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Malcolm X

Index Malcolm X

Malcolm X (19251965) was an African-American Muslim minister and human rights activist. [1]

266 relations: A Lie of Reinvention, A. Peter Bailey, Abdul Rahman Hassan Azzam, African Americans, African diaspora, Afrocentrism, Ahmed Ben Bella, Ahmed Sékou Touré, Al Freeman Jr., Alex Haley, Ali (film), Ali: An American Hero, Allah, America in the King Years, American Experience, American Playhouse, Andrew Young, Antisemitism, Arabic, Archie Epps, Arraignment, Assassination of John F. Kennedy, Atlanta, Attallah Shabazz, Attila, Audubon Ballroom, Back-to-Africa movement, Baptists, Barry Goldwater, Barry Goldwater presidential campaign, 1964, Bayard Rustin, BBC, Berkeley, California, Betty & Coretta, Betty Shabazz, Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, Black Arts Movement, Black is beautiful, Black Legion (political movement), Black nationalism, Black Power, Black pride, Black separatism, Black supremacy, Brooklyn, By any means necessary, CBS News, Central Intelligence Agency, Charlestown State Prison, ..., Charter school, Church of God in Christ, Civil Rights Act of 1964, Civil rights movement, CNN, COINTELPRO, Columbia University, Columbia University Medical Center, Congress of Racial Equality, Conservative Party (UK), Cracker (pejorative), Daily Times of Nigeria, Dallas, Death of a Prophet, Denzel Washington, Dick Anthony Williams, Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction Era, Drug rehabilitation, East Elmhurst, Queens, Ebony (magazine), Ed Koch, Elijah Muhammad, Ella Little-Collins, Encyclopedia Africana, Expurgation, Faisal of Saudi Arabia, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Ferncliff Cemetery, Fidel Castro, Flint, Michigan, Foster care, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Gary Dourdan, George Breitman, Georgia (U.S. state), Ghanaian Times, Gordon Parks, Grand jury, Grenada, Growing Up X, Guangming Daily, Hajj, Hajji, Harlem, Harry S. Truman, Hartford, Connecticut, Hartsdale, New York, Hayer affidavits, Herb Boyd, Hip hop music, Honorific, Human rights activists, Ilyasah Shabazz, Institute of Race Relations, Islam in the United States, James Baldwin, James Earl Jones, James Farmer, James Forman, Jeddah, Jeff Stetson, Jesse Gray, Joe Morton, John Brown (abolitionist), John Lewis (civil rights leader), Kalamazoo Regional Psychiatric Hospital, Kenneth Kaunda, Kim McLarin, King (miniseries), King of the World (film), Korean War, Ku Klux Klan, Kublai Khan, Kwame Nkrumah, Labour Party (UK), Laity, Lansing State Journal, Lansing, Michigan, Larceny, Lenox Avenue, Life (magazine), Los Angeles Police Department, Louis Farrakhan, Louis Lomax, M1 carbine, Madison, Wisconsin, Maison de la Mutualité, Malcolm Shabazz City High School, Malcolm X (1992 film), Malcolm X House Site, Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention, Manhattan, March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, Marcus Garvey, Mario Van Peebles, Martin Luther King Jr., Martin Scorsese, Masjid Malcolm Shabazz, Maulana Karenga, Mecca, Medgar Evers, Mental breakdown, Milwaukee, Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, Miniseries, Morgan Freeman, Muhammad Ali, Muhammad Speaks, Muslim Mosque, Inc., Nation of Islam, National Register of Historic Places, Nebraska State Historical Society, Negro World, New York (magazine), New York (state), New York Amsterdam News, New York City Opera, New York City Police Department, New York Post, Newark, New Jersey, Newsweek, Nonviolence, North Omaha, Nebraska, Northern United States, NPR, Off-Broadway, Omaha World-Herald, Omaha, Nebraska, Organisation of African Unity, Organization of Afro-American Unity, Ossie Davis, Oxford Union, Pan-Africanism, Patrice Lumumba, PBS, People's Daily, Playboy, Procuring (prostitution), Prophet, Public Enemy (band), Qubilah Shabazz, Queens, Racial integration, Racial segregation in the United States, Racism, Racism in the United States, Racket (crime), Raymond Winbush, Redd Foxx, Reparations for slavery, Robert Penn Warren, Robert W. Woodruff Library, Atlanta University Center, Roger Ebert, Rolling Stone, Roots: The Next Generations, Roxbury, Boston, Ruby Dee, San Diego Public Library, Saviours' Day, Sawed-off shotgun, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Selma (film), Sidney Poitier, Slavery in the United States, Smethwick, Smethwick in the 1964 general election, Smithsonian (magazine), Socialism, Socialist Workers Party (United States), Springfield, Massachusetts, Sunni Islam, Ta-Nehisi Coates, Tanganyika, Tell Me More, Texas Monthly, The Atlantic, The Autobiography of Malcolm X, The Ballot or the Bullet, The Black Scholar, The Diary of Malcolm X, The Egyptian Gazette, The Final Call, The Greatest (1977 film), The Grio, The Guardian, The Hate That Hate Produced, The Meeting (play), The Mercury News, The New York Times, The Root (magazine), The San Diego Union-Tribune, The Soul of a Butterfly, The Washington Post, Third World, Thomas Hagan, Time (magazine), Tram, United Arab Republic, United Kingdom general election, 1964, United Nations General Assembly, United States Postal Service, United States Senate, Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League, University of Ibadan, Variety (magazine), Wallace Fard Muhammad, Warith Deen Mohammed, We the People (petitioning system), Western United States, Who Speaks for the Negro?, Yakub (Nation of Islam), Yoruba language, Yuri Kochiyama, Zambian African National Congress, 16th Street Baptist Church bombing, 60 Minutes. Expand index (216 more) »

A Lie of Reinvention

A Lie of Reinvention: Correcting Manning Marable's Malcolm X is a collection of essays related to Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention by Manning Marable.

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A. Peter Bailey


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Abdul Rahman Hassan Azzam

Abdul Rahman Hassan Azzam (عبد الرحمن حسن عزام) (1893–1976), also known as Azzam Pasha, was an Egyptian diplomat and politician.

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African Americans

African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.

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African diaspora

The African diaspora consists of the worldwide collection of communities descended from Africa's peoples, predominantly in the Americas.

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Afrocentrism (also Afrocentricity) is an approach to the study of world history that focuses on the history of people of recent African descent.

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Ahmed Ben Bella

Ahmed Ben Bella (أحمد بن بلّة; 25 December 1916 – 11 April 2012) was an Algerian socialist soldier and revolutionary who was the first President of Algeria from 1963 to 1965.

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Ahmed Sékou Touré

Ahmed Sékou Touré (var. Ahmed Sheku Turay) (January 9, 1922 – March 26, 1984) was a Guinean political leader who was elected as the first President of Guinea, serving from 1958 until his death in 1984.

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Al Freeman Jr.

Albert Cornelius "Al" Freeman Jr. (March 21, 1934 – August 9, 2012) was an American actor, director, and educator.

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Alex Haley

Alexander Murray Palmer Haley (August 11, 1921 – February 10, 1992) was an American writer and the author of the 1976 book Roots: The Saga of an American Family. ABC adapted the book as a television miniseries of the same name and aired it in 1977 to a record-breaking audience of 130 million viewers.

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Ali (film)

Ali is a 2001 American biographical sports drama film written, produced and directed by Michael Mann.

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Ali: An American Hero

Ali: An American Hero is an American television film which aired on August 31, 2000 on FOX.

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Allah (translit) is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions.

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America in the King Years

America in the King Years is a three-volume history of Martin Luther King Jr. and the Civil Rights Movement by Taylor Branch, which he wrote between 1982 and 2006.

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American Experience

American Experience is a television program airing on Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) television stations in the United States.

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American Playhouse

American Playhouse is an anthology television series periodically broadcast by Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) in the United States.

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Andrew Young

Andrew Jackson Young Jr. (born March 13, 1932) is an American politician, diplomat, and activist.

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Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.

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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Archie Epps

Archie C. Epps III (May 19, 1937, Lake Charles, Louisiana – August 21, 2003, Boston, Massachusetts) was dean of students at Harvard College from 1971 to 1999.

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Arraignment is a formal reading of a criminal charging document in the presence of the defendant to inform the defendant of the charges against them.

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Assassination of John F. Kennedy

John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, was assassinated on Friday, November 22, 1963, at 12:30 p.m. in Dallas, Texas, while riding in a presidential motorcade through Dealey Plaza.

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Atlanta is the capital city and most populous municipality of the state of Georgia in the United States.

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Attallah Shabazz

Attallah Shabazz (born November 16, 1958) is the eldest daughter of Malcolm X and Betty Shabazz.

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Attila (fl. circa 406–453), frequently called Attila the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns from 434 until his death in March 453.

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Audubon Ballroom

The Audubon Theatre and Ballroom, generally referred to as the Audubon Ballroom, was a theatre and ballroom located at 3940 Broadway at West 165th Street in the Washington Heights neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City.

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Back-to-Africa movement

The Back-to-Africa movement, also known as the Colonization movement or After slave act, originated in the United States in the 19th century.

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Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).

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Barry Goldwater

Barry Morris Goldwater (January 2, 1909 – May 29, 1998) was an American politician, businessman, and author who was a five-term United States Senator from Arizona (1953–65, 1969–87) and the Republican Party's nominee for President of the United States in 1964.

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Barry Goldwater presidential campaign, 1964

The Barry Goldwater presidential campaign of 1964 began when United States Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona elected to seek the Republican Party nomination for President of the United States to challenge incumbent Democratic President Lyndon B. Johnson.

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Bayard Rustin

Bayard Rustin (March 17, 1912 – August 24, 1987) was an American leader in social movements for civil rights, socialism, nonviolence, and gay rights.

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The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.

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Berkeley, California

Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern Alameda County, California.

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Betty & Coretta

Betty & Coretta is a 2013 American drama film directed by Yves Simoneau and written by Shem Bitterman and Ron Hutchinson.

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Betty Shabazz

Betty Shabazz (May 28, 1934 – June 23, 1997), born Betty Dean Sanders and also known as Betty X, was an American educator and civil rights advocate.

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Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England, with an estimated population of 1,101,360, making it the second most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Birmingham, Alabama

Birmingham is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Alabama and the seat of Jefferson County.

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Black Arts Movement

The Black Arts Movement, Black Aesthetics Movement or BAM is the artistic outgrowth of the Black Power movement that was prominent in the 1960s and early 1970s.

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Black is beautiful

Black is beautiful is a cultural movement that was started in the US in the 1960s by African Americans.

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Black Legion (political movement)

The Black Legion was a Militia group and a white supremacist organization in the Midwestern United States that splintered from the Ku Klux Klan.

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Black nationalism

Black nationalism is a type of nationalism which espouses the belief that black people are a nation and seeks to develop and maintain a black identity.

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Black Power

Black Power is a political slogan and a name for various associated ideologies aimed at achieving self-determination for people of African descent.

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Black pride

Black pride is a movement in response to dominant white cultures and ideologies that encourages black people to celebrate black culture and embrace their African heritage.

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Black separatism

Black separatism is a separatist political movement that seeks separate economic and cultural development for those of African descent in societies, particularly in the United States.

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Black supremacy

Black supremacy or black supremacism is a racial supremacist belief which maintains that black people are superior to people of other races.

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Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with a census-estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017.

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By any means necessary

By any means necessary is a translation of a phrase used by French intellectual Jean-Paul Sartre in his play Dirty Hands.

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CBS News

CBS News is the news division of American television and radio service CBS.

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Central Intelligence Agency

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).

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Charlestown State Prison

Charlestown State Prison was a correctional facility in Charlestown, Boston, Massachusetts operated by the Massachusetts Department of Correction.

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Charter school

A charter school is a school that receives government funding but operates independently of the established state school system in which it is located.

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Church of God in Christ

The Church Of God in Christ (COGIC) is a Pentecostal-Holiness Christian denomination with a predominantly African-American membership.

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Civil Rights Act of 1964

The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is a landmark civil rights and US labor law in the United States that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.

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Civil rights movement

The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms) was a decades-long movement with the goal of securing legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already held.

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Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.

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COINTELPRO (Portmanteau derived from '''CO'''unter '''INTEL'''ligence PROgram) (1956-1971) was a series of covert, and at times illegal, projects conducted by the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) aimed at surveilling, infiltrating, discrediting, and disrupting domestic political organizations.

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Columbia University

Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.

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Columbia University Medical Center

Columbia University Herbert and Florence Irving Medical Center (CUMC) is an academic medical center and the largest campuses of New York-Presbyterian Hospital.

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Congress of Racial Equality

The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) is an African-American civil rights organization in the United States that played a pivotal role for African Americans in the Civil Rights Movement.

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Conservative Party (UK)

The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.

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Cracker (pejorative)

Cracker, sometimes white cracker or "cracka", is a colloquial term for white people, used especially for poor rural whites in the Southern United States.

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Daily Times of Nigeria

The Dailytimes Nigeria is a newspaper with headquarters in Lagos.

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Dallas is a city in the U.S. state of Texas.

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Death of a Prophet

Death of a Prophet is a 1981 television film, written and directed by Woodie King Jr., and starring Morgan Freeman as Malcolm X.

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Denzel Washington

Denzel Hayes Washington Jr. (born December 28, 1954) is an American actor, director, and producer.

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Dick Anthony Williams

Dick Anthony Williams (born Richard Anthony Williams; August 9, 1934 – February 16, 2012) was an American actor.

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Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction Era

Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction Era in the United States of America was based on a series of laws, new constitutions, and practices in the South that were deliberately used to prevent black citizens from registering to vote and voting.

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Drug rehabilitation

Drug rehabilitation (often drug rehab or just rehab) is the processes of medical or psychotherapeutic treatment for dependency on psychoactive substances such as alcohol, prescription drugs, and street drugs such as cocaine, heroin or amphetamines.

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East Elmhurst, Queens

East Elmhurst is a culturally diverse area in the northwest section of the New York City borough of Queens, in the United States.

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Ebony (magazine)

Ebony is a monthly magazine for the African-American market.

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Ed Koch

Edward Irving Koch (December 12, 1924February 1, 2013) was an American lawyer, politician, political commentator, movie critic and reality television arbitrator.

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Elijah Muhammad

Elijah Muhammad (born Elijah Robert Poole; October 7, 1897 – February 25, 1975) was a black religious leader, who led the Nation of Islam (NOI) from 1934 until his death in 1975.

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Ella Little-Collins

Ella Little-Collins (1914 – 1996) was an American civil rights activist and the half-sister of Malcolm X. She was born in Butler, Georgia, to Earl Little and Daisy Mason-Little; her paternal grandparents were John (Big Pa) Lee Little and Ella Gray-Little, and her siblings, including half-siblings, were Mary, Earl Lee Jr., Wilfred, Philbert, Hilda, Reginald, Malcolm, Wesley, and Evonne.

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Encyclopedia Africana

Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African-American Experience edited by Henry Louis Gates and Anthony Appiah (Basic Civitas Books 1999, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, 2005) is a compendium of Africana studies including African studies and the "Pan-African diaspora" inspired by W. E. B. Du Bois' project of an Encyclopedia Africana.

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Expurgation, also known as bowdlerization, is a form of censorship which involves purging anything deemed noxious or offensive from an artistic work, or other type of writing of media.

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Faisal of Saudi Arabia

Faisal bin Abdulaziz Al Saud (فيصل بن عبدالعزيز آل سعود; 14 April 1906 – 25 March 1975) was King of Saudi Arabia from 1964 to 1975.

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Federal Bureau of Investigation

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.

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Ferncliff Cemetery

Ferncliff Cemetery and Mausoleum is located at 280 Secor Road in the hamlet of Hartsdale, town of Greenburgh, Westchester County, New York, about north of Midtown Manhattan.

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Fidel Castro

Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (August 13, 1926 – November 25, 2016) was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008.

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Flint, Michigan

Flint is the largest city and county seat of Genesee County, Michigan, United States.

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Foster care

Foster care is a system in which a minor has been placed into a ward, group home (residential child care community, treatment center,...), or private home of a state-certified caregiver, referred to as a "foster parent" or with a family member approved by the state.

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Gamal Abdel Nasser

Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death in 1970.

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Gary Dourdan

Gary Dourdan (born Gary Robert Durdin: December 11, 1966) is an American actor.

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George Breitman

George Breitman (February 28, 1916 – April 19, 1986) was an American communist political activist and newspaper editor.

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Georgia (U.S. state)

Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States.

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Ghanaian Times

The Ghanaian Times is a government-owned daily newspaper published in Accra, Ghana.

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Gordon Parks

Gordon Roger Alexander Buchanan Parks (November 30, 1912 – March 7, 2006) was an American photographer, musician, writer and film director, who became prominent in U.S. documentary photojournalism in the 1940s through 1970s—particularly in issues of civil rights, poverty and African-Americans—and in glamour photography.

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Grand jury

A grand jury is a legal body empowered to conduct official proceedings and investigate potential criminal conduct, and determine whether criminal charges should be brought.

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Grenada is a sovereign state in the southeastern Caribbean Sea consisting of the island of Grenada and six smaller islands at the southern end of the Grenadines island chain.

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Growing Up X

Growing Up X: A Memoir by the Daughter of Malcolm X is a 2002 book by Ilyasah Shabazz, the third daughter of Malcolm X and Betty Shabazz.

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Guangming Daily

The Guangming Daily, Guangming Ribao, or Enlightenment Daily is a national Chinese-language daily newspaper published in the People's Republic of China.

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The Hajj (حَجّ "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.

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Hajji (sometimes spelled Hadji, Haji, Alhaji, Al hage, Al hag or El-Hajj) is a title which is originally given to a Muslim person who has successfully completed the Hajj to Mecca.

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Harlem is a large neighborhood in the northern section of the New York City borough of Manhattan.

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Harry S. Truman

Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.

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Hartford, Connecticut

Hartford is the capital of the U.S. state of Connecticut.

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Hartsdale, New York

Hartsdale is a hamlet and a census-designated place (CDP) located in the town of Greenburgh, Westchester County, New York.

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Hayer affidavits

The Hayer affidavits are two affidavits made by Talmadge Hayer—also known by the name Thomas Hagan—one of the convicted assassins of Malcolm X.

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Herb Boyd

Herb Boyd (born November 1, 1938) is an American journalist, educator, author, and activist.

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Hip hop music

Hip hop music, also called hip-hopMerriam-Webster Dictionary entry on hip-hop, retrieved from: A subculture especially of inner-city black youths who are typically devotees of rap music; the stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rap; also rap together with this music.

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An honorific is a title that conveys esteem or respect for position or rank when used in addressing or referring to a person.

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Human rights activists

Human rights defenders or human rights activists are people who, individually or with others, act to promote or protect human rights.

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Ilyasah Shabazz

Ilyasah Shabazz (born July 22, 1962) is the third daughter of Malcolm X and Betty Shabazz.

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Institute of Race Relations

The Institute of Race Relations is a think tank based in the United Kingdom.

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Islam in the United States

Islam is the third largest religion in the United States after Christianity and Judaism.

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James Baldwin

James Arthur "Jimmy" Baldwin (August 2, 1924 – December 1, 1987) was an American novelist and social critic.

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James Earl Jones

James Earl Jones (born January 17, 1931) is an American actor.

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James Farmer

James Leonard Farmer Jr. (January 12, 1920 – July 9, 1999) was a civil rights activist and leader in the Civil Rights Movement "who pushed for nonviolent protest to dismantle segregation, and served alongside Martin Luther King Jr." He was the initiator and organizer of the 1961 Freedom Ride, which eventually led to the desegregation of interstate transportation in the United States.

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James Forman

James Forman (October 4, 1928 – January 10, 2005) was a prominent African-American leader in the civil rights movement.

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Jeddah (sometimes spelled Jiddah or Jedda;; جدة, Hejazi pronunciation) is a city in the Hijaz Tihamah region on the coast of the Red Sea and is the major urban center of western Saudi Arabia. It is the largest city in Makkah Province, the largest seaport on the Red Sea, and with a population of about four million people, the second-largest city in Saudi Arabia after the capital city, Riyadh. Jeddah is Saudi Arabia's commercial capital. Jeddah is the principal gateway to Mecca and Medina, two of the holiest cities in Islam and popular tourist attractions. Economically, Jeddah is focusing on further developing capital investment in scientific and engineering leadership within Saudi Arabia, and the Middle East. Jeddah was independently ranked fourth in the Africa – Mid-East region in terms of innovation in 2009 in the Innovation Cities Index. Jeddah is one of Saudi Arabia's primary resort cities and was named a Beta world city by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network (GaWC). Given the city's close proximity to the Red Sea, fishing and seafood dominates the food culture unlike other parts of the country. In Arabic, the city's motto is "Jeddah Ghair," which translates to "Jeddah is different." The motto has been widely used among both locals as well as foreign visitors. The city had been previously perceived as the "most open" city in Saudi Arabia.

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Jeff Stetson

Jeff Stetson is an American writer best known for such novels and plays as Blood on the Leaves and The Meeting, a 1987 play about an imaginary meeting between Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X in 1965 in a hotel in Harlem.

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Jesse Gray

Jesse Gray (May 14, 1923 – January 2, 1988) was an American civil rights leader and politician from New York.

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Joe Morton

Joseph Thomas Morton, Jr. (born October 18, 1947) is an American stage, television, and film actor.

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John Brown (abolitionist)

John Brown (May 9, 1800 – December 2, 1859) was an American abolitionist who believed in and advocated armed insurrection as the only way to overthrow the institution of slavery in the United States.

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John Lewis (civil rights leader)

John Robert Lewis (born February 21, 1940) is an American politician and is a prominent civil rights leader.

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Kalamazoo Regional Psychiatric Hospital

The Kalamazoo Psychiatric Hospital is the largest mental health institution in Michigan.

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Kenneth Kaunda

Kenneth David Buchizya Kaunda (born 28 April 1924), also known as KK, is a Zambian former politician who served as the first President of Zambia from 1964 to 1991.

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Kim McLarin

Kim McLarin (born July 1. 1964) is an American novelist.

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King (miniseries)

King is a 1978 American television miniseries based on the life of Martin Luther King Jr., the American civil rights leader and 1964 Nobel laureate.

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King of the World (film)

King of the World is an American television film which aired on January 10, 2000 on ABC.

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Korean War

The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).

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Ku Klux Klan

The Ku Klux Klan, commonly called the KKK or simply the Klan, refers to three distinct secret movements at different points in time in the history of the United States.

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Kublai Khan

Kublai (Хубилай, Hubilai; Simplified Chinese: 忽必烈) was the fifth Khagan (Great Khan) of the Mongol Empire (Ikh Mongol Uls), reigning from 1260 to 1294 (although due to the division of the empire this was a nominal position).

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Kwame Nkrumah

Kwame Nkrumah PC (21 September 1909 – 27 April 1972) was a Ghanaian politician and revolutionary.

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Labour Party (UK)

The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.

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A layperson (also layman or laywoman) is a person who is not qualified in a given profession and/or does not have specific knowledge of a certain subject.

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Lansing State Journal

The Lansing State Journal is a daily newspaper published in Lansing, Michigan owned by Gannett.

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Lansing, Michigan

Lansing is the capital of the U.S. state of Michigan.

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Larceny is a crime involving the unlawful taking of the personal property of another person or business.

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Lenox Avenue

Lenox Avenue – also named Malcolm X Boulevard; both names are officially recognized – is the primary north–south route through Harlem in the upper portion of the New York City borough of Manhattan.

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Life (magazine)

Life was an American magazine that ran regularly from 1883 to 1972 and again from 1978 to 2000.

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Los Angeles Police Department

The Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD), officially the City of Los Angeles Police Department, is the police department of Los Angeles.

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Louis Farrakhan

Louis Farrakhan Sr. (born Louis Eugene Walcott; May 11, 1933), formerly known as Louis X, is an American religious leader, black nationalist, activist, and social commentator.

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Louis Lomax

Louis Emanuel Lomax (August 16, 1922 – July 30, 1970) was an African-American journalist and author.

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M1 carbine

The M1 carbine (formally the United States Carbine, Caliber.30, M1) is a lightweight, easy to use,.30 caliber (7.62 mm) semi-automatic carbine that was a standard firearm for the U.S. military during World War II, the Korean War and well into the Vietnam War.

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Madison, Wisconsin

Madison is the capital of the U.S. state of Wisconsin and the seat of Dane County.

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Maison de la Mutualité

The Maison de la Mutualité (often shortened to la Mutualité) is a conference center at 24 Rue Saint-Victor, 5th arrondissement of Paris, France.

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Malcolm Shabazz City High School

Malcolm Shabazz City High School is a four-year alternative high school in Madison, Wisconsin.

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Malcolm X (1992 film)

Malcolm X, sometimes stylized as X, is a 1992 American epic biographical drama film about the Afro-American activist Malcolm X. Directed and co-written by Spike Lee, the film stars Denzel Washington in the title role, as well as Angela Bassett, Albert Hall, Al Freeman, Jr., and Delroy Lindo.

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Malcolm X House Site

The Malcolm X House Site located at 3448 Pinkney Street in North Omaha, Nebraska, marks the place where Malcolm X first lived with his family.

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Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention

Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention is a biography of Malcolm X written by American historian Manning Marable.

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Manhattan is the most densely populated borough of New York City, its economic and administrative center, and its historical birthplace.

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March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom

The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, the March on Washington, or The Great March on Washington, was held in Washington, D.C. on Wednesday, August 28, 1963.

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Marcus Garvey

Marcus Mosiah Garvey Jr. ONH (17 August 188710 June 1940) was a proponent of Black nationalism in the United States and most importantly Jamaica.

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Mario Van Peebles

Mario Van Peebles (born January 15, 1957) is Afro-Mexican film director and actor best known for directing New Jack City in 1991.

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Martin Luther King Jr.

Martin Luther King Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the civil rights movement from 1954 until his death in 1968.

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Martin Scorsese

Martin Charles Scorsese (born November 17, 1942) is an American director, producer, screenwriter, actor and film historian, whose career spans more than 50 years.

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Masjid Malcolm Shabazz

Masjid Malcolm Shabazz, formerly known as Mosque No.

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Maulana Karenga

Maulana Ndabezitha Karenga, previously known as Ron Karenga, (born July 14, 1941) is an African-American professor of Africana studies, activist and author, best known as the creator of the pan-African and African-American holiday of Kwanzaa.

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Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.

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Medgar Evers

Medgar Wiley Evers (July 2, 1925June 12, 1963) was an African American civil rights activist in Mississippi and the state's field secretary of the NAACP.

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Mental breakdown

A mental breakdown (also known as a nervous breakdown) is an acute, time-limited mental disorder that manifests primarily as severe stress-induced depression, anxiety, Paranoia, or dissociation in a previously functional individual, to the extent that they are no longer able to function on a day-to-day basis until the disorder is resolved.

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Milwaukee is the largest city in the state of Wisconsin and the fifth-largest city in the Midwestern United States.

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Milwaukee Journal Sentinel

The Milwaukee Journal Sentinel is a daily morning broadsheet printed in Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

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A miniseries (or mini-series, also known as a serial in the UK) is a television program that tells a story in a predetermined, limited number of episodes.

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Morgan Freeman

Morgan Freeman, The New Yorker, July 3, 1978.

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Muhammad Ali

Muhammad Ali (born Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr.; January 17, 1942 – June 3, 2016) was an American professional boxer, activist, and philanthropist.

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Muhammad Speaks

Muhammad Speaks, now known as 'The Final Call",Washington, C. Eric (1994), The Black Muslims in America, Third Edition, William B. (Grand Rapids, Michigan: history Publishing Company), p. 275.

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Muslim Mosque, Inc.

Muslim Mosque, Inc. (MMI) was an Islamic organization formed by Malcolm X after he left the Nation of Islam.

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Nation of Islam

The Nation of Islam, abbreviated as NOI, is an African American political and religious movement, founded in Detroit, Michigan, United States, by Wallace D. Fard Muhammad on July 4, 1930.

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National Register of Historic Places

The National Register of Historic Places (NRHP) is the United States federal government's official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance.

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Nebraska State Historical Society

History Nebraska, formally the Nebraska State Historical Society is a Nebraska state agency, founded in 1878 to "encourage historical research and inquiry, spread historical information...

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Negro World

Negro World was a weekly newspaper, established in 1918 in New York City, that served as the voice of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA), an organization founded by Marcus Garvey and Amy Ashwood in 1914.

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New York (magazine)

New York is an American biweekly magazine concerned with life, culture, politics, and style generally, and with a particular emphasis on New York City.

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New York (state)

New York is a state in the northeastern United States.

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New York Amsterdam News

The New York Amsterdam News is an American weekly newspaper geared to the African-American community of New York City, New York.

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New York City Opera

The New York City Opera (NYCO) is an American opera company located in Manhattan in New York City.

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New York City Police Department

The City of New York Police Department, commonly known as the NYPD, is the primary law enforcement and investigation agency within the five boroughs of New York City.

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New York Post

The New York Post is the fourth-largest newspaper in the United States and a leading digital media publisher that reached more than 57 million unique visitors in the U.S. in January 2017.

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Newark, New Jersey

Newark is the most populous city in the U.S. state of New Jersey and the seat of Essex County.

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Newsweek is an American weekly magazine founded in 1933.

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Nonviolence is the personal practice of being harmless to self and others under every condition.

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North Omaha, Nebraska

North Omaha is a community area in Omaha, Nebraska, in the United States.

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Northern United States

The Northern United States, commonly referred to as the American North or simply the North, can be a geographic or historical term and definition.

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National Public Radio (usually shortened to NPR, stylized as npr) is an American privately and publicly funded non-profit membership media organization based in Washington, D.C. It serves as a national syndicator to a network of over 1,000 public radio stations in the United States.

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An Off-Broadway theatre is any professional venue in Manhattan in New York City with a seating capacity between 100 and 499, inclusive.

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Omaha World-Herald

The Omaha World-Herald is the primary newspaper serving the Omaha-Council Bluffs metropolitan area.

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Omaha, Nebraska

Omaha is the largest city in the state of Nebraska and the county seat of Douglas County.

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Organisation of African Unity

The Organisation of African Unity (OAU; Organisation de l'unité africaine (OUA)) was established on 25 May 1963 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia with 32 signatory governments.

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Organization of Afro-American Unity

The Organization of Afro-American Unity (OAAU) was a Pan-Africanist organization founded by Malcolm X in 1964.

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Ossie Davis

Ossie Davis (born Raiford Chatman Davis; December 18, 1917 – February 4, 2005) was an American film, television and Broadway actor, director, poet, playwright, author, and civil rights activist.

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Oxford Union

The Oxford Union Society, commonly referred to simply as the Oxford Union, is a debating society in the city of Oxford, England, whose membership is drawn primarily from the University of Oxford.

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Pan-Africanism is a worldwide intellectual movement that aims to encourage and strengthen bonds of solidarity between all people of African descent.

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Patrice Lumumba

Patrice Émery Lumumba (alternatively styled Patrice Hemery Lumumba; 2 July 1925 – 17 January 1961) was a Congolese politician and independence leader who served as the first Prime Minister of the independent Democratic Republic of the Congo (then Republic of the Congo) from June until September 1960.

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The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.

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People's Daily

The People's Daily or Renmin Ribao is the biggest newspaper group in China.

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Playboy is an American men's lifestyle and entertainment magazine.

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Procuring (prostitution)

Procuring or pandering is the facilitation or provision of a prostitute or sex worker in the arrangement of a sex act with a customer.

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In religion, a prophet is an individual regarded as being in contact with a divine being and said to speak on that entity's behalf, serving as an intermediary with humanity by delivering messages or teachings from the supernatural source to other people.

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Public Enemy (band)

Public Enemy is an American hip hop group consisting of Chuck D, Flavor Flav, Professor Griff, Khari Wynn, DJ Lord, and the S1W group.

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Qubilah Shabazz

Qubilah Shabazz (born December 25, 1960) is the second daughter of Malcolm X and Betty Shabazz.

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Queens is the easternmost and largest in area of the five boroughs of New York City.

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Racial integration

Racial integration, or simply integration, includes desegregation (the process of ending systematic racial segregation).

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Racial segregation in the United States

Racial segregation in the United States, as a general term, includes the segregation or separation of access to facilities, services, and opportunities such as housing, medical care, education, employment, and transportation along racial lines.

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Racism is the belief in the superiority of one race over another, which often results in discrimination and prejudice towards people based on their race or ethnicity.

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Racism in the United States

Racism in the United States against non-whites is widespread and has been so the colonial era.

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Racket (crime)

A racket is a planned or organized criminal act, usually in which the criminal act is a form of business or a way to earn illegal or extorted money regularly or briefly but repeatedly.

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Raymond Winbush

Raymond Arnold Winbush aka Tikari Bioko (born March 31, 1948) is an American-African scholar and activist known for his systems-thinking approaches to understanding the impact of racism/white supremacy on the global African community.

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Redd Foxx

John Elroy Sanford (December 9, 1922 – October 11, 1991), better known by his screen name Redd Foxx, was an American stand-up comedian and actor, best remembered for his explicit comedy records and his starring role on the 1970s sitcom Sanford and Son.

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Reparations for slavery

Reparations for slavery is the idea that some form of compensatory payment needs to be made to the descendants of Africans who had been enslaved as part of the Atlantic Slave Trade.

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Robert Penn Warren

Robert Penn Warren (April 24, 1905 – September 15, 1989) was an American poet, novelist, and literary critic and was one of the founders of New Criticism.

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Robert W. Woodruff Library, Atlanta University Center

The Atlanta University Center (AUC) Robert W. Woodruff Library is a library in Atlanta which serves the four members of the Atlanta University Center, the world's oldest consortium of historically black colleges and universities (Clark Atlanta University, Morehouse College, Morehouse School of Medicine, and Spelman College) and the Interdenominational Theological Center.

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Roger Ebert

Roger Joseph Ebert (June 18, 1942 – April 4, 2013) was an American film critic, historian, journalist, screenwriter, and author.

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Rolling Stone

Rolling Stone is an American monthly magazine that focuses on popular culture.

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Roots: The Next Generations

Roots: The Next Generations is an American television miniseries, introduced in 1979, continuing, from 1882 to the 1960s, the fictionalized story of the family of Alex Haley and their life in Henning, Lauderdale County, Tennessee, USA.

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Roxbury, Boston

Roxbury is a dissolved municipality and a currently officially recognized neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts.

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Ruby Dee

Ruby Dee (October 27, 1922 – June 11, 2014) was an American actress, poet, playwright, screenwriter, journalist and civil rights activist.

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San Diego Public Library

The San Diego Public Library is a public library system serving the city of San Diego, California.

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Saviours' Day

Saviours' Day is a holiday of the Nation of Islam commemorating the birth of its founder, Master Wallace Fard Muhammad (W. D. Fard), officially stated to be February 26, 1877.

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Sawed-off shotgun

A sawed-off shotgun (US, CAN) also called a sawn-off shotgun (UK, IRL, AU, NZ) and a short-barreled shotgun (SBS) (U.S. legislative terminology), is a type of shotgun with a shorter gun barrel—typically under 18 inches—and often a shortened or absent stock.

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Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture

The Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture is a research library of the New York Public Library (NYPL) and an archive repository for information on people of African descent worldwide.

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Selma (film)

Selma is a 2014 historical drama film directed by Ava DuVernay and written by Paul Webb.

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Sidney Poitier

Sir Sidney Poitier, (born February 20, 1927) is a Bahamian-American actor, film director, author, and diplomat.

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Slavery in the United States

Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America in the 18th and 19th centuries.

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Smethwick is a town in Sandwell, West Midlands, historically in Staffordshire.

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Smethwick in the 1964 general election

The constituency of Smethwick in the West Midlands of England gained national media coverage at the 1964 general election, when Peter Griffiths of the Conservative Party gained the seat against the national trend, amidst controversy concerning racism.

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Smithsonian (magazine)

Smithsonian is the official journal published by the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. The first issue was published in 1970.

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Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.

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Socialist Workers Party (United States)

The Socialist Workers Party (SWP) is a communist party in the United States.

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Springfield, Massachusetts

Springfield is a city in western New England, and the historical seat of Hampden County, Massachusetts, United States.

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Sunni Islam

Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.

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Ta-Nehisi Coates

Ta-Nehisi Paul Coates (born September 30, 1975) is an American author, journalist, comic book writer, and educator.

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Tanganyika was a sovereign state, comprising the mainland part of present-day Tanzania, that existed from 1961 until 1964.

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Tell Me More

Tell Me More was a National Public Radio interview show hosted by journalist Michel Martin.

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Texas Monthly

Texas Monthly is a monthly American magazine headquartered in Downtown Austin, Texas.

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The Atlantic

The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.

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The Autobiography of Malcolm X

The Autobiography of Malcolm X was published in 1965, the result of a collaboration between human rights activist Malcolm X and journalist Alex Haley.

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The Ballot or the Bullet

"The Ballot or the Bullet" is the title of a public speech by human rights activist Malcolm X. In the speech, which was delivered on April 3, 1964, at Cory Methodist Church in Cleveland, Ohio, Malcolm X advised African Americans to judiciously exercise their right to vote, but he cautioned that if the government continued to prevent African Americans from attaining full equality, it might be necessary for them to take up arms.

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The Black Scholar

The Black Scholar (TBS), the third-oldest journal of Black culture and political thought in the United States, was founded in 1969 near San Francisco, California, by Robert Chrisman, Nathan Hare, and Allan Ross.

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The Diary of Malcolm X

The Diary of Malcolm X is a record of Malcolm X's thoughts during 1964, a year that included his pilgrimage to Mecca and two trips to Africa.

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The Egyptian Gazette

The Egyptian Gazette is an English-language Egyptian daily, part of El Tahrir Printing and Publishing House.

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The Final Call

The Final Call is a newspaper published in Chicago.

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The Greatest (1977 film)

The Greatest is a 1977 film about the life of boxer Muhammad Ali, in which Ali plays himself.

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The Grio

TheGrio is an American website with news, opinion, entertainment and video content geared toward African Americans.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.

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The Hate That Hate Produced

The Hate That Hate Produced is a television documentary about Black Nationalism in America, focusing on the Nation of Islam and, to a lesser extent, the United African Nationalist Movement.

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The Meeting (play)

The Meeting is a 1987 American play by Jeff Stetson about an imaginary meeting between Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X in 1965 in a hotel in Harlem during the height of the Civil Rights Movement.

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The Mercury News

The Mercury News (formerly San Jose Mercury News, often locally known as The Merc) is a morning daily newspaper published in San Jose, California, United States.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Root (magazine)

The Root is an online magazine launched on January 28, 2008, by Henry Louis Gates Jr. and Donald E. Graham, and was owned by Graham Holdings Company through its online subsidiary, The Slate Group.

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The San Diego Union-Tribune

The San Diego Union-Tribune is an American metropolitan daily newspaper, published in San Diego, California. Its name derives from a 1992 merger between the two major daily newspapers at the time, The San Diego Union and the San Diego Evening Tribune. The name changed to U-T San Diego in 2012 but was changed again to The San Diego Union-Tribune in 2015. In 2015, it was acquired by Tribune Publishing, later renamed tronc. In February 2018 it was announced to be sold, along with the Los Angeles Times, to Patrick Soon-Shiong's investment firm Nant Capital LLC for $500 million plus $90m in pension liabilities. The sale closed on June 18, 2018.

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The Soul of a Butterfly

The Soul of a Butterfly is the autobiography of Muhammad Ali, born Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr., a former heavyweight boxer who was a three time World Heavyweight Champion and is considered by many to be the greatest heavyweight of all time.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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Third World

The term "Third World" arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO or the Communist Bloc.

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Thomas Hagan

Thomas Hagan (born March 16, 1941) is a former member of the Nation of Islam and one of the assassins who killed Malcolm X in 1965.

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Time (magazine)

Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.

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A tram (also tramcar; and in North America streetcar, trolley or trolley car) is a rail vehicle which runs on tramway tracks along public urban streets, and also sometimes on a segregated right of way.

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United Arab Republic

The United Arab Republic (UAR; الجمهورية العربية المتحدة) was, between 1958 and 1971, a sovereign state in the Middle East, and between 1958 and 1961, a short-lived political union consisting of Egypt (including the occupied Gaza Strip) and Syria.

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United Kingdom general election, 1964

The 1964 United Kingdom general election was held on 15 October 1964, five years after the previous election, and thirteen years after the Conservative Party, first led by Winston Churchill, had entered power.

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United Nations General Assembly

The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.

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United States Postal Service

The United States Postal Service (USPS; also known as the Post Office, U.S. Mail, or Postal Service) is an independent agency of the United States federal government responsible for providing postal service in the United States, including its insular areas and associated states.

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United States Senate

The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.

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Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League

The Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL) is a black nationalist fraternal organization founded in 1914 by Marcus Mosiah Garvey.

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University of Ibadan

The University of Ibadan (UI) is the oldest Nigerian university, and is located five miles (8 kilometres) from the centre of the major city of Ibadan in Western Nigeria.

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Variety (magazine)

Variety is a weekly American entertainment trade magazine and website owned by Penske Media Corporation.

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Wallace Fard Muhammad

Wallace D. Fard, also known as Wallace Fard Muhammad (Arabic: ولي فرض محمد) (born February 26, 1877 - Unknown), was a co-founder of the Nation of Islam.

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Warith Deen Mohammed

Warith Deen Mohammed (born Wallace D. Muhammad; October 30, 1933 – September 9, 2008), also known as W. Deen Mohammed, Imam W. Deen Muhammad and Imam Warith Deen, was a progressive African American Muslim leader, theologian, philosopher, Muslim revivalist, and Islamic thinker (1975–2008) who disbanded the original Nation of Islam (NOI) in 1976 and transformed it into an orthodox mainstream Islamic movement, the World Community of Al-Islam in the West which later became the American Society of Muslims.

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We the People (petitioning system)

We the People, launched September 22, 2011, was a section of the whitehouse.gov website (under President Barack Obama) for petitioning the administration's policy experts.

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Western United States

The Western United States, commonly referred to as the American West, the Far West, or simply the West, traditionally refers to the region comprising the westernmost states of the United States.

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Who Speaks for the Negro?

Who Speaks for the Negro? is a 1965 book of interviews by Robert Penn Warren conducted with Civil Rights Movement activists.

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Yakub (Nation of Islam)

Yakub (sometimes spelled Yacub or Yaqub) is a figure in the beliefs of the Nation of Islam (NOI).

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Yoruba language

Yoruba (Yor. èdè Yorùbá) is a language spoken in West Africa.

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Yuri Kochiyama

was an American activist.

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Zambian African National Congress

The Zambian African National Congress was a political party in Zambia.

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16th Street Baptist Church bombing

The 16th Street Baptist Church bombing was an act of white supremacist terrorism which occurred at the African American 16th Street Baptist Church in Birmingham, Alabama, on Sunday, September 15, 1963, when four members of the Ku Klux Klan planted at least 15 sticks of dynamite attached to a timing device beneath the steps located on the east side of the church.

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60 Minutes

60 Minutes is an American newsmagazine television program broadcast on the CBS television network.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malcolm_X

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