195 relations: Advance-fee scam, Alice and Bob, Android (operating system), Anonymous remailer, Anti-spam techniques, AOL Mail, ARPANET, ASCII, Axigen, Base64, Biff, Blind carbon copy, Block quotation, Bounce message, Bracket, Bynari, CAN-SPAM Act of 2003, Carbon copy, Catch-all, Character encoding, Characters per line, Client (computing), Comparison of email clients, Comparison of webmail providers, Computer, Computer network, Computer virus, Computer worm, Conference call, Corporation, Corpus of Contemporary American English, Cryptography, Dark Mail Alliance, Disposable email address, Domain name, Domain Name System, E-card, Electric guitar, Electric piano, Electronic mailing list, Email address, Email art, Email authentication, Email bomb, Email box, Email client, Email digest, Email encryption, Email hosting service, Email spam, ..., Email spoofing, Email storm, Email tracking, End-to-end principle, Etiquette in technology, Extended SMTP, Facebook, Fax, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Field (computer science), File hosting service, Filename extension, Flaming (Internet), Font, Fully qualified domain name, Gmail, GNU Privacy Guard, Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile, GroupWise, Harvard University, Header (computing), HP OpenMail, HTML email, IBM, IBM Notes, Indiana University, Information overload, Information technology, Instant messaging, International email, Internet, Internet access, Internet Assigned Numbers Authority, Internet Engineering Task Force, Internet fax, Internet Mail Consortium, Internet mail standard, Internet Message Access Protocol, Italic type, John Klensin, Kerio Technologies, Kontact, Lawrence Lessig, List of email scams, List of email subject abbreviations, Long-distance calling, Mail, Mail (Apple), Mail delivery agent, Maildir, Mailing list, Malware, MAPI, Mbox, MCI Mail, Media type, Message submission agent, Message transfer agent, Message-ID, Microsoft, Microsoft Exchange Server, Microsoft Outlook, Microsoft Word, MIME, Mobile app, Mozilla Thunderbird, Mutt (email client), MX record, Name server, Nuclear weapon, O'Reilly Media, Online and offline, Open mail relay, Opera Mail, Opt-in email, Outlook Express, Outlook.com, Oxford University Press, PDF, Peer-to-peer, Personal computer, Phishing, Phonograph record, Plain text, Post Office Protocol, Posting style, Pretty Good Privacy, Privacy-Enhanced Mail, Productivity, Proprietary software, Push email, Quoted-printable, Real-time computing, Request for Comments, Rich Text Format, RSS, S/MIME, Scalix, Sender Policy Framework, Sendmail, Server (computing), Signature block, Simple Authentication and Security Layer, Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, Smartphone, Social engineering (security), Social media, Social norm, Software portability, Spelling, Still camera, Store and forward, Style guide, Telegraphy, Telephone call, Telex, Text messaging, The Atlantic, The New York Times, Thermonuclear weapon, Time-sharing, Tor (anonymity network), Transport Layer Security, Trojan horse (computing), Underline, Unicode, Unicode and email, Uniform Resource Identifier, Usenet quoting, User (computing), User agent, UTF-8, Videocassette recorder, Virtual private network, Vouch by Reference, Web beacon, Web browser, Webmail, X-Originating-IP, X.400, Yahoo! Mail, Yerkish, Zarafa (software), Zimbra, 8-bit clean. Expand index (145 more) » « Shrink index
An advance-fee scam is a form of fraud and one of the most common types of confidence trick.
Alice and Bob are fictional characters commonly used as placeholder names in cryptology, as well as science and engineering literature.
Android is a mobile operating system developed by Google, based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open source software and designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets.
An anonymous remailer is a server that receives messages with embedded instructions on where to send them next, and that forwards them without revealing where they originally came from.
Various anti-spam techniques are used to prevent email spam (unsolicited bulk email).
AOL Mail (stylized as Aol Mail) is a free web-based email service provided by AOL, a division of Verizon Communications.
The Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) was an early packet switching network and the first network to implement the protocol suite TCP/IP.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
Axigen, marketed as AXIGEN, is a mail server with groupware and collaboration functionalities.
Base64 is a group of similar binary-to-text encoding schemes that represent binary data in an ASCII string format by translating it into a radix-64 representation.
biff is a mail notification system for UNIX.
Blind carbon copy (abbreviated Bcc) allows the sender of a message to conceal the person entered in the Bcc: field from the other recipients.
A block quotation (also known as a long quotation or extract) is a quotation in a written document that is set off from the main text as a paragraph, or block of text, and typically distinguished visually using indentation and a different typeface or smaller size font.
A bounce message or just "bounce" is an automated message from a mail system, informing the sender of a previous message that that message had not been delivered (or some other delivery problem occurred).
A bracket is a tall punctuation mark typically used in matched pairs within text, to set apart or interject other text.
Bynari is a company based in Dallas, developing server and email software mainly known for its Insight Family containing a cheap email server being able to use similar to a Microsoft Exchange Server with Outlook.
The Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography And Marketing (CAN-SPAM) Act of 2003, signed into law by President George W. Bush on December 16, 2003, established the United States' first national standards for the sending of commercial e-mail and requires the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to enforce its provisions.
In the past, a carbon copy was the under-copy of a document created when carbon paper was placed between the original and the under-copy during the production of a document.
In common use, a catchall or catch-all is a general term, or metaphoric dumping group, for a variety of similar words or meanings.
Character encoding is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of encoding system.
In typography and computing characters per line (CPL) or terminal width refers to the maximal number of monospaced characters that may appear on a single line.
A client is a piece of computer hardware or software that accesses a service made available by a server.
The following tables compare general and technical features of a number of notable email client programs.
The following tables compare general and technical information for a number of notable webmail providers who offer a web interface in English.
A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.
A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.
A computer virus is a type of malicious software program ("malware") that, when executed, replicates itself by modifying other computer programs and inserting its own code.
A computer worm is a standalone malware computer program that replicates itself in order to spread to other computers.
A conference call is a telephone call in which someone talks to several people at the same time.
A corporation is a company or group of people or an organisation authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law.
The Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA) is 450-million-word corpus of American English.
Cryptography or cryptology (from κρυπτός|translit.
The Dark Mail Alliance is an organization dedicated to creating an email protocol and architecture with end-to-end encryption.
Disposable email addressing (DEA) refers to an approach where a unique email address is used for every contact or entity.
A domain name is an identification string that defines a realm of administrative autonomy, authority or control within the Internet.
The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical decentralized naming system for computers, services, or other resources connected to the Internet or a private network.
An E-card is similar to a postcard or greeting card, with the primary difference being that it is created using digital media instead of paper or other traditional materials.
An electric guitar is a guitar that uses one or more pickups to convert the vibration of its strings into electrical signals.
An electric piano is an electric musical instrument which produces sounds when a performer presses the keys of the piano-style musical keyboard.
An electronic mailing list or email list is a special use of email that allows for widespread distribution of information to many Internet users.
An email address identifies an email box to which email messages are delivered.
Email art refers to artistic communication using the medium of email.
Email authentication, or validation, is a collection of techniques aimed at equipping messages of the email transport system with verifiable information about their origin.
In Internet usage, an email bomb is a form of net abuse consisting of sending huge volumes of email to an address in an attempt to overflow the mailbox or overwhelm the server where the email address is hosted in a denial-of-service attack.
An email box (also email mailbox, e-mailbox) is the destination to which electronic mail messages are delivered.
In Internet, an email client, email reader or more formally mail user agent (MUA) is a computer program in the category of groupware environments used to access and manage a user's email.
An email digest is an email that is automatically generated by an electronic mailing list and which combines all exchanged emails during a time period (e.g. day, week, month, etc.) or when a volume limit is reached (e.g. every 10 or 100 messages) into one single message.
Email encryption is encryption of email messages to protect the content from being read by other entities than the intended recipients.
An email hosting service is an Internet hosting service that operates email servers.
Email spam, also known as junk email, is a type of electronic spam where unsolicited messages are sent by email.
Email spoofing is the creation of email messages with a forged sender address.
An email storm (also called a Reply Allpocalypse) is a sudden spike of Reply All messages on an email distribution list, usually caused by a controversial or misdirected message.
Email tracking is a method for monitoring the email delivery to the intended recipient.
The end-to-end principle is a design framework in computer networking.
Online etiquette is ingrained into culture, although etiquette in technology is a fairly recent concept.
Extended SMTP (ESMTP), sometimes referred to as Enhanced SMTP, is a definition of protocol extensions to the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol standard.
Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service company based in Menlo Park, California.
Fax (short for facsimile), sometimes called telecopying or telefax (the latter short for telefacsimile), is the telephonic transmission of scanned printed material (both text and images), normally to a telephone number connected to a printer or other output device.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.
In computer science, data that has several parts, known as a record, can be divided into fields.
A file hosting service, cloud storage service, online file storage provider, or cyberlocker is an Internet hosting service specifically designed to host user files.
A filename extension is an identifier specified as a suffix to the name of a computer file.
Flaming is a hostile and insulting interaction between persons over the Internet, often involving the use of profanity.
In metal typesetting, a font was a particular size, weight and style of a typeface.
A fully qualified domain name (FQDN), sometimes also referred to as an absolute domain name,RFC 1035, Domain names: implementation and specification is a domain name that specifies its exact location in the tree hierarchy of the Domain Name System (DNS).
Gmail is a free, advertising-supported email service developed by Google.
GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPG or GPG) is a free software replacement for Symantec's PGP cryptographic software suite.
The Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile (GOSIP) was a specification that profiles open networking products for procurement by governments in the late 1980s and early 1990s.
GroupWise is a messaging and collaboration platform from Micro Focus that supports email, calendaring, personal information management, instant messaging, and document management.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
In information technology, header refers to supplemental data placed at the beginning of a block of data being stored or transmitted.
OpenMail (also known as HP OpenMail) was an enterprise email messaging and collaboration product from Hewlett-Packard.
HTML email is the use of a subset of HTML to provide formatting and semantic markup capabilities in email that are not available with plain text: Text can be linked without displaying a URL, or breaking long URLs into multiple pieces.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
IBM Notes (formerly Lotus Notes; see branding, below) and IBM Domino (formerly Lotus Domino) are the client and server, respectively, of a collaborative client-server software platform sold by IBM.
Indiana University (IU) is a multi-campus public university system in the state of Indiana, United States.
Information overload (also known as infobesity or infoxication) is a term used to describe the difficulty of understanding an issue and effectively making decisions when one has too much information about that issue.
Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.
Instant messaging (IM) technology is a type of online chat that offers real-time text transmission over the Internet.
International email (IDN email or Intl email) is email that contains international characters (characters which do not exist in the ASCII character set), encoded as UTF-8, in the email header and in supporting mail transfer protocols.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
Internet access is the ability of individuals and organizations to connect to the Internet using computer terminals, computers, and other devices; and to access services such as email and the World Wide Web.
The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is a function of ICANN, a nonprofit private American corporation that oversees global IP address allocation, autonomous system number allocation, root zone management in the Domain Name System (DNS), media types, and other Internet Protocol-related symbols and Internet numbers.
The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) develops and promotes voluntary Internet standards, in particular the standards that comprise the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP).
Internet fax, e-fax, or online fax is the use of the internet and internet protocols to send a fax (facsimile), rather than using a standard telephone connection and a fax machine.
The Internet Mail Consortium (IMC) was an organization that claimed to be the only international organization focused on cooperatively managing and promoting the rapidly expanding world of electronic mail on the Internet.
Internet e-mail functions through the use of Internet standards.
In computing, the Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) is an Internet standard protocol used by email clients to retrieve email messages from a mail server over a TCP/IP connection.
In typography, italic type is a cursive font based on a stylized form of calligraphic handwriting.
John C. Klensin is a political scientist and computer science professional who is active in Internet-related issues.
Kerio Technologies, Inc. is a technology company specializing in collaboration software and unified threat management for small and medium organizations.
Kontact is a personal information manager and groupware software suite developed by KDE.
Lester Lawrence "Larry" Lessig III (born June 3, 1961) is an American academic, attorney, and political activist.
Email scam is an unsolicited email that claims the prospect of a bargain or something for nothing.
This is a list of commonly and uncommonly used abbreviations which are used in the subject of an English email header.
In telecommunications, a long-distance call or trunk call is a telephone call made to a location outside a defined local calling area.
The mail or post is a system for physically transporting postcards, letters, and parcels.
Mail (also known as Apple Mail or Mail.app) is an email client included with the operating systems macOS, iOS and watchOS by Apple Inc. Originally developed by NeXT as NeXTMail, a part of their NeXTSTEP operating system, it eventually became Mail after Apple's acquisition of NeXT.
A mail delivery agent or message delivery agent (MDA) is a computer software component that is responsible for the delivery of e-mail messages to a local recipient's mailbox.
The Maildir e-mail format is a common way of storing e-mail messages, where each message is kept in a separate file with a unique name, and each folder is a directory.
A mailing list is a collection of names and addresses used by an individual or an organization to send material to multiple recipients.
Malware (a portmanteau for malicious software) is any software intentionally designed to cause damage to a computer, server or computer network.
Messaging Application Programming Interface (MAPI) is a messaging architecture and a Component Object Model based API for Microsoft Windows.
Mbox is a generic term for a family of related file formats used for holding collections of email messages, first implemented for Fifth Edition Unix.
MCI Mail was a commercial email service that was operated by MCI Communications Corp. from 1983 to 2003.
A media type (formerly known as MIME type) is a two-part identifier for file formats and format contents transmitted on the Internet.
A message submission agent (MSA) or mail submission agent is a computer program or software agent that receives electronic mail messages from a mail user agent (MUA) and cooperates with a mail transfer agent (MTA) for delivery of the mail.
Within Internet message handling services (MHS), a message transfer agent or mail transfer agent (MTA) or mail relay is software that transfers electronic mail messages from one computer to another using a client–server application architecture.
Message-ID is a unique identifier for a digital message, most commonly a globally unique identifier used in email and Usenet newsgroups.
Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.
Microsoft Exchange Server is a mail server and calendaring server developed by Microsoft.
Microsoft Outlook is a personal information manager from Microsoft, available as a part of the Microsoft Office suite.
Microsoft Word (or simply Word) is a word processor developed by Microsoft.
Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) is an Internet standard that extends the format of email to support.
A mobile app is a computer program designed to run on a mobile device such as a phone/tablet or watch.
Mozilla Thunderbird is a free and open-source cross-platform email client, news client, RSS and chat client developed by the Mozilla Foundation.
Mutt is a text-based email client for Unix-like systems.
A mail exchanger record (MX record) is a type of certified and verified resource record in the Domain Name System that specifies a mail server responsible for accepting email messages on behalf of a recipient's domain, and a preference value used to prioritize mail delivery if multiple mail servers are available.
A name server is a computer application that implements a network service for providing responses to queries against a directory service.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
O'Reilly Media (formerly O'Reilly & Associates) is an American media company established by Tim O'Reilly that publishes books and Web sites and produces conferences on computer technology topics.
In computer technology and telecommunications, online indicates a state of connectivity, and offline indicates a disconnected state.
An open mail relay is an SMTP server configured in such a way that it allows anyone on the Internet to send e-mail through it, not just mail destined to or originating from known users.
Opera Mail (formerly known as M2) is the email and news client developed by Opera Software.
Opt-in email is a term used when someone is given the option to receive email.
Outlook Express, formerly known as Microsoft Internet Mail and News, is a discontinued email and news client included with Internet Explorer versions 3.0 through to 6.0.
Outlook.com is a web-based suite of webmail, contacts, tasks, and calendaring services from Microsoft.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
Peer-to-peer (P2P) computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers.
A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.
Phishing is the fraudulent attempt to obtain sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details (and money), often for malicious reasons, by disguising as a trustworthy entity in an electronic communication.
A phonograph record (also known as a gramophone record, especially in British English, or record) is an analog sound storage medium in the form of a flat disc with an inscribed, modulated spiral groove.
In computing, plain text is the data (e.g. file contents) that represent only characters of readable material but not its graphical representation nor other objects (images, etc.). It may also include a limited number of characters that control simple arrangement of text, such as line breaks or tabulation characters.
In computing, the Post Office Protocol (POP) is an application-layer Internet standard protocol used by e-mail clients to retrieve e-mail from a server in an Internet Protocol (IP) network.
When a message is replied to in e-mail, Internet forums, or Usenet, the original can often be included, or “quoted,” in a variety of different posting styles.
Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) is an encryption program that provides cryptographic privacy and authentication for data communication.
Privacy-Enhanced Mail (PEM) is a de facto file format for storing and sending cryptographic keys, certificates, and other data, based on a set of 1993 IETF standards defining "privacy-enhanced mail." While the original standards were never broadly adopted, and were supplanted by PGP and S/MIME, the textual encoding they defined became very popular.
Productivity describes various measures of the efficiency of production.
Proprietary software is non-free computer software for which the software's publisher or another person retains intellectual property rights—usually copyright of the source code, but sometimes patent rights.
Push email is an email system that provides an always-on capability, in which new email is actively transferred (pushed) as it arrives by the mail delivery agent (MDA) (commonly called mail server) to the mail user agent (MUA), also called the email client.
Quoted-Printable, or QP encoding, is an encoding using printable ASCII characters (alphanumeric and the equals sign.
In computer science, real-time computing (RTC), or reactive computing describes hardware and software systems subject to a "real-time constraint", for example from event to system response.
In information and communications technology, a Request for Comments (RFC) is a type of publication from the technology community.
) As an example, the following RTF code: is a document which would be rendered like this when read by a program that supports RTF: This is some bold text.
RSS (Rich Site Summary; originally RDF Site Summary; often called Really Simple Syndication) is a type of web feed which allows users to access updates to online content in a standardized, computer-readable format.
S/MIME (Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) is a standard for public key encryption and signing of MIME data.
Scalix is an e-mail and groupware server that runs on Linux, licensed under the Scalix Public License (SPL).
Sender Policy Framework (SPF) is an email validation protocol designed to detect and block email spoofing by providing a mechanism to allow receiving mail exchangers to verify that incoming mail from a domain comes from an IP Address authorized by that domain's administrators. The list of authorized sending hosts and IP addresses for a domain is published in the Domain Name System (DNS) records for that domain in the form of a specially formatted TXT record.
Sendmail is a general purpose internetwork email routing facility that supports many kinds of mail-transfer and delivery methods, including the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) used for email transport over the Internet.
In computing, a server is a computer program or a device that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients".
A signature block (often abbreviated as signature, sig block, sig file,.sig, dot sig, siggy, or just sig) is a block of text automatically appended at the bottom of an email message, Usenet article, or forum post.
Simple Authentication and Security Layer (SASL) is a framework for authentication and data security in Internet protocols.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is an Internet standard for electronic mail (email) transmission.
A smartphone is a handheld personal computer with a mobile operating system and an integrated mobile broadband cellular network connection for voice, SMS, and Internet data communication; most, if not all, smartphones also support Wi-Fi.
Social engineering, in the context of information security, refers to psychological manipulation of people into performing actions or divulging confidential information.
Social media are computer-mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, career interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks.
From a sociological perspective, social norms are informal understandings that govern the behavior of members of a society.
Portability in high-level computer programming is the usability of the same software in different environments.
Spelling is the combination of alphabetic letters to form a written word.
A still camera is a type of camera used to take photographs.
Store and forward is a telecommunications technique in which information is sent to an intermediate station where it is kept and sent at a later time to the final destination or to another intermediate station.
A style guide (or manual of style) is a set of standards for the writing and design of documents, either for general use or for a specific publication, organization, or field.
Telegraphy (from Greek: τῆλε têle, "at a distance" and γράφειν gráphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message.
A telephone call is a connection over a telephone network between the called party and the calling party.
The telex network was a public switched network of teleprinters similar to a telephone network, for the purposes of sending text-based messages.
Text messaging, or texting, is the act of composing and sending electronic messages, typically consisting of alphabetic and numeric characters, between two or more users of mobile phones, tablets, desktops/laptops, or other devices.
The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction.
In computing, time-sharing is the sharing of a computing resource among many users by means of multiprogramming and multi-tasking at the same time.
Tor is free software for enabling anonymous communication.
Transport Layer Security (TLS) – and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), which is now deprecated by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) – are cryptographic protocols that provide communications security over a computer network.
In computing, a Trojan horse, or Trojan, is any malicious computer program which misleads users of its true intent.
An underline, also called an underscore, is a more or less horizontal line immediately below a portion of writing.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
Many email clients now offer some support for Unicode.
A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a string of characters designed for unambiguous identification of resources and extensibility via the URI scheme.
When Usenet and e-mail users respond to a message, they often want to include some context for the discussion.
A user is a person who utilizes a computer or network service.
In computing, a user agent is software (a software agent) that is acting on behalf of a user.
UTF-8 is a variable width character encoding capable of encoding all 1,112,064 valid code points in Unicode using one to four 8-bit bytes.
A videocassette recorder, VCR, or video recorder is an electromechanical device that records analog audio and analog video from broadcast television or other source on a removable, magnetic tape videocassette, and can play back the recording.
A virtual private network (VPN) extends a private network across a public network, and enables users to send and receive data across shared or public networks as if their computing devices were directly connected to the private network.
Vouch by Reference (VBR) is a protocol used in Internet mail systems for implementing sender certification by third-party entities.
A web beacon or web bug is one of various techniques used on web pages or email, to unobtrusively (usually invisibly) allow checking that a user has accessed some content.
A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web.
Webmail (or web-based email) is any email client implemented as a web application running on a web server.
The X-Originating-IP (not to be confused with X-Forwarded-For) email header field is a de facto standard for identifying the originating IP address of a client connecting to a mail service's HTTP frontend.
X.400 is a suite of ITU-T Recommendations that define standards for Data Communication Networks for Message Handling Systems (MHS) — more commonly known as email.
Yahoo! Mail is an e-mail service launched in 1997 through the American parent company Yahoo.
Yerkish is an artificial language developed for use by non-human primates.
Zarafa, an open-source groupware application, originated in the city of Delft in the Netherlands.
Zimbra Collaboration Suite (ZCS) is a collaborative software suite, that includes an email server and web client.
8-bit clean describes a computer system that correctly handles 8-bit character encodings, such as the ISO 8859 series and the UTF-8 encoding of Unicode.
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