257 relations: Advocacy group, Alexander Hamilton, American Association for Justice, American Bar Association, American Civil War, American Samoa, American Samoa's at-large congressional district, Andrew Johnson, Anti-Administration party, Anti-Federalism, Appropriations bill (United States), Article Four of the United States Constitution, Article One of the United States Constitution, Articles of Confederation, Bicameralism, Bill Clinton, Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act, Bipartisanship, Breach of the peace, British colonization of the Americas, Cabinet of the United States, Capitol Hill, Caucuses of the United States Congress, Chairman, Change.org, Chris Cillizza, Civil Service Retirement System, Commerce Clause, Committee, Congress, Congress of the Confederation, Congress.gov, Congressional Baseball Game, Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974, Congressional district, Congressional oversight, Congressional Research Service, Connecticut Compromise, Conservative coalition, Constitutional amendment, Constitutional Convention (United States), Constitutionality, Contempt of Congress, Conviction, Copyright, Current members of the United States Senate, Defamation, Defendant, Democratic Party (United States), Demography, ..., Direct election, Dred Scott, Due process, Economics, Electoral College (United States), Electoral district, Enrolled bill, Equal Protection Clause, Ex officio member, Executive (government), Farm team, Federal Election Campaign Act, Federal Employees Retirement System, Federal government of the United States, Federal law, Federalism, Federalist No. 78, Federalist Party, Felony, Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, First Continental Congress, First Party System, Founding Fathers of the United States, Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Franking, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Freedom of speech, Gallup (company), George H. W. Bush, George W. Bush, George Will, Gerrymandering, Gilded Age, Government Accountability Office, Government debt, Governor (United States), Great Depression, Great Society, Guam, Guam's at-large congressional district, Harry S. Truman, Henry Clay, Henry Waxman, Hillary Clinton, History of the United States Republican Party, Household income in the United States, Impeachment, Impeachment in the United States, Implied powers, Inauguration of Donald Trump, Income tax, Incumbent, Independent politician, International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers, Jim Cooper, John Charles Thomas (judge), John F. Kennedy, Joseph Gurney Cannon, Joseph McCarthy, Judicial review, K Street (Washington, D.C.), Keynesian economics, Korean War, Lawrence Lessig, Lee H. Hamilton, Legislative session, Legislature, Library of Congress, Life tenure, List of current members of the United States House of Representatives, List of enacting clauses, List of federal agencies in the United States, List of United States Congresses, Lobbying, Lobbying in the United States, Lyndon B. Johnson, Marbury v. Madison, McCulloch v. Maryland, Mexican–American War, Michael Kinsley, Michael Schudson, Mike Pence, Military, National Archives and Records Administration, National Association of Realtors, Necessary and Proper Clause, Negative campaigning, New Deal, Non-voting members of the United States House of Representatives, Northern Mariana Islands, NSA warrantless surveillance (2001–2007), Opinion poll, Originalism, Orrin Hatch, Parliamentary immunity, Parliamentary privilege, Parliamentary procedure, Partisan (political), Party divisions of United States Congresses, Party leaders of the United States House of Representatives, Party leaders of the United States Senate, Paul Ryan, Perjury, Plame affair, Pocket veto, Polarization (politics), Police, Political action committee, Political science, Power of the purse, Preservation (library and archival science), President of the United States, President pro tempore, President pro tempore of the United States Senate, Presidents of the United States and control of Congress, Pro bono, Progressive Era, Proxy voting, Puerto Rico, Quorum, Radio and Television Correspondents' Association, Ranking member, Representation (politics), Republican Party (United States), Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico, Revenue, Richard Fenno, Richard Nixon, Ronald Reagan, Safe seat, Sanford Levinson, Second Continental Congress, Separation of powers, Separation of powers under the United States Constitution, Seventeenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Signing statement, Sixteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Spanish–American War, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives election, October 2015, Speech from the throne, Speech or Debate Clause, Standing Rules of the United States Senate, State of the Union, States' rights, Stephen Macedo, Subpoena, Suffrage, Summons, Supreme Court of the United States, Tennessee, Term limits in the United States, The Federalist Papers, The Wall Street Journal, Theodore Roosevelt, Third-party members of the United States House of Representatives, Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Thomas Brackett Reed, Thomas Jefferson, Time (magazine), Treason, Trial, Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Two-party system, U.S. state, Ulysses S. Grant, Unicameralism, Unitary executive theory, United States, United States Armed Forces, United States Capitol, United States Census, United States Congress Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction, United States congressional apportionment, United States congressional committee, United States congressional conference committee, United States congressional delegations from the Northern Mariana Islands, United States congressional hearing, United States congressional subcommittee, United States Constitution, United States Declaration of Independence, United States Government Publishing Office, United States House Committee on Rules, United States House Committee on the Judiciary, United States House of Representatives, United States House of Representatives elections, 2016, United States House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence, United States Senate, United States Senate Committee on Appropriations, United States Senate elections, 2016, United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence, United States Virgin Islands, United States Virgin Islands's at-large congressional district, Utah, Vice President of the United States, Voting methods in deliberative assemblies, War of 1812, War Powers Resolution, Washington, D.C., Watergate scandal, Whip (politics), White House, Woodrow Wilson, World War I, World War II, Wyoming, 115th United States Congress. 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Advocacy groups (also known as pressure groups, lobby groups, campaign groups, interest groups, or special interest groups) use various forms of advocacy in order to influence public opinion and/or policy.
Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757July 12, 1804) was a statesman and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
The American Association for Justice (AAJ), formerly the Association of Trial Lawyers of America (ATLA) is a nonprofit advocacy and lobbying organization for plaintiff's lawyers in the United States.
The American Bar Association (ABA), founded August 21, 1878, is a voluntary bar association of lawyers and law students, which is not specific to any jurisdiction in the United States.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
American Samoa (Amerika Sāmoa,; also Amelika Sāmoa or Sāmoa Amelika) is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of Samoa.
American Samoa's At-large Congressional District encompasses the entire U.S. territorial region of American Samoa.
Andrew Johnson (December 29, 1808 July 31, 1875) was the 17th President of the United States, serving from 1865 to 1869.
The Anti-Administration party (1789–1792) was an informal faction led by James Madison and Thomas Jefferson that opposed policies of then Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton in the first term (1789–1792) of President George Washington.
Anti-Federalism refers to a movement that opposed the creation of a stronger U.S. federal government and which later opposed the ratification of the 1787 Constitution.
An appropriations bill is legislation in the United States Congress to appropriate (set aside") federal funds to specific federal government departments, agencies, and programs.
Article Four of the United States Constitution outlines the relationship between each state and the others, and the several States and the federal government.
Article One of the United States Constitution establishes the legislative branch of the federal government, the United States Congress.
The Articles of Confederation, formally the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, was an agreement among the 13 original states of the United States of America that served as its first constitution.
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
The Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act of 2002 (BCRA, McCain–Feingold Act) is a United States federal law that amended the Federal Election Campaign Act of 1974, which regulates the financing of political campaigns.
Bipartisanship, sometimes referred to as nonpartisanship, is a political situation, especially in the context of a two-party system, as is the case for countries such as the United States and some other western countries, in which opposing political parties find common ground through compromise.
Breach of the peace, or disturbing the peace, is a legal term used in constitutional law in English-speaking countries, and in a wider public order sense in the several jurisdictions of the United Kingdom.
The British colonization of the Americas (including colonization by both the English and the Scots) began in 1607 in Jamestown, Virginia, and reached its peak when colonies had been established throughout the Americas.
The Cabinet of the United States is part of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States that normally acts as an advisory body to the President of the United States.
Capitol Hill, in addition to being a metonym for the United States Congress, is the largest historic residential neighborhood in Washington, D.C., stretching easterly in front of the United States Capitol along wide avenues.
A congressional caucus is a group of members of the United States Congress that meets to pursue common legislative objectives.
The chairman (also chairperson, chairwoman or chair) is the highest officer of an organized group such as a board, a committee, or a deliberative assembly.
Change.org is a petition website operated by for-profit Change.org, Inc., an American certified B corporation which claims to have over 100 million users and hosts sponsored campaigns for organizations. The company is headquartered in San Francisco, California. The website serves to facilitate petitions by the general public. Corporations including Virgin America, and organizations such as Amnesty International and the Humane Society, pay the site to host and promote their petitions. Change.org's stated mission is to "empower people everywhere to create the change they want to see." Popular topics of Change.org petitions are economic and criminal justice, human rights, education, environmental protection, animals rights, health, and sustainable food.
Christopher Michael "Chris" Cillizza (born February 20, 1976) is an American journalist and political commentator for CNN.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
The Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS) was organized in 1920 and has provided retirement, disability, and survivor benefits for most civilian employees in the United States federal government.
The Commerce Clause describes an enumerated power listed in the United States Constitution (Article I, Section 8, Clause 3).
A committee (or "commission") is a body of one or more persons that is subordinate to a deliberative assembly.
A congress is a formal meeting of the representatives of different nations, constituent states, organizations (such as trade unions, and political parties), or groups.
The Congress of the Confederation, or the Confederation Congress, formally referred to as the United States in Congress Assembled, was the governing body of the United States of America that existed from March 1, 1781, to March 4, 1789.
Congress.gov is the online database of United States Congress legislative information.
The Congressional Baseball Game for Charity is an annual baseball game played each summer by members of the United States Congress.
The Congressional Budget and Impoundment Control Act of 1974 is a United States federal law that governs the role of the Congress in the United States budget process.
A congressional district is an electoral constituency that elects a single member of a congress.
Congressional oversight is oversight by the United States Congress over the Executive Branch, including the numerous U.S. federal agencies.
The Congressional Research Service (CRS), known as Congress's think tank, is a public policy research arm of the United States Congress.
The Connecticut Compromise (also known as the Great Compromise of 1787 or Sherman Compromise) was an agreement that large and small states reached during the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that in part defined the legislative structure and representation that each state would have under the United States Constitution.
The conservative coalition was an unofficial Congressional coalition bringing together a conservative majority of the Republican Party and the conservative, mostly Southern, wing of the Democratic Party.
A constitutional amendment is a modification of the constitution of a nation or state.
The Constitutional Convention (also known as the Philadelphia Convention, the Federal Convention, or the Grand Convention at Philadelphia) took place from May 25 to September 17, 1787, in the old Pennsylvania State House (later known as Independence Hall because of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence there eleven years before) in Philadelphia.
Constitutionality is the condition of acting in accordance with an applicable constitution; the status of a law, a procedure, or an act's accordance with the laws or guidelines set forth in the applicable constitution.
Contempt of Congress is the act of obstructing the work of the United States Congress or one of its committees.
In law, a conviction is the verdict that usually results when a court of law finds a defendant guilty of a crime.
Copyright is a legal right, existing globally in many countries, that basically grants the creator of an original work exclusive rights to determine and decide whether, and under what conditions, this original work may be used by others.
The United States Senate consists of 100 members, two from each of the 50 states.
Defamation, calumny, vilification, or traducement is the communication of a false statement that, depending on the law of the country, harms the reputation of an individual, business, product, group, government, religion, or nation.
A defendant is a person accused of committing a crime in criminal prosecution or a person against whom some type of civil relief is being sought in a civil case.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).
Demography (from prefix demo- from Ancient Greek δῆμος dēmos meaning "the people", and -graphy from γράφω graphō, implies "writing, description or measurement") is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings.
Direct election is a system of choosing political officeholders in which the voters directly cast ballots for the person, persons, or political party that they desire to see elected.
Dred Scott (c. 1799 – September 17, 1858) was an enslaved African American man in the United States who unsuccessfully sued for his freedom and that of his wife and their two daughters in the Dred Scott v. Sandford case of 1857, popularly known as the "Dred Scott case." Scott claimed that he and his wife should be granted their freedom because they had lived in Illinois and the Wisconsin Territory for four years, where slavery was illegal.
Due process is the legal requirement that the state must respect all legal rights that are owed to a person.
Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.
The United States Electoral College is the mechanism established by the United States Constitution for the election of the president and vice president of the United States by small groups of appointed representatives, electors, from each state and the District of Columbia.
An electoral district, (election) precinct, election district, or legislative district, called a voting district by the US Census (also known as a constituency, riding, ward, division, electoral area, or electorate) is a territorial subdivision for electing members to a legislative body.
In the United States Congress and in many state legislatures, an enrolled bill is the final copy of a bill or joint resolution which has passed both Houses of Congress in identical form.
The Equal Protection Clause is part of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
An ex officio member is a member of a body (a board, committee, council, etc.) who is part of it by virtue of holding another office.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
In sports, a farm team, farm system, feeder team, practice squad, or nursery club, is generally a team or club whose role is to provide experience and training for young players, with an agreement that any successful players can move on to a higher level at a given point.
The Federal Election Campaign Act of 1971 (FECA,, et seq.) is the primary United States federal law regulating political campaign spending and fundraising.
The Federal Employees Retirement System (FERS) is the retirement system for employees within the United States civil service.
The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.
Federal law is the body of law created by the federal government of a country.
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.
The Federalist Party, referred to as the Pro-Administration party until the 3rd United States Congress (as opposed to their opponents in the Anti-Administration party), was the first American political party.
The term felony, in some common law countries, is defined as a serious crime.
The Fifteenth Amendment (Amendment XV) to the United States Constitution prohibits the federal and state governments from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude".
The First Continental Congress was a meeting of delegates from twelve of the Thirteen Colonies who met from September 5 to October 26, 1774, at Carpenters' Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, early in the American Revolution.
The First Party System is a model of American politics used in history and political science to periodize the political party system that existed in the United States between roughly 1792 and 1824.
The Founding Fathers of the United States led the American Revolution against the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Fourteenth Amendment (Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments.
Franking refers to any devices, markings, or combinations thereof ("franks") applied to mails of any class which qualifies them to be postally serviced.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.
Gallup, Inc. is an American research-based, global performance-management consulting company.
George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
George Frederick Will (born May 4, 1941) is an American political commentator.
Gerrymandering is a practice intended to establish a political advantage for a particular party or group by manipulating district boundaries.
The Gilded Age in United States history is the late 19th century, from the 1870s to about 1900.
The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is a legislative branch government agency that provides auditing, evaluation, and investigative services for the United States Congress.
Government debt (also known as public interest, public debt, national debt and sovereign debt) is the debt owed by a government.
In the United States, a governor serves as the chief executive officer and commander-in-chief in each of the fifty states and in the five permanently inhabited territories, functioning as both head of state and head of government therein.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
The Great Society was a set of domestic programs in the United States launched by Democratic President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964–65.
Guam (Chamorro: Guåhån) is an unincorporated and organized territory of the United States in Micronesia in the western Pacific Ocean.
Guam's at-large congressional district comprises the entire area of the United States territory of Guam.
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Henry Clay Sr. (April 12, 1777 – June 29, 1852) was an American lawyer, planter, and statesman who represented Kentucky in both the United States Senate and House of Representatives.
Henry Arnold Waxman (born September 12, 1939) is an American politician who served as the U.S. Representative for from 1975 until 2015.
Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26, 1947) is an American politician and diplomat who served as the First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001, U.S. Senator from New York from 2001 to 2009, 67th United States Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013, and the Democratic Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 2016 election.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the world's oldest extant political parties.
Household income is an economic measure that can be applied to one household, or aggregated across a large group such as a county, city, or the whole country.
Impeachment is the process by which a legislative body formally levels charges against a high official of government.
Impeachment in the United States is the process by which the lower house of a legislature brings charges against a civil officer of government for crimes alleged to have been committed, analogous to the bringing of an indictment by a grand jury.
Implied powers, in the United States, are powers authorized by the Constitution that, while not stated, seem implied by powers that are expressly stated.
The inauguration of Donald Trump as the 45th President of the United States marked commencement of the four-year term of Donald Trump as President and Mike Pence as Vice President.
An income tax is a tax imposed on individuals or entities (taxpayers) that varies with respective income or profits (taxable income).
The incumbent is the current holder of a political office.
An independent or nonpartisan politician is an individual politician not affiliated with any political party.
The International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (IBEW) is a labor union that represents nearly 750,000 workers and retirees in the electrical industry in the United States, Canada, Panama, Guam, and several Caribbean island nations; particularly electricians, or inside wiremen, in the construction industry and linemen and other employees of public utilities.
James Hayes Shofner Cooper (born June 19, 1954) is an American politician serving as the U.S. Representative for (based in Nashville), serving since 2003.
John Charles Thomas (born 1950) is an American attorney and a former Justice of the Supreme Court of Virginia.
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
Joseph Gurney Cannon (May 7, 1836 – November 12, 1926) was a United States politician from Illinois and leader of the Republican Party.
Joseph Raymond McCarthy (November 14, 1908 – May 2, 1957) was an American politician who served as U.S. Senator from the state of Wisconsin from 1947 until his death in 1957.
Judicial review is a process under which executive or legislative actions are subject to review by the judiciary.
K Street is a major thoroughfare in the United States capital of Washington, D.C. known as a center for numerous think tanks, lobbyists, and advocacy groups.
Keynesian economics (sometimes called Keynesianism) are the various macroeconomic theories about how in the short run – and especially during recessions – economic output is strongly influenced by aggregate demand (total demand in the economy).
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).
Lester Lawrence "Larry" Lessig III (born June 3, 1961) is an American academic, attorney, and political activist.
Lee Herbert Hamilton (born April 20, 1931) is a former member of the United States House of Representatives and currently a member of the U.S. Homeland Security Advisory Council.
A legislative session is the period of time in which a legislature, in both parliamentary and presidential systems, is convened for purpose of lawmaking, usually being one of two or more smaller divisions of the entire time between two elections.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
A life tenure or service during good behaviour is a term of office that lasts for the office holder's lifetime (in some cases subject to mandatory retirement at a specified age), unless the office holder is removed from office for cause under extraordinary circumstances or chooses to resign.
This is a list of individuals currently serving in the United States House of Representatives.
An enacting clause, or enacting formula, is a short phrase that introduces the main provisions of a law enacted by a legislature.
This is a list of agencies of the United States federal government.
This is a list of the United States Congresses, including their beginnings, endings, and the dates of their sessions.
Lobbying, persuasion, or interest representation is the act of attempting to influence the actions, policies, or decisions of officials in their daily life, most often legislators or members of regulatory agencies.
Lobbying in the United States describes paid activity in which special interests hire well-connected professional advocates, often lawyers, to argue for specific legislation in decision-making bodies such as the United States Congress.
Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
Marbury v. Madison,, was a U.S. Supreme Court case that established the principle of judicial review in the United States, so that American courts have the power to strike down laws, statutes, and executive actions that contravene the U.S. Constitution.
McCulloch v. Maryland,, was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States.
The Mexican–American War, also known as the Mexican War in the United States and in Mexico as the American intervention in Mexico, was an armed conflict between the United States of America and the United Mexican States (Mexico) from 1846 to 1848.
Michael Kinsley (born March 9, 1951) is an American political journalist and commentator.
right Michael S. Schudson (born November 3, 1946) is Professor of Journalism in the Graduate School of Journalism, Columbia University and Adjunct Professor in the Department of Sociology.
Michael Richard Pence (born June 7, 1959) is an American politician and lawyer serving as the 48th and current Vice President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017.
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives.
The National Association of Realtors (NAR), whose member brokers are known as realtors (member agents are known as realtor associates), is a North American trade association for those who work in the real estate industry.
The Necessary and Proper Clause, also known as the elastic clause, is a clause in Article I, Section 8 of the United States Constitution that is as follows.
Negative campaigning or mudslinging is the process of deliberate spreading negative information about someone or something to worsen the public image of the described.
The New Deal was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms and regulations enacted in the United States 1933-36, in response to the Great Depression.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Non-voting members of the United States House of Representatives (called either delegates or resident commissioner, in the case of Puerto Rico) are representatives of their territory in the House of Representatives, but who do not have a right to vote on proposed legislation in the full House but are nevertheless able to participate in certain other House functions.
The Northern Mariana Islands, officially the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI; Sankattan Siha Na Islas Mariånas; Refaluwasch or Carolinian: Commonwealth Téél Falúw kka Efáng llól Marianas), is an insular area and commonwealth of the United States consisting of 15 islands in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.
NSA warrantless surveillance (also commonly referred to as "warrantless-wiretapping" or "-wiretaps") refers to the surveillance of persons within the United States, including United States citizens, during the collection of notionally foreign intelligence by the National Security Agency (NSA) as part of the Terrorist Surveillance Program.
An opinion poll, often simply referred to as a poll or a survey, is a human research survey of public opinion from a particular sample.
In the context of United States constitutional interpretation, originalism is a way to interpret the Constitution's meaning as stable from the time of enactment, which can be changed only by the steps set out in Article Five.
Orrin Grant Hatch (born March 22, 1934) is an American attorney and politician serving as the senior United States Senator for Utah who has been the President pro tempore of the United States Senate since 2015.
Parliamentary immunity, also known as legislative immunity, is a system in which members of the parliament or legislature are granted partial immunity from prosecution.
Parliamentary privilege is a legal immunity enjoyed by members of certain legislatures, in which legislators are granted protection against civil or criminal liability for actions done or statements made in the course of their legislative duties.
Parliamentary procedure is the body of rules, ethics and customs governing meetings and other operations of clubs, organizations, legislative bodies and other deliberative assemblies.
In politics, a partisan is a committed member of a political party or political coalitions.
Party divisions of United States Congresses have played a central role in the organization and operations of both chambers of the United States Congress—the Senate and the House of Representatives—since its establishment as the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States in 1789.
Party leaders and whips of the United States House of Representatives, also known as floor leaders, are elected by their respective parties in a closed-door caucus by secret ballot.
The Senate Majority and Minority Leaders are two United States Senators and members of the party leadership of the United States Senate.
Paul Davis Ryan Jr. (born January 29, 1970) is an American politician serving as the 54th Speaker of the United States House of Representatives since 2015.
Perjury is the intentional act of swearing a false oath or falsifying an affirmation to tell the truth, whether spoken or in writing, concerning matters a generation material to an official proceeding.
The Plame affair (also known as the CIA leak scandal and Plamegate) was a political scandal that revolved around journalist Robert Novak's public identification of Valerie Plame as a covert Central Intelligence Agency officer in 2003.
A pocket veto is a legislative maneuver that allows a president or other official with veto power to exercise that power over a bill by taking no action (instead of affirmatively vetoing it).
In politics, polarization (or polarisation) can refer to the divergence of political attitudes to ideological extremes.
A police force is a constituted body of persons empowered by a state to enforce the law, to protect people and property, and to prevent crime and civil disorder.
In the United States and Canada, a political action committee (PAC) is an organization that pools campaign contributions from members and donates those funds to campaign for or against candidates, ballot initiatives, or legislation.
Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.
The power of the purse is the ability of one group to manipulate and control the actions of another group by withholding funding, or putting stipulations on the use of funds.
Preservation refers to the set of activities that aims to prolong the life of a record with as little changes to the original record as possible.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
A president pro tempore or speaker pro tempore is a constitutionally recognized officer of a legislative body who presides over the chamber in the absence of the normal presiding officer.
The President pro tempore of the United States Senate (also president pro tem) is the second-highest-ranking official of the United States Senate.
The degree to which the President of the United States's political party has control over the House of Representatives and Senate often determines his political strength - such as the ability to pass sponsored legislation, ratify treaties, and have Cabinet members and judges approved.
Pro bono publico (for the public good; usually shortened to pro bono) is a Latin phrase for professional work undertaken voluntarily and without payment.
The Progressive Era was a period of widespread social activism and political reform across the United States that spanned from the 1890s to the 1920s.
Proxy voting is a form of voting whereby a member of a decision-making body may delegate his or her voting power to a representative, to enable a vote in absence.
Puerto Rico (Spanish for "Rich Port"), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico") and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea.
A quorum is the minimum number of members of a deliberative assembly (a body that uses parliamentary procedure, such as a legislature) necessary to conduct the business of that group.
The Radio and Television Correspondents' Association of Washington, D.C. (RTCA) is an American broadcast journalism group of news reporters from around the world who cover the United States Congress.
In United States politics, a ranking member is the most senior member of a congressional or state legislative committee from the minority party.
In the common view, political representation is assumed to refer only to the political activities undertaken, in representative democracies, by citizens elected to political office on behalf of their fellow citizens who do not hold political office.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
The Resident Commissioner of Puerto Rico (Spanish: Comisionado Residente de Puerto Rico) is a non-voting member of the United States House of Representatives elected by the voters of Puerto Rico every four years, the only member of the House of Representatives who serves a four-year term.
In accounting, revenue is the income that a business has from its normal business activities, usually from the sale of goods and services to customers.
Richard Francis Fenno Jr. (born December 12, 1926) is an American political scientist known for his pioneering work on the U.S. Congress and its members.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
A safe seat is an electoral district (constituency) in a legislative body (e.g. Congress, Parliament, City Council) which is regarded as fully secure, for either a certain political party, or the incumbent representative personally or a combination of both.
Sanford Victor Levinson (born June 17, 1941) is an American legal scholar, best known for his writings on constitutional law and as a professor at the University of Texas Law School.
The Second Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that started meeting in the spring of 1775 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
The separation of powers is a model for the governance of a state.
Separation of powers is a political doctrine originating in the writings of Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu in The Spirit of the Laws, in which he argued for a constitutional government with three separate branches, each of which would have defined abilities to check the powers of the others.
The Seventeenth Amendment (Amendment XVII) to the United States Constitution established the popular election of United States Senators by the people of the states.
A signing statement is a written pronouncement issued by the President of the United States upon the signing of a bill into law.
The Sixteenth Amendment (Amendment XVI) to the United States Constitution allows the Congress to levy an income tax without apportioning it among the states or basing it on the United States Census.
The Spanish–American War (Guerra hispano-americana or Guerra hispano-estadounidense; Digmaang Espanyol-Amerikano) was fought between the United States and Spain in 1898.
The Speaker of the House is the presiding officer of the United States House of Representatives.
An election for the Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives took place on October 29, 2015, during the 114th U.S. Congress.
A speech from the throne (or throne speech) is an event in certain monarchies in which the reigning sovereign, or a representative thereof, reads a prepared speech to members of the nation's legislature when a session is opened, outlining the government's agenda and focus for the forthcoming session; or in some cases, closed.
The Speech or Debate Clause is a clause in the United States Constitution (Article I, Section 6, Clause 1).
The Standing Rules of the Senate are the parliamentary procedures adopted by the United States Senate that govern its procedure.
The State of the Union Address is an annual message presented by the President of the United States to a joint session of the United States Congress, except in the first year of a new president's term.
In American political discourse, states' rights are political powers held for the state governments rather than the federal government according to the United States Constitution, reflecting especially the enumerated powers of Congress and the Tenth Amendment.
Stephen Macedo is the Laurance S. Rockefeller Professor of Politics at Princeton University, as well as the former Director for the University Center for Human Values at Princeton.
A subpoena (also subpœna) or witness summons is a writ issued by a government agency, most often a court, to compel testimony by a witness or production of evidence under a penalty for failure.
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).
A summons (also known in England and Wales as a claim form and in the Australian state of New South Wales as a Court Attendance Notice (CAN)) is a legal document issued by a court (a judicial summons) or by an administrative agency of government (an administrative summons) for various purposes.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
Tennessee (translit) is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States.
Term limits in the United States apply to many offices at both the federal and state level, and date back to the American Revolution.
The Federalist (later known as The Federalist Papers) is a collection of 85 articles and essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay under the pseudonym "Publius" to promote the ratification of the United States Constitution.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. (October 27, 1858 – January 6, 1919) was an American statesman and writer who served as the 26th President of the United States from 1901 to 1909.
Third-party members of the United States House of Representatives are generally rare.
The Thirteenth Amendment (Amendment XIII) to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime.
Thomas Brackett Reed (October 18, 1839 – December 7, 1902), occasionally ridiculed as Czar Reed, was a U.S. Representative from Maine, and Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives from 1889–1891 and also from 1895–1899.
Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
In law, treason is the crime that covers some of the more extreme acts against one's nation or sovereign.
In law, a trial is a coming together of parties to a dispute, to present information (in the form of evidence) in a tribunal, a formal setting with the authority to adjudicate claims or disputes.
The Twentieth Amendment (Amendment XX) to the United States Constitution moved the beginning and ending of the terms of the president and vice president from March 4 to January 20, and of members of Congress from March 4 to January 3.
A two-party system is a party system where two major political parties dominate the government.
A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.
Ulysses Simpson Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant; April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885) was an American soldier and statesman who served as Commanding General of the Army and the 18th President of the United States, the highest positions in the military and the government of the United States.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
The unitary executive theory is a theory of American constitutional law holding that the President possesses the power to control the entire executive branch.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.
The United States Capitol, often called the Capitol Building, is the home of the United States Congress, and the seat of the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government.
The United States Census is a decennial census mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution, which states: "Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States...
The Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction,Budget Control Act of 2011,, Title IV colloquially referred to as the Supercommittee, was a joint select committee of the United States Congress, created by the Budget Control Act of 2011 on August 2, 2011.
United States congressional apportionment is the process by which seats in the United States House of Representatives are distributed among the 50 states according to the most recent constitutionally mandated decennial census.
A congressional committee is a legislative sub-organization in the United States Congress that handles a specific duty (rather than the general duties of Congress).
A conference committee is a committee of the United States Congress appointed by the House of Representatives and Senate to resolve disagreements on a particular bill.
The United States congressional delegations from the Northern Mariana Islands consist of single Delegate elected at-large.
A United States congressional hearing is the principal formal method by which United States congressional committees collect and analyze information in the early stages of legislative policymaking.
A congressional subcommittee in the United States Congress is a subdivision of a United States congressional committee that considers specified matters and reports back to the full committee.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
The United States Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress meeting at the Pennsylvania State House (now known as Independence Hall) in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776.
The United States Government Publishing Office (GPO) (formerly the Government Printing Office) is an agency of the legislative branch of the United States federal government.
The Committee on Rules, or (more commonly) Rules Committee, is a committee of the United States House of Representatives.
The U.S. House Committee on the Judiciary, also called the House Judiciary Committee, is a standing committee of the United States House of Representatives.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
The 2016 United States House of Representatives elections were held on November 8, 2016, to elect representatives for all 435 congressional districts across each of the 50 U.S. states.
The United States House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence (HPSCI), also known as the House Intelligence Committee, is a committee of the United States House of Representatives, currently chaired by Devin Nunes.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
The United States Senate Committee on Appropriations is a standing committee of the United States Senate.
Elections to the United States Senate were held November 8, 2016.
The United States Senate Select Committee on Intelligence (sometimes referred to as the Intelligence Committee or SSCI) is dedicated to overseeing the United States Intelligence Community—the agencies and bureaus of the federal government of the United States who provide information and analysis for leaders of the executive and legislative branches.
The United States Virgin Islands (USVI; also called the American Virgin Islands), officially the Virgin Islands of the United States, is a group of islands in the Caribbean that is an insular area of the United States located east of Puerto Rico.
The United States Virgin Islands's At-large congressional district encompasses the entire area of the U.S. Virgin Islands.
Utah is a state in the western United States.
The Vice President of the United States (informally referred to as VPOTUS, or Veep) is a constitutional officer in the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States as the President of the Senate under Article I, Section 3, Clause 4, of the United States Constitution, as well as the second highest executive branch officer, after the President of the United States.
Deliberative assemblies – bodies that use parliamentary procedure to arrive at decisions – use several methods of voting on motions (formal proposal by a member or members of a deliberative assembly that the assembly take certain action).
The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, and their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815.
The War Powers Resolution (also known as the War Powers Resolution of 1973 or the War Powers Act) (50 U.S.C. 1541–1548) is a federal law intended to check the president's power to commit the United States to an armed conflict without the consent of the U.S. Congress.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
The Watergate scandal was a major political scandal that occurred in the United States during the early 1970s, following a break-in by five men at the Democratic National Committee (DNC) headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C. on June 17, 1972, and President Richard Nixon's administration's subsequent attempt to cover up its involvement.
A whip is an official of a political party whose task is to ensure party discipline in a legislature.
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.
Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the western United States.
The One Hundred Fifteenth United States Congress is the current meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the Senate and the House of Representatives.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
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