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The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union. [1]

202 relations: Akrotiri and Dhekelia, Alan Greenspan, Anglosphere, Arabic numerals, Arbitrage, Aruba, Austrian Mint, Automated teller machine, Banco de Portugal, Bank of France, Bank of Greece, Belarusian ruble, Bond (finance), Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark, Brookings Institution, Bulgarian language, Bulgarian lev, Bundesdruckerei, Campione d'Italia, Cape Verdean escudo, Capital control, Captain Euro, Caribbean Netherlands, Cent (currency), Central African CFA franc, Central bank, Central Bank of Ireland, CFA franc, CFP franc, Clearing (finance), Clipperton Island, Commodity, Comorian franc, Council of the European Union, Credit card, Credit crunch, Culture of Europe, Curaçao, Currency Centre, Currency symbol, Currency union, Cyrillic script, Danish krone, De La Rue, Debit card, Depreciation, Deutsche Bundesbank, Deutsche Mark, Diphthong, Directorate-General for Translation, ..., Economist Intelligence Unit, Economy of Cyprus, Economy of Greece, Economy of Italy, Economy of Portugal, Economy of Spain, Economy of the Republic of Ireland, Enlargement of the eurozone, Epsilon, EUobserver, Euro banknotes, Euro coins, Euro convergence criteria, Euro sign, Europa (Web portal), European Central Bank, European Commission, European Currency Unit, European debt crisis, European Exchange Rate Mechanism, European Financial Stability Facility, European Union, Eurosystem, Eurozone, Exchange rate, Federal Reserve System, Financial crisis of 2007–2008, Fixed exchange-rate system, Floating exchange rate, Foreign exchange market, François-Charles Oberthür, Frankfurt, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Gemalto, Germain Pirlot, Giesecke & Devrient, Government budget balance, Great Recession, Greek drachma, Greek government-debt crisis, Greek language, Hamburgische Münze, Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices, Hungarian language, Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda, Inflation targeting, Institutions of the European Union, Interest, Interest rate, International Monetary Fund, International Organization for Standardization, International status and usage of the euro, Irish language, ISO 4217, Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato, Jack Straw, Jacques Santer, Joh. Enschedé, Kremnica Mint, Language and the euro, Languages of the European Union, Latvian language, Law of one price, Legal tender, List of Esperanto speakers, Lithuanian language, Lithuanian Mint, Luc Luycx, Maastricht Treaty, Macedonian denar, Macroeconomics, Madrid, Maltese language, Maltese scudo, Market liquidity, Member state of the European Union, Meta-analysis, Microstates and the European Union, Mint mark, Mint of Finland, Monetary policy, Money supply, Monnaie de Paris, Montenegro and the euro, Moroccan dirham, Mundell–Fleming model, National Bank of Belgium, Nominal interest rate, Official Journal of the European Union, Overseas department, Overstrike, Paraphernalia, Pont de Neuilly, Portuguese escudo, Pound sterling, President of the European Commission, Publication bias, Research in Economics, Reserve currency, Reuters, Rialto, Ricardo Reis, Risk aversion, Robert Kalina, Robert Mundell, Rounding, Royal Dutch Mint, Royal Mint (Spain), Saint Barthélemy, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, São Tomé and Príncipe dobra, Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, Single European Act, Sint Maarten, Slovene language, Sovereign default, Sovereign Military Order of Malta, Special member state territories and the European Union, Speculation, Staatliche Münze Berlin, Swiss franc, TARGET2, Technical analysis, The New Yorker, Traveler's cheque, Triangular arbitrage, Turkish lira, Typewriter, Ukrainian Ye, Unicode, Unit of account, United States dollar, West African CFA franc, Zimbabwean dollar, 1 euro cent coin, 1 euro coin, 10 euro cent coin, 10 euro note, 100 euro note, 2 euro cent coin, 2 euro coin, 2 euro commemorative coins, 20 euro cent coin, 20 euro note, 200 euro note, 2000s European sovereign debt crisis timeline, 2004 Summer Olympics, 5 euro cent coin, 5 euro note, 50 euro cent coin, 50 euro note, 500 euro note. Expand index (152 more) »

Akrotiri and Dhekelia

The Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia (SBA; Περιοχές Κυρίαρχων Βάσεων Ακρωτηρίου και Δεκέλιας, Periochés Kyríarchon Váseon Akrotiríou kai Dekélias; Egemen Üs Bölgeleri Ağrotur ve Dikelya), is a British Overseas Territory on the island of Cyprus.

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Alan Greenspan

Alan Greenspan (born March 6, 1926) is an American economist who served as Chairman of the Federal Reserve of the United States from 1987 to 2006.

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Anglosphere

The Anglosphere is a set of English-speaking nations which share common roots in British culture and history, which today maintain close cultural, political, diplomatic and military cooperation.

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Arabic numerals

Arabic numerals, also called Hindu–Arabic numerals, are the ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, based on the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world today.

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Arbitrage

In economics and finance, arbitrage is the practice of taking advantage of a price difference between two or more markets: striking a combination of matching deals that capitalize upon the imbalance, the profit being the difference between the market prices.

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Aruba

Aruba (Papiamento) is an island and a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in the southern Caribbean Sea, located about west of the main part of the Lesser Antilles and north of the coast of Venezuela.

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Austrian Mint

The Austrian Mint (Münze Österreich) is located in Vienna and is responsible for minting Austrian coins.

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Automated teller machine

An automated teller machine (ATM) is an electronic telecommunications device that enables customers of financial institutions to perform financial transactions, such as cash withdrawals, deposits, transfer funds, or obtaining account information, at any time and without the need for direct interaction with bank staff.

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Banco de Portugal

The Banco de Portugal (English: Bank of Portugal) is the central bank of the Portuguese Republic.

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Bank of France

The Bank of France known in French as the Banque de France, headquartered in Paris, is the central bank of France; it is linked to the European Central Bank (ECB).

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Bank of Greece

The Bank of Greece (Τράπεζα της Ελλάδος, abbreviated ΤτΕ) is the central bank of Greece.

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Belarusian ruble

The Belarusian ruble or rouble (рубель rubieĺ, plural: рублі rubli, genitive plural: рублёў rublioŭ) is the official currency of Belarus.

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Bond (finance)

In finance, a bond is an instrument of indebtedness of the bond issuer to the holders.

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Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark

The Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark (Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian: konvertibilna marka, Cyrillic: конвертибилна марка) is the currency of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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Brookings Institution

The Brookings Institution is a century-old American research group on Think Tank Row in Washington, D.C. It conducts research and education in the social sciences, primarily in economics, metropolitan policy, governance, foreign policy, and global economy and development.

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Bulgarian language

No description.

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Bulgarian lev

The lev (лев, plural: лева, левове / leva, levove) is the currency of Bulgaria.

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Bundesdruckerei

Bundesdruckerei ("Federal Printing Office") is a German manufacturer of banknotes, stamps, identity cards, passports, visas, driving licences, and vehicle registration certificates.

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Campione d'Italia

Campione d'Italia is a comune (municipality) of the Province of Como in the Lombardy region of Italy and an exclave surrounded by the Swiss canton of Ticino.

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Cape Verdean escudo

The escudo (sign: \mathrm\!\!\!\Vert-->; ISO 4217: CVE) is the currency of the Republic of Cape Verde.

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Capital control

Capital controls are residency-based measures such as transaction taxes, other limits, or outright prohibitions that a nation's government can use to regulate flows from capital markets into and out of the country's capital account.

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Captain Euro

Captain Euro is a fictional comic book-style superhero character, created in 1999 as a way to promote the European Union, and specifically the Euro, the single European currency that arrived in 2002.

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Caribbean Netherlands

The Caribbean Netherlands (Caribisch Nederland) are the three special municipalities of the Netherlands that are located in the Caribbean Sea.

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Cent (currency)

In many national currencies, the cent, commonly represented by the cent sign (a minuscule letter "c" crossed by a diagonal stroke or a vertical line: ¢; or a simple "c") is a monetary unit that equals of the basic monetary unit.

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Central African CFA franc

The Central African CFA franc (French: franc CFA or simply franc, ISO 4217 code: XAF) is the currency of six independent states in central Africa: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea and Gabon.

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Central bank

A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.

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Central Bank of Ireland

The Central Bank of Ireland (Banc Ceannais na hÉireann) is Ireland's central bank, and as such part of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB).

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CFA franc

The CFA franc (in French: franc CFA, or colloquially franc) is the name of two currencies used in parts of West and Central African countries which are guaranteed by the French treasury.

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CFP franc

The CFP franc (called the franc in everyday use) is the currency used in the French overseas collectivities (collectivités d’outre-mer, or COM) of French Polynesia, New Caledonia and Wallis and Futuna.

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Clearing (finance)

In banking and finance, clearing denotes all activities from the time a commitment is made for a transaction until it is settled.

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Clipperton Island

Clipperton Island (Île de Clipperton or Île de la Passion; Isla de la Pasión) is an uninhabited coral atoll in the eastern Pacific Ocean off the coast of Central America.

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Commodity

In economics, a commodity is an economic good or service that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them.

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Comorian franc

The franc (franc comorien; فرنك قمري) (ISO 4217 currency code KMF) is the official currency of Comoros.

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Council of the European Union

The Council of the European Union, referred to in the treaties and other official documents simply as the Council is the third of the seven Institutions of the European Union (EU) as listed in the Treaty on European Union.

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Credit card

A credit card is a payment card issued to users (cardholders) to enable the cardholder to pay a merchant for goods and services based on the cardholder's promise to the card issuer to pay them for the amounts so paid plus the other agreed charges.

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Credit crunch

A credit crunch (also known as a credit squeeze or credit crisis) is a sudden reduction in the general availability of loans (or credit) or a sudden tightening of the conditions required to obtain a loan from banks.

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Culture of Europe

The culture of Europe is rooted in the art, architecture, music, literature, and philosophy that originated from the continent of Europe.

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Curaçao

Curaçao (Curaçao,; Kòrsou) is a Lesser Antilles island in the southern Caribbean Sea and the Dutch Caribbean region, about north of the Venezuelan coast.

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Currency Centre

The Currency Centre (also known as the Irish Mint) is the mint of coins and printer of banknotes for the Central Bank of Ireland, including the euro currency.

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Currency symbol

A currency symbol is a graphic symbol used as a shorthand for a currency's name, especially in reference to amounts of money.

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Currency union

A currency union (also known as monetary union) involves two or more states sharing the same currency without them necessarily having any further integration (such as an economic and monetary union, which would have, in addition, a customs union and a single market).

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Cyrillic script

The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).

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Danish krone

The krone (plural: kroner; sign: kr.; code: DKK) is the official currency of Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands, introduced on 1 January 1875.

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De La Rue

De La Rue plc is a British banknote manufacturing, security printing of passports and tax stamps, brand authentication and paper-making company with headquarters in Basingstoke, Hampshire, England.

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Debit card

A debit card (also known as a bank card, plastic card or check card) is a plastic payment card that can be used instead of cash when making purchases.

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Depreciation

In accountancy, depreciation refers to two aspects of the same concept.

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Deutsche Bundesbank

The Deutsche Bundesbank is the central bank of the Federal Republic of Germany and as such part of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB).

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Deutsche Mark

The Deutsche Mark ("German mark"), abbreviated "DM" or, was the official currency of West Germany from 1948 until 1990 and later the unified Germany from 1990 until 2002.

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Diphthong

A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.

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Directorate-General for Translation

The Directorate-General for Translation (DGT), located in Brussels and Luxembourg, provides translation of written text into and out of the European Union's twenty-four official languages.

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Economist Intelligence Unit

The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) is a British business within the Economist Group providing forecasting and advisory services through research and analysis, such as monthly country reports, five-year country economic forecasts, country risk service reports, and industry reports.

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Economy of Cyprus

The economy of Cyprus is classified by the World Bank as a high-income economy, and was included by the International Monetary Fund in its list of advanced economies in 2001.

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Economy of Greece

The economy of Greece is the 48th largest in the world with a nominal gross domestic product (GDP) of $192.691 billion per annum.

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Economy of Italy

The economy of Italy is the 3rd-largest national economy in the eurozone, the 8th-largest by nominal GDP in the world, and the 12th-largest by GDP (PPP).

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Economy of Portugal

Portugal ranked 42nd in the WEF's Global Competitiveness Report for 2017–2018.

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Economy of Spain

The economy of Spain is the world's fourteenth-largest by nominal GDP, and it is also one of the largest in the world by purchasing power parity.

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Economy of the Republic of Ireland

The economy of Ireland is a knowledge economy, focused on services into high-tech, life sciences and financial services industries.

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Enlargement of the eurozone

The enlargement of the eurozone is an ongoing process within the European Union (EU).

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Epsilon

Epsilon (uppercase Ε, lowercase ε or lunate ϵ; έψιλον) is the fifth letter of the Greek alphabet, corresponding phonetically to a mid<!-- not close-mid, see Arvanti (1999) - Illustrations of the IPA: Modern Greek. --> front unrounded vowel.

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EUobserver

EUobserver is a European online newspaper, launched in 2000 by the Brussels-based organisation EUobserver.com ASBL.

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Euro banknotes

Banknotes of the euro, the currency of the Eurozone, have been in circulation since the first series was issued in 2002.

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Euro coins

There are eight euro coin denominations, ranging from one cent to two euros (the euro is divided into a hundred cents).

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Euro convergence criteria

The euro convergence criteria (also known as the Maastricht criteria) are the criteria which European Union member states are required to meet to enter the third stage of the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and adopt the euro as their currency.

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Euro sign

The euro sign (€) is the currency sign used for the euro, the official currency of the Eurozone in the European Union (EU).

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Europa (Web portal)

Europa is the official web portal of the European Union (EU), providing information on how the EU works, related news, events, publications and links to websites of institutions, agencies and other bodies.

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European Central Bank

The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank for the euro and administers monetary policy of the euro area, which consists of 19 EU member states and is one of the largest currency areas in the world.

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European Commission

The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.

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European Currency Unit

The European Currency Unit (₠ or ECU) was a basket of the currencies of the European Community member states, used as the unit of account of the European Community before being replaced by the euro on 1 January 1999, at parity.

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European debt crisis

The European debt crisis (often also referred to as the Eurozone crisis or the European sovereign debt crisis) is a multi-year debt crisis that has been taking place in the European Union since the end of 2009.

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European Exchange Rate Mechanism

The European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) was a system introduced by the European Economic Community on 13 March 1979, as part of the European Monetary System (EMS), to reduce exchange rate variability and achieve monetary stability in Europe, in preparation for Economic and Monetary Union and the introduction of a single currency, the euro, which took place on 1 January 1999.

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European Financial Stability Facility

The European Financial Stability Facility (EFSF) is a special purpose vehicle financed by members of the eurozone to address the European sovereign-debt crisis.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Eurosystem

The Eurosystem is the monetary authority of the eurozone, the collective of European Union member states that have adopted the euro as their sole official currency.

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Eurozone

No description.

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Exchange rate

In finance, an exchange rate is the rate at which one currency will be exchanged for another.

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Federal Reserve System

The Federal Reserve System (also known as the Federal Reserve or simply the Fed) is the central banking system of the United States of America.

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Financial crisis of 2007–2008

The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.

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Fixed exchange-rate system

A fixed exchange rate, sometimes called a pegged exchange rate, is a type of exchange rate regime where a currency's value is fixed against either the value of another single currency, to a basket of other currencies, or to another measure of value, such as gold.

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Floating exchange rate

A floating exchange rate (also called a fluctuating or flexible exchange rate) is a type of exchange-rate regime in which a currency's value is allowed to fluctuate in response to foreign-exchange market mechanisms.

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Foreign exchange market

The foreign exchange market (Forex, FX, or currency market) is a global decentralized or over-the-counter (OTC) market for the trading of currencies.

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François-Charles Oberthür

François-Charles Oberthür (1818, Strasbourg – 1893) was the founder of the French printing group Imprimerie Oberthur (fr).

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Frankfurt

Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.

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French Southern and Antarctic Lands

The French Southern and Antarctic Lands (Terres australes et antarctiques françaises, TAAF) is an overseas territory (Territoire d'outre-mer or TOM) of France.

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Gemalto

Gemalto is an international digital security company providing software applications, secure personal devices such as smart cards and tokens, and managed services.

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Germain Pirlot

Germain Pirlot (born 18 March 1943 in Sart-Custinne, Gedinne, Belgium) is a Belgian esperantist and ex-teacher of French and history, presently living in Ostend.

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Giesecke & Devrient

Giesecke+Devrient (G+D) is a German company headquartered in Munich that provides banknote and securities printing, smart cards, and cash handling systems.

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Government budget balance

A government budget is a financial statement presenting the government's proposed revenues and spending for a financial year.

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Great Recession

The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s.

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Greek drachma

Drachma (δραχμή,; pl. drachmae or drachmas) was the currency used in Greece during several periods in its history.

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Greek government-debt crisis

The Greek government-debt crisis (also known as the Greek Depression) was the sovereign debt crisis faced by Greece in the aftermath of the financial crisis of 2007–08.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Hamburgische Münze

The Hamburgische Münze is a European coin mint located in the city of Hamburg.

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Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices

The Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices (HICP) is an indicator of inflation and price stability for the European Central Bank (ECB).

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Hungarian language

Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.

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Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda

The Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda (National Printing House, and Mint), is the Portuguese mint and national press, owned by the Portuguese Government and administratively subordinated to the Portuguese Ministry of Finance.

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Inflation targeting

Inflation targeting is a monetary policy regime in which a central bank has an explicit target inflation rate for the medium term and announces this inflation target to the public.

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Institutions of the European Union

The institutions of the European Union are the seven principal decision making bodies of the European Union (EU).

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Interest

Interest is payment from a borrower or deposit-taking financial institution to a lender or depositor of an amount above repayment of the principal sum (i.e., the amount borrowed), at a particular rate.

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Interest rate

An interest rate is the amount of interest due per period, as a proportion of the amount lent, deposited or borrowed (called the principal sum).

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International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.

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International Organization for Standardization

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.

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International status and usage of the euro

The international status and usage of the euro has grown since its launch in 1999.

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Irish language

The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.

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ISO 4217

ISO 4217 is a standard first published by International Organization for Standardization in 1978, which delineates currency designators, country codes (alpha and numeric), and references to minor units in three tables.

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Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato

The Italian Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato (IPZS) ('State Mint and Polygraphic Institute'), founded in 1928, is situated at the Piazza Giuseppe Verdi in Rome.

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Jack Straw

John Whitaker Straw (born 3 August 1946) is an English politician who served as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Blackburn from 1979 to 2015.

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Jacques Santer

Jacques Santer (born 18 May 1937) is a Luxembourg politician who served as the 9th President of the European Commission from 1995 to 1999.

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Joh. Enschedé

Royal Joh.

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Kremnica Mint

The Kremnica Mint (Slovak: Mincovňa Kremnica) is a state-owned mint situated in Kremnica, Slovakia.

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Language and the euro

Several linguistic issues have arisen in relation to the spelling of the words euro and cent in the many languages of the member states of the European Union, as well as in relation to grammar and the formation of plurals.

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Languages of the European Union

The languages of the European Union are languages used by people within the member states of the European Union (EU).

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Latvian language

Latvian (latviešu valoda) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.

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Law of one price

"The law of one price (LOOP) states that in the absence of trade frictions (such as transport costs and tariffs), and under conditions of free competition and price flexibility (where no individual sellers or buyers have power to manipulate prices and prices can freely adjust), identical goods sold in different locations must sell for the same price when prices are expressed in a common currency.

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Legal tender

Legal tender is a medium of payment recognized by a legal system to be valid for meeting a financial obligation.

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List of Esperanto speakers

An Esperantist (Esperantisto) is a person who speaks Esperanto.

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Lithuanian language

Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.

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Lithuanian Mint

Lithuanian Mint (Lietuvos monetų kalykla) is the state-owned enterprise, responsible for the mintage of coins and decorations of Lithuania.

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Luc Luycx

Luc Luycx (born 11 April 1958) is the designer of the common side of the euro coins.

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Maastricht Treaty

The Treaty on European Union (TEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Maastricht is one of two treaties forming the constitutional basis of the European Union (EU), the other being the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU; also referred to as the Treaty of Rome). The TEU was originally signed on 7 February 1992 by the members of the European Community in Maastricht, Netherlands to further European integration. On 9–10 December 1991, the same city hosted the European Council which drafted the treaty. Upon its entry into force on 1 November 1993 during the Delors Commission, it created the three pillars structure of the European Union and led to the creation of the single European currency, the euro. TEU comprised two novel titles respectively on Common Foreign and Security Policy and Cooperation in the Fields of Justice and Home Affairs, which replaced the former informal intergovernmental cooperation bodies named TREVI and European Political Cooperation on EU Foreign policy coordination. In addition TEU also comprised three titles which amended the three pre-existing community treaties: Treaty establishing the European Atomic Energy Community, Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community, and the Treaty establishing the European Economic Community which had its abbreviation renamed from TEEC to TEC (being known as TFEU since 2007). The Maastricht Treaty (TEU) and all pre-existing treaties, has subsequently been further amended by the treaties of Amsterdam (1997), Nice (2001) and Lisbon (2009).

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Macedonian denar

The denar (денар; paucal: denari / денари) is the currency of the Republic of Macedonia.

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Macroeconomics

Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix makro- meaning "large" and economics) is a branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole.

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Madrid

Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.

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Maltese language

Maltese (Malti) is the national language of Malta and a co-official language of the country alongside English, while also serving as an official language of the European Union, the only Semitic language so distinguished.

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Maltese scudo

The scudo (plural scudi) is the official currency of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta and was the currency of Malta during the rule of the Order over Malta, which ended in 1798.

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Market liquidity

In business, economics or investment, market liquidity is a market's feature whereby an individual or firm can quickly purchase or sell an asset without causing a drastic change in the asset's price.

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Member state of the European Union

The European Union (EU) consists of 28 member states.

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Meta-analysis

A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.

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Microstates and the European Union

There are a number of microstates in Europe.

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Mint mark

A mint mark is a letter, symbol or an inscription on a coin indicating the mint where the coin was produced.

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Mint of Finland

The Mint of Finland (Suomen Rahapaja, Myntverket i Finland) is the national mint of Finland.

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Monetary policy

Monetary policy is the process by which the monetary authority of a country, typically the central bank or currency board, controls either the cost of very short-term borrowing or the monetary base, often targeting an inflation rate or interest rate to ensure price stability and general trust in the currency.

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Money supply

In economics, the money supply (or money stock) is the total value of monetary assets available in an economy at a specific time.

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Monnaie de Paris

The Monnaie de Paris (Paris Mint) is a government-owned institution responsible for producing France's euro coins.

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Montenegro and the euro

Montenegro has no currency of its own.

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Moroccan dirham

The dirham (درهم); plural: (دراهم, ⴰⴷⵔⵀⵎ, Dirham, Dírha, pronounced darahim) is the currency of Morocco.

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Mundell–Fleming model

The Mundell–Fleming model, also known as the IS-LM-BoP model (or IS-LM-BP model), is an economic model first set forth (independently) by Robert Mundell and Marcus Fleming.

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National Bank of Belgium

The National Bank of Belgium (NBB; Nationale Bank van België, Banque nationale de Belgique, Belgische Nationalbank) has been the central bank of Belgium since 1850.

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Nominal interest rate

In finance and economics, the nominal interest rate or nominal rate of interest is either of two distinct things.

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Official Journal of the European Union

The Official Journal of the European Union (the OJ) is the official gazette of record for the European Union (EU).

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Overseas department

An overseas department (département d’outre-mer or DOM) is a department of France that is outside metropolitan France.

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Overstrike

In typography, overstrike is a method of printing characters that are missing from the printer's character set.

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Paraphernalia

Paraphernalia most commonly refers to a group of apparatus, equipment, or furnishing used for a particular activity.

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Pont de Neuilly

Le pont de Neuilly is a road and rail bridge carrying Route nationale 13 and Paris Métro Line 1 which crosses the River Seine between the right bank of Neuilly-sur-Seine and Courbevoie and Puteaux on the left bank in the French department of Hauts-de-Seine.

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Portuguese escudo

The Portuguese escudo is the currency of Portugal prior to the introduction of the euro on 1 January 1999 and its removal from circulation on 28 February 2002.

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Pound sterling

The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.

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President of the European Commission

The President of the European Commission is the head of the European Commission, the executive branch of the:European Union.

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Publication bias

Publication bias is a type of bias that occurs in published academic research.

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Research in Economics

Research in Economics is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal of economics.

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Reserve currency

A reserve currency (or anchor currency) is a currency that is held in significant quantities by governments and institutions as part of their foreign exchange reserves.

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Reuters

Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.

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Rialto

The Rialto is a central area of Venice, Italy, in the sestiere of San Polo.

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Ricardo Reis

Ricardo A. M. R. Reis (born September 1, 1978) is a Portuguese economist and professor of economics at London School of Economics.

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Risk aversion

In economics and finance, risk aversion is the behavior of humans (especially consumers and investors), when exposed to uncertainty, in attempting to lower that uncertainty.

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Robert Kalina

Robert Kalina (born 29 June 1955) is an Austrian designer.

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Robert Mundell

Robert Alexander Mundell, CC (born October 24, 1932) is a Canadian economist.

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Rounding

Rounding a numerical value means replacing it by another value that is approximately equal but has a shorter, simpler, or more explicit representation; for example, replacing $ with $, or the fraction 312/937 with 1/3, or the expression with.

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Royal Dutch Mint

The Royal Dutch Mint (Koninklijke Nederlandse Munt) based in Utrecht, the Netherlands, is a company owned entirely by the Dutch State, and since 1807 the only Dutch entity allowed to strike and issue coins.

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Royal Mint (Spain)

The Royal Mint of Spain (Fábrica Nacional de Moneda y Timbre – Real Casa de la Moneda "National Coinage and Stamp Factory – Royal Mint", abbreviated as FNMT-RCM) is the national mint of Spain.

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Saint Barthélemy

Saint Barthélemy, officially the Territorial collectivity of Saint-Barthélemy (Collectivité territoriale de Saint-Barthélemy), called Ouanalao by the indigenous people, is an overseas collectivity of France in the West Indies.

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Saint Pierre and Miquelon

Saint Pierre and Miquelon, officially the Overseas Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon (Collectivité d'Outre-mer de Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon), is a self-governing territorial overseas collectivity of France, situated in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean near the Newfoundland and Labrador province of Canada.

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São Tomé and Príncipe dobra

The dobra is the currency of São Tomé and Príncipe.

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Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs

Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, normally referred to as the Foreign Secretary, is a senior, high-ranking official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office.

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Single European Act

The Single European Act (SEA) was the first major revision of the 1957 Treaty of Rome.

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Sint Maarten

Sint Maarten is an island country in the Caribbean.

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Slovene language

Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.

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Sovereign default

A sovereign default is the failure or refusal of the government of a sovereign state to pay back its debt in full.

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Sovereign Military Order of Malta

The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta (Supremus Ordo Militaris Hospitalis Sancti Ioannis Hierosolymitani Rhodius et Melitensis), also known as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM) or the Order of Malta, is a Catholic lay religious order traditionally of military, chivalrous and noble nature.

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Special member state territories and the European Union

The special territories of the European Union are 31 territories of EU member states which, for historical, geographical, or political reasons, enjoy special status within or outside the European Union.

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Speculation

Speculation is the purchase of an asset (a commodity, goods, or real estate) with the hope that it will become more valuable at a future date.

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Staatliche Münze Berlin

The Staatliche Münze Berlin (SMB) is a European coin mint located in the city of Berlin.

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Swiss franc

The franc (sign: Fr. or SFr.; Franken, French and Romansh: franc, franco; code: CHF) is the currency and legal tender of Switzerland and Liechtenstein; it is also legal tender in the Italian exclave Campione d'Italia.

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TARGET2

TARGET2 (Trans-European Automated Real-time Gross Settlement Express Transfer System) is the real-time gross settlement (RTGS) system for the Eurozone, and is available to non-Eurozone countries.

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Technical analysis

In finance, technical analysis is an analysis methodology for forecasting the direction of prices through the study of past market data, primarily price and volume.

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The New Yorker

The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.

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Traveler's cheque

A traveler's cheque is a medium of exchange that can be used in place of hard currency.

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Triangular arbitrage

Triangular arbitrage (also referred to as cross currency arbitrage or three-point arbitrage) is the act of exploiting an arbitrage opportunity resulting from a pricing discrepancy among three different currencies in the foreign exchange market.

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Turkish lira

The Turkish lira (Türk lirası; sign: ₺; code: TRY; usually abbreviated as TL) is the currency of Turkey and the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.

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Typewriter

A typewriter is a mechanical or electromechanical machine for writing characters similar to those produced by printer's movable type.

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Ukrainian Ye

Ukrainian Ye (Є є; italics: Є є) is a character of the Cyrillic script.

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Unicode

Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.

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Unit of account

A unit of account in economics is a nominal monetary unit of measure or currency used to represent the real value (or cost) of any economic item; i.e. goods, services, assets, liabilities, income, expenses.

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United States dollar

The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.

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West African CFA franc

The West African CFA franc (franc CFA; franco CFA or simply franc, ISO 4217 code: XOF) is the currency of eight independent states in West Africa: Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Mali, Niger, Senegal and Togo.

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Zimbabwean dollar

The Zimbabwean dollar (sign: $, or Z$ to distinguish it from other dollar-denominated currencies) was the official currency of Zimbabwe from 1980 to 12 April 2009.

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1 euro cent coin

The 1 euro cent coin (€0.01) has a value of one hundredth of a euro and is composed of copper-covered steel.

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1 euro coin

The 1-euro coin is a euro coin with a value of one euro (€1).

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10 euro cent coin

The 10 euro cent coin (€0.10) has a value of one tenth of a euro and is composed of an alloy called Nordic gold.

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10 euro note

The ten euro note (€10) is the second-lowest value euro banknote and has been used since the introduction of the euro (in its cash form) in 2002.

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100 euro note

The one hundred euro note (€100) is one of the higher value euro banknotes and has been used since the introduction of the euro (in its cash form) in 2002.

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2 euro cent coin

The 2 euro cent coin (€0.02) has a value of one-fiftieth of a euro and is composed of copper-plated steel.

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2 euro coin

The 2 euro coin (€2) is the highest value euro coin and has been used since the introduction of the euro (in its cash form) in 2002.

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2 euro commemorative coins

2 commemorative coins are special euro coins minted and issued by member states of the eurozone since 2004 as legal tender in all eurozone member states.

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20 euro cent coin

The 20 euro cent coin (€0.20) has a value of one fifth of a euro and is composed of an alloy called nordic gold in the Spanish flower shape.

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20 euro note

The twenty euro note (€20) is the third-lowest value euro banknote and has been used since the introduction of the euro (in its cash form) in 2002.

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200 euro note

The two hundred euro note (€200) is the second-highest value euro banknote and has been used since the introduction of the euro (in its cash form) in 2002.

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2000s European sovereign debt crisis timeline

From late 2009, fears of a sovereign debt crisis in some European states developed, with the situation becoming particularly tense in early 2010.

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2004 Summer Olympics

The 2004 Summer Olympic Games (Θερινοί Ολυμπιακοί Αγώνες 2004), officially known as the Games of the XXVIII Olympiad and commonly known as Athens 2004, was a premier international multi-sport event held in Athens, Greece, from 13 to 29 August 2004 with the motto Welcome Home. 10,625 athletes competed, some 600 more than expected, accompanied by 5,501 team officials from 201 countries.

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5 euro cent coin

The 5 euro cent coin (€0.05) has a value of one twentieth of a euro and is composed of copper-covered steel.

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5 euro note

The five euro note (€5) is the lowest value euro banknote and has been used since the introduction of the euro (in its cash form) in 2002.

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50 euro cent coin

The 50 euro cent coin (€0.50) has a value of half a euro and are composed of an alloy called nordic gold.

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50 euro note

The fifty euro note (€50) is one of the middle value euro banknotes and has been used since the introduction of the euro (in its cash form) in 2002.

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500 euro note

The five hundred euro note (€500) was the highest-value euro banknote and was used between the introduction of the euro (in its cash form) in 2002 until 2018 when its production was stopped.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euro

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