235 relations: " (disambiguation), ' (disambiguation), 'Til Death, A Scanner Darkly, Academia Brasileira de Letras, Afrikaans, Alan Paton, Albanian language, Alexandre Dumas, American English, Amharic, Anna Karenina, Anthony Burgess, Apostrophe, Arabic, Arabic script, Armenian language, ASCII, Austria, Azerbaijani language, Ægypt, Basel, Basque language, Belarusian language, Belles-lettres, Bosnian language, Brazil, Brazilian Portuguese, British English, Bulgarian language, Canadian English, Catalan language, Central Europe, Character encoding, Charles Frazier, Chevron (insignia), Chinese language, CJK characters, Clipboard (computing), Code point, Cold Mountain (novel), Comma, Commission on the Filipino Language, Computer keyboard, Computer language, Control character, Croatian language, Cry, the Beloved Country, Cyrillic script, Czech language, ..., Danish language, Dansk Sprognævn, Dash, Dave Eggers, Decimal separator, Dialect, Didot (typeface), Direct speech, Ditto mark, Dutch language, Eastern Europe, El País, Em (typography), English language, Esperanto, Estonian language, European Union, Extended SMTP, Far East, Filipino language, Finland, Finnish language, Fir, French language, Galician language, Ge'ez script, Georgian language, German language, Germany, Gershayim, Grave accent, Greater-than sign, Greek alphabet, Greek language, Guillemet, Halfwidth and fullwidth forms, Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows, Hebrew language, Hindi, Hispanic America, Hong Kong, Horizontal and vertical writing in East Asian scripts, HUMO, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Hungarian language, Icelandic language, Indonesian language, Interlingua, Irish language, Irony, Irvine Welsh, ISO/IEC 8859-1, Italian language, James Joyce, Japan, Japanese language, Japanese punctuation, John Crowley, Jyutping, Kazakh language, Khmer language, Korean language, L'Humanité, Lao language, Latvian language, Le Figaro, Leo Tolstoy, Les Échos (newspaper), Libération, Linux, Lisbon Academy of Sciences, Class of Letters, List of Japanese typographic symbols, List of language regulators, List of leaders of Kazakhstan, Lithuanian language, Lojban, M/F, Macau, Macedonian language, Macintosh, Mainland China, Maltese language, Manuscript, Markup language, Media type, Microsoft Windows, Mojibake, Mongolian language, Mongolian script, Moscow, Netherlands, Non-breaking space, North Korea, Norwegian language, Novel, Occitan language, OpenOffice.org, Operating system, Pashto, Persian language, Personal computer, Philip K. Dick, Pinyin, Plain text, Polish language, Polish Language Council, Portugal, Portuguese keyboard layout, Portuguese language, Portuguese-speaking African countries, Prime (symbol), Punctuation, Quotation, Quotation mark, Quotation marks in English, Roddy Doyle, Romance of the Three Kingdoms, Romanian keyboard layout, Romanian language, Romansh language, Royal Spanish Academy, Russian language, Scare quotes, Scottish Gaelic, Serbian Cyrillic alphabet, Serbian language, Serbo-Croatian, Simplified Chinese characters, Slovak language, Slovene language, Sorbian languages, South Korea, Space (punctuation), Spanish language, Standard Generalized Markup Language, Standard Tibetan, Style guide, Sweden, Swedish language, Swiss French, Swiss Italian, Swiss Standard German, Switzerland, Tai Lue language, Tai Nuea language, Taiwan, Terry Pratchett, TeX, Thai language, The Book of Dave, The King's English, The Three Musketeers, The Van (novel), Tigrinya language, Title (publishing), Traditional Chinese characters, Trainspotting (novel), Turkish language, Type case, Type color, Typeface, Typesetting, Typewriter, Typographic approximation, Ukrainian language, Underscore, Unicode, Unicode and email, Unicode character property, Unix, Usenet, Usenet quoting, Uyghur language, Uzbek language, Verdana, Vietnamese language, Welsh language, Western Europe, Whitespace character, Will Self, Windows code page, Windows-1252, Writing system, XML, You Shall Know Our Velocity. Expand index (185 more) » « Shrink index
" is the symbol for double quotation mark, a punctuation mark used in pairs in various writing systems to set off direct speech, a quotation, or a phrase.
The ' character has number 39 in ASCII and code U+0027 in Unicode.
’Til Death is an American sitcom which aired on the Fox network from September 7, 2006, to June 20, 2010.
A Scanner Darkly is a science fiction novel by American writer Philip K. Dick, published in 1977.
Academia Brasileira de Letras (ABL) (English: Brazilian Academy of Letters) is a Brazilian literary non-profit society established at the end of the 19th century by a group of 40 writers and poets inspired by the Académie Française.
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.
Alan Stewart Paton (11 January 1903 – 12 April 1988) was a South African author and anti-apartheid activist.
Albanian (shqip, or gjuha shqipe) is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch.
Alexandre Dumas (born Dumas Davy de la Pailleterie; 24 July 1802 – 5 December 1870), also known as Alexandre Dumas, père ("father"), was a French writer.
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
Amharic (or; Amharic: አማርኛ) is one of the Ethiopian Semitic languages, which are a subgrouping within the Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic languages.
Anna Karenina (p) is a novel by the Russian writer Leo Tolstoy, published in serial installments from 1873 to 1877 in the periodical The Russian Messenger. Tolstoy clashed with editor Mikhail Katkov over political issues that arose in the final installment (Tolstoy's negative views of Russian volunteers going to fight in Serbia); therefore, the novel's first complete appearance was in book form in 1878.
John Anthony Burgess Wilson, (25 February 1917 – 22 November 1993), who published under the name Anthony Burgess, was an English writer and composer.
The apostrophe ( ' or) character is a punctuation mark, and sometimes a diacritical mark, in languages that use the Latin alphabet and some other alphabets.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arabic script is the writing system used for writing Arabic and several other languages of Asia and Africa, such as Azerbaijani, Pashto, Persian, Kurdish, Lurish, Urdu, Mandinka, and others.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Azerbaijani or Azeri, also referred to as Azeri Turkic or Azeri Turkish, is a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Azerbaijanis, who are concentrated mainly in Transcaucasia and Iranian Azerbaijan (historic Azerbaijan).
Ægypt is a series of four novels written by American author John Crowley.
Basel (also Basle; Basel; Bâle; Basilea) is a city in northwestern Switzerland on the river Rhine.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.
Belles-lettres or belles lettres is a category of writing, originally meaning beautiful or fine writing.
The Bosnian language (bosanski / босански) is the standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian mainly used by Bosniaks.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Brazilian Portuguese (português do Brasil or português brasileiro) is a set of dialects of the Portuguese language used mostly in Brazil.
British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.
Canadian English (CanE, CE, en-CA) is the set of varieties of the English language native to Canada.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
Character encoding is used to represent a repertoire of characters by some kind of encoding system.
Charles Frazier (born November 4, 1950) is an American novelist.
A chevron (also spelled cheveron, especially in older documents) is a V-shaped mark, often inverted.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
In internationalization, CJK is a collective term for the Chinese, Japanese, and Korean languages, all of which include Chinese characters and derivatives (collectively, CJK characters) in their writing systems.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
The clipboard is a data buffer used for short-term data storage and/or data transfer between documents or applications used by cut, copy and paste operations and provided by the operating system.
In character encoding terminology, a code point or code position is any of the numerical values that make up the code space.
Cold Mountain is a 1997 historical novel by Charles Frazier which won the U.S. National Book Award for Fiction.
The comma is a punctuation mark that appears in several variants in different languages.
The Commission on the Filipino Language (Komisyon sa Wikang Filipino; Komisyon sa Panghambal nga Filipino; Komisyon sa Pinulongang Filipino; Komisyon na Salitan Filipino; Komisyun king Amanung Filipinu; Komision iti Pagsasao a Filipino; Komisyon sa Tataramon na Filipino; Komisyon ha Yinaknan nga Filipino) is the official regulating body of the Filipino language and the official government institution tasked with developing, preserving, and promoting the various local Philippine languages.
In computing, a computer keyboard is a typewriter-style device which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches.
A computer language is a method of communication with a computer.
In computing and telecommunication, a control character or non-printing character is a code point (a number) in a character set, that does not represent a written symbol.
Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries.
Cry, the Beloved Country is a novel by Alan Paton, published in 1948.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
Dansk Sprognævn ("Danish Language Council") is the official regulatory body of the Danish language as a part of the Danish Ministry of Culture, and resides at the University of Copenhagen.
The dash is a punctuation mark that is similar in appearance to and, but differs from these symbols in both length and height.
Dave Eggers (born March 12, 1970) is an American writer, editor, and publisher.
A decimal separator is a symbol used to separate the integer part from the fractional part of a number written in decimal form.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
Didot is a group of typefaces named after the famous French printing and type producing Didot family.
Direct or quoted speech is spoken or written text that reports speech or thought in its original form phrased by the original speaker; in narrative, it is usually enclosed in quotation marks.
The ditto mark (”) is a typographic symbol indicating that the word(s) or figure(s) above it are to be repeated.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
El País (literally The Country) is the most read newspaper (231,140 printed copies) in Spain and the most circulated daily newspaper (180,765 circulation average), according to data certified by the Office of Justification of Dissemination (OJD) and referring to the period of January 2017 to December 2017.
An em is a unit in the field of typography, equal to the currently specified point size.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Esperanto (or; Esperanto) is a constructed international auxiliary language.
Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Extended SMTP (ESMTP), sometimes referred to as Enhanced SMTP, is a definition of protocol extensions to the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol standard.
The Far East is a geographical term in English that usually refers to East Asia (including Northeast Asia), the Russian Far East (part of North Asia), and Southeast Asia.
Filipino (Wikang Filipino), in this usage, refers to the national language (Wikang pambansa/Pambansang wika) of the Philippines.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
Firs (Abies) are a genus of 48–56 species of evergreen coniferous trees in the family Pinaceae.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Galician (galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.
Ge'ez (Ge'ez: ግዕዝ), also known as Ethiopic, is a script used as an abugida (alphasyllabary) for several languages of Ethiopia and Eritrea.
Georgian (ქართული ენა, translit.) is a Kartvelian language spoken by Georgians.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Gershayim (גֵּרְשַׁיִם, without niqqud), also occasionally grashayim.
The grave accent (`) is a diacritical mark in many written languages, including Breton, Catalan, Corsican, Dutch, Emilian-Romagnol, French, West Frisian, Greek (until 1982; see polytonic orthography), Haitian Creole, Italian, Mohawk, Occitan, Portuguese, Ligurian, Scottish Gaelic, Vietnamese, Welsh, Romansh, and Yoruba.
The greater-than sign is a mathematical symbol that denotes an inequality between two values.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Guillemets, or angle quotes, are a pair of punctuation marks in the form of sideways double chevrons (« and »), used instead of quotation marks in a number of languages.
In CJK (Chinese, Japanese and Korean) computing, graphic characters are traditionally classed into fullwidth (in Taiwan and Hong Kong: 全形; in CJK: 全角) and halfwidth (in Taiwan and Hong Kong: 半形; in CJK: 半角) characters.
Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows is a fantasy book written by British author J. K. Rowling and the seventh and final novel of the Harry Potter series.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hispanic America (Spanish: Hispanoamérica, or América hispana), also known as Spanish America (Spanish: América española), is the region comprising the Spanish-speaking nations in the Americas.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Many East Asian scripts can be written horizontally or vertically.
HUMO is a popular Dutch-language Belgian weekly radio and television supermarket tabloid.
The Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Magyar Tudományos Akadémia (MTA)) is the most important and prestigious learned society of Hungary.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.
Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia.
Interlingua (ISO 639 language codes ia, ina) is an Italic international auxiliary language (IAL), developed between 1937 and 1951 by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA).
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
Irony, in its broadest sense, is a rhetorical device, literary technique, or event in which what appears, on the surface, to be the case, differs radically from what is actually the case.
Irvine Welsh (born 27 September 1958) is a Scottish novelist, playwright and short story writer.
ISO/IEC 8859-1:1998, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 1: Latin alphabet No.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 – 13 January 1941) was an Irish novelist, short story writer, and poet.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
includes various written marks (besides characters and numbers), which differ from those found in European languages, as well as some not used in formal Japanese writing but frequently found in more casual writing, such as exclamation and question marks.
John Crowley (born December 1, 1942) is an American author of fantasy, science fiction and mainstream fiction.
Jyutping is a romanisation system for Cantonese developed by the Linguistic Society of Hong Kong (LSHK), an academic group, in 1993.
Kazakh (natively italic, qazaq tili) belongs to the Kipchak branch of the Turkic languages.
Khmer or Cambodian (natively ភាសាខ្មែរ phiəsaa khmae, or more formally ខេមរភាសា kheemaʾraʾ phiəsaa) is the language of the Khmer people and the official language of Cambodia.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
L'Humanité ("Humanity"), is a French daily newspaper.
Lao, sometimes referred to as Laotian (ລາວ 'Lao' or ພາສາລາວ 'Lao language') is a tonal language of the Kra–Dai language family.
Latvian (latviešu valoda) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
Le Figaro is a French daily morning newspaper founded in 1826 and published in Paris.
Count Lyov (also Lev) Nikolayevich Tolstoy (also Лев) Николаевич ТолстойIn Tolstoy's day, his name was written Левъ Николаевичъ Толстой.
Les Échos is the first daily French financial newspaper, edited in Paris since 1908.
Libération (popularly known as Libé), is a daily newspaper in France, founded in Paris by Jean-Paul Sartre and Serge July in 1973 in the wake of the protest movements of May 1968.
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.
The Class of Letters (Portuguese: Classe de Letras) of the Lisbon Academy of Sciences holds an official consultative role on the Portuguese language in Portugal.
This page lists Japanese typographic symbols that are not included in kana or kanji.
This is a list of bodies that regulate standard languages, often called language academies.
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
Lojban (pronounced) is a constructed, syntactically unambiguous human language, succeeding the Loglan project.
M/F is a 1971 novel by the English author Anthony Burgess.
Macau, officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Macedonian (македонски, tr. makedonski) is a South Slavic language spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in the Republic of Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia.
The Macintosh (pronounced as; branded as Mac since 1998) is a family of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984.
Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Maltese (Malti) is the national language of Malta and a co-official language of the country alongside English, while also serving as an official language of the European Union, the only Semitic language so distinguished.
A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) was, traditionally, any document written by hand -- or, once practical typewriters became available, typewritten -- as opposed to being mechanically printed or reproduced in some indirect or automated way.
In computer text processing, a markup language is a system for annotating a document in a way that is syntactically distinguishable from the text.
A media type (formerly known as MIME type) is a two-part identifier for file formats and format contents transmitted on the Internet.
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.
Mojibake (文字化け) is the garbled text that is the result of text being decoded using an unintended character encoding.
The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script: Moŋɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: монгол хэл, mongol khel.) is the official language of Mongolia and both the most widely-spoken and best-known member of the Mongolic language family.
The classical or traditional Mongolian script (in Mongolian script: Mongγol bičig; in Mongolian Cyrillic: Монгол бичиг Mongol bichig), also known as Hudum Mongol bichig, was the first writing system created specifically for the Mongolian language, and was the most successful until the introduction of Cyrillic in 1946.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
In word processing and digital typesetting, a non-breaking space (" "), also called no-break space, non-breakable space (NBSP), hard space, or fixed space, is a space character that prevents an automatic line break at its position.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
A novel is a relatively long work of narrative fiction, normally in prose, which is typically published as a book.
Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
OpenOffice.org (OOo), commonly known as OpenOffice, is a discontinued open-source office suite.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
Pashto (پښتو Pax̌tō), sometimes spelled Pukhto, is the language of the Pashtuns.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
A personal computer (PC) is a multi-purpose computer whose size, capabilities, and price make it feasible for individual use.
Philip Kindred Dick (December 16, 1928 – March 2, 1982) was an American writer known for his work in science fiction.
Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
In computing, plain text is the data (e.g. file contents) that represent only characters of readable material but not its graphical representation nor other objects (images, etc.). It may also include a limited number of characters that control simple arrangement of text, such as line breaks or tabulation characters.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
The Polish Language Council (Polish: Rada Języka Polskiego) is the official language regulating organ of the Polish language.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
There are two QWERTY-based keyboard layouts used for the Portuguese language.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
The Portuguese-speaking African countries (also referred to as Lusophone Africa) consist of six African countries in which the Portuguese language is an official language: Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, São Tomé and Príncipe and, since 2011, Equatorial Guinea.
The prime symbol (′), double prime symbol (&Prime), triple prime symbol (‴), quadruple prime symbol (⁗) etc., are used to designate units and for other purposes in mathematics, the sciences, linguistics and music.
Punctuation (formerly sometimes called pointing) is the use of spacing, conventional signs, and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and correct reading of handwritten and printed text, whether read silently or aloud.
A quotation is the repetition of one expression as part of another one, particularly when the quoted expression is well-known or explicitly attributed by citation to its original source, and it is indicated by (punctuated with) quotation marks.
Quotation marks, also called quotes, quote marks, quotemarks, speech marks, inverted commas or talking marks, are punctuation marks used in pairs in various writing systems to set off direct speech, a quotation, or a phrase.
In English writing, quotation marks or inverted commas, also known informally as quotes, speech marks, quote marks, quotemarks or speechmarks, are punctuation marks placed on either side of a word or phrase in order to identify it as a quotation, direct speech or a literal title or name.
Roddy Doyle (born 8 May 1958) is an Irish novelist, dramatist and screenwriter.
Romance of the Three Kingdoms is a 14th-century historical novel attributed to Luo Guanzhong.
The current Romanian National Standard SR 13392:2004 establishes two layouts for Romanian keyboards: a "primary" one and a "secondary" one.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
Romansh (also spelled Romansch, Rumantsch, or Romanche; Romansh:, rumàntsch, or) is a Romance language spoken predominantly in the southeastern Swiss canton of Grisons (Graubünden), where it has official status alongside German and Italian.
The Royal Spanish Academy (Spanish: Real Academia Española, generally abbreviated as RAE) is Spain's official royal institution with a mission to ensure the stability of the Spanish language.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Scare quotes (also called shudder quotes,Pinker, Steven. The Sense of Style: The Thinking Person's Guide to Writing in the 21st Century. Penguin (2014) sneer quotes, and quibble marks) are quotation marks a writer places around a word or phrase to signal that they are using it in a non-standard, ironic, or otherwise special sense.
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.
The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet (српска ћирилица/srpska ćirilica, pronounced) is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script for the Serbian language, developed in 1818 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić.
Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.
Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.
The Sorbian languages (Serbska rěč, Serbska rěc) are two closely related, but only partially mutually intelligible, West Slavic languages spoken by the Sorbs, a West Slavic minority in the Lusatia region of eastern Germany.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
In writing, a space ( ) is a blank area that separates words, sentences, syllables (in syllabification) and other written or printed glyphs (characters).
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML; ISO 8879:1986) is a standard for defining generalized markup languages for documents.
Standard Tibetan is the most widely spoken form of the Tibetic languages.
A style guide (or manual of style) is a set of standards for the writing and design of documents, either for general use or for a specific publication, organization, or field.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Swiss French (français de Suisse) is the variety of French spoken in the French-speaking area of Switzerland known as Romandy.
Italian language in Switzerland or Swiss Italian (svizzero italiano) is the name used for the variety of the Italian language spoken in the Italian-speaking area of Switzerland.
Swiss Standard German (Schweizer Standarddeutsch), or Swiss High German (Schweizer Hochdeutsch or Schweizerhochdeutsch), referred to by the Swiss as Schriftdeutsch, or Hochdeutsch, is the written form of one of four official languages in Switzerland, besides French, Italian and Romansh.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Tai Lue (Tai Lü:, kam tai lue) or Tai Lɯ, Tai Lü, Thai Lue, Tai Le, Xishuangbanna Dai (ภาษาไทลื้อ, phasa thai lue,; Lự or Lữ) is a Tai language of the Lu people, spoken by about 700,000 people in Southeast Asia.
Tai Nuea (Tai Nüa) (also called Tai Nɯa, Tai Nüa, Dehong Dai, or Chinese Shan; own name: Tai2 Lə6, which means "upper Tai" or "northern Tai", or; Chinese: Dǎinàyǔ 傣那语 or Déhóng Dǎiyǔ 德宏傣语; ภาษาไทเหนือ, or ภาษาไทใต้คง) is one of the languages spoken by the Dai people in China, especially in the Dehong Dai and Jingpo Autonomous Prefecture in the southwest of Yunnan province.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Sir Terence David John Pratchett (28 April 1948 – 12 March 2015) was an English author of fantasy novels, especially comical works.
TeX (see below), stylized within the system as TeX, is a typesetting system (or "formatting system") designed and mostly written by Donald Knuth and released in 1978.
Thai, Central Thai, or Siamese, is the national and official language of Thailand and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority Thai of Chinese origin.
The Book of Dave is a 2006 novel by English author Will Self.
The King's English is a book on English usage and grammar.
The Three Musketeers (Les Trois Mousquetaires) is a historical adventure novel written in 1844 by French author Alexandre Dumas.
The Van is a 1991 novel by Roddy Doyle and the third novel in The Barrytown Trilogy.
Tigrinya (often written as Tigrigna) is an Afroasiatic language of the Semitic branch.
The title of a book, or any other published text or work of art, is a name for the work which is usually chosen by the author.
Traditional Chinese characters (Pinyin) are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946.
Trainspotting is the first novel by Scottish writer Irvine Welsh, first published in 1993.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
A type case is a compartmentalized wooden box used to store movable type used in letterpress printing.
Type color is an element of typography that describes how dense or heavy the text appears on the page.
In typography, a typeface (also known as font family) is a set of one or more fonts each composed of glyphs that share common design features.
Typesetting is the composition of text by means of arranging physical typesDictionary.com Unabridged.
A typewriter is a mechanical or electromechanical machine for writing characters similar to those produced by printer's movable type.
For a printed medium (such as paper), a typographic approximation is a replacement (approximation) of some element of the writing system (usually, a glyph) with some else glyph(s), such as a nearly homographic character, digraph or character string.
The symbol underscore (_), also called underline, low line or low dash, is a character that originally appeared on the typewriter and was primarily used to underline words.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
Many email clients now offer some support for Unicode.
The Unicode Standard assigns character properties to each code point.
Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.
Usenet is a worldwide distributed discussion system available on computers.
When Usenet and e-mail users respond to a message, they often want to include some context for the discussion.
The Uyghur or Uighur language (Уйғур тили, Uyghur tili, Uyƣur tili or, Уйғурчә, Uyghurche, Uyƣurqə), formerly known as Eastern Turki, is a Turkic language with 10 to 25 million speakers, spoken primarily by the Uyghur people in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of Western China.
Uzbek is a Turkic language that is the sole official language of Uzbekistan.
Verdana is a humanist sans-serif typeface designed by Matthew Carter for Microsoft Corporation, with hand-hinting done by Thomas Rickner, then at Monotype.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
In computer programming, white space is any character or series of characters that represent horizontal or vertical space in typography.
William Woodard Self (born 26 September 1961) is an English novelist, journalist, political commentator and television personality.
Windows code pages are sets of characters or code pages (known as character encodings in other operating systems) used in Microsoft Windows from the 1980s and 1990s.
Windows-1252 or CP-1252 (code page 1252) is a 1 byte character encoding of the Latin alphabet, used by default in the legacy components of Microsoft Windows in English and some other Western languages (other languages use different default encodings).
A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.
In computing, Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable.
You Shall Know Our Velocity! is a 2002 novel by Dave Eggers.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
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