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Apparent magnitude

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The apparent magnitude (m) of a celestial object is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth, adjusted to the value it would have in the absence of the atmosphere. [1]

148 relations: Absolute magnitude, Airglow, Almagest, Alpha Centauri, Andromeda Galaxy, Apsis, Arcturus, Aristotle, Astronomical object, Astronomical unit, Atmosphere of Earth, Betelgeuse, Binoculars, Black body, Bolometer, Bortle scale, Bright Star Catalogue, Brightness, Callirrhoe (moon), Canopus, Celestial sphere, Centaur (minor planet), Ceres (dwarf planet), Charge-coupled device, Charon (moon), Circumstellar disk, Comet Ikeya–Seki, Conjunction (astronomy), Cosmic dust, Distance modulus, Earth, Epsilon Canis Majoris, Eris (dwarf planet), Eta Carinae, European Extremely Large Telescope, European Southern Observatory, Extinction (astronomy), Fenrir (moon), First magnitude star, Flux, Full moon, Gamma-ray burst, Ganymede (moon), General relativity, GRB 080319B, Halley's Comet, Haumea, Hellenistic Greece, Hipparchus, Historical brightest stars, ..., Hubble Space Telescope, Human, Human eye, Hydra (moon), Iapetus (moon), Infrared, Infrared astronomy, Infrared excess, International Space Station, Inverse-square law, Irradiance, J band, Jansky, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, JPL Horizons On-Line Ephemeris System, Jupiter, Kreutz sungrazer, Large Magellanic Cloud, LBV 1806-20, Light-year, List of brightest stars, List of nearest bright stars, List of nearest stars and brown dwarfs, Logarithm, Logarithmic scale, Luminosity, Luminosity distance, Lux, Magnitude (astronomy), Makemake, Mars, Mercury (planet), Messier 41, Messier 81, Milky Way, Monochrome, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, N. R. Pogson, Naked eye, NASA, Neptune, New moon, Night sky, Nix (moon), Opposition (planets), Parsec, Perihelion and aphelion, Phase curve (astronomy), Photodetector, Photographic film, Photographic magnitude, Planck's law, Pluto, Polaris, Power law, Ptolemy, Quasar, Rayleigh scattering, Red dwarf, Red giant, Rho Cassiopeiae, Rigel, Ritchey–Chrétien telescope, Satellite flare, Saturn, Scott S. Sheppard, Sirius, SN 1006, SN 1054, SN 1987A, Spectral energy distribution, Star, Stellar classification, Stevens' power law, Sun, Supergiant, Supernova impostor, Surface brightness, Telescope, The Astrophysical Journal, Titan (moon), Triangulum Galaxy, Triton (moon), UBV photometric system, Ultraviolet, Uranus, Vega, Venus, Visible spectrum, Visual perception, Weber–Fechner law, 10 Hygiea, 2 Pallas, 2060 Chiron, 3C 273, 4 Vesta, 7 Iris, 90377 Sedna. Expand index (98 more) »

Absolute magnitude

Absolute magnitude is the measure of intrinsic brightness of a celestial object.

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Airglow (also called nightglow) is a faint emission of light by a planetary atmosphere.

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The Almagest is a 2nd-century mathematical and astronomical treatise on the apparent motions of the stars and planetary paths.

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Alpha Centauri

Alpha Centauri (α Cen), also known as Rigil Kent or Toliman, is the closest star system to the Solar System at.

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Andromeda Galaxy

The Andromeda Galaxy, also known as Messier 31, M31, or NGC 224, is a spiral galaxy approximately 780 kiloparsecs (2.5 million light-years) from Earth.

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The apsis (Greek ἁψίς), plural apsides (Greek: ἁψίδες) is an extreme point in an object's orbit.

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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης, Aristotélēs; 384322 BC) was a Greek philosopher and scientist born in the Macedonian city of Stagira, Chalkidice, on the northern periphery of Classical Greece.

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Astronomical object

An astronomical object or celestial object is a naturally occurring physical entity, association, or structure that current science has demonstrated to exist in the observable universe.

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Astronomical unit

The astronomical unit (symbol au, AU or ua) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from the Earth to the Sun.

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Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth that is retained by Earth's gravity.

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Betelgeuse, also known by its Bayer designation Alpha Orionis (shortened to α Orionis or α Ori), is the ninth-brightest star in the night sky and second-brightest in the constellation of Orion.

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Binoculars, field glasses or binocular telescopes are a pair of identical or mirror-symmetrical telescopes mounted side-by-side and aligned to point accurately in the same direction, allowing the viewer to use both eyes (binocular vision) when viewing distant objects.

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Black body

A black body (also blackbody) is an idealized physical body that absorbs all incident electromagnetic radiation, regardless of frequency or angle of incidence.

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A bolometer (Greek: βολόμετρον "bolometron", meaning measurer (-μετρον) of thrown things (βολο-)) is a device for measuring the power of incident electromagnetic radiation via the heating of a material with a temperature-dependent electrical resistance.

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Bortle scale

The Bortle scale is a nine-level numeric scale that measures the night sky's brightness of a particular location.

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Bright Star Catalogue

The Bright Star Catalogue, also known as the Yale Catalogue of Bright Stars or Yale Bright Star Catalogue, is a star catalogue that lists all stars of stellar magnitude 6.5 or brighter, which is roughly every star visible to the naked eye from Earth.

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Brightness is an attribute of visual perception in which a source appears to be radiating or reflecting light.

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Callirrhoe (moon)

Callirrhoe (Greek: Καλλιρρόη), also known as (17), is one of Jupiter's outermost named natural satellites.

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Canopus (α Car, α Carinae, Alpha Carinae) is the brightest star in the southern constellation of Carina, and the second brightest star in the night-time sky, after Sirius.

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Celestial sphere

In astronomy and navigation, the celestial sphere is an imaginary sphere of arbitrarily large radius, concentric with Earth.

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Centaur (minor planet)

Centaurs are small Solar System bodies with a semi-major axis between those of the outer planets.

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Ceres (dwarf planet)

Ceres (minor-planet designation: 1 Ceres) is the largest object in the asteroid belt, which lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.

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Charge-coupled device

A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated, for example conversion into a digital value.

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Charon (moon)

Charon, also called (134340) Pluto I, is the largest of the five known moons of the dwarf planet Pluto.

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Circumstellar disk

A circumstellar disk is a torus, pancake or ring-shaped accumulation of matter composed of gas, dust, planetesimals, asteroids or collision fragments in orbit around a star.

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Comet Ikeya–Seki

Comet Ikeya–Seki, formally designated C/1965 S1, 1965 VIII, and 1965f, was a long-period comet discovered independently by Kaoru Ikeya and Tsutomu Seki.

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Conjunction (astronomy)

A conjunction occurs when two astronomical objects have either the same right ascension or the same ecliptical longitude, normally when observed from the Earth.

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Cosmic dust

Cosmic dust is dust which exists in space.

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Distance modulus

The distance modulus is a way of expressing distances that is often used in astronomy.

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Earth (also the world, in Greek: Gaia, or in Latin: Terra), is the third planet from the Sun, the densest planet in the Solar System, the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets, and the only astronomical object known to accommodate life.

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Epsilon Canis Majoris

Epsilon Canis Majoris (ε CMa, ε Canis Majoris) is the second brightest star in the constellation Canis Major, and one of the brightest stars in the night sky.

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Eris (dwarf planet)

Eris (minor-planet designation 136199 Eris) is the most-massive and second-largest dwarf planet known in the Solar System.

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Eta Carinae

Eta Carinae (abbreviated to η Carinae or η Car), formerly known as Eta Argus, is a stellar system containing at least two stars with a combined luminosity over five million times that of the Sun, located around 7500 light-years (2300 parsecs) distant in the direction of the constellation Carina.

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European Extremely Large Telescope

The European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT) is a ground-based extremely large telescope for the optical/near-infrared range, currently being built by the European Southern Observatory (ESO) on top of Cerro Armazones in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile.

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European Southern Observatory

The European Southern Observatory (ESO, formally: European Organisation for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere; Observatoire européen austral) is a 16-nation intergovernmental research organisation for astronomy.

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Extinction (astronomy)

Extinction is a term used in astronomy to describe the absorption and scattering of electromagnetic radiation by dust and gas between an emitting astronomical object and the observer.

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Fenrir (moon)

Fenrir or Saturn XLI (provisional designation S/2004 S 16) is a natural satellite of Saturn.

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First magnitude star

First magnitude stars are the brightest stars on the night sky.

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In the various subfields of physics, there exist two common usages of the term flux, each with rigorous mathematical frameworks.

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Full moon

A full moon is the lunar phase that occurs when the Moon is completely illuminated as seen from the Earth.

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Gamma-ray burst

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are flashes of gamma rays associated with extremely energetic explosions that have been observed in distant galaxies.

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Ganymede (moon)

Ganymede, or as Γανυμήδης (Jupiter III) is the largest moon of Jupiter and in the Solar System, and the only moon known to have a magnetosphere.

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General relativity

General relativity, also known as the general theory of relativity, is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.

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GRB 080319B

GRB 080319B was a gamma-ray burst (GRB) detected by the Swift satellite at 06:12 UTC on March 19, 2008.

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Halley's Comet

Halley's Comet or Comet Halley, officially designated 1P/Halley, is a short-period comet visible from Earth every 75–76 years.

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Haumea, minor-planet designation 136108 Haumea, is a dwarf planet located beyond Neptune's orbit.

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Hellenistic Greece

During the Hellenistic period the importance of Greece proper within the Greek-speaking world declined sharply.

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Hipparchus of Nicaea (Ἵππαρχος, Hipparkhos), was a Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician.

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Historical brightest stars

The Solar System and all of the visible stars are in different orbits about the core of the Milky Way galaxy.

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Hubble Space Telescope

The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990, and remains in operation.

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Modern humans (Homo sapiens, primarily ssp. Homo sapiens sapiens) are the only extant members of the hominin clade (or human clade), a branch of the great apes; they are characterized by erect posture and bipedal locomotion, manual dexterity and increased tool use, and a general trend toward larger, more complex brains and societies.

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Human eye

The human eye is an organ that reacts to light and has several purposes.

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Hydra (moon)

Hydra is the outermost known natural satellite of Pluto.

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Iapetus (moon)

Iapetus (Ιαπετός), or occasionally Japetus, is the third-largest natural satellite of Saturn, eleventh-largest in the Solar System, and the largest body in the Solar System known not to be in hydrostatic equilibrium.

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Infrared (IR) is invisible radiant energy, electromagnetic radiation with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, extending from the nominal red edge of the visible spectrum at 700 nanometers (frequency 430 THz) to 1 mm (300 GHz) (although people can see infrared up to at least 1050 nm in experiments).

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Infrared astronomy

Infrared astronomy is the branch of astronomy and astrophysics that studies astronomical objects visible in infrared (IR) radiation.

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Infrared excess

An infrared excess is a measurement of an astronomical source, typically a star, that in their spectral energy distribution has a greater measured infrared flux than expected by assuming the star is a blackbody radiator.

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International Space Station

The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.

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Inverse-square law

In physics, an inverse-square law is any physical law stating that a specified physical quantity or intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of that physical quantity.

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In radiometry (measurement of electromagnetic radiation), irradiance is the radiant flux (power) received by a surface per unit area, and spectral irradiance is the irradiance of a surface per unit frequency or wavelength, depending on whether the spectrum is taken as a function of frequency or of wavelength.

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J band

J band can refer to three different regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, in the radio and near-infrared.

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The jansky (symbol Jy) is a non-SI unit of spectral flux density, or spectral irradiance, equivalent to 10−26 watts per square metre per hertz.

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Jet Propulsion Laboratory

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center located in Pasadena, California, United States.

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JPL Horizons On-Line Ephemeris System

JPL Horizons On-Line Ephemeris System provides easy access to key Solar System data and flexible production of highly accurate ephemerides for Solar System objects.

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Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest planet in the Solar System.

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Kreutz sungrazer

The Kreutz sungrazers (pronounced kroits) are a family of sungrazing comets, characterized by orbits taking them extremely close to the Sun at perihelion.

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Large Magellanic Cloud

The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is a nearby galaxy, and a satellite of the Milky Way.

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LBV 1806-20

LBV 1806-20 is a candidate luminous blue variable (LBV) and likely binary star located nearly 40,000 light-years from the Sun, towards the center of the Milky Way.

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A light-year (abbreviation: ly), sometimes written light year, is a unit of length used informally to express astronomical distances.

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List of brightest stars

This is a list of the brightest naked eye stars to +2.50 magnitude, as determined by their maximum, total or combined apparent visual magnitudes as seen from Earth.

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List of nearest bright stars

This list of nearest bright stars is a table of stars found within 15 parsecs (48.9 light-years) of the Sun that have an absolute magnitude of +8.5 or brighter, which is approximately comparable to a listing of stars more luminous than a red dwarf.

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List of nearest stars and brown dwarfs

This list contains all known stars and brown dwarfs at a distance of up to 5 parsecs (16.3 light-years) from the Solar System.

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In mathematics, the logarithm is the inverse operation to exponentiation.

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Logarithmic scale

A logarithmic scale is a nonlinear scale used when there is a large range of quantities.

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In astronomy, luminosity is the total amount of energy emitted by a star, galaxy, or other astronomical object per unit time.

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Luminosity distance

Luminosity distance DL is defined in terms of the relationship between the absolute magnitude M and apparent magnitude m of an astronomical object.

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The lux (symbol: lx) is the SI unit of illuminance and luminous emittance, measuring luminous flux per unit area.

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Magnitude (astronomy)

In astronomy, magnitude is the logarithmic measure of the brightness of an object, measured in a specific wavelength or passband, usually in the visible or near-infrared spectrum.

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Makemake (minor-planet designation 136472 Makemake) is a dwarf planet and perhaps the largest Kuiper belt object (KBO) in the classical population, with a diameter that is about 2/3 the size of Pluto.

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Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second smallest planet in the Solar System, after Mercury.

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Mercury (planet)

Mercury is the smallest and closest to the Sun of the eight planets in the Solar System, with an orbital period of about 88 Earth days.

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Messier 41

Messier 41 (also known as M41 or NGC 2287) is an open cluster in the Canis Major constellation.

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Messier 81

Messier 81 (also known as NGC 3031 or Bode's Galaxy) is a spiral galaxy about 12 million light-years away in the constellation Ursa Major.

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Milky Way

The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.

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Monochrome describes paintings, drawings, design, or photographs in one color or values of one color.

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Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.

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N. R. Pogson

Norman Robert Pogson, CIE (23 March 1829 – 23 June 1891) was an English astronomer who worked in India at the Madras observatory.

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Naked eye

Naked eye (also called bare eye) is the practice of engaging in visual perception unaided by a magnifying or light-collecting optical device, such as a telescope or microscope.

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The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the United States government agency responsible for the civilian space program as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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Neptune is the eighth and farthest planet from the Sun in the Solar System.

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New moon

In astronomy, new moon is the first phase of the Moon, when it orbits as seen from the Earth, the moment when the Moon and the Sun have the same ecliptical longitude.

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Night sky

The term night sky refers to the sky as seen at night.

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Nix (moon)

Nix is a natural satellite of Pluto.

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Opposition (planets)

In positional astronomy, two celestial bodies are said to be in opposition when they are on opposite sides of the sky, viewed from a given place (usually Earth).

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A parsec (symbol: pc) is a unit of length used to measure the astronomically large distances to objects outside the Solar System.

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Perihelion and aphelion

The perihelion is the point in the orbit of a planet, asteroid, comet or other star-orbiting body where it is nearest to its star.

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Phase curve (astronomy)

In astronomy a phase curve describes the brightness of a reflecting body as a function of its phase angle.

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Photosensors or photodetectors are sensors of light or other electromagnetic energy.

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Photographic film

Photographic film is a strip or sheet of transparent plastic film base coated on one side with a gelatin emulsion containing microscopically small light-sensitive silver halide crystals.

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Photographic magnitude

Before the advent of photometers which accurately measure the brightness of astronomical objects, the apparent magnitude of an object was obtained by taking a picture of it with a camera.

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Planck's law

Planck's law describes the electromagnetic radiation emitted by a black body in thermal equilibrium at a definite temperature.

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Pluto (minor-planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune.

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Polaris (Ursae Minoris, UMi, commonly the North Star or Pole Star) is the brightest star in the constellation Ursa Minor, and the 50th brightest star in the night sky.

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Power law

In statistics, a power law is a functional relationship between two quantities, where a relative change in one quantity results in a proportional relative change in the other quantity, independent of the initial size of those quantities: one quantity varies as a power of another.

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Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos,; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Egyptian writer of Alexandria, known as a mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.

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Quasars or quasi-stellar radio sources are the most energetic and distant members of a class of objects called active galactic nuclei (AGN).

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Rayleigh scattering

Rayleigh scattering (pronounced), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic scattering of light or other electromagnetic radiation by particles much smaller than the wavelength of the radiation.

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Red dwarf

A red dwarf is a small and relatively cool star on the main sequence, either late K or M spectral type.

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Red giant

A red giant is a luminous giant star of low or intermediate mass (roughly 0.3–8 solar masses) in a late phase of stellar evolution.

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Rho Cassiopeiae

Rho Cassiopeiae (ρ Cas, ρ Cassiopeiae) is a yellow hypergiant star in the constellation Cassiopeia.

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Rigel, also known by its Bayer designation Beta Orionis (β Ori, β Orionis), is the brightest star in the constellation Orion and the seventh brightest star in the night sky, with visual magnitude 0.13.

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Ritchey–Chrétien telescope

A Ritchey–Chrétien telescope (RCT or simply RC) is a specialized Cassegrain telescope invented in the early 20th century that has a hyperbolic primary mirror and a hyperbolic secondary mirror designed to eliminate optical errors (coma).

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Satellite flare

Satellite flare, also known as satellite glint, is the phenomenon caused by the reflective surfaces on satellites (such as antennas or solar panels) reflecting sunlight directly onto the Earth below and appearing as a brief, bright "flare".

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Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.

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Scott S. Sheppard

Scott Sander Sheppard is an astronomer in the Department of Terrestrial Magnetism at the Carnegie Institution for Science in Washington, DC.

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Sirius is the brightest star (in fact, a star system) in the Earth's night sky.

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SN 1006

SN 1006 was a supernova, widely seen on Earth beginning in the year 1006; the Earth was about 7,200 light-years away from the supernova.

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SN 1054

SN 1054 is a supernova that was first observed on 4 July 1054 A.D. (hence its name), and that lasted for a period of around two years.

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SN 1987A

SN 1987A was a supernova in the outskirts of the Tarantula Nebula in the Large Magellanic Cloud (a nearby dwarf galaxy).

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Spectral energy distribution

A spectral energy distribution (SED) is a plot of brightness or flux density versus frequency or wavelength of light.

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A star is a luminous sphere of plasma held together by its own gravity.

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Stellar classification

In astronomy, stellar classification is the classification of stars based on their spectral characteristics.

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Stevens' power law

Stevens' power law is a proposed relationship between the magnitude of a physical stimulus and its perceived intensity or strength.

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The Sun (in Greek: Helios, in Latin: Sol) is the star at the center of the Solar System and is by far the most important source of energy for life on Earth.

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Supergiants are among the most massive and most luminous stars.

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Supernova impostor

Supernova impostors are stellar explosions that appear at first to be a type of supernova but do not destroy their progenitor stars.

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Surface brightness

The overall brightness of an extended astronomical object such as a galaxy, star cluster, or nebula, can be measured by its total magnitude, integrated magnitude or integrated visual magnitude; a related concept is surface brightness, which specifies the brightness of a standard-sized piece of an extended object.

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A telescope is an instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).

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The Astrophysical Journal

The Astrophysical Journal, often abbreviated ApJ (pronounced "ap jay") in references and speech, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astrophysics, established in 1895 by American astronomers George Ellery Hale and James Edward Keeler.

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Titan (moon)

Titan (or Saturn VI) is the largest moon of Saturn.

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Triangulum Galaxy

The Triangulum Galaxy is a spiral galaxy approximately 3 million light-years (ly) from Earth in the constellation Triangulum.

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Triton (moon)

Triton is the largest natural satellite of the planet Neptune.

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UBV photometric system

UBV photometric system, also called the Johnson system (or Johnson-Morgan system), is a wide band photometric system for classifying stars according to their colors.

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Ultraviolet (UV) light is an electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 400 nm to 100 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun.

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Vega (α Lyr, α Lyrae, Alpha Lyrae) is the brightest star in the constellation Lyra, the fifth brightest star in the night sky and the second brightest star in the northern celestial hemisphere, after Arcturus.

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Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.

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Visible spectrum

The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.

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Visual perception

Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment by processing information that is contained in visible light.

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Weber–Fechner law

In psychophysics, the Weber–Fechner law combines two different laws of human perception, which both describe ways the resolution of perception diminishes for stimuli of greater magnitude.

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10 Hygiea

10 Hygiea is the fourth largest asteroid in the Solar System by volume and mass, and it is located in the asteroid belt.

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2 Pallas

Pallas, minor-planet designation 2 Pallas, is the second asteroid to have been discovered (after Ceres), and it is one of the largest asteroids in the Solar System.

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2060 Chiron

2060 Chiron is a minor planet in the outer Solar System, orbiting between Saturn and Uranus.

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3C 273

3C 273 is a quasar located in the constellation Virgo.

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4 Vesta

Vesta, minor-planet designation 4 Vesta, is one of the largest objects in the asteroid belt, with a mean diameter of.

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7 Iris

7 Iris is a large main-belt asteroid orbiting the Sun between Mars and Jupiter.

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90377 Sedna

90377 Sedna is a large minor planet in the outer reaches of the Solar System that was,, at a distance of about 86 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun, about three times as far as Neptune.

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Apparant magnitude, Apparent Magnitude, Apparent Visual Brightness, Apparent Visual Magnitude, Apparent bightness, Apparent bolometric magnitude, Apparent brightness, Apparent luminosity, Apparent visual magnitude, Apparent visual magnitudes, Fifth magnitude star, Optical magnitude, Pogson's Ratio, Pogson's ratio, Pogsons ratio, Second magnitude star, Sixth magnitude star, Stellar magnitude, V magnitude, Visible magnitude, Visual brightness, Visual magnitude.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apparent_magnitude

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