379 relations: African Union, Afrikaans, Albanian language, Alpha Condé, Anarchism, Andrzej Duda, Angela Merkel, Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, António Guterres, Anti-capitalism, Anton Siluanov, Argentina, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Asian Development Bank, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Baden-Baden, Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, Belgium, Benin, Berggruen Institute, Big Four (Western Europe), Bill Morneau, Brazil, Bretton Woods system, BRICS, Brisbane, Brookings Institution, Brunei, Bruno Le Maire, Bulgarian language, Caio Koch-Weser, Cambodia, Canada, Central bank, Centre for International Governance Innovation, Chad, Chairperson of the African Union, Chancellor of Germany, Chancellor of the Exchequer, Chief executive officer, Chile, China, Christine Lagarde, CIVETS, Colombia, Commonwealth of Independent States, Commonwealth of Nations, ..., Congress of Vienna, Council of the European Union, Croatian language, Cross-cutting cleavage, Cyril Ramaphosa, Czech language, Danish Institute for International Studies, Danish language, Debt crisis, Der Spiegel, Developed country, Developing country, Development aid, Development Assistance Committee, Digitization, Director-General of the World Trade Organization, Donald Trump, Donald Tusk, Dutch language, Economic growth, Economy of Poland, Egypt, Elvira Nabiullina, Emerging markets, Emerging power, Emmanuel Macron, English language, Enrique Peña Nieto, Equatorial Guinea, Erna Solberg, Ernst & Young, Estonian language, Ethiopia, Eurasian Economic Community, European Central Bank, European Commission, European Commissioner for Economic and Monetary Affairs and the Euro, European Commissioner for Taxation and Customs Union, Audit and Anti-Fraud, European Union, Federal Ministry of Finance (Germany), Figurehead, Finance minister, Financial crisis of 2007–2008, Financial market, Financial Stability Board, Finnish language, Food and Agriculture Organization, Forbes, Foreign Affairs, Foreign minister, Foreign Policy, Fox News, Fractional-reserve banking, François Villeroy de Galhau, France, Frances Stewart (economist), French language, French Ministry for the Economy and Finance, G4 nations, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, George W. Bush, German language, Germany, Giovanni Tria, Giuseppe Conte, Global governance, Global Governance Group, Global issue, Government, Government debt, Great power, Great Recession, Greek language, Gross domestic product, Gross world product, Group of Eight, Group of Seven, Group of Ten (economics), Guido Mantega, Guinea, Gulf Cooperation Council, Guy Ryder, Hamburg, Hans Eichel, Haruhiko Kuroda, Head of government, Head of state, Headquarters, Hindi, Human Development Index, Hungarian language, Ignazio Visco, Ilan Goldfajn, India, Indonesia, Indonesian language, Information activism, Inter Press Service, International, International Business Times, International Labour Organization, International Monetary Fund, International trade, Iran, Irish language, Israel, Italian language, Italian Minister of Economy and Finances, Italy, Jan Fischer (politician), Japan, Japanese language, Jean-Claude Juncker, Jens Weidmann, Jerome Powell, Jim Yong Kim, Johannes F. Linn, Joko Widodo, Jonas Gahr Støre, José Antonio González Anaya, José Ángel Gurría, Julie Bishop, Justin Trudeau, Kazakhstan, Kim Dong-yeon, King of Saudi Arabia, Korean language, Laos, Latvian language, Law and Justice, Lawrence Summers, Lech Kaczyński, Lee Hsien Loong, Lee Ju-yeol, Lesetja Kganyago, Li Keqiang, Lim Jock Hoi, List of countries and dependencies by area, List of countries by GDP (nominal), List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita, List of countries by GDP (PPP), List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita, List of country groupings, List of Finance Ministers of Turkey, List of G20 summits, List of Ministers of Finance of Indonesia, List of multilateral free-trade agreements, List of Presidents of Guinea, Lithuanian language, Liu Kun, Long-Term Capital Management, Luis Caputo, Luxembourgish, Macky Sall, Maclean's, Malawi, Malaysia, Malcolm Turnbull, Maltese language, Mario Draghi, Mark Carney, Mateusz Morawiecki, Mauricio Macri, Mauritania, Mexican peso crisis, Mexico, Michel Temer, Microstate, Middle power, MIKTA, Minister of Finance (Canada), Minister of Finance (India), Minister of Finance (Japan), Minister of Finance (South Africa), Ministry of Finance (Argentina), Ministry of Finance (Russia), Ministry of Finance of the People's Republic of China, Ministry of Strategy and Finance, Ministry of the Economy (Brazil), Mirek Topolánek, Modern Standard Arabic, Mohammed Al-Jadaan, Moon Jae-in, Munk School of Global Affairs, Murat Çetinkaya, Myanmar, Naci Ağbal, Narendra Modi, Netherlands, New Partnership for Africa's Development, New Zealand, Next Eleven, Nhlanhla Nene, Nicolas Sarkozy, Nicolás Dujovne, Nigeria, Norway, OECD, Olaf Scholz, OPEC, Pacific Alliance, Pakistan, Paramount leader, Paris, Paris Agreement, Paul Martin, Pedro Sánchez (politician), Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, Perry Warjiyo, Peter O'Neill, Philip Hammond, Philip Lowe, Philippines, Pierre Moscovici, Pittsburgh, Piyush Goyal, Poland, Polish language, Political economy, Portuguese language, Premier of the People's Republic of China, Presidency of the Council of the European Union, President of Argentina, President of Brazil, President of France, President of Indonesia, President of Mexico, President of Russia, President of Senegal, President of South Africa, President of South Korea, President of the European Commission, President of the European Council, President of the People's Republic of China, President of the United States, President of Turkey, Prime Minister of Australia, Prime Minister of Canada, Prime Minister of India, Prime Minister of Italy, Prime Minister of Japan, Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea, Prime Minister of Singapore, Prime Minister of Spain, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Purchasing power parity, Real versus nominal value (economics), Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, Regional power, Robert Wade (scholar), Roberto Azevêdo, Romanian language, Russia, Russian language, Salman of Saudi Arabia, Saudi Arabia, Scott Morrison, Secretariat of Finance and Public Credit (Mexico), Secretary General of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Secretary-General of the United Nations, Senegal, Seoul, Shinzō Abe, Singapore, Slovak language, Slovene language, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Spanish language, Sri Mulyani Indrawati, Standard Chinese, Stephen Poloz, Steven Mnuchin, Succession of power in the People's Republic of China, Sustainable Development Goals, Sustainable energy, Sweden, Swedish language, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tamil language, Tarō Asō, Thailand, The Australian, The Globe and Mail, The Guardian, The National (Abu Dhabi), The Nikkei, The Wall Street Journal, Theresa May, Third World, Timothy Geithner, Toronto, Treasurer of Australia, Trevor Manuel, Triumvirate, Turkey, Turkish language, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United Nations, United Nations General Assembly, United States, United States Secretary of the Treasury, University of Oxford, University of Toronto, Urjit Patel, Vietnam, Vladimir Putin, Wolfgang Schäuble, World Bank, World Bank Group, World economy, World population, World Trade Organization, World War II, Xi Jinping, Yi Gang, Zimbabwe, 1997 Asian financial crisis, 1998 Russian financial crisis, 2006 G20 ministerial meeting, 2008 G20 Washington summit, 2009 G20 London summit, 2010 G20 Toronto summit protests, 2011 G20 Cannes summit, 2017 G20 Hamburg summit, 2019 G20 Osaka summit. 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The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of all 55 countries on the African continent, extending slightly into Asia via the Sinai Peninsula in Egypt.
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.
Albanian (shqip, or gjuha shqipe) is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch.
Alpha Condé (born 4 March 1938) is a Guinean politician who has been President of Guinea since December 2010.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
Andrzej Sebastian Duda (born 16 May 1972) is a Polish politician as well as the sixth and current President of Poland, holding the office since 6 August 2015.
Angela Dorothea Merkel (Kasner, born 17 July 1954) is a German politician serving as Chancellor of Germany since 2005 and leader of the centre-right Christian Democratic Union (CDU) since 2000.
The Crimean peninsula was annexed from Ukraine by the Russian Federation in February–March 2014.
António Manuel de Oliveira Guterres GCC GCL (born 30 April 1949) is a Portuguese politician and diplomat who is serving as the ninth Secretary-General of the United Nations.
Anti-capitalism encompasses a wide variety of movements, ideas and attitudes that oppose capitalism.
Anton Germanovich Siluanov (p; born 12 April 1963) is a Russian politician and economist who is Minister of Finance of Russia and First Deputy Prime Minister.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a forum for 21 Pacific Rim member economies.
The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established on 19 December 1966, which is headquartered in the Ortigas Center located in the city of Mandaluyong, Metro Manila, Philippines.
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional intergovernmental organization comprising ten Southeast Asian countries that promotes intergovernmental cooperation and facilitates economic, political, security, military, educational, and sociocultural integration amongst its members, other Asian countries, and globally.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Baden-Baden is a spa town located in the state of Baden-Württemberg in southwestern Germany.
The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) is a committee of banking supervisory authorities that was established by the central bank governors of the Group of Ten countries in 1974.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Benin (Bénin), officially the Republic of Benin (République du Bénin) and formerly Dahomey, is a country in West Africa.
The Berggruen Institute (formerly Berggruen Institute on Governance) is an independent, non-partisan think tank which develops ideas to shape political and social institutions.
The Big Four, also known as G4 or EU4, refers to France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom.
William Francis "Bill" Morneau (born October 7, 1962) is a Canadian politician and businessman who was elected in the 2015 Canadian federal election as the Member of Parliament for Toronto Centre.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The Bretton Woods system of monetary management established the rules for commercial and financial relations among the United States, Canada, Western Europe, Australia, and Japan after the 1944 Bretton-Woods Agreement.
BRICS is the acronym for an association of five major emerging national economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.
Brisbane is the capital of and most populous city in the Australian state of Queensland, and the third most populous city in Australia.
The Brookings Institution is a century-old American research group on Think Tank Row in Washington, D.C. It conducts research and education in the social sciences, primarily in economics, metropolitan policy, governance, foreign policy, and global economy and development.
Brunei, officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi), is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia.
Bruno Le Maire (born 15 April 1969) is a French politician and former diplomat.
Caio Kai Koch-Weser (born July 25, 1944 in Rolândia, Brazil) is a German economist, civil servant and business executive.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.
The Centre for International Governance Innovation (CIGI, pronounced "see-jee") is an independent, non-partisan think tank on global governance.
Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
The Chairperson of the African Union is the ceremonial head of the African Union elected by the Assembly of Heads of State and Government for a one-year term.
The title Chancellor has designated different offices in the history of Germany.
The Chancellor and Under-Treasurer of Her Majesty's Exchequer, commonly known as the Chancellor of the Exchequer, or simply the Chancellor, is a senior official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of Her Majesty's Treasury.
Chief executive officer (CEO) is the position of the most senior corporate officer, executive, administrator, or other leader in charge of managing an organization especially an independent legal entity such as a company or nonprofit institution.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Christine Madeleine Odette Lagarde (née Lallouette,; born 1 January 1956) is a French lawyer and politician who has been the Managing Director (MD) of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) since 5 July 2011.
The CIVETS are six favored emerging markets countries – Colombia, Indonesia, Vietnam, Egypt, Turkey and South Africa.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r), also nicknamed the Russian Commonwealth (in order to distinguish it from the Commonwealth of Nations), is a political and economic intergovernmental organization of nine member states and one associate member, all of which are former Soviet Republics located in Eurasia (primarily in Central to North Asia), formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
The Council of the European Union, referred to in the treaties and other official documents simply as the Council is the third of the seven Institutions of the European Union (EU) as listed in the Treaty on European Union.
Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries.
In social sciences, a cross-cutting cleavage exists when groups on one cleavage overlap among groups on another cleavage.
Matamela Cyril Ramaphosa (born 17 November 1952) is a South African politician and, since 15 February 2018, the fifth and current President of South Africa.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
DIIS - The Danish Institute for International Studies is a leading public institute for independent research and analysis of international affairs, financed primarily by the Danish state.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
Debt crisis is the general term for a proliferation of massive public debt relative to tax revenues, especially in reference to Latin American countries during the 1980s, the United States and the European Union since the mid-2000s, and the Chinese debt crises of 2015.
Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Development aid or development cooperation (also development assistance, technical assistance, international aid, overseas aid, official development assistance (ODA), or foreign aid) is financial aid given by governments and other agencies to support the economic, environmental, social, and political development of developing countries.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) Development Assistance Committee (DAC) is a forum to discuss issues surrounding aid, development and poverty reduction in developing countries.
Digitization, at WhatIs.com in Collins English Dictionary less commonly digitalization, is the process of converting information into a digital (i.e. computer-readable) format, in which the information is organized into bits.
The Director-General of the World Trade Organization is responsible for supervising the administrative functions of the World Trade Organization (WTO).
Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017.
Donald Franciszek Tusk (Polish:; born 22 April 1957) is a Polish politician who has been the President of the European Council since 2014.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time.
The economy of Poland is the eighth largest economy in the European Union and the largest among the former Eastern Bloc members of the European Union.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Elvira Sakhipzadovna Nabiullina (Эльвира Сахипзадовна Набиуллина; Эльвира Сәхипзәде кызы Нәбиуллина; Эльвира Сәхипзада ҡыҙы Нәбиуллина; born 29 October 1963) is a Russian economist and head of the Central Bank of Russia.
An emerging market is a country that has some characteristics of a developed market, but does not meet standards to be a developed market.
An emerging power or rising power is a term used as recognition of the rising, primarily influence of a nation—or union of nations—which has steadily increased their presence in global affairs.
Emmanuel Jean-Michel Frédéric Macron (born 21 December 1977) is a French politician serving as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra since 14 May 2017.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Enrique Peña Nieto (born 20 July 1966), commonly referred to by his initials EPN, is a Mexican politician serving as the 57th President of Mexico, since 2012.
Equatorial Guinea (Guinea Ecuatorial, Guinée équatoriale, Guiné Equatorial), officially the Republic of Equatorial Guinea (República de Guinea Ecuatorial, République de Guinée équatoriale, República da Guiné Equatorial), is a country located in Central Africa, with an area of.
Erna Solberg (born 24 February 1961) is a Norwegian politician serving as Prime Minister of Norway since October 2013 and Leader of the Conservative Party since May 2004.
Ernst & Young (doing business as EY) is a multinational professional services firm headquartered in London, England.
Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
The Eurasian Economic Community (EAEC or EurAsEC) was a regional organisation between 2000 and 2014 which aimed for the economic integration of its member states.
The European Central Bank (ECB) is the central bank for the euro and administers monetary policy of the euro area, which consists of 19 EU member states and is one of the largest currency areas in the world.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The Commissioner for Economic and Monetary Affairs and the Euro is the member of the European Commission responsible for economic and financial affairs.
The Commissioner for Taxation and Customs Union, Audit and Anti-Fraud is the member of the European Commission.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The Federal Ministry of Finance (Bundesministerium der Finanzen), abbreviated BMF, is the cabinet-level finance ministry of Germany, with its seat at the Detlev-Rohwedder-Haus in Berlin and a secondary office in Bonn.
In politics, a figurehead is a person who holds de jure (in name or by law) an important title or office (often supremely powerful), yet de facto (in reality) executes little actual power.
A finance minister is an executive or cabinet position in charge of one or more of government finances, economic policy and financial regulation.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
A financial market is a market in which people trade financial securities and derivatives such as futures and options at low transaction costs.
The Financial Stability Board (FSB) is an international body that monitors and makes recommendations about the global financial system.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
Forbes is an American business magazine.
Foreign Affairs is an American magazine of international relations and U.S. foreign policy published by the Council on Foreign Relations, a nonprofit, nonpartisan, membership organization and think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
A foreign minister or minister of foreign affairs (less commonly for foreign affairs) is generally a cabinet minister in charge of a state's foreign policy and relations.
Foreign Policy is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy.
Fox News (officially known as the Fox News Channel, commonly abbreviated to FNC) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel owned by the Fox Entertainment Group, a subsidiary of 21st Century Fox.
Fractional-reserve banking is the practice whereby a bank accepts deposits, makes loans or investments, but is required to hold reserves equal to only a fraction of its deposit liabilities.
François Villeroy de Galhau (born 24 February 1959) is a French central banker, Governor of the Bank of France since 1 November 2015.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Frances Julia Stewart (born 4 August 1940) is professor emeritus of development economics and director of the Centre for Research on Inequality, Human Security and Ethnicity (CRISE), University of Oxford.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The French Ministry for the Economy and Finance (Ministère de l'économie et des finances), called the Finance Ministry for short and informally referred to as Bercy, is one of the most important ministries in the cabinet of France.
The G4 nations comprising Brazil, Germany, India, and Japan are four countries which support each other’s bids for permanent seats on the United Nations Security Council.
The General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China is head of the Communist Party of China and the highest-ranking official within the People's Republic of China.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Giovanni Tria (born 28 September 1948) is an Italian economist and university professor currently serving as the Italian Minister of Economy and Finances.
Giuseppe Conte (born 8 August 1964) is an Italian jurist and politician serving as the 58th and current Prime Minister of Italy since 1 June 2018.
Global governance or world governance is a movement towards political cooperation among transnational actors, aimed at negotiating responses to problems that affect more than one state or region.
The Global Governance Group (3G) is an informal group of smaller and medium-sized countries with the aim of providing greater representation to its member countries and collectively channeling their views into the G20 process more effectively.
Informally, a global issue is issue that any social, economic, political or environmental problem that adversely affects the global community and our environment, possibly in a catastrophic way.
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
Government debt (also known as public interest, public debt, national debt and sovereign debt) is the debt owed by a government.
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
The gross world product (GWP) is the combined gross national product of all the countries in the world.
The G8, reformatted as G7 from 2014 due to the suspension of Russia's participation, was an inter-governmental political forum from 1997 until 2014, with the participation of some major industrialized countries in the world, that viewed themselves as democracies.
The Group of Seven (G7) is a group consisting of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
The Group of Ten (G-10 or G10) refers to the group of countries that agreed to participate in the General Arrangements to Borrow (GAB), an agreement to provide the International Monetary Fund (IMF) with additional funds to increase its lending ability.
Guido Mantega (born 7 April 1949) is an Italian Brazilian economist, and politician who was Brazil's Finance Minister.
Guinea, officially the Republic of Guinea (République de Guinée), is a country on the western coast of Africa.
The Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf (مجلس التعاون لدول الخليج العربية), originally (and still colloquially) known as the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC, مجلس التعاون الخليجي), is a regional intergovernmental political and economic union consisting of all Arab states of the Persian Gulf except Iraq.
Guy Ryder (born 3 January 1956) is a British political scientist and union organiser who is the tenth and current director-general of the International Labour Organization (ILO).
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
Hans Eichel is a German politician (SPD) and the co-founder of the G20, or "Group of Twenty", an international forum for the governments and central bank governors of twenty developed and developing nations to discuss policy issues pertaining to the promotion of international financial stability.
, is the 31st and current Governor of the Bank of Japan (BOJ).
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Headquarters (commonly referred to as HQ or HD) is/are the locations where most, if not all, of the important functions of an organization are coordinated.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
Ignazio Visco OMRI (born 21 November 1949) is an Italian economist and the current Governor of the Bank of Italy.
Ilan Goldfajn (born March 12, 1966) is a Brazilian-Israeli economist and the current President of the Central Bank of Brazil.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia.
An information activist is someone who works to make information available to the general population.
Inter Press Service (IPS) is a global news agency.
International mostly means something (a company, language, or organization) involving more than a single country.
The International Business Times is an American online news publication that publishes seven national editions and four languages.
The International Labour Organization (ILO) is a United Nations agency dealing with labour problems, particularly international labour standards, social protection, and work opportunities for all.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
This is a list of Italian Ministers of Economy and Finances since the Ministry of Economy and Finances' creation in 2001 by the fusion of two former ministries, the Ministry of Economy and the Ministry of Finances.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jan Fischer (born 2 January 1951) is a Czech politician who served as Prime Minister of the Czech Republic from May 2009 to June 2010, heading a caretaker government.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Jean-Claude Juncker (born 9 December 1954) is a Luxembourgish politician serving as President of the European Commission since 2014.
Jens Weidmann (born 20 April 1968) is a German economist, president of the Deutsche Bundesbank, and Chairman of the Board of the Bank for International Settlements.
Jerome Hayden "Jay" Powell (born February 4, 1953) is the 16th and current Chairman of the Federal Reserve, serving in that office since February 2018.
Jim Yong Kim (born December 8, 1959), also known as Kim Yong, is a South Korean-American physician and anthropologist serving as the 12th and current President of the World Bank since 2012.
Johannes F. Linn is Executive Director of the Wolfensohn Center for Development and Senior Fellow of the Global Economy and Development program at the Brookings Institution.
Joko Widodo (born Mulyono; 21 June 1961), also known as Jokowi, is an Indonesian politician who is the seventh and current President of Indonesia.
Jonas Gahr Støre (born 25 August 1960) is a Norwegian politician and the leader of the Labour Party and the Leader of the Opposition.
José Antonio González Anaya is a Mexican businessman, financier, and government official.
José Ángel Gurría Treviño, also known as Ángel Gurría, (born 8 May 1950) is a Mexican economist and diplomat.
Julie Isabel Bishop (born 17 July 1956) is an Australian politician serving as Minister for Foreign Affairs since 2013 and Deputy Leader of the Liberal Party since 2007.
Justin Pierre James Trudeau (born December 25, 1971) is a Canadian politician serving as the 23rd and current Prime Minister of Canada since 2015 and Leader of the Liberal Party since 2013.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Kim Dong-yeon (Korean: 김동연; born 28 January 1957) is the Minister of Strategy and Finance and a Deputy Prime Minister of South Korea, appointed by President Moon Jae-in in June 2017.
The King of Saudi Arabia is Saudi Arabia's absolute monarch who serves as head of state and head of government.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
Latvian (latviešu valoda) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
Law and Justice (Polish), abbreviated to PiS, is a national-conservative, and Christian democratic political party in Poland.
Lawrence Henry Summers (born November 30, 1954) is an American economist, former Vice President of Development Economics and Chief Economist of the World Bank (1991–93),, Data & Research office, The World Bank, retrieved March 31, 2017, World Bank Live, The World Bank, retrieved March 31, 2017 Harvard Kennedy School, Harvard University, retrieved March 31, 2017 senior U.S. Treasury Department official throughout President Clinton's administration (ultimately Treasury Secretary, 1999–2001), U.S. Treasury Department, Last Updated: 11/20/2010, retrieved March 31, 2017 and former director of the National Economic Council for President Obama (2009–2010).
Lech Aleksander Kaczyński (18 June 194910 April 2010) was a Polish lawyer and politician who served as the Mayor of Warsaw from 2002 until 2005 and as the President of Poland from 2005 until his death in 2010.
Lee Hsien Loong (Tamil: லீ சியன் லூங்; born 10 February 1952) is a Singaporean politician serving as the third and current Prime Minister of Singapore since 2004.
Lee Ju-yeol (born 24 July 1952) is a South Korean economist and technocrat who was appointed Governor of the Bank of Korea, the South Korean central bank, on 1 April 2014.
Lesetja Kganyago (born 7 October 1965) is a South African economist and central banker.
Li Keqiang (Mandarin:; born 1 July 1955) is the current Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China.
Dato' Paduka Lim Jock Hoi is a Bruneian government official and the current Secretary General of ASEAN.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.
The world sorted by their gross domestic product per capita at nominal values.
This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP (PPP).
Three lists of countries below calculate gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) per capita, i.e., the purchasing power parity (PPP) value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given year, divided by the average (or mid-year) population for the same year.
Groups of countries or regions are often referred to by a single term (word, phrase, or abbreviation).
Following is a list of Ministers of Finance of Turkey.
The following list of G20 summits summarizes all G20 conferences held at various different levels: summits of heads of state or heads of government, and ministerial-level meetings, and others.
The Finance Minister of Indonesia is the Head of the Ministry of Finance of Indonesia.
This is a list of multilateral free-trade agreements, between several countries all treated equally.
The following is a list of Presidents of Guinea, since the country gained independence from France in 1958 (after rejecting to join the French Community in a constitutional referendum).
Lithuanian (lietuvių kalba) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
Liu Kun (born December 1956) is a Chinese politician and the current Minister of Finance.
Long-Term Capital Management L.P. (LTCM) was a hedge fund management firmA financial History of the United States Volume II: 1970–2001, Jerry W. Markham, Chapter 5: "Bank Consolidation", M. E. Sharpe, Inc., 2002 based in Greenwich, Connecticut that used absolute-return trading strategies combined with high financial leverage.
Luis Andrés Caputo (born April 21, 1965) is an Argentine economist, named at the end of 2016 as Minister of Public Finances of Argentina of the government of President Mauricio Macri and presently president of the Central Bank.
Luxembourgish, Luxemburgish or Letzeburgesch (Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuergesch) is a West Germanic language that is spoken mainly in Luxembourg.
Macky Sall (born 11 December 1961) is a Senegalese politician who has been President of Senegal since April 2012.
Maclean's is a Canadian news magazine that was founded in 1905, reporting on Canadian issues such as politics, pop culture, and current events.
Malawi (or; or maláwi), officially the Republic of Malawi, is a landlocked country in southeast Africa that was formerly known as Nyasaland.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Malcolm Bligh Turnbull (born 24 October 1954) is an Australian politician serving as the 29th and current Prime Minister of Australia and Leader of the Liberal Party since 2015.
Maltese (Malti) is the national language of Malta and a co-official language of the country alongside English, while also serving as an official language of the European Union, the only Semitic language so distinguished.
Mario Draghi (born 3 September 1947) is an Italian economist serving as the President of the European Central Bank since 2011.
Mark Joseph Carney, (born March 16, 1965) is a Canadian economist and the Governor of the Bank of England and Chairman of the G20's Financial Stability Board.
Mateusz Jakub Morawiecki (born 20 June 1968) is a Polish politician, manager, banker, economist, lawyer, historian who is currently the Prime Minister of Poland.
Mauricio Macri (born 8 February 1959) is the current President of Argentina and has been in office since 2015.
Mauritania (موريتانيا; Gànnaar; Soninke: Murutaane; Pulaar: Moritani; Mauritanie), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwestern Africa.
The Mexican peso crisis was a currency crisis sparked by the Mexican government's sudden devaluation of the peso against the U.S. dollar in December 1994, which became one of the first international financial crises ignited by capital flight.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Michel Miguel Elias Temer Lulia (born 23 September 1940) is a Brazilian lawyer and politician serving as the 37th and current President of Brazil.
A microstate or ministate is a sovereign state having a very small population or very small land area, and usually both.
In international relations, a middle power is a sovereign state that is not a superpower nor a great power, but still has large or moderate influence and international recognition.
MIKTA is an informal partnership between Mexico, Indonesia, South Korea, Turkey and Australia.
The Minister of Finance (Ministre des Finances) is the Minister of the Crown in the Canadian Cabinet who is responsible each year for presenting the federal government's budget.
The Minister of Finance (or simply, Finance Minister) is the head of the Ministry of Finance of the Government of India.
The is the member of the Cabinet of Japan in charge of the Ministry of Finance.
The Minister of Finance is a minister in the Cabinet of South Africa who is the political head of the National Treasury.
Ministry of Economy and Public Finances was the historical name of the current Ministry of the Treasury and the Ministry of Finance.
Ministry of Finance of the Russian Federation (Министерство финансов Российской Федерации, Минфин России, MinFin) is a federal ministry, responsible for general financial policy and for general management in the field of finance of the Russian Federation.
The Ministry of Finance of the Government of the People's Republic of China is the national executive agency of the Central People's Government which administers macroeconomic policies and the national annual budget.
The Ministry of Strategy & Finance (abbreviated to MOSF) oversees the financial policies of the South Korean government.
The Ministry of the Economy (Ministério da Fazenda) was created in 1808 with the title Secretaria de Estado dos Negócios do Brasil e da Fazenda.
Mirek Topolánek (born 15 May 1956) is a Czech politician and business manager who served as Prime Minister of the Czech Republic from 2006 to 2009 and Leader of the Civic Democratic Party (ODS) from November 2002 to April 2010.
Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication.
Mohammed Al-Jadaan (محمد بن عبد الله الجدعان; born 1963) is a commercial lawyer and co-founder of Al-Jadaan and Partners Law Firm who has served as Saudi Arabia's Minister of Finance since November 2016.
Moon Jae-in (born 24 January 1953) is a South Korean politician serving as the 12th and current President of South Korea since 2017.
The Munk School of Global Affairs and Public Policy (also referred to as the Munk School) at the University of Toronto is an interdisciplinary academic centre with various research and educational programs committed to the field of globalization.
Murat Çetinkaya (born 1976) is the current Governor of the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey appointed on April 2016.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Naci Ağbal (born 1 January 1968) is a Turkish politician and former civil servant from the Justice and Development Party (AKP) who currently serves as the Minister of Finance as of 24 November 2015.
Narendra Damodardas Modi (born 17 September 1950) is an Indian politician serving as the 14th and current Prime Minister of India since 2014.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
The New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) is an economic development program of the African Union.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
The Next Eleven (known also by the numeronym N-11) are the eleven countries – Bangladesh, Egypt, Indonesia, Iran, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, the Philippines, Turkey, South Korea and Vietnam – identified by Goldman Sachs investment banker and economist Jim O'Neill in a research paper as having a high potential of becoming, along with the BRICS countries, among the world's largest economies in the 21st century.
Nhlanhla Musa Nene (born 5 December 1958) is the Minister of Finance of South Africa, appointed on 27 February 2018.
Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sarközy de Nagy-Bocsa KOGF GCB (born 28 January 1955) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 16 May 2007 until 15 May 2012.
Nicolás Dujovne (born May 18, 1967) is an Argentine economist, appointed at the end of 2016 as Minister of the Treasury of the Mauricio Macri administration.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
Olaf Scholz (born) is a German politician, serving as Federal Minister of Finance and Vice Chancellor alongside Chancellor Angela Merkel from the CDU since 14 March 2018.
The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC,, or OPEP in several other languages) is an intergovernmental organization of nations, founded in 1960 in Baghdad by the first five members (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela), and headquartered since 1965 in Vienna, Austria.
The Pacific Alliance (Alianza del Pacífico) is a Latin American trade bloc, formed by — Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, which all border the Pacific Ocean.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
In modern Chinese politics, the paramount leader of the Communist Party of China and the State is an informal term that refers to the most prominent political leader in the People's Republic of China.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
The Paris Agreement (Accord de Paris) is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) dealing with greenhouse gas emissions mitigation, adaptation, and finance starting in the year 2020.
Paul Edgar Philippe Martin (born August 28, 1938), also known as Paul Martin Jr., is a Canadian politician who served as the 21st Prime Minister of Canada from December 12, 2003, to February 6, 2006.
Pedro Sánchez Pérez-Castejón (born 29 February 1972) is a Spanish economist and politician serving as Prime Minister of Spain since 2 June 2018.
The permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (also known as the Permanent Five, Big Five, or P5) are the five states which the UN Charter of 1945 grants a permanent seat on the UN Security Council.
Perry Warjiyo (born 25 February 1959) is the current Governor of Bank Indonesia, Indonesia's central Bank.
Peter Charles Paire O'Neill, CMG (born February 13, 1964) is a Papua New Guinean politician and the Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea since 2011.
Philip Anthony Hammond (born 4 December 1955) is a British Conservative Party politician who has been the Chancellor of the Exchequer since 13 July 2016 and the Member of Parliament (MP) for Runnymede and Weybridge since 1997.
Philip Lowe (born 1961/1962) is an Australian economist who is the current Governor of the Reserve Bank of Australia, having succeeded Glenn Stevens on 18 September 2016.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Pierre Moscovici (born 16 September 1957) is a French politician currently serving as the European Commissioner for Economic and Financial Affairs, Taxation and Customs.
Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, and is the county seat of Allegheny County.
Piyush Vedprakash Goyal (born 13 June 1964) is an Indian politician.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Political economy is the study of production and trade and their relations with law, custom and government; and with the distribution of national income and wealth.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
The Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, sometimes also referred to informally as the "Prime Minister", is the Leader of the State Council of China (constitutionally synonymous with the "Central People's Government" since 1954), who is the head of government and holds the highest rank (Level 1) in the Civil Service.
The presidency of the Council of the European Union is responsible for the functioning of the Council of the European Union, the upper house of the EU legislature.
The President of the Argentine Nation (Presidente de la Nación Argentina), usually known as the President of Argentina, is both head of state and head of government of Argentina.
The President of Brazil, officially the President of the Federative Republic of Brazil (Presidente da República Federativa do Brasil) or simply the President of the Republic, is both the head of state and the head of government of the Federative Republic of Brazil.
The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française) is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic.
The President of the Republic of Indonesia (Presiden Republik Indonesia) is the head of state and also head of government of the Republic of Indonesia.
The President of Mexico (Presidente de México), officially known as the President of the United Mexican States (Presidente de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos), is the head of state and government of Mexico.
The President of the Russian Federation (Prezident Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the elected head of state of the Russian Federation, as well as holder of the highest office in Russia and commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces.
The President of Senegal is the head of state of Senegal.
The President of the Republic of South Africa is the head of state and head of government under the Constitution of South Africa.
The President of the Republic of Korea is, according to the South Korean constitution, the chairperson of the cabinet, the chief executive of the government, commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and the head of state of South Korea.
The President of the European Commission is the head of the European Commission, the executive branch of the:European Union.
The President of the European Council is a principal representative of the European Union (EU) on the world stage, and the person presiding over and driving forward the work of the European Council.
The President of the People's Republic of China is the head of state of the People's Republic of China.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
The President of the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Cumhurbaşkanı) is the head of state of the Republic of Turkey.
The Prime Minister of Australia (sometimes informally abbreviated to PM) is the head of government of Australia.
The Prime Minister of Canada (Premier ministre du Canada) is the primary minister of the Crown, chairman of the Cabinet, and thus Canada's head of government, charged with advising the Canadian monarch or Governor General of Canada on the exercise of the executive powers vested in them by the constitution.
The Prime Minister of India is the leader of the executive of the Government of India.
The President of the Council of Ministers of the Italian Republic (Italian: Presidente del Consiglio dei ministri della Repubblica Italiana), commonly referred to in Italy as Presidente del Consiglio, or informally as Premier and known in English as the Prime Minister of Italy, is the head of government of the Italian Republic.
The is the head of government of Japan.
The Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea, is Papua New Guinea's head of government, consequent on being the leader of the party or coalition with majority support in the National Parliament.
The Prime Minister of the Republic of Singapore (Perdana Menteri Republik Singapura; 新加坡共和國總理;, pinyin: Xīnjiāpō gònghéguó zǒnglǐ; சிங்கப்பூர் குடியரசின் பிரதமர், Ciṅkappūr kuṭiyaraciṉ piratamar) is the head of the government of the Republic of Singapore, and the most powerful person in Singapore.
The Prime Minister of Spain, officially the President of the Government of Spain (Presidente del Gobierno de España), is the head of the government of Spain.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
In economics, a real value of a good or other entity has been adjusted for inflation, enabling comparison of quantities as if prices had not changed.
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (born 26 February 1954) is a Turkish politician serving as President of Turkey since 2014.
In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region.
Robert Hunter Wade (born 1944) is a political economy and development scholar.
Roberto Carvalho de Azevêdo (born 3 October 1957) is a Brazilian diplomat and the current Director-General of the World Trade Organization.
Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is an East Romance language spoken by approximately 24–26 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (سلمان بن عبد العزیز آل سعود; born 31 December 1935) is the King of Saudi Arabia, Prime Minister, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques and head of the House of Saud.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Scott John Morrison (born 13 May 1968) is an Australian politician.
The Mexican Secretariat of Finance and Public Credit (Secretaría de Hacienda y Crédito Público, SHCP) is the finance ministry.
This is a list of Secretaries-General of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations.
The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG or just SG) is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the six principal organs of the United Nations.
Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.
Seoul (like soul; 서울), officially the Seoul Special Metropolitan City – is the capital, Constitutional Court of Korea and largest metropolis of South Korea.
is a Japanese politician serving as the 63rd and current Prime Minister of Japan and Leader of the Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) since 2012, previously being the 57th officeholder from 2006 to 2007.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Sri Mulyani Indrawati (born 26 August 1962) is an Indonesian economist who has been Minister of Finance of Indonesia since 2016; previously she served in the same post from 2005 to 2010.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
Stephen S. Poloz (born 1956) is a Canadian banker and the ninth and current Governor of the Bank of Canada.
Steven Terner Mnuchin (born December 21, 1962) is an American former investment banker who is serving as the 77th and current United States Secretary of the Treasury as part of the Cabinet of Donald Trump.
The succession of power in the People's Republic of China (PRC) takes place in the context of a single party system.
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a good collection of 17 global goals set by the United Nations in 2015.
Sustainable energy is energy that is consumed at insignificant rates compared to its supply and with manageable collateral effects, especially environmental effects.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
is a Japanese politician who is the Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Australian is a broadsheet newspaper published in Australia from Monday to Saturday each week since 14 July 1964.
The Globe and Mail is a Canadian newspaper printed in five cities in western and central Canada.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The National is a private English-language daily newspaper published in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
The Nikkei,, is Nikkei, Inc.'s flagship publication and the world's largest financial newspaper, with a daily circulation exceeding three million.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
Theresa Mary May (Brasier; born 1 October 1956) is a British politician serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party since 2016.
The term "Third World" arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO or the Communist Bloc.
Timothy Franz Geithner (born August 18, 1961) is a former American central banker who served as the 75th United States Secretary of the Treasury under President Barack Obama from 2009 to 2013.
Toronto is the capital city of the province of Ontario and the largest city in Canada by population, with 2,731,571 residents in 2016.
The Treasurer of Australia is the minister in the Government of Australia responsible for government expenditure and revenue raising.
Trevor Andrew Manuel (born 31 January 1956) is a South African politician who served in the government of South Africa as Minister of Finance from 1996 to 2009, during the presidencies of Nelson Mandela, Thabo Mbeki and Kgalema Motlanthe, and subsequently as Minister in the Presidency for the National Planning Commission from 2009 to 2014 under former President Jacob Zuma.
A triumvirate (triumvirātus) is a political regime ruled or dominated by three powerful individuals known as triumvirs (triumviri).
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the U.S. Department of the Treasury which is concerned with financial and monetary matters, and, until 2003, also included several federal law enforcement agencies.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
The University of Toronto (U of T, UToronto, or Toronto) is a public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada on the grounds that surround Queen's Park.
Urjit R. Patel (born 1963) is an Indian economist, who is currently serving as 24th Governor of Reserve Bank of India (RBI) since September 2016.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.
Wolfgang Schäuble (born 18 September 1942) is a German lawyer and politician of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) whose political career has spanned more than four decades.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Bank Group (WBG) (Groupe de la Banque mondiale) is a family of five international organizations that make leveraged loans to developing countries.
The world economy or global economy is the economy of the world, considered as the international exchange of goods and services that is expressed in monetary units of account (money).
In demographics, the world population is the total number of humans currently living, and was estimated to have reached 7.6 billion people as of May 2018.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Xi Jinping (born 15 June 1953) is a Chinese politician currently serving as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China (CPC), President of the People's Republic of China, and Chairman of the Central Military Commission.
Yi Gang (born 1958) is the Governor of the People's Bank of China since 2018.
Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.
The Asian financial crisis was a period of financial crisis that gripped much of East Asia beginning in July 1997 and raised fears of a worldwide economic meltdown due to financial contagion.
The Russian financial crisis (also called Ruble crisis or the Russian Flu) hit Russia on 17 August 1998.
The 2006 G-20 Meeting of Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors was held in Melbourne between 18 and 19 November 2006.
The 2008 G20 Washington Summit on Financial Markets and the World Economy took place on November 14–15, 2008, in Washington, D.C., United States.
The 2009 G20 London Summit was the second meeting of the G20 heads of government/heads of state, which was held in London on 2 April 2009 at the ExCeL Exhibition Centre to discuss financial markets and the world economy.
Public protesting and demonstrations began one week ahead of the 2010 G20 Toronto summit, which took place in Toronto, Ontario, Canada on 26−27 June.
The 2011 G20 Cannes Summit was the sixth meeting of the G20 heads of government/heads of state in a series of on-going discussions about financial markets and the world economy.
The 2017 G20 Hamburg summit was the twelfth meeting of the Group of Twenty (G20), which was held on 7–8 July 2017, at Hamburg Messe, in the city of Hamburg, Germany.
The 2019 G20 Osaka summit will be the fourteenth meeting of Group of Twenty (G20).
Criticism of the G20, G 20, G 20 summit, G-20, G-20 major economies, G/G20, G20 (Group of economies), G20 industrial nations, G20 major economies, G20 meeting, G20 nations, Group of 20, Group of Twenty, Group of Twenty Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors, Member organization of the Group of Twenty Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors, Member state of the Group of Twenty Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors.