314 relations: Abjad, Ablative case, Abraham ibn Ezra, Academy of the Hebrew Language, Accusative case, Acrophony, Afroasiatic languages, Ahad Ha'am, Akkadian language, Akram Hasson, Albert Einstein, Aleph, Aleppo Codex, Americanization, Amoraim, Analytic language, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Arabian Desert, Arabic, Arabic alphabet, Arabic grammar, Arabs, Aramaic alphabet, Aramaic language, Archaeology of Israel, Article (grammar), Ashkenazi Hebrew, Assyrian captivity, Avraham Danzig, Ayin, Ḍād, Ḏāl, Ḫāʾ, Ṯāʾ, Ẓāʾ, Baal keriah, Babylon, Babylonia, Babylonian captivity, Bar Kokhba revolt, Baraita, BBC Online, Begadkefat, Ben Sira, Bet (letter), Biblical Hebrew, Blasphemy, Bukhori dialect, Calque, ..., Cambridge University Press, Canaan, Canaanite languages, Cantillation, Central Semitic languages, Chaim Menachem Rabin, Chayei Adam, Chofetz Chaim, Classical Arabic, Clitic, Common Era, Conjunction (grammar), Construct state, Copper Scroll, Copula (linguistics), Cursive Hebrew, Cyrus 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An abjad (pronounced or) is a type of writing system where each symbol or glyph stands for a consonant, leaving the reader to supply the appropriate vowel.
The ablative case (sometimes abbreviated) is a grammatical case for nouns, pronouns and adjectives in the grammar of various languages; it is sometimes used to express motion away from something, among other uses.
Abraham ben Meir Ibn Ezra (אַבְרָהָם אִבְּן עֶזְרָא or ראב"ע; ابن عزرا; also known as Abenezra or Aben Ezra, 1089–c.1167) was one of the most distinguished Jewish biblical commentators and philosophers of the Middle Ages.
The Academy of the Hebrew Language (הָאָקָדֶמְיָה לַלָּשׁוֹן הָעִבְרִית, Ha-Akademya la-Lashon ha-Ivrit) was established by the Israeli government in 1953 as the "supreme institution for scholarship on the Hebrew language in the Hebrew University of Jerusalem of Givat Ram campus." It is an educational institution with the mission of creating new Hebrew words to ensure that the language does not die out.
The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.
Acrophony (Greek: ἄκρος akros uppermost + φωνή phone sound) is the naming of letters of an alphabetic writing system so that a letter's name begins with the letter itself.
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.
Asher Zvi Hirsch Ginsberg (18 August 1856 – 2 January 1927), primarily known by his Hebrew name and pen name, Ahad Ha'am (אחד העם, lit. one of the people, Genesis 26:10), was a Hebrew essayist, and one of the foremost pre-state Zionist thinkers.
Akkadian (akkadû, ak-ka-du-u2; logogram: URIKI)John Huehnergard & Christopher Woods, "Akkadian and Eblaite", The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World's Ancient Languages.
Akram Hasson (أكرم حسون, אכרם חסון, born 2 July 1959) is a Druze Israeli politician who serves as a member of the Knesset for Kulanu.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
Aleph (or alef or alif) is the first letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician 'Ālep 𐤀, Hebrew 'Ālef א, Aramaic Ālap 𐡀, Syriac ʾĀlap̄ ܐ, Arabic ا, Urdu ا, and Persian.
The Aleppo Codex (כֶּתֶר אֲרָם צוֹבָא Keter Aram Tzova or Crown of Aleppo) is a medieval bound manuscript of the Hebrew Bible.
In countries outside the United States of America, Americanization or Americanisation is the influence American culture and business have on other countries, such as their media, cuisine, business practices, popular culture, technology, or political techniques.
Amoraim (Aramaic: plural, singular Amora; "those who say" or "those who speak over the people", or "spokesmen") refers to the Jewish scholars of the period from about 200 to 500 CE, who "said" or "told over" the teachings of the Oral Torah.
In linguistic typology, an analytic language is a language that primarily conveys relationships between words in sentences by way of helper words (particles, prepositions, etc.) and word order, as opposed to utilizing inflections (changing the form of a word to convey its role in the sentence).
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
The Arabian Desert is a vast desert wilderness in Western Asia.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.
Arabic grammar (اَلنَّحْو اَلْعَرَبِي or قَوَاعِد اَللُّغَة اَلْعَرَبِيَّة) is the grammar of the Arabic language.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
The ancient Aramaic alphabet is adapted from the Phoenician alphabet and became distinct from it by the 8th century BCE.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
The archaeology of Israel is the study of the archaeology of the present-day Israel, stretching from prehistory through three millennia of documented history.
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.
Ashkenazi Hebrew (Hagiyya Ashkenazit, Ashkenazishe Havara), is the pronunciation system for Biblical and Mishnaic Hebrew favored for liturgical use and study by Ashkenazi Jewish practice.
The Assyrian captivity (or the Assyrian exile) is the period in the history of Ancient Israel and Judah during which several thousand Israelites of ancient Samaria were resettled as captives by Assyria.
Rabbi Avraham Danzig (ben Yehiel Michael, אברהם דנציג;1820–1748) was a Posek ("decisor") and codifier, best known as the author of the works of Jewish law called "Chayei Adam" and "Chochmat Adam." He is sometimes referred to as "the Chayei Adam".
Ayin (also ayn, ain; transliterated) is the sixteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Hebrew, Aramaic, Syriac ܥ, and Arabic rtl (where it is sixteenth in abjadi order only).
(ض), is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being). In name and shape, it is a variant of.
(ذ, also be transcribed as) is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being). In Modern Standard Arabic it represents.
(خ, transliterated as (DIN-31635), (Hans Wehr), (ALA-LC) or (ISO 233)), is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being). It is based on the ح. It represents the sound or in Modern Standard Arabic.
() is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being). In Modern Standard Arabic it represents the voiceless dental fricative, also found in English as the "th" in words such as "think" and "thin".
, or (ظ), is one of the six letters the Arabic alphabet added to the twenty-two inherited from the Phoenician alphabet (the others being). In Classical Arabic and Modern Standard Arabic it represents a pharyngealized or velarized voiced dental fricative or.
A baal keriah (Hebrew:, "master of the reading"), colloquially called the baal korei (Hebrew:, "master who reads"), is a member of a Jewish congregation who reads from the Sefer Torah during the service.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
The Babylonian captivity or Babylonian exile is the period in Jewish history during which a number of people from the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylonia.
The Bar Kokhba revolt (מרד בר כוכבא; Mered Bar Kokhba) was a rebellion of the Jews of the Roman province of Judea, led by Simon bar Kokhba, against the Roman Empire.
Baraita (Aramaic: ברייתא "external" or "outside"; pl. Barayata or Baraitot; also Baraitha, Beraita; Ashkenazi: Beraisa) designates a tradition in the Jewish oral law not incorporated in the Mishnah.
BBC Online, formerly known as BBCi, is the BBC's online service.
Begadkefat (also begadkephat, begedkefet) is the name given to a phenomenon of lenition affecting the non-emphatic stop consonants of Biblical Hebrew and Aramaic when they are preceded by a vowel and not geminated.
Ben Sira, or Ben Sirach, also known as Shimon ben Yeshua ben Eliezer ben Sira or Jesus Ben Sirach, (fl. 2nd century BCE) was a Hellenistic Jewish scribe, sage, and allegorist from Jerusalem.
Bet, Beth, Beh, or Vet is the second letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Bēt, Hebrew Bēt, Aramaic Bēth, Syriac Bēṯ ܒ, and Arabic ب Its sound value is a voiced bilabial stop ⟨b⟩ or a voiced labiodental fricative ⟨v.
Biblical Hebrew (rtl Ivrit Miqra'it or rtl Leshon ha-Miqra), also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of Hebrew, a Canaanite Semitic language spoken by the Israelites in the area known as Israel, roughly west of the Jordan River and east of the Mediterranean Sea.
Blasphemy is the act of insulting or showing contempt or lack of reverence to a deity, or sacred things, or toward something considered sacred or inviolable.
Bukhori (Tajiki: бухорӣ – buxorī, Hebrew script: בוכארי buxori), also known as Bukhari and Bukharian, is a dialect of the Tajiki language spoken in Central Asia (and in the diaspora) by Bukharian Jews.
In linguistics, a calque or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word or root-for-root translation.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Canaan (Northwest Semitic:; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 Kenā‘an; Hebrew) was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC.
The Canaanite languages, or Canaanite dialects, are one of the three subgroups of the Northwest Semitic languages, the others being Aramaic and Amorite.
Cantillation is the ritual chanting of readings from the Hebrew Bible in synagogue services.
The Central Semitic languages are a proposed intermediate group of Semitic languages, comprising the Late Iron Age, modern dialect of Arabic (prior to which Arabic was a Southern Semitic language), and older Bronze Age Northwest Semitic languages (which include Aramaic, Ugaritic, and the Canaanite languages of Hebrew and Phoenician).
Chaim Menachem Rabin (חיים מנחם רבין; 1915–1996) was an Israeli professor of Hebrew and Semitic languages.
Chayei Adam (חיי אדם "The Life of Man") is a work of Jewish law by Rabbi Avraham Danzig (1748–1820), dealing with the laws discussed in the Orach Chayim section of the Shulchan Aruch.
The "Sefer Chafetz Chaim" (or Chofetz Chaim or Hafetz Hayim) (חָפֵץ חַיִּים, trans. Desirer of Life) is the magnum opus of Rabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan, who later became known simply as The Chofetz Chaim.
Classical Arabic is the form of the Arabic language used in Umayyad and Abbasid literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD.
A clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme in morphology and syntax that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
In grammar, a conjunction (abbreviated or) is a part of speech that connects words, phrases, or clauses that are called the conjuncts of the conjoining construction.
In Afro-Asiatic languages, the first noun in a genitive phrase of a possessed noun followed by a possessor noun often takes on a special morphological form, which is termed the construct state (Latin status constructus).
The Copper Scroll (3Q15) is one of the Dead Sea Scrolls found in Cave 3 near Khirbet Qumran, but differs significantly from the others.
In linguistics, a copula (plural: copulas or copulae; abbreviated) is a word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement), such as the word is in the sentence "The sky is blue." The word copula derives from the Latin noun for a "link" or "tie" that connects two different things.
Cursive Hebrew (כתב עברי רהוט, "Flowing Hebrew Writing", or כתב יד עברי, "Hebrew Handwriting", often called simply כתב, "Writing") is a collective designation for several styles of handwriting the Hebrew alphabet.
Cyrus II of Persia (𐎤𐎢𐎽𐎢𐏁 Kūruš; New Persian: کوروش Kuruš;; c. 600 – 530 BC), commonly known as Cyrus the Great  and also called Cyrus the Elder by the Greeks, was the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, the first Persian Empire.
Dalet (also spelled Daleth or Daled) is the fourth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Dālet, Hebrew 'Dālet ד, Aramaic Dālath, Syriac Dālaṯ ܕ, and Arabic د (in abjadi order; 8th in modern order).
The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".
David is described in the Hebrew Bible as the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.
David Ben-Gurion (דָּוִד בֶּן-גּוּרִיּוֹן;, born David Grün; 16 October 1886 – 1 December 1973) was the primary national founder of the State of Israel and the first Prime Minister of Israel.
David Kimhi (דוד קמחי, also Kimchi or Qimḥi) (1160–1235), also known by the Hebrew acronym as the RaDaK (רד"ק) (Rabbi David Kimhi), was a medieval rabbi, biblical commentator, philosopher, and grammarian.
Dead Sea Scrolls (also Qumran Caves Scrolls) are ancient Jewish religious, mostly Hebrew, manuscripts found in the Qumran Caves near the Dead Sea.
The alveolar tap or flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Dunash ha-Levi ben Labrat (920-990) (דוֹנָש הלוי בֵּן לָבְרָט; دناش بن لبراط) was a medieval Jewish commentator, poet, and grammarian of the Golden age of Jewish culture in Spain.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
Ełk (Old Prussian: Luks; Lukas; before 1939 rendered in Polish as Łęg or Łęk) is a town in northeastern Poland with 61,156 inhabitants.
Eber (ISO 259-3 ʕeber, Standard Hebrew Éver, Tiberian Hebrew ʻĒḇer, Arabic ʿĀbir) is an ancestor of the Israelites and the Ishmaelites, according to the "Table of Nations" in and.
Edomite was a Canaanite language, very similar to Hebrew, spoken by the Edomites in southwestern Jordan and parts of Israel in the 1st millennium BC.
Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt.
In phonetics, ejective consonants are usually voiceless consonants that are pronounced with a glottalic egressive airstream.
Eliezer Ben‑Yehuda (אליעזר בן־יהודה;; born Eliezer Yitzhak Perlman; 7 January 1858 – 16 December 1922) was a Hebrew lexicographer and newspaper editor.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Ephraim (Alexander) Kholmyansky (born 1950, in Moscow) is an Israeli refusenik, activist in the Jewish revival movement in Russia, and teacher of Hebrew.
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is an annual reference publication in print and online that provides statistics and other information on the living languages of the world.
The Etruscan civilization is the modern name given to a powerful and wealthy civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany, western Umbria and northern Lazio.
The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.
An extinct language is a language that no longer has any speakers, especially if the language has no living descendants.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
The Foreign Service Institute (FSI) is the United States federal government's primary training institution for employees of the U.S. foreign affairs community, preparing American diplomats as well as other professionals to advance U.S. foreign affairs interests overseas and in Washington.
The Frankfurt International School (FIS) is an English-language day school located in Oberursel, near Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
In linguistics and especially phonology, functional load (also referred to as phonemic load) refers to the importance of certain features in making distinctions in a language.
Galilee (הגליל, transliteration HaGalil); (الجليل, translit. al-Jalīl) is a region in northern Israel.
The Gemara (also transliterated Gemora, Gemarah, or, less commonly, Gemorra; from Hebrew, from the Aramaic verb gamar, study) is the component of the Talmud comprising rabbinical analysis of and commentary on the Mishnah.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
Gezer, or Tel Gezer (גֶּזֶר)(also Tell el-Jezer) is an archaeological site in the foothills of the Judaean Mountains at the border of the Shfela region roughly midway between Jerusalem and Tel Aviv.
The Gezer calendar is a small inscribed limestone tablet discovered in 1908 by Irish archaeologist R. A. Stewart Macalister in the ancient Canaanite city of Gezer, 20 miles west of Jerusalem.
The Arabic letter غ (غين or) is the nineteenth letter of the Arabic alphabet, one of the six letters not in the twenty-two akin to the Phoenician alphabet (the others being). It is the twenty-second letter in the new Persian alphabet.
Ghil'ad Zuckermann (גלעד צוקרמן,, born 1 June 1971) is a linguist and revivalist who works in contact linguistics, lexicology and the study of language, culture and identity.
Gimel is the third letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Gīml, Hebrew ˈGimel ג, Aramaic Gāmal, Syriac Gāmal ܓ, and Arabic ج (in alphabetical order; fifth in spelling order).
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
The golden age of Jewish culture in Spain coincided with the Middle Ages in Europe, a period of Muslim rule throughout much of the Iberian Peninsula.
The Gospel According to John is the fourth of the canonical gospels.
The Gospel According to Matthew (translit; also called the Gospel of Matthew or simply, Matthew) is the first book of the New Testament and one of the three synoptic gospels.
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
In common parlance, "guttural R" is the phenomenon whereby a rhotic consonant (an "R-like" sound) is produced in the back of the vocal tract (usually with the uvula) rather than in the front portion thereof and thus as a guttural consonant.
Haifa (חֵיפָה; حيفا) is the third-largest city in Israel – after Jerusalem and Tel Aviv– with a population of in.
Halakha (הֲלָכָה,; also transliterated as halacha, halakhah, halachah or halocho) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah.
Hamagid was the first Hebrew language weekly published from 1856 to 1903.
Haredi Judaism (חֲרֵדִי,; also spelled Charedi, plural Haredim or Charedim) is a broad spectrum of groups within Orthodox Judaism, all characterized by a rejection of modern secular culture.
Hasidism, sometimes Hasidic Judaism (hasidut,; originally, "piety"), is a Jewish religious group.
The Haskalah, often termed Jewish Enlightenment (השכלה; literally, "wisdom", "erudition", Yiddish pronunciation Heskole) was an intellectual movement among the Jews of Central and Eastern Europe, with certain influence on those in Western Europe and the Muslim world.
Hayim Nahman Bialik (חיים נחמן ביאליק; January 6, 1873 – July 4, 1934), also Chaim or Haim, was a Jewish poet who wrote primarily in Hebrew but also in Yiddish.
He is the fifth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Hē, Hebrew Hē, Aramaic Hē, Syriac Hē ܗ, and Arabic ﻫ. Its sound value is a voiceless glottal fricative.
Hebraism is the identification of a usage, trait, or characteristic of the Hebrew language.
The Hebraization of English (or Hebraicization) is the use of the Hebrew alphabet to write English.
Abbreviations are a common part of the Hebrew language, with many organizations, places, people and concepts known by their abbreviations.
The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script and block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language, also adapted as an alphabet script in the writing of other Jewish languages, most notably in Yiddish (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-German), Djudío (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-Spanish), and Judeo-Arabic.
Hebrew Braille (ברייל עברי) is the braille alphabet for Hebrew.
The Hebrew Gospel hypothesis (or proto-Gospel hypothesis or Aramaic Matthew hypothesis) is a group of theories based on the proposition that a lost gospel in Hebrew or Aramaic lies behind the four canonical gospels.
Hebrew literature consists of ancient, medieval, and modern writings in the Hebrew language.
The system of Hebrew numerals is a quasi-decimal alphabetic numeral system using the letters of the Hebrew alphabet.
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem (האוניברסיטה העברית בירושלים, Ha-Universita ha-Ivrit bi-Yerushalayim; الجامعة العبرية في القدس, Al-Jami'ah al-Ibriyyah fi al-Quds; abbreviated HUJI) is Israel's second oldest university, established in 1918, 30 years before the establishment of the State of Israel.
or H̱et (also spelled Khet, Kheth, Chet, Cheth, Het, or Heth) is the eighth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Ḥēt, Hebrew Ḥēt, Aramaic Ḥēth, Syriac Ḥēṯ ܚ, and Arabic Ḥā'.
The Historical Dictionary Project of the Hebrew Language (HDP) (Hebrew: מִפְעַל הַמִּלּוֹן הַהִיסְטוֹרִי) is a long-term research undertaking of the Academy of the Hebrew Language.
The Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah were related kingdoms from the Iron Age period of the ancient Levant.
The hyphen (‐) is a punctuation mark used to join words and to separate syllables of a single word.
Ibn Tibbon, is a family of Jewish rabbis and translators that lived principally in Provence in the 12th and 13th centuries.
An infix is an affix inserted inside a word stem (an existing word).
Iosif Ziselovich Begun, sometimes spelled Yosef (born July 9, 1932 in Moscow, Soviet Union; Иосиф Зиселевич Бегун, יוסף ביגון), whose last name is pronounced "bee-goon" and in Russian literally means "runner," is a former Soviet refusenik, prisoner of conscience, human rights activist, author and translator.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Israel Hayom (lit) is an Israeli national Hebrew-language free daily newspaper, first published in 2007.
Israel Meir (HaKohen) Kagan (January 26, 1839 – September 15, 1933), known popularly as the Chofetz Chaim (Hebrew: חפץ חיים, Hafetz Chaim), was an influential rabbi of the Musar movement, a Halakhist, posek, and ethicist whose works continue to be widely influential in Jewish life.
Israeli Sign Language, or ISL, is the most commonly used sign language in the deaf community of Israel.
Israelian Hebrew (or IH) is a proposed northern dialect of biblical Hebrew (BH).
The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
The Jewish diaspora (Hebrew: Tfutza, תְּפוּצָה) or exile (Hebrew: Galut, גָּלוּת; Yiddish: Golus) is the dispersion of Israelites, Judahites and later Jews out of their ancestral homeland (the Land of Israel) and their subsequent settlement in other parts of the globe.
The Jewish Encyclopedia is an English encyclopedia containing over 15,000 articles on the history, culture, and state of Judaism and the Jews up to the early 20th century.
Jewish languages are the various languages and dialects that developed in Jewish communities in the diaspora.
Jewish prayer (תְּפִלָּה, tefillah; plural תְּפִלּוֹת, tefillot; Yiddish תּפֿלה tfile, plural תּפֿלות tfilles; Yinglish: davening from Yiddish דאַוון daven ‘pray’) are the prayer recitations and Jewish meditation traditions that form part of the observance of Rabbinic Judaism.
The Jewish Virtual Library ("JVL", formerly known as JSOURCE) is an online encyclopedia published by the American–Israeli Cooperative Enterprise (AICE).
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Jo Ann Hackett is an American Old Testament and Biblical Hebrew scholar.
Jonah ibn Janah or ibn Janach, also known as Abu al-Walīd Marwān ibn Janāḥ (Arabic: أبو الوليد مروان بن جناح), (990 – 1055), was a Jewish rabbi, physician and Hebrew grammarian active in Al-Andalus or Islamic Spain.
The Jordan River (also River Jordan; נְהַר הַיַּרְדֵּן Nahar ha-Yarden, ܢܗܪܐ ܕܝܘܪܕܢܢ, نَهْر الْأُرْدُنّ Nahr al-Urdunn, Ancient Greek: Ιορδάνης, Iordànes) is a -long river in the Middle East that flows roughly north to south through the Sea of Galilee (Hebrew: כנרת Kinneret, Arabic: Bohayrat Tabaraya, meaning Lake of Tiberias) and on to the Dead Sea.
Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.
Judaeo-Spanish or Judeo-Spanish (judeo-español, Hebrew script: גֿודֿיאו-איספאנייול, Cyrillic: Ђудео-Еспањол), commonly referred to as Ladino, is a Romance language derived from Old Spanish.
Judah ben David Hayyuj (Arabic: أبو زكريا يحيى بن داؤد حيوج Abu Zakariyya Yahya ibn Dawūd Hayyūj) was a Moroccan Jewish linguist.
Judah Halevi (also Yehuda Halevi or ha-Levi; יהודה הלוי and Judah ben Shmuel Halevi; يهوذا اللاوي; 1075 – 1141) was a Spanish Jewish physician, poet and philosopher.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
The Roman province of Judea (יהודה, Standard Tiberian; يهودا; Ἰουδαία; Iūdaea), sometimes spelled in its original Latin forms of Iudæa or Iudaea to distinguish it from the geographical region of Judea, incorporated the regions of Judea, Samaria and Idumea, and extended over parts of the former regions of the Hasmonean and Herodian kingdoms of Judea.
The Judeo-Arabic languages are a continuum of specifically Jewish varieties of Arabic formerly spoken by Arab Jews, i.e. Jews who had been Arabized.
Judaeo-Aramaic is a group of Hebrew-influenced Aramaic and Neo-Aramaic languages.
Kaliningrad (p; former German name: Königsberg; Yiddish: קעניגסבערג, Kenigsberg; r; Old Prussian: Twangste, Kunnegsgarbs, Knigsberg; Polish: Królewiec) is a city in the administrative centre of Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea.
Kaf (also spelled kaph) is the eleventh letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Kāp, Hebrew Kāf, Aramaic Kāp, Syriac Kāp̄, and Arabic Kāf / (in Abjadi order).
Königsberg is the name for a former German city that is now Kaliningrad, Russia.
Khirbet Qeiyafa (Elah Fortress; Hirbet Kaifeh) is the site of an ancient fortress city overlooking the Elah Valley.
According to the Hebrew Bible, the Kingdom of Israel was one of two successor states to the former United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.
The Kingdom of Judah (מַמְלֶכֶת יְהוּדָה, Mamlekhet Yehudāh) was an Iron Age kingdom of the Southern Levant.
The Knesset (הַכְּנֶסֶת; lit. "the gathering" or "assembly"; الكنيست) is the unicameral national legislature of Israel.
Lamed or Lamedh is the twelfth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Lāmed, Hebrew 'Lāmed, Aramaic Lāmadh, Syriac Lāmaḏ ܠ, and Arabic.
The Land of Israel is the traditional Jewish name for an area of indefinite geographical extension in the Southern Levant.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew is a scholarly book written by linguist Ghil'ad Zuckermann, published in 2003 by Palgrave Macmillan.
It is generally agreed by historians that Jesus and his disciples primarily spoke Aramaic (Jewish Palestinian Aramaic), the common language of Judea in the first century AD, most likely a Galilean dialect distinguishable from that of Jerusalem.
Lashon Hakodesh (לָשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ; lit. "the tongue holiness" or "the Holy Tongue"), also spelled L'shon Hakodesh or Leshon Hakodesh (לְשׁוֹן הַקֹּדֶשׁ), is a Jewish term and appellation attributed to the Hebrew language, or sometimes to a mix of Hebrew and Aramaic, in which its religious texts and prayers were written, and served, during the Medieval Hebrew era, for religious purposes, liturgy and Halakha – in contrary to the secular tongue, which served for the routine daily needs, such as the Yiddish language.
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
In linguistics, lenition is a kind of sound change that alters consonants, making them more sonorous.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
This is a list of English words of Hebrew origin.
Notable dictionaries of the Hebrew language include.
The Litani River (نهر الليطاني, Nahr al-Līṭānī), the classical Leontes (Λέοντες, Léontes, "Lions"), is an important water resource in southern Lebanon.
A literary language is the form of a language used in the writing of the language.
Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.
Mandatory Palestine (فلسطين; פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י), where "EY" indicates "Eretz Yisrael", Land of Israel) was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Syria after World War I. British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948.
The Masoretes (Hebrew: Ba'alei ha-Masora) were groups of Jewish scribe-scholars who worked between the 6th and 10th centuries CE, based primarily in early medieval Palestine in the cities of Tiberias and Jerusalem, as well as in Iraq (Babylonia).
In the spelling of Hebrew and some other Semitic languages, matres lectionis (from Latin "mothers of reading", singular form: mater lectionis, אֵם קְרִיאָה), refers to the use of certain consonants to indicate a vowel.
The Me'assefim were a group of Hebrew writers who between 1784 and 1811 published their works in the periodical Ha-Me'assef, which they had founded.
Medieval Hebrew was a literary and liturgical language that existed between the 4th and 18th century.
Mekhilta or Mekilta (Aramaic: מכילתא, a collection of rules of interpretation) is a halakhic midrash to the Book of Exodus.
Mem (also spelled Meem, Meme, or Mim) is the thirteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Mēm, Hebrew Mēm, Aramaic Mem, Syriac Mīm ܡܡ, and Arabic Mīm.
The Mesha Stele, also known as the Moabite Stone, is a stele (inscribed stone) set up around 840 BCE by King Mesha of Moab (a kingdom located in modern Jordan).
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
In Judaism, the midrash (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. מִדְרָשׁ; pl. מִדְרָשִׁים midrashim) is the genre of rabbinic literature which contains early interpretations and commentaries on the Written Torah and Oral Torah (spoken law and sermons), as well as non-legalistic rabbinic literature (aggadah) and occasionally the Jewish religious laws (halakha), which usually form a running commentary on specific passages in the Hebrew Scripture (Tanakh).
Midrash halakha (הֲלָכָה) was the ancient Judaic rabbinic method of Torah study that expounded upon the traditionally received 613 Mitzvot (commandments) by identifying their sources in the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), and by interpreting these passages as proofs of the laws' authenticity.
The Ministry of Tourism (מִשְׂרַד הַתַּיָּרוּת, translit. Misrad HaTayarut) is the Israeli government office responsible for tourism.
The Mishnah or Mishna (מִשְׁנָה, "study by repetition", from the verb shanah, or "to study and review", also "secondary") is the first major written collection of the Jewish oral traditions known as the "Oral Torah".
The Mishnah Berurah (משנה ברורה "Clarified Teaching") is a work of halakha (Jewish law) by Rabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan (Poland, 1838–1933), also colloquially known by the name of another of his books, Chofetz Chaim "Desirer of Life".
Mishnaic Hebrew is one of the few Hebrew dialects found in the Talmud, except for direct quotations from the Hebrew Bible.
The Mishneh Torah (מִשְׁנֵה תּוֹרָה, "Repetition of the Torah"), subtitled Sefer Yad ha-Hazaka (ספר יד החזקה "Book of the Strong Hand"), is a code of Jewish religious law (Halakha) authored by Maimonides (Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon, also known as RaMBaM or "Rambam").
Mizrahi Hebrew, or Eastern Hebrew, refers to any of the pronunciation systems for Biblical Hebrew used liturgically by Mizrahi Jews, that is, Jews from Arab countries or further east and with a background of Arabic, Persian, or other languages of the Middle East and Asia.
Moabite is an extinct Canaanite language formerly spoken in Moab (modern day central-western Jordan) in the early 1st millennium BC.
Modern Hebrew is phonetically simpler than Biblical Hebrew and has fewer phonemes, but it is phonologically more complex.
Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication.
Rabbi Moses ben Jacob ibn Ezra, known as Ha-Sallaḥ ("writer of penitential prayers") (أبو هارون موسى بن يعقوب ابن عزرا, Abu Harun Musa bin Ya'acub ibn Ezra, משה בן יעקב הסלח אבן עזרא) was a Jewish, Spanish philosopher, linguist, and poet.
Nebuchadnezzar II (from Akkadian dNabû-kudurri-uṣur), meaning "O god Nabu, preserve/defend my firstborn son") was king of Babylon c. 605 BC – c. 562 BC, the longest and most powerful reign of any monarch in the Neo-Babylonian empire.
The Neo-Babylonian Empire (also Second Babylonian Empire) was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 626 BC and ended in 539 BC.
A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
In Hebrew orthography, niqqud or nikkud is a system of diacritical signs used to represent vowels or distinguish between alternative pronunciations of letters of the Hebrew alphabet.
Northwest Semitic is a division of the Semitic language family comprising the indigenous languages of the Levant.
Nun is the fourteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Nūn, Hebrew Nun, Aramaic Nun, Syriac Nūn ܢܢ, and Arabic Nūn (in abjadi order).
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation.
Old Aramaic (code: oar) refers to the earliest stage of the Aramaic language, considered to give way to Middle Aramaic by the 3rd century (a conventional date is the rise of the Sasanian Empire in 224 CE).
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
Orthodox Judaism is a collective term for the traditionalist branches of Judaism, which seek to maximally maintain the received Jewish beliefs and observances and which coalesced in opposition to the various challenges of modernity and secularization.
An ostracon (Greek: ὄστρακον ostrakon, plural ὄστρακα ostraka) is a piece of pottery, usually broken off from a vase or other earthenware vessel.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Paleo-Hebrew alphabet (Hebrew), also spelt Palaeo-Hebrew alphabet, is a variant of the Phoenician alphabet.
Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.
Palestinian Jew is the term used to refer to a Jewish inhabitant of Palestine (known in Hebrew as Eretz Israel, the "Land of Israel") prior to the establishment of the modern state of Israel.
Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.
Pe is the seventeenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Pē, Hebrew Pē פ, Aramaic Pē, Syriac Pē ܦ, and Arabic ف (in abjadi order).
The People's Commissariat for Education (or Narkompros; Народный комиссариат просвещения, Наркомпрос) was the Soviet agency charged with the administration of public education and most other issues related to culture.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Pharisees were at various times a political party, a social movement, and a school of thought in the Holy Land during the time of Second Temple Judaism.
A pharyngeal consonant is a consonant that is articulated primarily in the pharynx.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
The Phoenician alphabet, called by convention the Proto-Canaanite alphabet for inscriptions older than around 1050 BC, is the oldest verified alphabet.
Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal (Mediterranean) region then called "Canaan" in Phoenician, Hebrew, Old Arabic, and Aramaic, "Phoenicia" in Greek and Latin, and "Pūt" in the Egyptian language.
Phono-semantic matching (PSM) is the incorporation of a word into one language from another, often creating a neologism), where the word's non-native quality is hidden by replacing it with phonetically and semantically similar words or roots from the adopting language. Thus, the approximate sound and meaning of the original expression in the source language are preserved, though the new expression (the PSM) in the target language may sound native. Phono-semantic matching is distinct from calquing, which includes (semantic) translation but does not include phonetic matching (i.e. retaining the approximate sound of the borrowed word through matching it with a similar-sounding pre-existent word or morpheme in the target language). At the same time, phono-semantic matching is also distinct from homophonic translation, which retains the sound of a word but not the meaning.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
A pidgin, or pidgin language, is a grammatically simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in common: typically, its vocabulary and grammar are limited and often drawn from several languages.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
There are several prefixes in the Hebrew language which are appended to regular words to introduce a new meaning.
Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).
The present tense (abbreviated or) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to locate a situation or event in present time.
Proto-Sinaitic, also referred to as Sinaitic, Proto-Canaanite, Old Canaanite, or Canaanite, is a term for both a Middle Bronze Age (Middle Kingdom) script attested in a small corpus of inscriptions found at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, and the reconstructed common ancestor of the Paleo-Hebrew, Phoenician and South Arabian scripts (and, by extension, of most historical and modern alphabets).
Qoph or Qop (Phoenician Qōp) is the nineteenth letter of the Semitic abjads.
Qumran (קומראן; خربة قمران) is an archaeological site in the West Bank managed by Israel's Qumran National Park.
Rabbinic literature, in its broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history.
Rashi script is a semi-cursive typeface for the Hebrew alphabet.
Refusenik (отказник, otkaznik, from "отказ", otkaz "refusal") was an unofficial term for individuals, typically but not exclusively Soviet Jews, who were denied permission to emigrate by the authorities of the Soviet Union and other countries of the Eastern bloc.
Resh is the twentieth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Rēsh, Hebrew Rēsh, Aramaic Rēsh, Syriac Rēsh ܪ, and Arabic.
The revival of the Hebrew language took place in Europe and Israel toward the end of the 19th century and into the 20th century, through which the language's usage changed from the sacred language of Judaism to a spoken and written language used for daily life in Israel.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Hebrew uses the Hebrew alphabet with optional vowel diacritics.
Romantic nationalism (also national romanticism, organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of the unity of those it governs.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
A sacred language, "holy language" (in religious context) or liturgical language is any language that is cultivated and used primarily in religious service or for other religious reasons by people who speak another, primary language in their daily life.
The Sadducees (Hebrew: Ṣĕḏûqîm) were a sect or group of Jews that was active in Judea during the Second Temple period, starting from the second century BCE through the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE.
Samaria (שֹׁמְרוֹן, Standard, Tiberian Šōmərôn; السامرة, – also known as, "Nablus Mountains") is a historical and biblical name used for the central region of ancient Land of Israel, also known as Palestine, bordered by Galilee to the north and Judaea to the south.
The Samaritan alphabet is used by the Samaritans for religious writings, including the Samaritan Pentateuch, writings in Samaritan Hebrew, and for commentaries and translations in Samaritan Aramaic and occasionally Arabic.
Samaritan Hebrew is a reading tradition used liturgically by the Samaritans for reading the Ancient Hebrew language of the Samaritan Pentateuch, in contrast to Biblical Hebrew (the language of the Masoretic Jewish Pentateuch).
The Samaritans (Samaritan Hebrew: ࠔࠠࠌࠝࠓࠩࠉࠌ,, "Guardians/Keepers/Watchers (of the Torah)") are an ethnoreligious group of the Levant originating from the Israelites (or Hebrews) of the Ancient Near East.
Samekh or Simketh is the fifteenth letter of many Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Samek, Hebrew ˈSamekh, Aramaic Semkath, Syriac Semkaṯ ܣ, representing.
Satmar (סאטמאר or) is a Hasidic group originating from the city of Szatmárnémeti, Hungary (now Satu Mare, Romania), where it was founded in 1905 by Rabbi Joel Teitelbaum.
The Second Aliyah (העלייה השנייה, HaAliyah HaShniya) was an important and highly influential aliyah (Jewish emigration to Palestine) that took place between 1904 and 1914, during which approximately 35,000 Jews immigrated into Ottoman-ruled Palestine, mostly from the Russian Empire, some from Yemen.
Secularization (or secularisation) is the transformation of a society from close identification and affiliation with religious values and institutions toward nonreligious values and secular institutions.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
The roots of verbs and most nouns in the Semitic languages are characterized as a sequence of consonants or "radicals" (hence the term consonantal root).
Sephardi Hebrew (or Sepharadi Hebrew) is the pronunciation system for Biblical Hebrew favored for liturgical use by Sephardi Jewish practice.
Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּים, Modern Hebrew: Sefaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also Ye'hude Sepharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), originally from Sepharad, Spain or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division.
The Septuagint or LXX (from the septuāgintā literally "seventy"; sometimes called the Greek Old Testament) is the earliest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew.
Shaul Tchernichovsky (20 August 1875 – 14 October 1943; שאול טשרניחובסקי; Саул Гутманович Черниховский) was an Imperial Russian-born Hebrew poet.
Shin (also spelled Šin or Sheen) is the name of the twenty-first letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Shin, Hebrew Shin, Aramaic Shin, Syriac Shin ܫ, and Arabic Shin (in abjadi order, 13th in modern order).
Shtetlekh (שטעטל, shtetl (singular), שטעטלעך, shtetlekh (plural)) were small towns with large Jewish populations, which existed in Central and Eastern Europe before the Holocaust.
Shva or, in Biblical Hebrew, shĕwa (שְׁוָא) is a Hebrew niqqud vowel sign written as two vertical dots (ְ) beneath a letter.
Sifra (Aramaic: סִפְרָא) is the Halakhic midrash to Leviticus.
Sifre (סִפְרֵי; siphrēy, Sifre, Sifrei, also, Sifre debe Rab or Sifre Rabbah) refers to either of two works of Midrash halakhah, or classical Jewish legal Biblical exegesis, based on the biblical books of Bamidbar (Numbers) and Devarim (Deuteronomy).
The Siloam inscription or Shiloah inscription (כתובת השילוח) or Silwan inscription is a passage of inscribed text found in the Siloam tunnel which brings water from the Gihon Spring to the Pool of Siloam, located in the City of David in East Jerusalem neighborhood of Shiloah or Silwan.
Simon bar Kokhba (שמעון בר כוכבא; died 135 CE), born Simon ben Kosevah, was the leader of what is known as the Bar Kokhba revolt against the Roman Empire in 132 CE, establishing an independent Jewish state which he ruled for three years as Nasi ("Prince").
Solomon (שְׁלֹמֹה, Shlomoh), also called Jedidiah (Hebrew Yədidya), was, according to the Hebrew Bible, Quran, Hadith and Hidden Words, a fabulously wealthy and wise king of Israel who succeeded his father, King David. The conventional dates of Solomon's reign are circa 970 to 931 BCE, normally given in alignment with the dates of David's reign. He is described as the third king of the United Monarchy, which would break apart into the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah shortly after his death. Following the split, his patrilineal descendants ruled over Judah alone. According to the Talmud, Solomon is one of the 48 prophets. In the Quran, he is considered a major prophet, and Muslims generally refer to him by the Arabic variant Sulayman, son of David. The Hebrew Bible credits him as the builder of the First Temple in Jerusalem, beginning in the fourth year of his reign, using the vast wealth he had accumulated. He dedicated the temple to Yahweh, the God of Israel. He is portrayed as great in wisdom, wealth and power beyond either of the previous kings of the country, but also as a king who sinned. His sins included idolatry, marrying foreign women and, ultimately, turning away from Yahweh, and they led to the kingdom's being torn in two during the reign of his son Rehoboam. Solomon is the subject of many other later references and legends, most notably in the 1st-century apocryphal work known as the Testament of Solomon. In the New Testament, he is portrayed as a teacher of wisdom excelled by Jesus, and as arrayed in glory, but excelled by "the lilies of the field". In later years, in mostly non-biblical circles, Solomon also came to be known as a magician and an exorcist, with numerous amulets and medallion seals dating from the Hellenistic period invoking his name.
Solomon ibn Gabirol (also Solomon ben Judah; שלמה בן יהודה אבן גבירול Shlomo Ben Yehuda ibn Gabirol,; أبو أيوب سليمان بن يحيى بن جبيرول Abu Ayyub Sulayman bin Yahya bin Jabirul) was an 11th-century Andalusian poet and Jewish philosopher with a Neo-Platonic bent.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spanish and Portuguese Jews, also called Western Sephardim, are a distinctive sub-group of Iberian Jews who are largely descended from Jews who lived as New Christians in the Iberian Peninsula during the immediate generations following the forced expulsion of unconverted Jews from Spain in 1492 and from Portugal in 1497.
A spoken language is a language produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to a written language.
A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.
Study of the Hebrew language has an ancient history.
The Syriac alphabet is a writing system primarily used to write the Syriac language since the 1st century AD.
The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and theology.
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
Tannaim (תנאים, singular תנא, Tanna "repeaters", "teachers") were the Rabbinic sages whose views are recorded in the Mishnah, from approximately 10-220 CE.
Taw, tav, or taf is the twenty-second and last letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Tāw, Hebrew Tav, Aramaic Taw, Syriac Taw ܬ, and Arabic Tāʼ ت (in abjadi order, 3rd in modern order).
Tel Lachish (תל לכיש; Λαχις; Tel Lachis), is the site of an ancient Near East city, now an archaeological site and an Israeli national park.
The Temple Scroll (מגילת המקדש) is the longest of the Dead Sea Scrolls.
Teth, also written as or Tet, is the ninth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Ṭēt, Hebrew Ṭēt, Aramaic Ṭēth, Syriac Ṭēṯ ܛ, and Arabic ط. It is 16th in modern Arabic order.
Tiberian Hebrew is the canonical pronunciation of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh committed to writing by Masoretic scholars living in the Jewish community of Tiberias in ancient Judea.
The Tiberian vocalization, Tiberian pointing, or Tiberian niqqud (Hebrew: Nikkud Tveriyani) is a system of diacritics (niqqud) devised by the Masoretes of Tiberias to add to the consonantal text of the Hebrew Bible to produce the Masoretic Text.
Tiberias (טְבֶרְיָה, Tverya,; طبرية, Ṭabariyyah) is an Israeli city on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee.
Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.
Torah reading is a Jewish religious tradition that involves the public reading of a set of passages from a Torah scroll.
The Tosefta (Talmudic Aramaic: תוספתא, "supplement, addition") is a compilation of the Jewish oral law from the late 2nd century, the period of the Mishnah.
Transjordan, the East Bank, or the Transjordanian Highlands (شرق الأردن), is the part of the Southern Levant east of the Jordan River, mostly contained in present-day Jordan.
Ṣade (also spelled Ṣādē, Tsade, Ṣaddi,, Tzadi, Sadhe, Tzaddik) is the eighteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Çādē, Hebrew Ṣādi, Aramaic Ṣāḏē, Syriac Ṣāḏē ܨ, Ge'ez Ṣädäy ጸ, and Arabic.
Tzere (also spelled Tsere, Tzeirei, Zere, Zeire, Ṣerî, Ṣerê etc.; צֵירֵי, sometimes צירה) is a Hebrew niqqud vowel sign represented by two dots "◌ֵ" underneath a letter.
An ulpan (אולפן) is an institute or school for the intensive study of Hebrew.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The Universal Coded Character Set (UCS) is a standard set of characters defined by the International Standard ISO/IEC 10646, Information technology — Universal Coded Character Set (UCS) (plus amendments to that standard), which is the basis of many character encodings.
University College London (UCL) is a public research university in London, England, and a constituent college of the federal University of London.
The College of Liberal Arts is one of 14 divisions at The University of Texas at Austin.
The uvular trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
A vernacular, or vernacular language, is the language or variety of a language used in everyday life by the common people of a specific population.
The voiced uvular fricative or approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Waw/Vav ("hook") is the sixth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician wāw, Aramaic waw, Hebrew vav, Syriac waw ܘ and Arabic wāw و (sixth in abjadi order; 27th in modern Arabic order).
The West Semitic languages are a proposed major sub-grouping of ancient Semitic languages.
Yemenite Hebrew (Ivrit Temanit), also referred to as Temani Hebrew, is the pronunciation system for Hebrew traditionally used by Yemenite Jews.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
The Yishuv (ישוב, literally "settlement") or Ha-Yishuv (the Yishuv, הישוב) or Ha-Yishuv Ha-Ivri (the Hebrew Yishuv, הישוב העברי) is the term referring to the body of Jewish residents in the land of Israel (corresponding to Ottoman Syria until 1917, OETA South 1917–1920 and later Mandatory Palestine 1920–1948) prior to the establishment of the State of Israel.
Yodh (also spelled yud, yod, jod, or jodh) is the tenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Yōd, Hebrew Yōd, Aramaic Yodh, Syriac Yōḏ ܚ, and Arabic ي (in abjadi order, 28th in modern order).
Yosef Garfinkel (hebrew: יוסף גרפינקל; born 1956) is a professor of Prehistoric Archaeology and of Archaeology of the Biblical Period at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
Zayin (also spelled zain or zayn or simply zay) is the seventh letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Zayin, Hebrew 'Zayin, Yiddish Zoyen, Aramaic Zain, Syriac Zayn ܙ, and Arabic Zayn or Zāy ز. It represents the sound.
Zionism (צִיּוֹנוּת Tsiyyonut after Zion) is the national movement of the Jewish people that supports the re-establishment of a Jewish homeland in the territory defined as the historic Land of Israel (roughly corresponding to Canaan, the Holy Land, or the region of Palestine).
The 1990s Post-Soviet aliyah began en masse in late 1980s when the government of Mikhail Gorbachev opened the borders of the USSR and allowed Jews to leave the country for Israel.
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