247 relations: ActionAid, African Monetary Fund, African Union, Agus Martowardojo, Agustín Carstens, Al Jazeera, Alexandre Tombini, Anti-communism, Anti-globalization movement, Anton Siluanov, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, Austerity, Autocracy, Bailout, Balance of payments, Balanced budget, Bank for International Settlements, Bill Clinton, Bill Morneau, Bretton Woods Conference, Bretton Woods system, Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, BRIC, BRICS, Bruno Le Maire, Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis, Business cycle, Camille Gutt, Capital levy, Carlo Cottarelli, Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu, Center for Economic and Policy Research, Charles Derber, Christine Lagarde, Civil society, Cold War, Collateral (finance), Collective action clause, Committee for the Abolition of Illegitimate Debt, Communism, Conditionality, Congo: The Epic History of a People, Congressional Research Service, Credit rating, Curaçao, Currency swap, Cyprus Popular Bank, Czechoslovakia, Darren Hawkins, David Van Reybrouck, ..., Debt relief, Debtocracy, Deficit spending, Deflation, Democracy, Deposit insurance, Deregulation, Devaluation, Developed country, Developing country, Development aid, Development economics, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Divestment, Doctor (title), Dominique Strauss-Kahn, Economic equilibrium, Economic inequality, Economic stability, Elvira Nabiullina, Embedded liberalism, Environmental finance, Environmental technology, Euro, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, European Central Bank, European debt crisis, European troika, Eurostat, Eurozone, Eveline Widmer-Schlumpf, Exchange rate, Fernando Solanas, Financial crisis, Financial crisis of 2007–2008, Financial Times, Fixed exchange-rate system, Floating exchange rate, Food and Agriculture Organization, Foreign Affairs, Foreign direct investment, François Villeroy de Galhau, Free trade, Funding liquidity, G20, George Papandreou, Gini coefficient, Giorgos Papakonstantinou, Global apartheid, Globalization, Globalization and Its Discontents, Governance, Governor of the Bank of Canada, Great Depression, Group of 24, Group of Ten (economics), Group of Thirty, Haircut (finance), HarperCollins, Harry Dexter White, Haruhiko Kuroda, Henrique Meirelles, HIV/AIDS, Horst Köhler, Human capital flight, Ibrahim Abdulaziz Al-Assaf, Ignazio Visco, Ilan Goldfajn, IMF Stand-By Arrangement, Infrastructure, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, International Development Committee, International financial institutions, International Monetary Fund, International Monetary Fund Managing Director 2011 election, International monetary systems, International organization, International political economy, International recognition of Kosovo, International trade, Investment, Ivar Rooth, Jack Lew, Jacques de Larosière, Jacques J. Polak, Jamaica Accords, Jeffrey Sachs, Jens Weidmann, Jerome Powell, Johan Witteveen, John A. Fraser (businessman), John B. Taylor, John Maynard Keynes, Joseph Stiglitz, Julius Nyerere, Keynesian economics, Kim Dong-yeon, Klaas Knot, Labor rights, League of Nations, Lee Ju-yeol, Life and Debt, Loan, Luis de Guindos, Luis María Linde, Luis Videgaray Caso, Macau, Mark Carney, Michel Camdessus, Military dictatorship, Millennium Development Goals, MIT Press, Mobutu Sese Seko, Monetarism, Moral hazard, Multinational corporation, National Bank of Belgium, Natural resource, Neoliberalism, New Development Bank, New York v. Strauss-Kahn, Nixon shock, Notable current and former IMF employees, OECD, Olivier Blanchard, Our Brand Is Crisis (2015 film), Overseas Development Institute, Oxford University Press, Palestinian National Authority, Per Jacobsson, Peterson Institute for International Economics, Philip Hammond, Pier Carlo Padoan, Pierre-Paul Schweitzer, PLOS Medicine, Price controls, Privatization, Progressive tax, Publicly funded health care, Raghuram Rajan, Rainforest, Rakesh Mohan, Randall Stone, Ratification, Reserve Bank of India, Rodrigo Rato, Saudi Arabian Monetary Authority, Scott Morrison, Smithsonian Agreement, Socialist Republic of Romania, Soviet Union, Special Data Dissemination Standard, Special drawing rights, Steven Mnuchin, Stock market, Structural adjustment, Subir Gokarn, Subsidy, Sunil Sabharwal, Tarō Asō, Terms of trade, The End of Poverty, The Wall Street Journal, Thereus, Thomas Östros, Thomas Jordan (economist), Time (magazine), Transparency (behavior), Tuberculosis, UNICEF, United Nations, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, United Nations Development Programme, United States Congress, United States Department of the Treasury, Urjit Patel, Utility, Velvet Revolution, Washington Consensus, Washington, D.C., Westphalian sovereignty, Wolfgang Schäuble, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, World Bank, World Bank residual model, World economy, World Food Day, World Trade Organization, World War II, Yi Gang, Zaire, Zhou Xiaochuan, 1973 oil crisis, 1998–2002 Argentine great depression, 2002 Uruguay banking crisis, 2014 Ukrainian revolution, 6th BRICS summit. Expand index (197 more) » « Shrink index
ActionAid is an international non-governmental organization whose primary aim is to work against poverty and injustice worldwide.
The Africa Monetary Fund is a planned African Union financial institution, though in time its responsibilities will be transferred to the African Central Bank.
The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent, extending slightly into Asia via the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt.
Agus Dermawan Wintarto Martowardojo (born 24 January 1956) is a former Governor of the Indonesian Central Bank.
Agustín Guillermo Carstens Carstens (born in Mexico City), is a Mexican economist who serves as the general manager of the Bank of International Settlements since.
Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.
Alexandre Antônio Tombini (born December 9, 1963) is a Brazilian economist.
Anti-communism is opposition to communism.
The anti-globalization movement, or counter-globalisation movement, is a social movement critical of economic globalization.
Anton Germanovich Siluanov (p; born 12 April 1963) is a Russian politician and economist who is Minister of Finance of Russia and First Deputy Prime Minister.
The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) is a multilateral development bank that aims to support the building of infrastructure in the Asia-Pacific region.
Austerity is a political-economic term referring to policies that aim to reduce government budget deficits through spending cuts, tax increases, or a combination of both.
An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).
A bailout is a colloquial term for the provision of financial help to a corporation or country which otherwise would be on the brink of failure or bankruptcy.
The balance of payments, also known as balance of international payments and abbreviated B.O.P. or BoP, of a country is the record of all economic transactions between the residents of the country and of the world in a particular period (over a quarter of a year or more commonly over a year).
A balanced budget (particularly that of a government) is a budget in which revenues are equal to expenditures.
The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) is an international financial institution owned by central banks which "fosters international monetary and financial cooperation and serves as a bank for central banks".
William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
William Francis "Bill" Morneau (born October 7, 1962) is a Canadian politician and businessman who was elected in the 2015 Canadian federal election as the Member of Parliament for Toronto Centre.
The Bretton Woods Conference, formally known as the United Nations Monetary and Financial Conference, was the gathering of 730 delegates from all 44 Allied nations at the Mount Washington Hotel, situated in Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, United States, to regulate the international monetary and financial order after the conclusion of World War II.
The Bretton Woods system of monetary management established the rules for commercial and financial relations among the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Australia, and Japan after the 1944 Bretton-Woods Agreement.
Bretton Woods is an area within the town of Carroll, New Hampshire, United States, whose principal points of interest are three leisure and recreation facilities.
In economics, BRIC is a grouping acronym that refers to the countries of '''B'''razil, '''R'''ussia, '''I'''ndia and '''C'''hina, which are all deemed to be at a similar stage of newly advanced economic development.
BRICS is the acronym for an association of five major emerging national economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.
Bruno Le Maire (born 15 April 1969) is a French politician and former diplomat.
The Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (Centraal Planbureau, CPB, literal translation: Central Planning Bureau) is a part of the Ministry of Economic Affairs and Climate Policy of the Netherlands.
The business cycle, also known as the economic cycle or trade cycle, is the downward and upward movement of gross domestic product (GDP) around its long-term growth trend.
Camille Gutt (14 November 1884 – 7 June 1971), born Camille Guttenstein, was a Belgian economist, politician, and industrialist.
A capital levy is a tax on capital rather than income, collected once rather than annually.
Carlo Cottarelli (born 1954) is an Italian economist and former director of the International Monetary Fund.
Călin Constantin Anton Popescu-Tăriceanu (born 14 January 1952) is a Romanian politician who was the Prime Minister of Romania from 29 December 2004 to 22 December 2008.
The Center for Economic and Policy Research (CEPR) is an economic policy think-tank, co-founded by economists Dean Baker and Mark Weisbrot, and is based in Washington, D.C. It has been described as left-leaning.
Charles Derber is an American Professor of Sociology at Boston College.
Christine Madeleine Odette Lagarde (née Lallouette,; born 1 January 1956) is a French lawyer and politician who has been the Managing Director (MD) of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) since 5 July 2011.
Civil society is the "aggregate of non-governmental organizations and institutions that manifest interests and will of citizens".
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
In lending agreements, collateral is a borrower's pledge of specific property to a lender, to secure repayment of a loan.
A collective action clause (CAC) allows a supermajority of bondholders to agree to a debt restructuring that is legally binding on all holders of the bond, including those who vote against the restructuring.
The Committee for the Abolition of Illegitimate Debt (CADTM) - formerly called Committee for the cancellation of the Thirld World Debt - is an international network of activists who strive to develop and implement radical alternatives that would contribute to the maintenance, and indeed retrieval, of fundamental human rights all over the world.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
In political economy and international relations, conditionality is the use of conditions attached to the provision of benefits such as a loan, debt relief or bilateral aid.
Congo: The Epic History of a People (original Dutch title: Congo. Een geschiedenis) is a 639 page non-fiction book by David Van Reybrouck, first published in 2010.
The Congressional Research Service (CRS), known as Congress's think tank, is a public policy research arm of the United States Congress.
A credit rating is an evaluation of the credit risk of a prospective debtor (an individual, a business, company or a government), predicting their ability to pay back the debt, and an implicit forecast of the likelihood of the debtor defaulting.
Curaçao (Curaçao,; Kòrsou) is a Lesser Antilles island in the southern Caribbean Sea and the Dutch Caribbean region, about north of the Venezuelan coast.
In finance, a currency swap (more typically termed a cross-currency swap (XCS)) is an interest rate derivative (IRD).
Cyprus Popular Bank (from 2006 to 2011 known as Marfin Popular Bank) was the second largest banking group in Cyprus behind the Bank of Cyprus until it was 'shuttered' in March 2013 and split into two parts.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
Darren Hawkins (born April 15, 1966) is an American professor and the current chair of the department of Political Science at Brigham Young University.
David Grégoire Van Reybrouck (born 11 September 1971 in Bruges) is a Belgian cultural historian, archaeologist and author.
Debt relief or debt cancellation is the partial or total forgiveness of debt, or the slowing or stopping of debt growth, owed by individuals, corporations, or nations.
Debtocracy (Χρεοκρατία hreokratía) is a 2011 left-wing documentary film by Katerina Kitidi and Aris Chatzistefanou.
Deficit spending is the amount by which spending exceeds revenue over a particular period of time, also called simply deficit, or budget deficit; the opposite of budget surplus.
In economics, deflation is a decrease in the general price level of goods and services.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
Explicit deposit insurance is a measure implemented in many countries to protect bank depositors, in full or in part, from losses caused by a bank's inability to pay its debts when due.
Deregulation is the process of removing or reducing state regulations, typically in the economic sphere.
In modern monetary policy, a devaluation is an official lowering of the value of a country's currency within a fixed exchange rate system, by which the monetary authority formally sets a new fixed rate with respect to a foreign reference currency or currency basket.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Development aid or development cooperation (also development assistance, technical assistance, international aid, overseas aid, official development assistance (ODA), or foreign aid) is financial aid given by governments and other agencies to support the economic, environmental, social, and political development of developing countries.
Development economics is a branch of economics which deals with economic aspects of the development process in low income countries.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
In finance and economics, divestment or divestiture is the reduction of some kind of asset for financial, ethical, or political objectives or sale of an existing business by a firm.
Doctor is an academic title that originates from the Latin word of the same spelling and meaning.
Dominique Gaston André Strauss-Kahn (born 25 April 1949) is a French politician, former managing director of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and a controversial figure in the French Socialist Party due to his involvement in several financial and sexual scandals.
In economics, economic equilibrium is a state where economic forces such as supply and demand are balanced and in the absence of external influences the (equilibrium) values of economic variables will not change.
Economic inequality is the difference found in various measures of economic well-being among individuals in a group, among groups in a population, or among countries.
Economic stability is the absence of excessive fluctuations in the macroeconomy.
Elvira Sakhipzadovna Nabiullina (Эльвира Сахипзадовна Набиуллина; Эльвира Сәхипзәде кызы Нәбиуллина; Эльвира Сәхипзада ҡыҙы Нәбиуллина; born 29 October 1963) is a Russian economist and head of the Central Bank of Russia.
Embedded liberalism is a term for the global economic system and the associated international political orientation as they existed from the end of World War II to the 1970s.
Environmental finance is the use of various financial instruments (usually land trusts and emissions trading) to protect the environment.
Environmental technology (envirotech), green technology (greentech) or clean technology (cleantech) is the application of one or more of environmental science, green chemistry, environmental monitoring and electronic devices to monitor, model and conserve the natural environment and resources, and to curb the negative impacts of human involvement.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) is an international financial institution founded in 1991.
The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank for the euro and administers monetary policy of the euro area, which consists of 19 EU member states and is one of the largest currency areas in the world.
The European debt crisis (often also referred to as the Eurozone crisis or the European sovereign debt crisis) is a multi-year debt crisis that has been taking place in the European Union since the end of 2009.
The European troika is the designation of the triumvirate representing the European Union in its foreign relations, in particular concerning its common foreign and security policy (CFSP).
Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.
Eveline Widmer-Schlumpf (born 16 March 1956) is a Swiss lawyer, politician, and former member of the Swiss Federal Council from 2008 to 2015.
In finance, an exchange rate is the rate at which one currency will be exchanged for another.
Fernando Ezequiel 'Pino' Solanas (born 16 February 1936) is an Argentine film director, screenwriter and politician.
A financial crisis is any of a broad variety of situations in which some financial assets suddenly lose a large part of their nominal value.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
A fixed exchange rate, sometimes called a pegged exchange rate, is a type of exchange rate regime where a currency's value is fixed against either the value of another single currency, to a basket of other currencies, or to another measure of value, such as gold.
A floating exchange rate (also called a fluctuating or flexible exchange rate) is a type of exchange-rate regime in which a currency's value is allowed to fluctuate in response to foreign-exchange market mechanisms.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
Foreign Affairs is an American magazine of international relations and U.S. foreign policy published by the Council on Foreign Relations, a nonprofit, nonpartisan, membership organization and think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.
François Villeroy de Galhau (born 24 February 1959) is a French central banker, Governor of the Bank of France since 1 November 2015.
Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.
Funding liquidity is the availability of credit to finance the purchase of financial assets.
The G20 (or Group of Twenty) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union.
George Andreas Papandreou (Γεώργιος Ανδρέας Παπανδρέου,, shortened to Giorgos (Γιώργος); born 16 June 1952) is a Greek American politician who served as Prime Minister of Greece from 2009 to 2011.
In economics, the Gini coefficient (sometimes expressed as a Gini ratio or a normalized Gini index) is a measure of statistical dispersion intended to represent the income or wealth distribution of a nation's residents, and is the most commonly used measurement of inequality.
Giorgos Papakonstantinou (Γιώργος Παπακωνσταντίνου), born October 30, 1961 in Athens, Greece, is a Greek economist and politician and former Minister for the Environment, Energy and Climate Change of Greece and former Minister for Finance.
Global apartheid is a term used to mean minority rule in international decision-making.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
Globalization and Its Discontents is a book published in 2002 by the 2001 Nobel laureate Joseph E. Stiglitz.
Governance is all of the processes of governing, whether undertaken by a government, a market or a network, over a social system (family, tribe, formal or informal organization, a territory or across territories) and whether through the laws, norms, power or language of an organized society.
The Governor of the Bank of Canada is chief executive officer and the chairman of the board of directors of the Bank of Canada; the incumbent governor is Stephen S. Poloz, who assumed the office on June 3, 2013.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
The Group of 24 (G24), a chapter of the G-77, was established in 1971 to coordinate the positions of developing countries on international monetary and development finance issues and to ensure that their interests were adequately represented in negotiations on international monetary matters.
The Group of Ten (G-10 or G10) refers to the group of countries that agreed to participate in the General Arrangements to Borrow (GAB), an agreement to provide the International Monetary Fund (IMF) with additional funds to increase its lending ability.
The Group of Thirty, often abbreviated to G30, is an international body of leading financiers and academics which aims to deepen understanding of economic and financial issues and to examine consequences of decisions made in the public and private sectors related to these issues.
In finance, a haircut is the difference between the market value of an asset used as loan collateral and the value ascribed to that asset when used as collateral for that loan (i.e. an ascribed (nominal) reduction to the value of that asset, when it is used as collateral).
HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster.
Harry Dexter White (October 9, 1892 – August 16, 1948) was a Soviet informant while serving as a senior U.S. Treasury department official.
, is the 31st and current Governor of the Bank of Japan (BOJ).
Henrique de Campos Meirelles (Anápolis, August 31, 1945) is former Minister of the Economy and an executive of the Brazilian and the international financial sectors and former president of Central Bank of Brazil (Portuguese: Banco Central do Brasil) where he remained in office from 2003 to 2011.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Horst Köhler (born 22 February 1943) is a German politician of the Christian Democratic Union, and served as President of Germany from 2004 to 2010.
Human capital flight refers to the emigration of individuals who have received advanced training at home.
Ibrahim bin Abdulaziz bin Abdullah Al-Assaf (إبراهيم بن عبد العزيز بن عبد الله العساف; born 28 January 1949) is the former long serving finance minister of Saudi Arabia and current state minister of Saudi Arabia.
Ignazio Visco OMRI (born 21 November 1949) is an Italian economist and the current Governor of the Bank of Italy.
Ilan Goldfajn (born March 12, 1966) is a Brazilian-Israeli economist and the current President of the Central Bank of Brazil.
The IMF Stand-By Arrangement (SBA) is an economic program of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) involving financial aid to a member state in need of financial assistance, normally arising from a financial crisis.
Infrastructure is the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function.
The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) is an international financial institution that offers loans to middle-income developing countries.
The International Development Committee is a select committee of the House of Commons in the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
An international financial institution (IFI) is a financial institution that has been established (or chartered) by more than one country, and hence are subjects of international law.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
International Monetary Fund Managing Director 2011 election The selection process for the new Managing Director of the IMF in 2011 presents characteristics that have never been seen.
International monetary systems are sets of internationally agreed rules, conventions and supporting institutions, that facilitate international trade, cross border investment and generally the reallocation of capital between nation states.
An international organization is an organization with an international membership, scope, or presence.
International political economy (IPE), also known as global political economy (GPE), refers to either economics or an interdisciplinary academic discipline that analyzes economics and international relations.
Since its declaration of independence from Serbia (enacted on 17 February 2008), international recognition of Kosovo has been mixed, and the international community continues to be divided on the issue.
International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories.
In general, to invest is to allocate money (or sometimes another resource, such as time) in the expectation of some benefit in the future – for example, investment in durable goods, in real estate by the service industry, in factories for manufacturing, in product development, and in research and development.
Ivar Rooth (2 November 1888 – 27 February 1972) was a Swedish lawyer and economist.
Jacob Joseph "Jack" Lew (born August 29, 1955) is an American attorney who was the 76th United States Secretary of the Treasury, serving from 2013 to 2017.
Jacques de Larosière de Champfeu (born 12 November 1929 in Paris) is a French central banker.
Jacques Jacobus Polak (25 April 1914 – 26 February 2010) was a Dutch economist.
The Jamaica Accords were a set of international agreements that ratified the end of the Bretton Woods monetary system.
Jeffrey David Sachs (born November 5, 1954) is an American economist and director of the Earth Institute at Columbia University, where he holds the title of University Professor, the highest rank Columbia bestows on its faculty.
Jens Weidmann (born 20 April 1968) is a German economist, president of the Deutsche Bundesbank, and Chairman of the Board of the Bank for International Settlements.
Jerome Hayden "Jay" Powell (born February 4, 1953) is the 16th and current Chairman of the Federal Reserve, serving in that office since February 2018.
Hendrikus Johannes "Johan" Witteveen (born 12 June 1921) is a retired Dutch politician and economist who served as Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) from 1973 to 1978.
John A. Fraser (born 8 August 1951) is an Australian public servant.
John Brian Taylor (born December 8, 1946) is the Mary and Robert Raymond Professor of Economics at Stanford University, and the George P. Shultz Senior Fellow in Economics at Stanford University's Hoover Institution.
John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes (5 June 1883 – 21 April 1946), was a British economist whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments.
Joseph Eugene Stiglitz (born February 9, 1943) is an American economist and a professor at Columbia University.
Julius Kambarage Nyerere (13 April 1922 – 14 October 1999) was a Tanzanian anti-colonial activist, politician, and political theorist.
Keynesian economics (sometimes called Keynesianism) are the various macroeconomic theories about how in the short run – and especially during recessions – economic output is strongly influenced by aggregate demand (total demand in the economy).
Kim Dong-yeon (Korean: 김동연; born 28 January 1957) is the Minister of Strategy and Finance and a Deputy Prime Minister of South Korea, appointed by President Moon Jae-in in June 2017.
Klaas Henderikus Willem "Klaas" Knot (born 14 April 1967 in Bedum) is a Dutch economist and central banker, who is the current President of the Dutch central bank De Nederlandsche Bank (DNB).
Labor rights or workers' rights are a group of legal rights and claimed human rights having to do with labor relations between workers and their employers, usually obtained under labor and employment law.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
Lee Ju-yeol (born 24 July 1952) is a South Korean economist and technocrat who was appointed Governor of the Bank of Korea, the South Korean central bank, on 1 April 2014.
Life and Debt is a 2001 American documentary film directed by Stephanie Black.
In finance, a loan is the lending of money by one or more individuals, organizations, and/or other entities to other individuals, organizations etc.
Luis de Guindos Jurado (born 16 January 1960) is a Spanish politician.
Luis María Linde de Castro (born May 15, 1945 in Madrid) is a Spanish economist and civil worker who has served as chairman of the Spanish Central Bank since June 11, 2012.
Luis Videgaray Caso (born August 10, 1968) is a Mexican politician who serves as the Secretary of Foreign Affairs.
Macau, officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Mark Joseph Carney, (born March 16, 1965) is a Canadian economist and the Governor of the Bank of England and Chairman of the G20's Financial Stability Board.
Michel Camdessus (born 1 May 1933) is a French applied economist and administrator who was Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) from 16 January 1987 to 14 February 2000.
A military dictatorship (also known as a military junta) is a form of government where in a military force exerts complete or substantial control over political authority.
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were the eight international development goals for the year 2015 that had been established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration.
The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).
Marshal Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu Wa Za Banga (born Joseph-Désiré Mobutu; 14 October 1930 – 7 September 1997) was the military dictator and President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (which Mobutu renamed Zaire in 1971) from 1965 to 1997.
Monetarism is a school of thought in monetary economics that emphasizes the role of governments in controlling the amount of money in circulation.
In economics, moral hazard occurs when someone increases their exposure to risk when insured.
A multinational corporation (MNC) or worldwide enterprise is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country.
The National Bank of Belgium (NBB; Nationale Bank van België, Banque nationale de Belgique, Belgische Nationalbank) has been the central bank of Belgium since 1850.
Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind.
Neoliberalism or neo-liberalism refers primarily to the 20th-century resurgence of 19th-century ideas associated with laissez-faire economic liberalism.
The New Development Bank (NDB), formerly referred to as the BRICS Development Bank, is a multilateral development bank established by the BRICS states (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa).
The People of the State of New York v. Strauss-Kahn was a criminal case relating to allegations of sexual assault and attempted rape made by a hotel maid, Nafissatou Diallo, against Dominique Strauss-Kahn at the Sofitel New York Hotel on 14 May 2011.
The Nixon shock was a series of economic measures undertaken by United States President Richard Nixon in 1971, the most significant of which was the unilateral cancellation of the direct international convertibility of the United States dollar to gold.
The following is an evolving list (in alphabetical order) of notable current and former employees of the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
Olivier Jean Blanchard (born December 27, 1948) is a French economist, professor and Senior Fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics.
Our Brand Is Crisis is a 2015 American comedy-drama film directed by David Gordon Green and written by Peter Straughan.
The Overseas Development Institute (ODI) is an independent think tank on international development and humanitarian issues, founded in 1960.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Palestinian National Authority (PA or PNA; السلطة الوطنية الفلسطينية) is the interim self-government body established in 1994 following the Gaza–Jericho Agreement to govern the Gaza Strip and Areas A and B of the West Bank, as a consequence of the 1993 Oslo Accords.
Per Jacobsson (5 February 1894 – 5 May 1963) was a Swedish economist, and managing director of the International Monetary Fund from 21 November 1956 until his death in 1963.
The Peterson Institute for International Economics (PIIE; Peterson Institute), until 2006 the Institute for International Economics (IIE), is a private and non-profit think tank focused on international economics, based in Washington, D.C. It was founded by C. Fred Bergsten in 1981, and is led by Adam S. Posen.
Philip Anthony Hammond (born 4 December 1955) is a British Conservative Party politician who has been the Chancellor of the Exchequer since 13 July 2016 and the Member of Parliament (MP) for Runnymede and Weybridge since 1997.
Pier Carlo Padoan (born 19 January 1950) is an Italian economist served as Minister of Economy and Finances of Italy from 2014 to 2018.
Pierre-Paul Schweitzer (29 May 1912 – 2 January 1994) was the International Monetary Fund (IMF)'s fourth managing director and chairman of the executive board, serving from 1963 to 1973.
PLOS Medicine (formerly styled PLoS Medicine) is a peer-reviewed weekly medical journal covering the full spectrum of the medical sciences.
Price controls are governmental restrictions on the prices that can be charged for goods and services in a market.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
A progressive tax is a tax in which the tax rate increases as the taxable amount increases.
Publicly funded healthcare is a form of health care financing designed to meet the cost of all or most healthcare needs from a publicly managed fund.
Raghuram Govind Rajan (born 3 February 1963) is an Indian economist and an international academic who is the Katherine Dusak Miller Distinguished Service Professor of Finance at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business.
Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall in the case of tropical rainforests between, and definitions varying by region for temperate rainforests.
Rakesh Mohan (born 1948) is an Indian economist and former Deputy Governor of Reserve Bank of India.
Randall Warren Stone (born February 21, 1966) is an American political scientist and a professor at the University of Rochester, notable for his studies on international political economy, international relations, and Russian and European politics.
Ratification is a principal's approval of an act of its agent that lacked the authority to bind the principal legally.
The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) is India's central banking institution, which controls the monetary policy of the Indian rupee.
Rodrigo de Rato y Figaredo (born 18 March 1949) is a Spanish political figure who served in the government of Spain as Minister of the Economy from 1996 to 2004; a member of the conservative People's Party (PP), he was also First Deputy Prime Minister from 2003 to 2004.
The Saudi Arabian Monetary Authority (SAMA; مؤسسة النقد العربي السعودي), established in 1952, is the central bank of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Scott John Morrison (born 13 May 1968) is an Australian politician.
The Smithsonian Agreement is an agreement, announced in December 1971 that created a new dollar standard whereby the major currencies of the mostly highly industrialized nations were pegged to the US dollar at central rates, with the currencies being allowed to fluctuate by 2.25%.
The Socialist Republic of Romania (Republica Socialistă România, RSR) refers to Romania under Marxist-Leninist one-party Communist rule that existed officially from 1947 to 1989.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Special Data Dissemination Standard (SDDS) is an International Monetary Fund standard to guide member countries in the dissemination of national statistics to the public.
Special drawing rights (ISO 4217 currency code XDR, also abbreviated SDR) are supplementary foreign-exchange reserve assets defined and maintained by the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
Steven Terner Mnuchin (born December 21, 1962) is an American former investment banker who is serving as the 77th and current United States Secretary of the Treasury as part of the Cabinet of Donald Trump.
A stock market, equity market or share market is the aggregation of buyers and sellers (a loose network of economic transactions, not a physical facility or discrete entity) of stocks (also called shares), which represent ownership claims on businesses; these may include securities listed on a public stock exchange as well as those only traded privately.
Structural adjustment programmes (SAPs) consist of loans provided by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB) to countries that experienced economic crises.
Subir Vithal Gokarn (born 3 October 1959) was one of the four Deputy Governors of the Reserve Bank of India along with Anand Sinha, K. C. Chakrabarty and H. R. Khan.
A subsidy is a form of financial aid or support extended to an economic sector (or institution, business, or individual) generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy.
Sunil Sabharwal(in Punjabi ਸੁਨੀਲ ਸਭਰਵਾਲ) is the Alternate Executive Director of the International Monetary Fund, to which he was appointed by the White House on April 3, 2014.
is a Japanese politician who is the Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance.
The terms of trade (TOT) is the relative price of imports in terms of exports and is defined as the ratio of export prices to import prices.
The End of Poverty: Economic Possibilities for Our Time is a 2005 book by American economist Jeffrey Sachs.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
Thereus is a genus of gossamer-winged butterflies (family Lycaenidae).
Thomas Östros (born 26 January 1965 in Gällivare, Norrbotten County) is a Swedish economist, former Social Democratic politician and CEO of the Swedish Bankers' Association.
Thomas J. Jordan (born 1963) is a Swiss economist and central banker.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Transparency, as used in science, engineering, business, the humanities and in other social contexts, is operating in such a way that it is easy for others to see what actions are performed.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) was established in 1964 as a permanent intergovernmental body.
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations' global development network.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The Department of the Treasury (USDT) is an executive department and the treasury of the United States federal government.
Urjit R. Patel (born 1963) is an Indian economist, who is currently serving as 24th Governor of Reserve Bank of India (RBI) since September 2016.
Within economics the concept of utility is used to model worth or value, but its usage has evolved significantly over time.
The Velvet Revolution (sametová revoluce) or Gentle Revolution (nežná revolúcia) was a non-violent transition of power in what was then Czechoslovakia, occurring from 17 November to 29 December 1989.
The Washington Consensus is a set of 10 economic policy prescriptions considered to constitute the "standard" reform package promoted for crisis-wracked developing countries by Washington, D.C.–based institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank and United States Department of the Treasury.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Westphalian sovereignty, or state sovereignty, is the principle of international law that each nation-state has exclusive sovereignty over its territory.
Wolfgang Schäuble (born 18 September 1942) is a German lawyer and politician of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) whose political career has spanned more than four decades.
The Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs is a professional public policy school at Princeton University.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Bank residual model, in economics, refers to a widely used model by economists to measure illicit financial flows.
The world economy or global economy is the economy of the world, considered as the international exchange of goods and services that is expressed in monetary units of account (money).
World Food Day is celebrated every year around the world on 16 October in honor of the date of the founding of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in 1945.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yi Gang (born 1958) is the Governor of the People's Bank of China since 2018.
Zaire, officially the Republic of Zaire (République du Zaïre), was the name for the Democratic Republic of the Congo that existed between 1971 and 1997 in Central Africa.
Zhou Xiaochuan (born January 29, 1948) is a Chinese economist, banker, reformist and bureaucrat.
The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo.
The 1998–2002 Argentine Great Depression was an economic depression in Argentina, which began in the third quarter of 1998 and lasted until the second quarter of 2002.
The Uruguay banking crisis was a major banking crisis that hit Uruguay in July 2002.
The Ukrainian revolution of 2014 (also known as the Euromaidan Revolution or Revolution of Dignity; Революція гідності, Revoliutsiia hidnosti) took place in Ukraine in February 2014, when a series of violent events involving protesters, riot police, and unknown shooters in the capital, Kiev, culminated in the ousting of the democratically elected Ukrainian President, Viktor Yanukovych, and the overthrow of the Ukrainian Government.
The 6th BRICS summit was the sixth annual diplomatic meeting of the BRICS, a grouping of major emerging economies that includes Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.
Articles of Agreement of the International Monetary Fund, Criticism of the International Monetary Fund, IMF, IMF Working Paper Series, IMF chief, IMF crisis, Imf, International Monetary Fund historical list of ten largest countries by GDP, International Monetary and Financial Committee, International Money Fund, International money fund, The imf.