1808 – 18 October 1889) was an Italian inventor and an associate of Giuseppe Garibaldi (a major political figure in the history of Italy).
AppleTalk was a proprietary suite of networking protocols developed by Apple Inc. for their Macintosh computers.
The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was an early packet switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP.
Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is, according to the ATM Forum, "a telecommunications concept defined by ANSI and ITU (formerly CCITT) standards for carriage of a complete range of user traffic, including voice, data, and video signals".
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) standards are a set of standards for digital television transmission over terrestrial, cable, and satellite networks.
In physics, attenuation or, in some contexts, extinction is the gradual loss of flux intensity through a medium.
An audio power amplifier (or power amp) is an electronic amplifier that reproduces low-power electronic audio signals such as the signal from radio receiver or electric guitar pickup at a level that is strong enough for driving (or powering) loudspeakers or headphones.
Édouard Estaunié (4 February 1862 in Dijon – 2 April 1942 in Paris) was a French novelist.
Bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower frequencies in a continuous band of frequencies.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
A beacon is an intentionally conspicuous device designed to attract attention to a specific location.
BitTorrent (abbreviated to BT) is a communication protocol for peer-to-peer file sharing (P2P) which is used to distribute data and electronic files over the Internet.
Bluetooth is a wireless technology standard for exchanging data over short distances (using short-wavelength UHF radio waves in the ISM band from 2.4 to 2.485GHz) from fixed and mobile devices, and building personal area networks (PANs).
Broadcasting is the distribution of audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves), in a one-to-many model.
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
Busy override is a function of the private branch exchange that allows the calling party to override the busy signal on the called party in order to break into the ongoing conversation.
C-QUAM is the method of AM stereo broadcasting used in Canada, the United States and most other countries.
In telecommunications, a carrier wave, carrier signal, or just carrier, is a waveform (usually sinusoidal) that is modulated (modified) with an input signal for the purpose of conveying information.
Carrier-sense multiple access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) is a media access control method used most notably in early Ethernet technology for local area networking.
The cathode ray tube (CRT) is a vacuum tube that contains one or more electron guns and a phosphorescent screen, and is used to display images.
Sir Charles Wheatstone FRS (6 February 1802 – 19 October 1875), was an English scientist and inventor of many scientific breakthroughs of the Victorian era, including the English concertina, the stereoscope (a device for displaying three-dimensional images), and the Playfair cipher (an encryption technique).
Claude Chappe (December 25, 1763 – January 23, 1805) was a French inventor who in 1792 demonstrated a practical semaphore system that eventually spanned all of France.
Cross-sectional view of a coaxial cable Coaxial cable, or coax (pronounced), is a type of electrical cable that has an inner conductor surrounded by a tubular insulating layer, surrounded by a tubular conducting shield.
Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.
A communication channel or simply channel refers either to a physical transmission medium such as a wire, or to a logical connection over a multiplexed medium such as a radio channel in telecommunications and computer networking.
In telecommunication, a communication protocol is a system of rules that allow two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity.
A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth.
In telecommunication, a communications system is a collection of individual communications networks, transmission systems, relay stations, tributary stations, and data terminal equipment (DTE) usually capable of interconnection and interoperation to form an integrated whole.
A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.
A computer terminal is an electronic or electromechanical hardware device that is used for entering data into, and displaying or printing data from, a computer or a computing system.
comScore is an American media measurement and analytics company providing marketing data and analytics to enterprises, media and advertising agencies, and publishers.
Courtship is the period of development towards an intimate relationship wherein people (usually a couple) get to know each other and decide if there will be an engagement or other romantic arrangement.
In electronics, crosstalk is any phenomenon by which a signal transmitted on one circuit or channel of a transmission system creates an undesired effect in another circuit or channel.
Dartmouth College is a private Ivy League research university in Hanover, New Hampshire, United States.
Data transmission (also data communication or digital communications) is the transfer of data (a digital bitstream or a digitized analog signal) over a point-to-point or point-to-multipoint communication channel.
David R. Henderson (born November 21, 1950) is a Canadian-born American economist and author who moved to the United States in 1972 and became a U.S. citizen in 1986, serving on President Ronald Reagan’s Council of Economic Advisers from 1982 to 1984.
Demodulation is extracting the original information-bearing signal from a carrier wave.
Digital audio broadcasting (DAB) is a digital radio standard for broadcasting digital audio radio services, used in many countries across Europe, Asia, and the Pacific.
A digital divide is an economic and social inequality with regard to access to, use of, or impact of information and communication technologies (ICT).
Digital Radio Mondiale (DRM; mondiale being Italian and French for "worldwide") is a set of digital audio broadcasting technologies designed to work over the bands currently used for analogue radio broadcasting including AM broadcasting, particularly shortwave, and FM broadcasting.
The Digital Revolution, also known as the Third Industrial Revolution, is the shift from mechanical and analogue electronic technology to digital electronics which began anywhere from the late 1950s to the late 1970s with the adoption and proliferation of digital computers and digital record keeping that continues to the present day.
A digital signal is a signal that is being used to represent data as a sequence of discrete values; at any given time it can only take on one of a finite number of values.
Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) is a set of internationally open standards for digital television.
Dolby Digital is the name for audio compression technologies developed by Dolby Laboratories.
The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical decentralized naming system for computers, services, or other resources connected to the Internet or a private network.
The Doppler effect (or the Doppler shift) is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to observer who is moving relative to the wave source.
Developed and used by cultures living in forested areas, drums served as an early form of long-distance communication, and were used during ceremonial and religious functions.
Dual-tone multi-frequency signaling (DTMF) is an in-band telecommunication signaling system using the voice-frequency band over telephone lines between telephone equipment and other communications devices and switching centers.
A duplex communication system is a point-to-point system composed of two or more connected parties or devices that can communicate with one another in both directions.
The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a network management protocol used on UDP/IP networks whereby a DHCP server dynamically assigns an IP address and other network configuration parameters to each device on a network so they can communicate with other IP networks.
Edwin Howard Armstrong (December 18, 1890 – February 1, 1954) was an American electrical engineer and inventor, best known for developing FM (frequency modulation) radio and the superheterodyne receiver system.
An electrical cable is an assembly of one or more wires running side by side or bundled, which is used to carry electric current.
An electrical telegraph is a telegraph that uses electrical signals, usually conveyed via dedicated telecommunication circuit or radio.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
Elisha Gray (August 2, 1835 – January 21, 1901) was an American electrical engineer who co-founded the Western Electric Manufacturing Company.
Erbil, also spelt Arbil or Irbil, locally called Hawler by the Kurdish people (ھەولێر Hewlêr; أربيل, Arbīl; ܐܲܪܒܝܠ, Arbela), is the capital of Iraqi Kurdistan and the largest city in northern Iraq.
Ethernet is a family of computer networking technologies commonly used in local area networks (LAN), metropolitan area networks (MAN) and wide area networks (WAN).
Ethernet over twisted pair technologies use twisted-pair cables for the physical layer of an Ethernet computer network.
The exabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent agency of the United States government created by statute (and) to regulate interstate communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable.
Fiber-optic communication is a method of transmitting information from one place to another by sending pulses of light through an optical fiber.
The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is a standard network protocol used for the transfer of computer files between a client and server on a computer network.
Flag signals can mean any of various methods of using flags or pennants to send signals.
FM broadcasting is a method of radio broadcasting using frequency modulation (FM) technology.
In telecommunication, information theory, and coding theory, forward error correction (FEC) or channel coding is a technique used for controlling errors in data transmission over unreliable or noisy communication channels.
Free-space optical communication (FSO) is an optical communication technology that uses light propagating in free space to wirelessly transmit data for telecommunications or computer networking.
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.
In telecommunications and signal processing, frequency modulation (FM) is the encoding of information in a carrier wave by varying the instantaneous frequency of the wave.
In telecommunications, frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) is a technique by which the total bandwidth available in a communication medium is divided into a series of non-overlapping frequency bands, each of which is used to carry a separate signal.
Frequency-shift keying (FSK) is a frequency modulation scheme in which digital information is transmitted through discrete frequency changes of a carrier signal.
Sextus Julius Frontinus (c. 40 – 103 AD) was a prominent Roman civil engineer, author, and politician of the late 1st century AD.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
George Robert Stibitz (April 30, 1904 – January 31, 1995) was a Bell Labs researcher internationally recognized as one of the fathers of the modern first digital computer.
Professor Gerard Goggin is an Australian media and communications researcher at the University of Sydney.
In television, a ghost is a replica of the transmitted image, offset in position, that is super-imposed on top of the main image.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
The gross world product (GWP) is the combined gross national product of all the countries in the world.
GSM (Global System for Mobile communications) is a standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe the protocols for second-generation digital cellular networks used by mobile devices such as tablets, first deployed in Finland in December 1991.
Guglielmo Marconi, 1st Marquis of Marconi (25 April 187420 July 1937) was an Italian inventor and electrical engineer known for his pioneering work on long-distance radio transmission and for his development of Marconi's law and a radio telegraph system.
A handset is a component of a telephone that a user holds to the ear and mouth to receive audio through the receiver and speak to the remote party via the built-in transmitter.
HD Radio is a trademarked term for iBiquity's in-band on-channel (IBOC) digital radio technology used by AM and FM radio stations to transmit audio and data by using a digital signal embedded "on-frequency" immediately above and below a station's standard analog signal, providing the means to listen to the same program in either HD (digital radio with less noise) or as a standard broadcast (analog radio with standard sound quality).
A heliograph (helios, meaning "sun", and graphein, meaning "write") is a wireless solar telegraph that signals by flashes of sunlight (generally using Morse code) reflected by a mirror.
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.
HDC (Hybrid Digital Coding) with SBR (spectral band replication) is a proprietary lossy audio compression codec developed by iBiquity for use with HD Radio.
The first broadcasting of a radio transmission consisted of Morse code (or wireless telegraphy) was made from a temporary station set up by Guglielmo Marconi in 1895.
The homing pigeon is a variety of domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica) derived from the rock pigeon, selectively bred for its ability to find its way home over extremely long distances.
A horn is any of a family of musical instruments made of a tube, usually made of metal and often curved in various ways, with one narrow end into which the musician blows, and a wide end from which sound emerges.
The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is an application protocol for distributed, collaborative, and hypermedia information systems.
iBiquity Digital Corporation is a company formed by the merger of USA Digital Radio and Lucent Digital Radio, with the goal of creating an in-band on-channel (IBOC) digital radio system for the United States and around the world.
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.
IEEE Spectrum is a magazine edited by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.
In-band on-channel (IBOC) is a hybrid method of transmitting digital radio and analog radio broadcast signals simultaneously on the same frequency.
Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.
The Information Age (also known as the Computer Age, Digital Age, or New Media Age) is a 21st century period in human history characterized by the rapid shift from traditional industry that the Industrial Revolution brought through industrialization, to an economy based on information technology.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; Union Internationale des Télécommunications (UIT)), originally the International Telegraph Union (Union Télégraphique Internationale), is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies.
The International Teletraffic Congress (ITC) is the first international conference in networking science & practice.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
Internet access is the ability of individuals and organizations to connect to the Internet using computer terminals, computers, and other devices; and to access services such as email and the World Wide Web.
The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) develops and promotes voluntary Internet standards, in particular the standards that comprise the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP).
The Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries.
The Internet protocol suite is the conceptual model and set of communications protocols used on the Internet and similar computer networks.
Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is an application layer protocol that facilitates communication in the form of text.
Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) is the network layer protocol in the IPX/SPX protocol suite.
An inventor is a person who creates or discovers a new method, form, device or other useful means that becomes known as an invention.
An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication.
In computing, Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) is a secure network protocol suite of IPv4 that authenticates and encrypts the packets of data sent over an IPv4 network.
Ipsos MORI is a market research organisation in the United Kingdom.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
The Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB) (Japanese:, Tōgō dejitaru hōsō sābisu) is a Japanese standard for digital television (DTV) and digital radio used by the country's radio and television networks.
The ITU Radio Regulations (short: RR) regulates on law of nations scale radiocommunication services and the utilisation of radio frequencies.
Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire and officially as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a sovereign state located in West Africa.
Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese) is an island of Indonesia.
John Logie Baird FRSE (13 August 188814 June 1946) was a Scottish engineer, innovator, one of the inventors of the mechanical television, demonstrating the first working television system on 26 January 1926, and inventor of both the first publicly demonstrated colour television system, and the first purely electronic colour television picture tube.
Gaius Julius Caesar (12 or 13 July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC), known by his cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician and military general who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.
Kantar TNS (formerly known as Taylor Nelson Sofres) is a market research and market information group.
Karl Ferdinand Braun (6 June 1850 – 20 April 1918) was a German inventor, physicist and Nobel laureate in physics.
Keying is a family of modulation forms where the modulating signal takes one of a specific (predetermined) number of values at all times.
A laboratory (informally, lab) is a facility that provides controlled conditions in which scientific or technological research, experiments, and measurement may be performed.
A landline telephone (also known as land line, land-line, main line, home phone, landline, fixed-line, and wireline) is a phone that uses a metal wire or optical fiber telephone line for transmission as distinguished from a mobile cellular line, which uses radio waves for transmission.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lee de Forest (August 26, 1873 – June 30, 1961) was an American inventor, self-described "Father of Radio", and a pioneer in the development of sound-on-film recording used for motion pictures.
Liberty Fund, Inc. is a nonprofit foundation headquartered in Indianapolis, Indiana which promulgates the libertarian views of its founder, Pierre F. Goodrich through publishing, conferences, and educational resources.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Lille (Rijsel; Rysel) is a city at the northern tip of France, in French Flanders.
This is a list of TCP and UDP port numbers used by protocols of the application layer of the Internet protocol suite for the establishment of host-to-host connectivity.
This is a list of telecommunications encryption terms.
A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such as a residence, school, laboratory, university campus or office building.
In computing, a logical address is the address at which an item (memory cell, storage element, network host) appears to reside from the perspective of an executing application program(address generated by CPU).
A loudspeaker (or loud-speaker or speaker) is an electroacoustic transducer; which converts an electrical audio signal into a corresponding sound.
Mainframe computers (colloquially referred to as "big iron") are computers used primarily by large organizations for critical applications; bulk data processing, such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning; and transaction processing.
Mechanical television or mechanical scan television is a television system that relies on a mechanical scanning device, such as a rotating disk with holes in it or a rotating mirror, to scan the scene and generate the video signal, and a similar mechanical device at the receiver to display the picture.
A microphone, colloquially nicknamed mic or mike, is a transducer that converts sound into an electrical signal.
The microwave auditory effect, also known as the microwave hearing effect or the Frey effect, consists of audible clicks induced by pulsed/modulated microwave frequencies.
Microwave transmission is the transmission of information or energy by microwave radio waves.
Military communications or military signals involve all aspects of communications, or conveyance of information, by armed forces.
A millisecond (from milli- and second; symbol: ms) is a thousandth (0.001 or 10−3 or 1/1000) of a second.
A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.
In electronics and telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal that typically contains information to be transmitted.
Morse code is a method of transmitting text information as a series of on-off tones, lights, or clicks that can be directly understood by a skilled listener or observer without special equipment.
MPEG-1 is a standard for lossy compression of video and audio.
MPEG-2 (a.k.a. H.222/H.262 as defined by the ITU) is a standard for "the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information".
MS-DOS (acronym for Microsoft Disk Operating System) is an operating system for x86-based personal computers mostly developed by Microsoft.
Multi-mode optical fiber is a type of optical fiber mostly used for communication over short distances, such as within a building or on a campus.
In telecommunications and computer networks, multiplexing (sometimes contracted to muxing) is a method by which multiple analog or digital signals are combined into one signal over a shared medium.
Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) is a type of data-carrying technique for high-performance telecommunications networks. MPLS directs data from one network node to the next based on short path labels rather than long network addresses, avoiding complex lookups in a routing table.
A nanonetwork or nanoscale network is a set of interconnected nanomachines (devices a few hundred nanometers or a few micrometers at most in size), which are able to perform only very simple tasks such as computing, data storing, sensing and actuation.
The National Association of Broadcasters (NAB) is a trade association and lobby group representing the interests of commercial and non-commercial over-the-air radio and television broadcasters in the United States.
Net neutrality is the principle that Internet service providers treat all data on the Internet equally, and not discriminate or charge differently by user, content, website, platform, application, type of attached equipment, or method of communication.
NetBIOS is an acronym for Network Basic Input/Output System.
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
New Haven is a coastal city in the U.S. state of Connecticut.
New media are forms of media that are native to computers, computational and relying on computers for re-distribution.
The New Oxford university American Dictionary (NOAD) is a single-volume dictionary of American English compiled by American editors at the Oxford University Press.
A Nipkow disk (sometimes Anglicized as Nipkov disk; patented in 1884), also known as scanning disk, is a mechanical, rotating, geometrically operating image scanning device, patented in 1885 by Paul Gottlieb Nipkow.
The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.
In telecommunications networks, a node (Latin nodus, ‘knot’) is either a redistribution point or a communication endpoint.
In signal processing, noise is a general term for unwanted (and, in general, unknown) modifications that a signal may suffer during capture, storage, transmission, processing, or conversion.
Noise, in analog video and television, is a random dot pixel pattern of static displayed when no transmission signal is obtained by the antenna receiver of television sets and other display devices.
NTSC, named after the National Television System Committee,National Television System Committee (1951–1953),, 17 v. illus., diagrs., tables.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
Optical communication, also known as optical telecommunication, is communication at a distance using light to carry information.
An optical fiber or optical fibre is a flexible, transparent fiber made by drawing glass (silica) or plastic to a diameter slightly thicker than that of a human hair.
In telecommunications, orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) is a method of encoding digital data on multiple carrier frequencies.
The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing system without regard to its underlying internal structure and technology.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to telecommunication: Telecommunication – the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication.
Packet switching is a method of grouping data which is transmitted over a digital network into packets which are made of a header and a payload.
Phase Alternating Line (PAL) is a color encoding system for analogue television used in broadcast television systems in most countries broadcasting at 625-line / 50 field (25 frame) per second (576i).
Paul Julius Freiherr von Reuter (Baron von Reuter; 21 July 1816 – 25 February 1899) was a German-born, British entrepreneur who was a pioneer of telegraphy and news reporting.
The petabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.
Phase-shift keying (PSK) is a digital modulation process which conveys data by changing (modulating) the phase of a constant frequency reference signal (the carrier wave).
Philo Taylor Farnsworth (August 19, 1906 – March 11, 1971) was an American inventor and television pioneer.
Pigeon post is the use of homing pigeons to carry messages.
Plymouth is a city situated on the south coast of Devon, England, approximately south-west of Exeter and west-south-west of London.
In telecommunications, a point-to-point connection refers to a communications connection between two Communication endpoints or nodes.
In computer networking, a port is an endpoint of communication in an operating system, which identifies a specific process or a type of network service running on that system.
In computing, the Post Office Protocol (POP) is an application-layer Internet standard protocol used by e-mail clients to retrieve e-mail from a server in an Internet Protocol (IP) network.
In computing, a process is an instance of a computer program that is being executed.
Propaganda is information that is not objective and is used primarily to influence an audience and further an agenda, often by presenting facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis or perception, or using loaded language to produce an emotional rather than a rational response to the information that is presented.
Pulse dialing is a signaling technology in telecommunications in which a direct current local loop circuit is interrupted according to a defined coding system for each signal transmitted, usually a digit.
The push-button telephone is a telephone that has buttons or keys for dialing a telephone number, in contrast to having a rotary dial as in earlier telephone instruments.
Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) is the name of a family of digital modulation methods and a related family of analog modulation methods widely used in modern telecommunications to transmit information.
Quality of service (QoS) is the description or measurement of the overall performance of a service, such as a telephony or computer network or a cloud computing service, particularly the performance seen by the users of the network.
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
Radio masts and towers are, typically, tall structures designed to support antennas (also known as aerials) for telecommunications and broadcasting, including television.
In radio communications, a radio receiver (receiver or simply radio) is an electronic device that receives radio waves and converts the information carried by them to a usable form.
A radio station is a set of equipment necessary to carry on communication via radio waves.
Radio waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum longer than infrared light.
The Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) is a network protocol for delivering audio and video over IP networks.
In telecommunications, a repeater is an electronic device that receives a signal and retransmits it.
In information and communications technology, a Request for Comments (RFC) is a type of publication from the technology community.
A router is a networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks.
Samuel Finley Breese Morse (April 27, 1791 – April 2, 1872) was an American painter and inventor. After having established his reputation as a portrait painter, in his middle age Morse contributed to the invention of a single-wire telegraph system based on European telegraphs. He was a co-developer of the Morse code and helped to develop the commercial use of telegraphy.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
A scientist is a person engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge that describes and predicts the natural world.
SECAM, also written SÉCAM (Séquentiel couleur à mémoire, French for "Sequential colour with memory"), is an analogue color television system first used in France.
Selfridges, also known as Selfridges & Co., is a chain of high end department stores in the United Kingdom, operated by Selfridges Retail Limited.
A semaphore telegraph is a system of conveying information by means of visual signals, using towers with pivoting shutters, also known as blades or paddles.
Shortwave radio is radio transmission using shortwave radio frequencies.
A signal as referred to in communication systems, signal processing, and electrical engineering is a function that "conveys information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon".
Sir is an honorific address used in a number of situations in many anglophone cultures.
The smoke signal is one of the oldest forms of long-distance communication.
SMS (short message service) is a text messaging service component of most telephone, internet, and mobile-device systems.
A social networking service (also social networking site, SNS or social media) is a web application that people use to build social networks or social relations with other people who share similar personal or career interests, activities, backgrounds or real-life connections.
is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Kōnan, Minato, Tokyo.
The Spanish Armada (Grande y Felicísima Armada, literally "Great and Most Fortunate Navy") was a Spanish fleet of 130 ships that sailed from A Coruña in late May 1588, under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia, with the purpose of escorting an army from Flanders to invade England.
Stereophonic sound or, more commonly, stereo, is a method of sound reproduction that creates an illusion of multi-directional audible perspective.
--> In probability theory and related fields, a stochastic or random process is a mathematical object usually defined as a collection of random variables.
Sumatra is an Indonesian island in Southeast Asia that is part of the Sunda Islands.
Synchronization is the coordination of events to operate a system in unison.
TAT-8 was the 8th transatlantic communications cable and first transatlantic fiber-optic cable, initially carrying 40,000 telephone circuits (simultaneous calls) between the United States, Great Britain and France.
Technology ("science of craft", from Greek τέχνη, techne, "art, skill, cunning of hand"; and -λογία, -logia) is first robustly defined by Jacob Bigelow in 1829 as: "...principles, processes, and nomenclatures of the more conspicuous arts, particularly those which involve applications of science, and which may be considered useful, by promoting the benefit of society, together with the emolument of those who pursue them".
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.
The telecommunications industry within the sector of information and communication technology is made up of all Telecommunications/telephone companies and internet service providers and plays the crucial role in the evolution of mobile communications and the information society.
The Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) is accredited by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) to develop voluntary, consensus-based industry standards for a wide variety of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) products, and currently represents nearly 400 companies.
A telecommunications network is a collection of terminal nodes, links are connected so as to enable telecommunication between the terminals.
The term telecoms resilience means enabling a telephone subscriber to continue to be served even when one line is out of service.
Telegraphy (from Greek: τῆλε têle, "at a distance" and γράφειν gráphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message.
A telephone, or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly.
A telephone exchange is a telecommunications system used in the public switched telephone network or in large enterprises.
A teleprinter (teletypewriter, Teletype or TTY) is an electromechanical typewriter that can be used to send and receive typed messages through various communications channels, in both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint configurations.
The Teletype Corporation, a part of American Telephone and Telegraph Company's Western Electric manufacturing arm since 1930, came into being in 1928 when the Morkrum-Kleinschmidt Company changed its name to the name of its trademark equipment.
Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Time-division multiplexing (TDM) is a method of transmitting and receiving independent signals over a common signal path by means of synchronized switches at each end of the transmission line so that each signal appears on the line only a fraction of time in an alternating pattern.
MAU b) Using several MAUs connected to each other Token ring network IBM hermaphroditic connector with locking clip Token Ring local area network (LAN) technology is a communications protocol for local area networks.
If a service (or application) wishes to use a broadband network (an ATM network in particular) to transport a particular kind of traffic, it must first inform the network about what kind of traffic is to be transported, and the performance requirements of that traffic.
A transatlantic telegraph cable is an undersea cable running under the Atlantic Ocean used for telegraph communications.
In telecommunications, transmission (abbreviations: TX, Xmit) is the process of sending and propagating an analogue or digital information signal over a physical point-to-point or point-to-multipoint transmission medium, either wired, optical fiber or wireless.
A transmission medium is a material substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) that can propagate energy waves.
In electronics and telecommunications, a transmitter or radio transmitter is an electronic device which produces radio waves with an antenna.
Transport Layer Security (TLS) – and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), which is now deprecated by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) – are cryptographic protocols that provide communications security over a computer network.
Twisted pair cabling is a type of wiring in which two conductors of a single circuit are twisted together for the purposes of improving electromagnetic compatibility.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is a third generation mobile cellular system for networks based on the GSM standard.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
In computer networking, the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core members of the Internet protocol suite.
Vacuum is space devoid of matter.
Vladimir Kosmich Zworykin (Влади́мир Козьми́ч Зворы́кин, Vladimir Koz'mich Zvorykin; July 29, 1982) was a Russian-born American inventor, engineer, and pioneer of television technology.
Voice over Internet Protocol (also voice over IP, VoIP or IP telephony) is a methodology and group of technologies for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the Internet.
Walmart Inc. (formerly branded as Wal-Mart Stores, Inc.) is an American multinational retail corporation that operates a chain of hypermarkets, discount department stores, and grocery stores.
WAN optimization is a collection of techniques for increasing data transfer efficiencies across wide-area networks (WANs).
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.
In fiber-optic communications, wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) is a technology which multiplexes a number of optical carrier signals onto a single optical fiber by using different wavelengths (i.e., colors) of laser light.
A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web.
Wi-Fi or WiFi is technology for radio wireless local area networking of devices based on the IEEE 802.11 standards.
A wide area network (WAN) is a telecommunications network or computer network that extends over a large geographical distance/place.
Sir William Fothergill Cooke (4 May 1806 – 25 June 1879) was an English inventor.
A wire is a single, usually cylindrical, flexible strand or rod of metal.
Wired communication refers to the transmission of data over a wire-based communication technology.
Wireless communication, or sometimes simply wireless, is the transfer of information or power between two or more points that are not connected by an electrical conductor.
Wireless telegraphy is the transmission of telegraphy signals from one point to another by means of an electromagnetic, electrostatic or magnetic field, or by electrical current through the earth or water.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) is a communication protocol for message-oriented middleware based on XML (Extensible Markup Language).
8VSB is the modulation method used for broadcast in the ATSC digital television standard.
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