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@ A. E. Harris is a theatre space located within the working metal fabricators' factory A E Harris, in the Jewellery Quarter of Birmingham, England.
The A38(M), also known as the Aston Expressway, is a motorway in Birmingham, England.
The A4400 (or Inner Ring Road or Queensway) was a main road in Birmingham, United Kingdom that previously formed a ring around the city centre.
Abraham Darby, in his later life called Abraham Darby the Elder, now sometimes known for convenience as Abraham Darby I (14 April 1678 – 8 March 1717) was the first and best known of several men of that name.
Absolute Radio (originally Virgin Radio) is one of the UK's three Independent National Radio stations.
In sociolinguistics, an accent is a manner of pronunciation peculiar to a particular individual, location, or nation.
Adult education is a practice in which adults engage in systematic and sustained self-educating activities in order to gain new forms of knowledge, skills, attitudes, or values.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Sir Albert Bore (born 1946 in Ayrshire, Scotland) is a British nuclear physicist, academic and Labour Party politician.
Albert William Ketèlbey (born Ketelbey; 9 August 1875 – 26 November 1959) was an English composer, conductor and pianist, best known for his short pieces of light orchestral music.
Alexander Parkes (29 December 1813 29 June 1890) was a metallurgist and inventor from Birmingham, England.
Alexander Stadium is an international athletics stadium located within Perry Park in Perry Barr, Birmingham, England, at.
The All England Open Badminton Championships is the world's oldest badminton tournament, held annually in England.
American football, referred to as football in the United States and Canada and also known as gridiron, is a team sport played by two teams of eleven players on a rectangular field with goalposts at each end.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Andreas Antona (born in September 1957) is a Greek-Cypriot, British chef and restaurateur.
Andrew Glover (born 1962) is an English composer.
Andrew John Bower Mitchell (born 23 March 1956) is a British Conservative Party politician who was first elected as the Member of Parliament (MP) for Sutton Coldfield in 2001.
The Angles (Angli) were one of the main Germanic peoples who settled in Great Britain in the post-Roman period.
The Diocese of Birmingham is a diocese in the Church of England's Province of Canterbury, covering the north west of the traditional county of Warwickshire (now West Midlands and part of Staffordshire, Warwickshire and north Worcestershire) in England.
Ansells Brewery (Ansells) was a regional brewery founded in Aston, Birmingham, England in 1858.
Antonín Leopold Dvořák (8 September 1841 – 1 May 1904) was a Czech composer.
Steven Kapur (born 11 May 1967), known by the stage name Apache Indian, is a British singer-songwriter and reggae DJ.
Architectural terracotta refers to a fired mixture of clay and water that can be used in a non-structural, semi-structural, or structural capacity on the exterior or interior of a building.
Arden is an area, located mainly in Warwickshire, England, and also part of Staffordshire and Worcestershire traditionally regarded as extending from the River Avon to the River Tame.
Arena Birmingham (previously known as The Barclaycard Arena and the National Indoor Arena) is an indoor sporting and entertainment venue in Birmingham, United Kingdom.
Birmingham has a distinctive culture of art and design that emerged in the 1750s, driven by the historic importance of the applied arts to the city's manufacturing economy.
The art of Europe, or Western art, encompasses the history of visual art in Europe.
Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was a British writer best known for his detective fiction featuring the character Sherlock Holmes.
Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan MVO (13 May 1842 – 22 November 1900) was an English composer.
The Arts and Crafts movement was an international movement in the decorative and fine arts that began in Britain and flourished in Europe and North America between about 1880 and 1920, emerging in Japan (the Mingei movement) in the 1920s.
Arts Council England is a non-departmental public body of the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.
ArtsFest was an annual arts festival held in September in Birmingham, England.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
Aston is a ward of Central Birmingham, England.
Aston Business School (ABS) is one of the largest business schools in Europe.
Aston Hall is a Grade I listed Jacobean house in Aston, Birmingham, England, designed by John Thorpe and built between 1618 and 1635.
Aston Manor Cider (also Aston Manor and formerly Aston Manor Brewery) is a former brewery and current cider maker and bottling company in Aston, Birmingham, England.
Aston University is a public research university situated at Gosta Green, in the city centre of Birmingham, England.
Aston Villa Football Club (nicknamed Villa, The Villa, The Villans and The Lions) is a professional football club based in Aston, Birmingham, England.
Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a heart defect in which blood flows between the atria (upper chambers) of the heart.
The Auden Group or the Auden Generation is a group of British and Irish writers active in the 1930s that included W. H. Auden, Louis MacNeice, Cecil Day-Lewis, Stephen Spender, Christopher Isherwood, and sometimes Edward Upward and Rex Warner.
Juan Bautista Luis Augurio Perera (c.1822 – after 1889), known as Augurio Perera, was a Spanish-born merchant and sportsman based in England, credited alongside his friend Major Harry Gem as the earliest inventor of the game of lawn tennis.
Austin Ardinel Chesterfield "Tom" Clarke, (July 26, 1934 – June 26, 2016), was a Barbadian novelist, essayist, and short story writer who was based in Toronto, Ontario.
The automotive industry in the United Kingdom is now best known for premium and sports car marques including Aston Martin, Bentley, Caterham Cars, Daimler, Jaguar, Lagonda, Land Rover, Lister Cars, Lotus, McLaren, MG, Mini, Morgan and Rolls-Royce.
The avant-garde (from French, "advance guard" or "vanguard", literally "fore-guard") are people or works that are experimental, radical, or unorthodox with respect to art, culture, or society.
The B postcode area, also known as the Birmingham postcode area, provides postcodes for the city of Birmingham, boroughs of Solihull, Sandwell and Walsall and parts of Warwickshire, Worcestershire and Staffordshire in England.
B-Town is the name given to an indie music scene based in the Digbeth area of Birmingham, United Kingdom.
Back-to-backs are a form of terraced houses in the United Kingdom, built from the late 18th century through to the early 20th century in various guises.
The BAFA National Leagues (BAFANL, formerly the BAFA Community Leagues) are the primary American football competition in England, Scotland and Wales.
A ballet company is a type of dance troupe which performs classical ballet, neoclassical ballet, and/or contemporary ballet in the European tradition, plus managerial and support staff.
A balti or bāltī gosht (بالٹی گوشت, बाल्टी गोश्त) is a type of Lamb meat or goat meat curry served in a thin, pressed-steel wok called a "balti bowl".
The Balti Triangle is an area of balti houses clustered along Ladypool Road, Stoney Lane and Stratford Road, to the south of Birmingham city centre, in the United Kingdom.
Banner Theatre is a community theatre company based in Birmingham, England.
Dame Mary Barbara Hamilton Cartland, (9 July 1901 – 21 May 2000) was an English author of romance novels, one of the best-selling authors as well as one of the most prolific and commercially successful worldwide of the 20th century.
The Barber Institute of Fine Arts is an art gallery and concert hall in Birmingham, England.
Barcelona is a city in Spain.
Baroque music is a style of Western art music composed from approximately 1600 to 1750.
Bartley Green is a residential suburban area and electoral ward to the south west of Birmingham city centre, England.
Bartley Reservoir is a reservoir for drinking water in Birmingham, England.
Baskerville is a serif typeface designed in the 1750s by John Baskerville (1706–1775) in Birmingham, England, and cut into metal by punchcutter John Handy.
The Battle of Camp Hill (or the Battle of Birmingham) took place in and around Camp Hill, during the First English Civil War, on Easter Monday, 3 April 1643, when a company of Parliamentarians from the Lichfield garrison with the support of some of the local townsmen, in all about 300 men, attempted to stop a detachment of Royalists, of about 1,200 cavalry and 200 foot men, under the command of Prince Rupert from passing through the unfortified parliamentary town of Birmingham.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC Birmingham is one of the oldest regional arms of the BBC, located in Birmingham.
BBC English Regions is the division of the BBC responsible for local and regional television, radio, web, and teletext services in England, the Isle of Man, and the Channel Islands.
BBC Radio 4 is a radio station owned and operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) that broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history.
BBC television dramas have been produced and broadcast since even before the public service company had an officially established television broadcasting network in the United Kingdom.
BBC Midlands is the BBC English Region producing local television, radio, web and teletext content for Herefordshire, Shropshire, Staffordshire, Warwickshire, the West Midlands, and Worcestershire.
Benjamin Obadiah Iqbal Zephaniah (born 15 April 1958)Gregory, Andy (2002), International Who's Who in Popular Music 2002, Europa, p. 562.
The Beormingas (from Old English) were a tribe or clan in Anglo-Saxon England, whose territory possibly formed a regio or early administrative subdivision of the Kingdom of Mercia.
Beshara were a British reggae band from Moseley, Birmingham, that formed in 1976.
Bhaṅgṛā (بھنگڑ(Shahmukhi), ਭੰਗੜਾ (Gurmukhi)) is a type of upbeat popular music associated with India and the diaspora of southeast Asia into the North America and Europe.
The Big City Plan is a major development plan for the city centre of Birmingham, England.
Big City Radio (formerly Aston FM) is a British community radio station based in Aston, Birmingham.
William Thomas Ward (born 5 May 1948) is an English musician and visual artist, best known as the original drummer of the British heavy metal band Black Sabbath.
Billesley Common is a recreational area of public open space in South Birmingham, England.
Bilston is a town in the English county of West Midlands, situated in the southeastern corner of the City of Wolverhampton.
Birchfield Harriers is an athletics club, founded in 1877.
Bird's Custard is the brand name for the original powdered, egg-free imitation custard powder, now owned by Premier Foods.
Birmingham and Solihull Rugby Football Club is a rugby union club representing Birmingham and Solihull which was formed in 1989 by a merger of the original Birmingham (founded 1911) and Solihull rugby clubs, which were both established over 60 years ago.
Birmingham Airport, formerly Birmingham International Airport and before that, Elmdon Airport, is an international airport located east southeast of Birmingham city centre, slightly north of Bickenhill in the Metropolitan Borough of Solihull, England.
The Birmingham and District Cricket League is the oldest club cricket league in the world, formed in 1888.
The Birmingham Back to Backs (also known as Court 15) are the city's last surviving court of back-to-back houses.
The Birmingham Blitz was the heavy bombing by the Nazi German Luftwaffe of the city of Birmingham and surrounding towns in central England, beginning on 9 August 1940 and ending on 23 April 1943.
The Blue Coat School is a preparatory school in Birmingham, England for children aged 2 to 11.
The Birmingham Botanical Gardens are a botanical garden situated in Edgbaston, Birmingham, England.
Birmingham RLFC are a rugby league team based in Birmingham.
The Birmingham Bulls are an American football team based in Birmingham, United Kingdom.
Birmingham Business School (BBS) is the business school of the University of Birmingham in England.
Birmingham Central Library was the main public library in Birmingham, England, from 1974 until 2013.
Birmingham Central Mosque, is a mosque in the Highgate area of Birmingham, England, run by the Birmingham Mosque Trust.
Birmingham Children's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, ran Birmingham Children's Hospital, a children's hospital located in Birmingham, England.
Birmingham City Business School is a school within Birmingham City University based on the university's City North campus in Perry Barr, Birmingham.
Birmingham city centre, or Central Birmingham, known by locals as "town" is the business, retail and leisure hub of Birmingham, West Midlands.
Birmingham City Council is the local government body responsible for the governance of the City of Birmingham in England, which has been a metropolitan district since 1974.
Birmingham City Football Club is a professional association football club based in the city of Birmingham, England.
Birmingham City Organist is an appointment made by the City of Birmingham.
Birmingham City University (abbrev. BCU) is a modern university in the city of Birmingham, England.
The Birmingham Classic (currently sponsored by Nature Valley) is a premier level women's tennis tournament on the WTA Tour held at the Edgbaston Priory Club in Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
Birmingham Coach Station (formerly Digbeth Coach Station) is a major coach interchange in Digbeth, Birmingham, England offering services to destinations throughout the island of Great Britain and also to Belfast and Dublin.
Birmingham Comedy Festival is an annual arts festival in the city of Birmingham.
Birmingham Contemporary Music Group (BCMG) is a British chamber ensemble based in Birmingham, England specialising in the performance of new and contemporary music.
The Birmingham Corporation Water Department was responsible for the supply of water to Birmingham, England, from 1876 to 1974.
Birmingham Curzon Street railway station is a planned High Speed 2 terminus station in the city centre of Birmingham, England.
The Birmingham Gay Village is an LGBT district or "gaybourhood" next to the Chinese Quarter in Birmingham city centre, centred along Hurst Street, which hosts many LGBT-friendly businesses.
The Birmingham Group, sometimes called the Birmingham School, was an informal collective of painters and craftsmen associated with the Arts and Crafts Movement, that worked in Birmingham, England in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
The Birmingham Hippodrome is a theatre situated on Hurst Street in the Chinese Quarter of Birmingham, England.
The Birmingham Indoor Grand Prix, formerly known as Aviva Indoor Grand Prix, is an annual indoor track and field competition which is held in mid-February at the Arena Birmingham in Birmingham, England.
The Birmingham Institute of Art and Design (officially abbreviated as BIAD) was the art and design faculty of Birmingham City University in Birmingham, England.
Birmingham International Carnival takes place biennially in August in Birmingham, England.
The Birmingham Mail or the Black Country Mail in the Black Country is a tabloid newspaper based in Birmingham, England but distributed around Birmingham, The Black Country, and Solihull and parts of Warwickshire, Worcestershire and Staffordshire.
The Birmingham Manor House or Birmingham Moat was a moated site that formed the seat of the Lord of the Manor of Birmingham, England during the Middle Ages, remaining the property of the de Birmingham family until 1536.
Birmingham Metropolitan College is a further and higher education college with 10 campuses distributed within Birmingham, England.
Birmingham Moor Street is one of three main railway stations in the city centre of Birmingham, England, along with Birmingham New Street and Birmingham Snow Hill.
Birmingham Moseley Rugby Club is an English rugby union club, based in Birmingham, that compete in the third tier of English rugby.
Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery (BM&AG) is a museum and art gallery in Birmingham, England.
Birmingham Museums Trust is the largest independent charitable trust of museums in the United Kingdom.
Birmingham New Street is the largest and busiest of the three main railway stations in the Birmingham City Centre, England.
Birmingham Opera Company is a professional opera company based in Birmingham, England, that specialises in innovative and avant-garde productions of the operatic repertoire, often in unusual venues.
The Birmingham Oratory is an English Catholic religious community of the Congregation of the Oratory of St.
The Cathedral Church of the Dormition of the Mother of God and St.
The Birmingham Plateau is a plateau in the Midlands of England.
The Birmingham Political Union (General Political Union) was a grass roots pressure group in Great Britain during the 1830s.
The Birmingham Post is a weekly printed newspaper based in Birmingham, England, with a circulation of 6,667 and distribution throughout the West Midlands. First published under the name the Birmingham Daily Post in 1857, it has had a succession of distinguished editors and has played an influential role in the life and politics of the city.
Birmingham Pride is a weekend-long LGBTQ+ festival held annually in the Gay Village, Hurst Street, Birmingham, England, over the Spring Bank Holiday weekend.
Birmingham Repertory Theatre, commonly called Birmingham Rep or just The Rep, is a producing theatre based on Centenary Square in Birmingham, England.
Birmingham Royal Ballet (BRB) is one of the three major ballet companies of the United Kingdom, alongside The Royal Ballet and the English National Ballet.
The Birmingham School was a group of landscape artists working in Birmingham, England in the late 18th and early 19th centuries; descending from Daniel Bond, who was active in the 1760s, and including well-known later figures such as Thomas Creswick, Thomas Baker and David Cox, who was to become an early precursor of impressionism.
Birmingham School of Acting (BSA), previously known as Birmingham School of Speech Training and Dramatic Art (BSSTDA) and then as Birmingham School of Speech and Drama (BSSD) was a drama school located in Birmingham, England.
The Birmingham School of Art was a municipal art school based in the centre of Birmingham, England.
The Birmingham Science Fiction Group (BSFG), also known as the "Brum Group", held its first meeting on 25 June 1971.
Birmingham Snow Hill is a railway station and tram stop in the Birmingham City Centre, England.
The Birmingham Surrealists were an informal grouping of artists and intellectuals associated with the Surrealist movement in art, based in Birmingham, England from the 1930s to the 1950s.
The Birmingham Tattoo is held annually at the Barclaycard Arena previously known as the National Indoor Arena in the centre of Birmingham, England.
The Birmingham tornado of 2005 was one of the strongest tornadoes recorded in the United Kingdom in nearly 30 years, occurring on 28 July 2005 in the suburbs of Birmingham. It formed on a day when strong tornadoes were expected to develop across the Midlands and eastern England. The tornado struck at approximately 2.30pm BST in the Sparkbrook area of the city, also affecting King's Heath, Moseley and Balsall Heath as it carved 7 kilometre-long path through the city. Its main effects were felt in the Ladypool Road which bore the brunt of the damage. Ladypool Primary School was extensively damaged and lost its distinctive Martin & Chamberlain tower. The adjacent St Agatha's Church also suffered some damage. Christ Church (consecrated 1867), on the corner of Dolobran Road and Grantham Road in Sparkbrook was also damaged and has now been demolished. The Met Office and TORRO (The Tornado and Storm Research Organisation) has estimated that the tornado had a general T4 rating on the TORRO scale with a short spell as a T5/6 tornado, which would mean wind speeds between, equivalent to an F2 on the Fujita scale Or EF3 on the enhanced fujita scale There were no fatalities, although there were approximately 19 injuries, three of which were reported to be serious. The tornado uprooted an estimated 1000 trees, removed the roofs of buildings, picked up and deposited cars and caused other damage during its short existence. The total cost of damage has been put at £40 million, making it the most costly tornado in British history. While the United Kingdom has more reported tornadoes, relative to its land area, than any other country excluding the Netherlands, the vast majority are weak. The strongest recorded tornado in the country struck Portsmouth on 14 December 1810 with a T8 (F4) rating and a top wind speed of.
Birmingham Town Hall is a Grade I listed concert hall and venue for popular assemblies opened in 1834 and situated in Victoria Square, Birmingham, England.
The Birmingham Triennial Musical Festival, in Birmingham, England, founded in 1784, was the longest-running classical music festival of its kind.
The Birmingham Wholesale Markets are the largest combined wholesale food markets in the United Kingdom, with 235 trading units totalling.
Birmingham Wildlife Conservation Park (formerly Birmingham Nature Centre, and before that Birmingham Zoo) is a small zoo on the edge of Cannon Hill Park in Birmingham, England.
Birmingham Women's and Children's NHS Foundation Trust ran Birmingham Women's Hospital in the Edgbaston area of Birmingham, situated very close to the University of Birmingham.
Black British are British citizens of Black origins or heritage, including those of African-Caribbean (sometimes called "Afro-Caribbean") background, and may include people with mixed ancestry.
The Black Country is a region of the West Midlands in England, west of Birmingham, and commonly refers to all or part of the four Metropolitan Boroughs of Dudley, Sandwell, Walsall and Wolverhampton.
Black Sabbath were an English rock band, formed in Birmingham in 1968, by guitarist and main songwriter Tony Iommi, bassist and main lyricist Geezer Butler, drummer Bill Ward and singer Ozzy Osbourne.
Blakesley Hall (a grade II* listed building) is a Tudor hall on Blakesley Road in Yardley, Birmingham, England.
A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals, generally pig iron, but also others such as lead or copper.
The BLK Art Group was the name chosen in 1982 by a group of four influential conceptual artists, painters, sculptors and installation artists based in the United Kingdom.
The Blue Orange Theatre is an independent theatre located in the Jewellery Quarter in the centre of Birmingham, England.
Tamworth is a local government district with borough status in Staffordshire in England.
Bournville is a model village on the south side of Birmingham, England, best known for its connections with the Cadbury family and chocolate – including a dark chocolate bar branded Bournville.
Bournville College is a further education college based in Longbridge, Birmingham.
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.
BPP University is a private university specialising in law, business, finance, accountancy, banking, chiropractic, dentistry, nursing, psychology and healthcare.
The Honourable Brian Charles Lara, (born 2 May 1969) is a Trinidadian former international cricketer.
Brierley Hill is a small town and electoral ward of the Dudley Metropolitan Borough, in the West Midlands of England, and is situated approximately 2.5 miles south of central Dudley and 2 miles north of Stourbridge.
Brighton is a seaside resort on the south coast of England which is part of the city of Brighton and Hove, East Sussex, 47 miles (75 km) south of London.
Brindleyplace is a large mixed-use canalside development, in the Westside district of Birmingham, England.
British African Caribbean (or Afro-Caribbean) people are residents of the United Kingdom whose ancestors were primarily indigenous to Africa.
British Arabs (عرب بريطانيا) are citizens or residents of the United Kingdom that are of Arab ethnic, cultural and linguistic heritage or identity from Arab countries.
British Asians (also referred as South Asians in the United Kingdom, Asian British people or Asian Britons) are persons of South Asian descent who reside in the United Kingdom.
British Bangladeshis (ব্রিটিশ বাংলাদেশি) are people of Bangladeshi origin who have attained citizenship in the United Kingdom, through immigration and historical naturalisation.
British Chinese (also known as Chinese British, Chinese Britons) are people of Chineseparticularly Han Chineseancestry who reside in the United Kingdom, constituting the second or third largest group of overseas Chinese in Europe apart from the Chinese diaspora in France and the overseas Chinese community in Russia.
British Indians (also Indian British or Indian Britons) are citizens of the United Kingdom (UK) whose ancestral roots lie in India.
The British Masters is a professional golf tournament.
The British nobility are the Noble Houses and Gentry families of the United Kingdom.
British Pakistanis (پاکستانی نژاد برطانوی; also known as Pakistani British people or Pakistani Britons) are citizens or residents of the United Kingdom whose ancestral roots lie in Pakistan.
During British Summer Time (BST), civil time in the United Kingdom is advanced one hour forward of Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) (in effect, changing the time zone from UTC+0 to UTC+1), so that evenings have more daylight and mornings have less.
Broad Street is a major thoroughfare and popular nightspot centre Birmingham City Centre, United Kingdom.
Broadcast are an English indie electronic band, founded in Birmingham, England in 1995 by Trish Keenan (vocals, keyboards, guitar) and James Cargill (bass).
The Bromford Viaduct carries the M6 motorway between Castle Bromwich (junction 5) and Gravelly Hill (junction 6) along the River Tame valley in Birmingham, England.
Bromsgrove is a town in Worcestershire, England.
Bromsgrove is a local government district in Worcestershire, England.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Brummagem (and historically also Bromichan, Bremicham and many similar variants, all essentially "Bromwich-ham") is the local name for the city of Birmingham, England, and the dialect associated with it.
Brummie or Brummy is the English dialect of Birmingham, England.
Brutalist architecture flourished from 1951 to 1975, having descended from the modernist architectural movement of the early 20th century.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
A building society is a financial institution owned by its members as a mutual organization.
The Bullring is a major commercial area of central Birmingham.
Bunter Pebble Beds are sandstone deposits containing rounded pebbles.
A burnt mound is an archaeological feature consisting of a mound of shattered stones and charcoal, normally with an adjacent hearth and trough.
This is a list of the busiest airports in the United Kingdom, Channel Islands, and Isle of Man ranked by total passenger traffic, compiled from Civil Aviation Authority data from 2006 to 2016.
A business school is a university-level institution that confers degrees in business administration or management.
Cadbury, formerly Cadbury's and Cadbury Schweppes, is a British multinational confectionery company wholly owned by Mondelez International (originally Kraft Foods) since 2010.
Cadbury World is a visitor attraction, featuring a self-guided exhibition tour, created and run by the Cadbury chocolate company.
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.
Canals, or navigations, are human-made channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles.
Giovanni Antonio Canal (18 October 1697 – 19 April 1768), better known as Canaletto, was an Italian painter of city views or vedute, of Venice, Rome, and London.
The canals of the United Kingdom are a major part of the network of inland waterways in the United Kingdom.
Cannock Chase is a local government district in England.
Cannon Hill Park is a park located in south Birmingham, England.
In economics, capital consists of an asset that can enhance one's power to perform economically useful work.
Capital Birmingham is a local radio station owned and operated by Global Radio as part of the Capital radio network.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%.
Castle Bromwich is a suburb situated within Solihull in the English county of the West Midlands.
Castle Vale is a housing estate located between Erdington, Minworth and Castle Bromwich.
Catherine O'Flynn (born 1970) is a British writer.
The Catholic Church in England and Wales is part of the worldwide Catholic Church in full communion with the Pope.
The term Cavalier was first used by Roundheads as a term of abuse for the wealthier Royalist supporters of King Charles I and his son Charles II of England during the English Civil War, the Interregnum, and the Restoration (1642 – c. 1679).
The cavity magnetron is a high-powered vacuum tube that generates microwaves using the interaction of a stream of electrons with a magnetic field while moving past a series of open metal cavities (cavity resonators).
The CBSO Centre is the administrative home and rehearsal centre of the City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra, the City of Birmingham Symphony Choruses (City of Birmingham Symphony Chorus, City of Birmingham Symphony Youth Chorus and City of Birmingham Young Voices), and Birmingham Contemporary Music Group on the corner of Berkley Street and Holliday Street, in Birmingham, England.
Centenary Square is a public square on the north side of Broad Street in Birmingham, England, named in 1989 to commemorate the centenary of Birmingham achieving city status.
The Centre of the Earth is a purpose-built environmental education centre in Birmingham, England, run by the Wildlife Trust for Birmingham and the Black Country.
Ceramic art is art made from ceramic materials, including clay.
The ceremonial counties, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England, are areas of England to which a Lord Lieutenant is appointed.
Changchun is the capital and largest city of Jilin Province, and is also the core city of Northeast Asia.
Charles-François Gounod (17 June 181817 or 18 October 1893) was a French composer, best known for his Ave Maria, based on a work by Bach, as well as his opera Faust.
The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals.
Cheshire (archaically the County Palatine of Chester) is a county in North West England, bordering Merseyside and Greater Manchester to the north, Derbyshire to the east, Staffordshire and Shropshire to the south and Flintshire, Wales and Wrexham county borough to the west.
The Cheshire Plain is a relatively flat expanse of lowland almost entirely within the county of Cheshire in North West England.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
Child protection is the protection of children from violence, exploitation, abuse and neglect.
Chiltern Railways is a British train operating company owned by Arriva UK Trains that has operated the Chiltern Railways franchise since July 1996.
The Chinese Quarter of Birmingham, England is located in the city centre's Southside.
The Christadelphians are a millenarian Christian group who hold a view of Biblical Unitarianism.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
A Christmas market, also known as Christkindlmarkt (literally: Baby Jesus Market), Christkindlesmarkt, Christkindlmarket, Christkindlimarkt, and Weihnachtsmarkt, is a street market associated with the celebration of Christmas during the four weeks of Advent.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
The Church of England (C of E) is the state church of England.
CITV (short for Children's ITV) is a British free-to-air children's television channel from ITV Digital Channels Ltd, a division of ITV plc. It broadcasts content from the CITV archive and acquisitions, every day from 6 am to 9 pm which was previously 6 am to 6 pm until 21 February 2016 (although Freeview viewers still close at 6 pm) in an attempt to compete with CBBC. It is also the title of a programming block on the ITV network at weekends. Children's ITV launched on 3 January 1983, as a late afternoon programming block on the ITV network.At this point, there was only one "ITV" channel in any given area- transmitter overlap and split weekday/weekend franchises aside- and "ITV" was solely a generic/collective name for the various regional commercial television stations. It replaced the earlier Watch It! branding and introduced networked in-vision continuity links between programmes. These links were originally pre-recorded from a small London studio, up until 1987 when Central won the contract to produce live links from their Birmingham studios. In 2004, presentation of CITV was relocated to Granada Television in Manchester, which saw the demise of in-vision continuity. Nine years later, the operations moved to ITV Granada's MediaCityUK studios in Salford. In 2006, CITV launched as a channel in its own right. The CITV channel averages around 100,000 viewers between 4pm-6pm every day. The CITV strand on the ITV network airs on weekend mornings from 6 am to 9:25 am, as part of the ITV Breakfast time slot.
A city is a large human settlement.
City Hospital (formerly Dudley Road Hospital, and still commonly referred to as such) is a major hospital located in Birmingham, England, operated by the Sandwell and West Birmingham Hospitals NHS Trust.
The City of Birmingham Symphony Orchestra (CBSO) is a British orchestra based in Birmingham, England.
The City of London is a city and county that contains the historic centre and the primary central business district (CBD) of London.
The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough which also holds city status.
A city proper is the area contained within city limits.
City status is a symbolic and legal designation given by a national or subnational government.
City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the monarch of the United Kingdom to a select group of communities:, there are 69 cities in the United Kingdom – 51 in England, six in Wales, seven in Scotland and five in Northern Ireland.
The Civil Aviation Authority (CAA) is the statutory corporation which oversees and regulates all aspects of civil aviation in the United Kingdom.
A civil union, also referred to by a variety of other names, is a legally recognized arrangement similar to marriage.
Clare Morrall (born 1952) is an English novelist.
Although few records have survived to illustrate the culture of medieval Birmingham, there is evidence to suggest that the town supported a significant culture of religious music throughout the late Middle Ages.
A number of different systems of classification of ethnicity in the United Kingdom exist.
Claude Lorrain (born Claude Gellée, called le Lorrain in French; traditionally just Claude in English; c. 1600 – 23 November 1682) was a French painter, draughtsman and etcher of the Baroque era.
The Clent Hills lie south-west of Birmingham city centre in Clent, Worcestershire, England.
Coalbrookdale is a village in the Ironbridge Gorge in Shropshire, England, containing a settlement of great significance in the history of iron ore smelting.
COBRA (or CoBrA) was a European avant-garde movement active from 1948 to 1951.
Coke is a fuel with a high carbon content and few impurities, usually made from coal.
In economics, a commodity is an economic good or service that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
Community radio is a radio service offering a third model of radio broadcasting in addition to commercial and public broadcasting.
A community school in England and Wales is a type of state-funded school in which the local authority (LA) employs the school's staff, is responsible for the school's admissions and owns the school's estate.
Commuting is periodically recurring travel between one's place of residence and place of work, or study, and in doing so exceed the boundary of their residential community.
The Conservative Party, officially the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom.
A conurbation is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns, and other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban or industrially developed area.
The Coptic Orthodox Diocese of the Midlands, UK is under the care of Bishop Missael.
The Core Cities Group (also Core Cities UK) is a self-selected and self-financed collaborative advocacy group of large regional cities in the United Kingdom outside Greater London.
Cotton-spinning machinery refers to machines which process (or spin) prepared cotton roving into workable yarn or thread.
Birmingham City Council House in Birmingham, England, is the home of Birmingham City Council, and thus the seat of local government for the city.
A Councillor is a member of a local government council.
The United Kingdom (UK) comprises four countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales.
The County Championship, currently known as the Specsavers County Championship for sponsorship reasons, is the domestic first-class cricket competition in England and Wales and is organised by the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB).
Coventry is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England.
The Crescent Theatre is a small, amateur theatre run mostly by volunteers, in Sheepcote Street, Brindleyplace, in Birmingham, England.
CrossCountry (legal name XC Trains Limited) is a train operating company in the United Kingdom owned by Arriva UK Trains, operating the New Cross Country franchise.
Crossroads is a British television soap opera that ran on ITV over two periods – the original 1964 to 1988 run, followed by a short revival from 2001 to 2003.
Cultural pluralism is a term used when smaller groups within a larger society maintain their unique cultural identities, and their values and practices are accepted by the wider culture provided they are consistent with the laws and values of the wider society.
The culture of Africa is varied and manifold, consisting of a mixture of countries with various tribes that each have their own unique characteristics from the continent of Africa.
Curry (sometimes, plural curries) is an umbrella term referring to a number of dishes originating in the cuisine of the Indian subcontinent.
The Custard Factory is an independent shopping destination and creative and digital business workspace location in Digbeth Birmingham, England.
Damson Park (known as the Automated Technology Group Stadium for sponsorship reasons) is a stadium in Damson Parkway, Solihull, West Midlands, England.
John Daniel Bond (1725 – 18 December 1803) was an English painter.
David Garshen Bomberg (5 December 1890 – 19 August 1957) was an English painter, and one of the Whitechapel Boys.
David Cox (29 April 1783 – 7 June 1859) was an English landscape painter, one of the most important members of the Birmingham School of landscape artists and an early precursor of Impressionism.
David Edgar (born 26 February 1948) is a British playwright and writer who has had more than sixty of his plays published and performed on stage, radio and television around the world, making him one of the most prolific dramatists of the post-1960s generation in Great Britain.
David John Lodge CBE (born 28 January 1935) is an English author and literary critic.
The Days of May was a period of social unrest and political tension in the United Kingdom in May 1832, after Tories in the House of Lords blocked the Third Reform Bill, which aimed to extend parliamentary representation to the middle class and to the newly industrialised cities of the English Midlands and the North of England.
The de Birmingham family held the lordship of Birmingham in England for four hundred years and managed its growth from a small village into a thriving market town.
Deluka are a British indie rock and new wave band.
In the feudal system, the demesne was all the land which was retained by a lord of the manor for his own use and support, under his own management, as distinguished from land sub-enfeoffed by him to others as sub-tenants.
Denny Laine (born Brian Frederick Hines, 29 October 1944) is an English musician, singer, songwriter and guitarist.
The Designation Scheme is an English system that awards "Designated status" to museum, library and archive collections of national and international importance.
Dexys Midnight Runners (currently officially Dexys, their former nickname, styled without an apostrophe) are an English pop band with soul influences, who achieved their major success in the early to mid-1980s.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
Digbeth is an area of Central Birmingham, England.
The O2 Institute (originally known as the Digbeth Institute) is a music venue located in Birmingham, England.
A disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these.
The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any system so that participants may specialize.
Domesday Book (or; Latin: Liber de Wintonia "Book of Winchester") is a manuscript record of the "Great Survey" of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of King William the Conqueror.
A drainage divide, water divide, divide, ridgeline, watershed, or water parting is the line that separates neighbouring drainage basins.
Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.
Duran Duran are an English new wave and synthpop band formed in Birmingham in 1978.
Durban (eThekwini, from itheku meaning "bay/lagoon") is the largest city in the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal and the third most populous in South Africa after Johannesburg and Cape Town.
The early 1980s recession was a severe global economic recession that affected much of the developed world in the late 1970s and early 1980s.
East Staffordshire is a local government district with borough status in Staffordshire in England.
The Eastbourne International is a tennis tournament on the Women's Tennis Association Tour and the ATP World Tour held at the Devonshire Park Lawn Tennis Club, Eastbourne, United Kingdom.
Eastside Projects is an artist-run space in the Digbeth area of Birmingham, England.
Eastside is a district of Birmingham City Centre, England that is undergoing a major redevelopment project.
In microeconomics, economies of scale are the cost advantages that enterprises obtain due to their scale of operation (typically measured by amount of output produced), with cost per unit of output decreasing with increasing scale.
Edgbaston is an affluent suburban area of central Birmingham, England, curved around the southwest of the city centre.
Edgbaston Archery and Lawn Tennis Society, informally known as The Archery and based in the Edgbaston area of Birmingham, England, is the oldest lawn tennis club in the world.
Edgbaston Cricket Ground, also known as the County Ground or Edgbaston Stadium, is a cricket ground in the Edgbaston area of Birmingham, England.
Edgbaston High School for Girls is an independent day school for girls aged 2½ to 18 in the Edgbaston area of Birmingham, England.
The Edgbaston Priory Club is a private members' tennis, squash and leisure club in Birmingham, England.
Edgbaston Reservoir, originally known as Rotton Park Reservoir and referred to in some early maps as Rock Pool Reservoir, is a canal feeder reservoir in Birmingham, England.
Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.
Edinburgh Airport (Edinburgh Airport, Port-adhair Dhùn Èideann) is an airport located in the Ingliston area of the City of Edinburgh, Scotland.
Edinburgh Waverley railway station (also known simply as Waverley) is the principal station serving Edinburgh, the capital city of Scotland.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones, 1st Baronet (28 August 183317 June 1898) was a British artist and designer closely associated with the later phase of the Pre-Raphaelite movement, who worked closely with William Morris on a wide range of decorative arts as a founding partner in Morris, Marshall, Faulkner & Co.
Sir Edward William Elgar, 1st Baronet (2 June 1857 – 23 February 1934) was an English composer, many of whose works have entered the British and international classical concert repertoire.
The Edwardian era or Edwardian period of British history covers the brief reign of King Edward VII, 1901 to 1910, and is sometimes extended in both directions to capture long-term trends from the 1890s to the First World War.
The English Football League Championship (often referred to as the Championship for short or the Sky Bet Championship for sponsorship reasons) is the highest division of the English Football League (EFL) and second-highest overall in the English football league system, after the Premier League.
The Elan aqueduct crosses Wales and the Midlands of England, running eastwards from the Elan Valley Reservoirs in Mid Wales to Birmingham's Frankley Reservoir, carrying drinking water for Birmingham.
The Elan Valley Reservoirs are a chain of man-made lakes created from damming the Elan and Claerwen rivers within the Elan Valley in Mid Wales.
An electoral district, (election) precinct, election district, or legislative district, called a voting district by the US Census (also known as a constituency, riding, ward, division, electoral area, or electorate) is a territorial subdivision for electing members to a legislative body.
The Electric Light Orchestra (ELO) are an English rock band formed in Birmingham in 1970, by songwriters/multi-instrumentalists Jeff Lynne and Roy Wood with drummer Bev Bevan.
Elmhurst School for Dance is an independent school for professional Classical Ballet in the United Kingdom.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom.
The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.
The English Football League (EFL) is a league competition featuring professional football clubs from England and Wales.
The English Open was a professional golf tournament on the European Tour.
The English Reformation was a series of events in 16th century England by which the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church.
Entrepreneurship is the process of designing, launching and running a new business, which is often initially a small business.
Erdington is a suburb and ward of Birmingham that is historically part of Warwickshire.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) are elected by the population of the member states of the European Union (EU), divided into constituencies.
The European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) is a fund allocated by the European Union.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.
Euston railway station (also known as London Euston) is a central London railway terminus on Euston Road in the London Borough of Camden, managed by Network Rail.
Ex Cathedra is a leading British choir and early music ensemble based in Birmingham in the West Midlands, England.
The factory system is a method of manufacturing using machinery and division of labour.
Felicia's Journey is a novel written by William Trevor, first published in 1994.
Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy (3 February 1809 4 November 1847), born and widely known as Felix Mendelssohn, was a German composer, pianist, organist and conductor of the early romantic period.
Felt were an English alternative rock band, formed in 1979 in Water Orton, Warwickshire and led by the mononymous Lawrence.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
Field hockey is a team game of the hockey family.
A financial centre is a location that is home to a cluster of nationally or internationally significant financial services providers such as banks, investment managers, or stock exchanges.
Financial services are the economic services provided by the finance industry, which encompasses a broad range of businesses that manage money, including credit unions, banks, credit-card companies, insurance companies, accountancy companies, consumer-finance companies, stock brokerages, investment funds, individual managers and some government-sponsored enterprises.
Fine Young Cannibals were a British rock music band formed in Birmingham, England, in 1984, by bassist David Steele, guitarist Andy Cox (both formerly of The Beat),Fine Young Cannibals and Cherry are success stories; Chris Heim..
Fircroft College is a specialist adult residential college based in Selly Oak, Birmingham, England.
First-class cricket is an official classification of the highest-standard international or domestic matches in the sport of cricket.
Five Ways is an area of central Birmingham, England.
Flybe (pronounced) based in Exeter, England, is the largest independent regional airline in Europe.
As with any large town or city, food and drink has played an important role in the commerce and culture of Birmingham, England.
The Forest of Arden Hotel & Country Club is a hotel and country club complex in England.
A forge is a type of hearth used for heating metals, or the workplace (smithy) where such a hearth is located.
The Foundation of the Schools of King Edward VI in Birmingham is a charitable institution that operates two independent schools, five voluntary aided selective state schools in Birmingham, England and one academy.
Air Commodore Sir Frank Whittle (1 June 1907 – 9 August 1996) was a British Royal Air Force air officer.
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
The Frankfurt Christmas Market (in German: Frankfurter Weinachtmarkt) is an annual outdoor Christmas market in central Frankfurt, Hessen, Germany.
The Frankfurt Christmas Market and Craft Market is an annual outdoor Christmas market and craft fair held in central Birmingham, England.
Frankley is a village and civil parish in the Bromsgrove district of Worcestershire, near the border with Birmingham.
Frankley Reservoir is a semi-circular reservoir for drinking water in Birmingham, England.
Free newspapers are distributed free of charge, often in central places in cities and towns, on public transport, with other newspapers, or separately door-to-door.
Free Radio 80s is an Independent Local Radio station serving the Birmingham, Coventry, Shropshire and Black Country Herefordshire and Worcestershire areas, broadcasting on medium wave and DAB.
Free Radio Birmingham (formerly BRMB) is an Independent Local Radio station serving Birmingham and surrounding areas.
Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients.
Friends of the Earth International (FoEI) is an international network of environmental organizations in 74 countries.
The Frisch–Peierls memorandum was the first technical exposition of a practical nuclear weapon.
A furnace is a device used for high-temperature heating.
Further education (often abbreviated FE) in the United Kingdom and Ireland is education in addition to that received at secondary school, that is distinct from the higher education (HE) offered in universities and other academic institutions.
Future Systems was a London-based architectural and design practice, formerly headed by Directors Jan Kaplický and Amanda Levete.
Fyfe Antony Dangerfield Hutchins (born 7 July 1980) is an English musician and songwriter, best known as the founding member of the indie rock band Guillemots.
Terence Michael Joseph "Geezer" Butler (born 17 July 1949) is an English musician and songwriter.
The General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) is an academic qualification, generally taken in a number of subjects by pupils in secondary education in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
The Genting Group is a company headquartered in the Wisma Genting in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
The Georgian era is a period in British history from 1714 to, named eponymously after kings George I, George II, George III and George IV.
Central Jamia Mosque Ghamkol Sharif is a Sunni mosque in Small Heath area of Birmingham, England.
Gillian Wearing OBE RA (born 1963) is an English conceptual artist, one of the Young British Artists, and winner of the annual British fine arts award, the Turner Prize, in 1997.
Giovanni Bellini (c. 1430 – 26 November 1516) was an Italian Renaissance painter, probably the best known of the Bellini family of Venetian painters.
Glasgow (Glesga; Glaschu) is the largest city in Scotland, and third most populous in the United Kingdom.
Glasgow Central (Glaschu Mheadhain, Glesga Central) (also known simply as Central) is the major mainline rail terminus in Glasgow, Scotland.
A global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center, is a city which is a primary node in the global economic network.
The Globalization and World Cities Research Network, commonly abbreviated to GaWC, is a think tank that studies the relationships between world cities in the context of globalization.
Glynn Purnell (born 4 January 1975 in Birmingham, England) is an English chef and restaurateur.
Godflesh are an English industrial metal band from Birmingham, England.
A golf course is the grounds where the game of golf is played.
Good Hope Hospital is a hospital in the Sutton Coldfield area of Birmingham, England.
The Government of the United Kingdom, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
The Government Statistical Service (GSS) is the community of all civil servants who work in the collection, production and communication of UK official statistics.
Graham Vick CBE (born 30 December 1953 in Birkenhead) is an English opera director known for his experimental and revisionist stagings of traditional and modern operas.
Grand Central for New Street Station tram stop is a tram stop on the city-centre extension of Line 1 of the Midland Metro.
The Grand Junction Railway (GJR) was an early railway company in the United Kingdom, which existed between 1833 and 1846 when it was amalgamated with other railways to form the London and North Western Railway.
Sir Granville Ransome Bantock (7 August 186816 October 1946) was a British composer of classical music.
Graphic design is the process of visual communication and problem-solving through the use of typography, photography and illustration.
Gravelly Hill Interchange, better known throughout the UK by its nickname Spaghetti Junction, is junction 6 of the M6 motorway where it meets the A38(M) Aston Expressway in the Gravelly Hill area of Birmingham, England.
The Greater Birmingham & Solihull Local Enterprise Partnership (GBSLEP) is one of 39 Local Enterprise Partnerships set up by Government to drive economic development in England.
Greater London is a region of England which forms the administrative boundaries of London, as well as a county for the purposes of the lieutenancies.
The Greek Revival was an architectural movement of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, predominantly in Northern Europe and the United States.
In United Kingdom town planning, the green belt is a policy for controlling urban growth.
Greenfield land is undeveloped land in a city or rural area either used for agriculture or landscape design, or left to evolve naturally.
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London.
Greyhound racing is an organized, competitive sport in which greyhound dogs are raced around a track.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
In economics, gross value added (GVA) is the measure of the value of goods and services produced in an area, industry or sector of an economy.
Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.
The Guild or Gild of the Holy Cross was a medieval religious guild in Birmingham, England.
The Gun Quarter is a district of the city of Birmingham, England, which was for many years a centre of the world's gun-manufacturing industry, specialising in the production of military firearms and sporting guns.
A gurdwara (ਗੁਰਦੁਆਰਾ, or ਗੁਰਦਵਾਰਾ,; meaning "door to the guru") is a place of worship for Sikhs.
Hall Green is an area in south-east Birmingham, England.
Handsworth Park (originally Victoria Park) is a park in the Handsworth area of Birmingham, England.
Harborne is an area of south-west Birmingham, England three miles (5 km) southwest from Birmingham city centre.
Major Thomas Henry Gem (21 May 1819 – 4 November 1881), known as Harry Gem, was an English lawyer, soldier, writer and sportsman.
Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.
Healthcare in the West Midlands is now the responsibility of five Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCG): Birmingham and Solihull; Sandwell and West Birmingham; Dudley; Wolverhampton; and Walsall.
Heart West Midlands is a regional radio station owned and operated by Global Radio as part of the Heart network.
Heathrow Airport (also known as London Heathrow) is a major international airport in London, United Kingdom.
Heavy metal (or simply metal) is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United Kingdom.
Henry Boot (1851–1931) was the founder of Henry Boot PLC.
Sir Herbert John Baptista Manzoni CBE MICE (21 March 1899 – 18 November 1972) was a British civil engineer known for holding the position of City Engineer and Surveyor of Birmingham from 1935 until 1963.
High Speed 2 (HS2) is a planned high-speed railway in the United Kingdom, directly linking London, Birmingham, the East Midlands, Leeds and Manchester.
A high-rise building is a tall building, as opposed to a low-rise building and is defined by its height differently in various jurisdictions.
Higher education (also called post-secondary education, third-level or tertiary education) is an optional final stage of formal learning that occurs after completion of secondary education.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
The historic counties of England are areas that were established for administration by the Normans, in many cases based on earlier kingdoms and shires created by the Anglo-Saxons and others.
Historically informed performance (also referred to as period performance, authentic performance, or HIP) is an approach to the performance of classical music, which aims to be faithful to the approach, manner and style of the musical era in which a work was originally conceived.
Anglo-Saxon England was early medieval England, existing from the 5th to the 11th century from the end of Roman Britain until the Norman conquest in 1066.
The history of chocolate begins in Mesoamerica.
Hockley is a central inner-city district in the city of Birmingham, England.
Homo (Latin homō "human being") is the genus that encompasses the extant species Homo sapiens (modern humans), plus several extinct species classified as either ancestral to or closely related to modern humans (depending on a species), most notably Homo erectus and Homo neanderthalensis.
Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.
A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
A housing estate (or sometimes housing complex) is a group of homes and other buildings built together as a single development.
HP Sauce is a brown sauce originally produced by HP Foods in the United Kingdom, now produced by the H. J. Heinz Company in the Netherlands.
Hurst Street is the main street of the Birmingham Gay Village and is located along the edge of the Chinese Quarter of Birmingham, England.
The IAAF Diamond League is an annual series of elite track and field athletic competitions.
The IAAF Indoor Permit Meetings, formerly World Indoor Meetings, was an annual indoor athletics competition organised by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) until the end of 2015 season.
An IATA airport code, also known as an IATA location identifier, IATA station code or simply a location identifier, is a three-letter code designating many airports around the world, defined by the International Air Transport Association (IATA).
The Ikon Gallery is an English gallery of contemporary art, located in Brindleyplace, Birmingham.
IMI plc, formerly Imperial Metal Industries, is a British-based engineering company headquartered in Birmingham, England.
Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterised by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles.
Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves the combustion of organic substances contained in waste materials.
Independent music (often referred to as indie music or indie) is music produced independently from commercial record labels or their subsidiaries, a process that may include an autonomous, do-it-yourself approach to recording and publishing.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
In sociology, industrial society is a society driven by the use of technology to enable mass production, supporting a large population with a high capacity for division of labour.
Intensive care unit An intensive care unit (ICU), also known as an intensive therapy unit or intensive treatment unit (ITU) or critical care unit (CCU), is a special department of a hospital or health care facility that provides intensive treatment medicine.
The International Baccalaureate (IB), formerly known as the International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO), is an international educational foundation headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland and founded in 1968.
The International Convention Centre (abbreviated to ICC) is a major conference venue in central Birmingham, England.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Irish migration to Great Britain has occurred from the earliest recorded history to the present.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Ironmongery originally referred, first, to the manufacture of iron goods and, second, to the place of sale of such items for domestic rather than industrial use.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
ISO 3166-2:GB is the entry for the United Kingdom in ISO 3166-2, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which defines codes for the names of the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1.
Italian Baroque art is a term that is used here to refer to Italian painting and sculpture in the Baroque manner executed over a period that extended from the late sixteenth to the mid eighteenth centuries.
ITV Central, previously known as Central Independent Television, Carlton Central and popularly shortened to Central, is the Independent Television contractor for the Midlands, and was created following the restructuring of ATV and commencing broadcast on 1 January 1982.
ITV News Central is a regional television news and current affairs programme, produced by ITV Central, serving the English Midlands.
J Hudson & Co was founded in the 1870s in Birmingham by Joseph Hudson (1848–1930) and his brother James Hudson (1850–1888).
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, (Tolkien pronounced his surname, see his phonetic transcription published on the illustration in The Return of the Shadow: The History of The Lord of the Rings, Part One. Christopher Tolkien. London: Unwin Hyman, 1988. (The History of Middle-earth; 6). In General American the surname is also pronounced. This pronunciation no doubt arose by analogy with such words as toll and polka, or because speakers of General American realise as, while often hearing British as; thus or General American become the closest possible approximation to the Received Pronunciation for many American speakers. Wells, John. 1990. Longman pronunciation dictionary. Harlow: Longman, 3 January 1892 – 2 September 1973) was an English writer, poet, philologist, and university professor who is best known as the author of the classic high fantasy works The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, and The Silmarillion.
John Eugene Joseph Dromey (born 29 September 1948) is a British Labour Party politician and trade unionist.
Jaguar Land Rover Automotive PLC is the holding company of Jaguar Land Rover Limited, a British multinational automotive company with its headquarters in Whitley, Coventry, United Kingdom, and a subsidiary of Indian automotive company Tata Motors.
Jamelia Niela Davis (born 11 January 1981) is a British recording artist, television presenter and actress.
James Keir FRS (20 September 1735 – 11 October 1820) was a Scottish chemist, geologist, industrialist, and inventor, and an important member of the Lunar Society of Birmingham.
James Watt (30 January 1736 (19 January 1736 OS) – 25 August 1819) was a Scottish inventor, mechanical engineer, and chemist who improved on Thomas Newcomen's 1712 Newcomen steam engine with his Watt steam engine in 1781, which was fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native Great Britain and the rest of the world.
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.
Jeffrey Lynne (born 30 December 1947) is an English songwriter, singer, record producer, and multi-instrumentalist who co-founded the rock band Electric Light Orchestra (ELO).
Jessica Rose Phillips (born 9 October 1981) is a British politician.
A jet engine is a type of reaction engine discharging a fast-moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion.
Jewellery (British English) or jewelry (American English)see American and British spelling differences consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks.
The Jewellery Quarter is an area of central Birmingham, UK.
James Crace (born 1 March 1946) is an English writer and novelist.
James Anthony Patrick Carr (born 15 September 1972) is an English stand-up comedian, presenter, writer, and actor who holds both British and Irish citizenship.
Joan Anita Barbara Armatrading, MBE (born 9 December 1950) is a British singer-songwriter and guitarist.
Joel Lane (1963 – 26 November 2013) was a British novelist, short story writer, poet, critic and anthology editor.
Johannesburg (also known as Jozi, Joburg and Egoli) is the largest city in South Africa and is one of the 50 largest urban areas in the world.
John Bright (16 November 1811 – 27 March 1889) was a British Radical and Liberal statesman, one of the greatest orators of his generation and a promoter of free trade policies.
John Clancy is a Labour councillor for Quinton ward in Birmingham, England.
John Claudius Loudon (8 April 1783 – 14 December 1843) was a Scottish botanist, garden designer and author.
John Henry Newman, (21 February 1801 – 11 August 1890) was a poet and theologian, first an Anglican priest and later a Catholic priest and cardinal, who was an important and controversial figure in the religious history of England in the 19th century.
John George Lambton, 1st Earl of Durham, GCB, PC (12 April 1792 – 28 July 1840), also known as "Radical Jack" and commonly referred to in Canadian history texts simply as Lord Durham, was a British Whig statesman, colonial administrator, Governor General and high commissioner of British North America.
John Charles Lodge (born 20 July 1945) is an English musician, best known as bass guitarist, vocalist, and songwriter of the longstanding rock group the Moody Blues.
Sir John Turton Randall, (23 March 1905 – 16 June 1984) was a British physicist and biophysicist, credited with radical improvement of the cavity magnetron, an essential component of centimetric wavelength radar, which was one of the keys to the Allied victory in the Second World War.
John Roebuck of Kinneil FRS FRSE (1718 – 17 July 1794) was an English inventor and industrialist who played an important role in the Industrial Revolution and who is known for developing the industrial-scale manufacture of sulphuric acid.
John Salt (born 2 August 1937) is an English artist, whose greatly detailed paintings from the late 1960s onwards made him one of the pioneers of the photorealist school.
John Walker (born 1939) is an English painter and printmaker.
John Wyatt (April 1700 – 29 November 1766), an English inventor, was born near Lichfield and was related to Sarah Ford, Doctor Johnson's mother.
John Wyndham Parkes Lucas Beynon Harris (10 July 1903 – 11 March 1969) was an English science fiction writer best known for his works written using the pen name John Wyndham, although he also used other combinations of his names, such as John Beynon and Lucas Parkes.
Jonathan Coe (born 19 August 1961) is an English novelist and writer.
Joseph Chamberlain (8 July 1836 – 2 July 1914) was a British statesman who was first a radical Liberal, then, after opposing home rule for Ireland, a Liberal Unionist, and eventually served as a leading imperialist in coalition with the Conservatives.
The Joseph Chamberlain Memorial Clock Tower, or simply Old Joe, is a clock tower and campanile located in Chancellor's court at the University of Birmingham, in the suburb of Edgbaston.
Joseph Edward Southall RWS NEAC RBSA (23 August 1861 – 6 November 1944) was an English painter associated with the Arts and Crafts movement.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Judas Priest are an English heavy metal band formed in West Bromwich in 1969.
Judith Cutler is a writer of crime fiction whose novels are mostly in series: ten in the series about amateur sleuth and lecturer Sophie Rivers; six about Detective Sergeant Kate Power; six about antique restorer Lina Townend and five about Detective Superintendent Fran Harman.
Ketley's Building Society, founded in Birmingham, England, in 1775, was the world's first building society.
The Keuper is a lithostratigraphic unit (a sequence of rock strata) in the subsurface of large parts of west and central Europe.
Khalid Mahmood (born 13 July 1961) is a British Labour Party politician who has been the Member of Parliament (MP) for Birmingham Perry Barr since 2001.
KILN (Formerly known as Kindle Theatre') is a theatre company based in Birmingham, England.
King Adora was a rock group formed in Birmingham, England in 1998.
King Edward VI High School for Girls (KEHS) is an independent secondary school in Edgbaston, Birmingham, England.
King Edward's School (KES) is an independent day school for boys in Edgbaston, an area of Birmingham, England.
Kingfisher Country Park is a country park in Britain.
Kings Heath Park is a Green Flag status park in the Kings Heath district of Birmingham, England, which is managed by Birmingham City Council.
Kings Norton, alternatively King's Norton, is an area of Birmingham, England.
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.
The Lad in the Lane is a pub in the Bromford area of Erdington in Birmingham, England.
Landscape painting, also known as landscape art, is the depiction of landscapes in art – natural scenery such as mountains, valleys, trees, rivers, and forests, especially where the main subject is a wide view – with its elements arranged into a coherent composition.
The Lapworth Museum of Geology is a geological museum run by the University of Birmingham and located on the University's campus in Edgbaston, south Birmingham, England.
The larger urban zone (LUZ), or Functional Urban Area (FUA), is a measure of the population and expanse of metropolitan areas in Europe and OECD countries.
Laura Mvula (née Douglas; born 23 April 1986) is a British recording artist, songwriter and composer.
The lead chamber process was an industrial method used to produce sulfuric acid in large quantities.
Royal Leamington Spa, commonly known as Leamington Spa or Leamington, is a spa town in Warwickshire, England.
Led Zeppelin were an English rock band formed in London in 1968.
Lee Bank is an inner city area of Birmingham, England.
Lee John Martin Evans (born 25 February 1964) is an English retired stand-up comedian, actor, musician and writer from Avonmouth, England.
Leeds is a city in the metropolitan borough of Leeds, in the county of West Yorkshire, England.
Leipzig is the most populous city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany.
A leisure centre in the UK, Ireland, Australia (also called aquatic centres) and Canada is a purpose built building or site, usually owned and operated by the city, borough council or municipal district council, where people go to keep fit or relax through using the facilities.
Sir Lenworth George Henry, (born 29 August 1958), known as Lenny Henry, is a British stand-up comedian, actor, singer, writer, and television presenter, known for co-founding charity Comic Relief, and presenting various television programmes, including the comedy Chef!, and The Magicians for BBC One.
Letters patent (always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order issued by a monarch, president, or other head of state, generally granting an office, right, monopoly, title, or status to a person or corporation.
Lewis Paul (died 1759) was the original inventor of roller spinning, the basis of the water frame for spinning cotton in a cotton mill.
Liam Dominic Byrne (born 2 October 1970) is a British Labour Party politician who has been Member of Parliament (MP) for Birmingham Hodge Hill since 2004.
The Liberal Democrats (often referred to as Lib Dems) are a liberal British political party, formed in 1988 as a merger of the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party (SDP), a splinter group from the Labour Party, which had formed the SDP–Liberal Alliance from 1981.
A library is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing.
The Library of Birmingham is a public library in Birmingham, England.
Lichfield is a cathedral city and civil parish in Staffordshire, England.
Lichfield is a local government district in Staffordshire, England.
Lichfield District Council is a non metropolitan district council, which covers the district of Lichfield in Staffordshire, England.
The Lickey Hills (known locally as simply The Lickeys) are a range of hills in Worcestershire, England, to the south-west of the centre of Birmingham near the villages of Lickey, Cofton Hackett and Barnt Green.
Lickey Hills Country Park is a country park in England.
Light rail, light rail transit (LRT), or fast tram is a form of urban rail transport using rolling stock similar to a tramway, but operating at a higher capacity, and often on an exclusive right-of-way.
List of airports in the United Kingdom is a partial list of public active aerodromes (airports and airfields) in the UK and the British Crown Dependencies.
This is a list of breweries in Birmingham, West Midlands, England.
This is a list of the busiest railway stations in Great Britain on the National Rail network.
This is a list of official cities in the United Kingdom as of 2015.
This is a list of districts of England ordered by area, according to Standard Area Measurements published by the Office for National Statistics.
List of the 326 districts of England (English Municipalities) by population, estimated figures for from the Office for National Statistics.
The English football champions are the winners of the highest league in English men's football, which since 1992–93 is the Premier League.
This is a list of the Mayors and Lord Mayors of Birmingham in the West Midlands of England.
This is a list of metropolitan areas in Europe, with their population according to three different sources.
A metropolitan area is generally defined as consisting of an urban area, conurbation or agglomeration, together with the surrounding area to which it is closely economically and socially integrated through commuting.
This list of metropolitan economies in the United Kingdom is compiled by the Brookings Institution in Washington, D.C. and based upon the UK metropolitan areas defined by the ESPON project of the European Union.
The list of motorways in the United Kingdom is a complete list of motorways in the United Kingdom.
The fifty-sixth Parliament of the United Kingdom was the legislature of the United Kingdom following the 2015 general election of Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons.
This list of sovereign states provides an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty.
This is a list of the most populous urban areas as at the 2011 census, as defined by the Office for National Statistics (ONS), although the basis for the sourced list (used for its ready availability of the data) is Citypopulation.de.
A listed building, or listed structure, is one that has been placed on one of the four statutory lists maintained by Historic England in England, Historic Environment Scotland in Scotland, Cadw in Wales, and the Northern Ireland Environment Agency in Northern Ireland.
There are 1,946 listed buildings in Birmingham, England.
The literary tradition of Birmingham originally grew out of the culture of religious puritanism that developed in the town in the 16th and 17th centuries.
Liverpool is a city in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500 in 2017.
Living Faith Church Worldwide (also known as Winners Chapel) is a megachurch and a Christian denomination founded by Bishop David Oyedepo in 1983.
Lloyds Bank plc is a British retail and commercial bank with branches across England and Wales.
Local education authorities (LEAs) are the local councils in England and Wales that are responsible for education within their jurisdiction.
The Local Government Act 1972 is an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom that reformed local government in England and Wales on 1 April 1974.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The London and Birmingham Railway (L&BR) was an early railway company in the United Kingdom, existing from 1833 to 1846, when it became part of the London and North Western Railway (L&NWR).
Longbridge is an area of south-west Birmingham, England.
In British or Irish history, the lordship of a manor is a lordship emanating from the feudal system of manorialism.
Lord's Cricket Ground, commonly known simply as Lord's, is a cricket venue in St John's Wood, London.
Los Angeles (Spanish for "The Angels";; officially: the City of Los Angeles; colloquially: by its initials L.A.) is the second-most populous city in the United States, after New York City.
Frederick Louis MacNeice CBE (12 September 1907 – 3 September 1963) was an Irish poet and playwright.
The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.
The Lunar Society of Birmingham was a dinner club and informal learned society of prominent figures in the Midlands Enlightenment, including industrialists, natural philosophers and intellectuals, who met regularly between 1765 and 1813 in Birmingham, England.
Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.
The M40 is a motorway connecting London and Birmingham; part of this road forms a section of the unsigned European route E05.
The M42 motorway is a major road in England.
The M5 is a motorway in England linking the Midlands and the South West.
The M6 motorway runs from junction 19 of the M1 at the Catthorpe Interchange, near Rugby via Birmingham then heads north, passing Stoke-on-Trent, Liverpool, Manchester, Preston, Lancaster, Carlisle and terminating at the Gretna junction (J45).
The M6 Toll, also called the Birmingham North Relief Road (BNRR), connects M6 Junction 3a at the Coleshill Interchange to M6 Junction 11A at Wolverhampton with of six-lane motorway.
mac (formerly Midlands Arts Centre) is a non-profit arts centre situated in Cannon Hill Park, Edgbaston, Birmingham, England.
The mail or post is a system for physically transporting postcards, letters, and parcels.
Mailbox Birmingham (also known as The Mailbox) is an upmarket shopping and office development in the city centre of Birmingham, England.
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.
Manchester Airport is an international airport in Ringway, Manchester, England, south-west of Manchester city centre.
Mardi Gras, or Fat Tuesday, refers to events of the Carnival celebration, beginning on or after the Christian feasts of the Epiphany (Three Kings Day) and culminating on the day before Ash Wednesday (known as Shrove Tuesday).
Market town or market right is a legal term, originating in the Middle Ages, for a European settlement that has the right to host markets, distinguishing it from a village and city.
Marylebone station is a Central London railway terminus and connected London Underground station in the Marylebone area of the City of Westminster.
Matthew Boulton (3 September 1728 – 17 August 1809) was an English manufacturer and business partner of Scottish engineer James Watt.
Maverick Theatre Company was launched in 1994 by the Lord Mayor of Birmingham and founded by Robb Williams, local musician and Nick Hennegan, radio presenter with BRMB Radio.
The Mayor of London is the head of the executive body of the Greater London Authority.
The Mayor of the West Midlands is a directly elected political post responsible for the metropolitan county of the West Midlands in the United Kingdom.
Mecanoo is an architecture firm based in Delft, Netherlands.
The Medicine Bar was a bar in Birmingham, England.
A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.
A Member of the European Parliament (MEP) is a person who has been elected to serve as a popular representative in the European Parliament.
The Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranks 231 cities from Vienna to Baghdad on quality of life.
Mercia (Miercna rīce) was one of the kingdoms of the Anglo-Saxon Heptarchy.
The Mercia Mudstone Group is an early Triassic lithostratigraphic group (a sequence of rock strata) which is widespread in Britain, especially in the English Midlands – the name is derived from the ancient kingdom of Mercia which corresponds to that area.
Metalworking is the process of working with metals to create individual parts, assemblies, or large-scale structures.
Metchley Fort was a Roman fort in what is now Birmingham, England.
Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley, an Anglican minister in England.
Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.
Metro is the United Kingdom's highest circulation newspaper, published in tabloid format by DMG Media.
A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing.
A metropolitan borough is a type of local government district in England, and is a subdivision of a metropolitan county.
The Metropolitan Borough of Dudley is a metropolitan borough of West Midlands in England.
The Metropolitan Borough of Solihull is a metropolitan borough of the West Midlands, in west-central England.
The Metropolitan Borough of Walsall is a local government district in the West Midlands, England, with the status of a metropolitan borough.
A metropolitan economy refers to the cohesive, naturally evolving concentration of industries, commerce, markets, 2.
Michelin Guides are a series of guide books published by the French tyre company Michelin for more than a century.
A microwave oven (also commonly referred to as a microwave) is an electric oven that heats and cooks food by exposing it to electromagnetic radiation in the microwave frequency range.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
The Midlands Enlightenment, also known as the West Midlands Enlightenment or the Birmingham Enlightenment, was a scientific, economic, political, cultural and legal manifestation of the Age of Enlightenment that developed in Birmingham and the wider English Midlands during the second half of the eighteenth century.
Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.
A mill town, also known as factory town or mill village, is typically a settlement that developed around one or more mills or factories, usually cotton mills or factories producing textiles.
Millennium Point is a multi-use meeting complex in Birmingham, England, situated in the developing Eastside of the city centre.
The Mini is a small economy car produced by the English-based British Motor Corporation (BMC) and its successors from 1959 until 2000.
Mitchells & Butlers plc (also referred to as "M&B") runs circa 1,784 managed pubs, bars and restaurants throughout the United Kingdom.
Mixed is an ethnicity category that has been used by the United Kingdom's Office for National Statistics since the 1991 Census.
Monarch Airlines, also known simply as Monarch, was a British charter and scheduled airline which later, in 2004, became a low-cost airline The airline's headquarters were at Luton; in addition, it had other bases at Birmingham, Leeds/Bradford, Gatwick and Manchester.
Moseley is a suburb of south Birmingham, England, 3 miles (4.8 km) south of the city centre.
Motorcycle speedway, usually referred to as speedway, is a motorcycle sport involving four and sometimes up to six riders competing over four anti-clockwise laps of an oval circuit.
Municipal boroughs were a type of local government district which existed in England and Wales between 1835 and 1974, in Northern Ireland from 1840 to 1973 and in the Republic of Ireland from 1840 to 2002.
The Museum of the Jewellery Quarter is a museum at 75-79 Vyse Street in Hockley, Birmingham, England.
Musical Youth is a British Jamaican reggae band.
Nanjing, formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of and a total population of 8,270,500.
Napalm Death are a British extreme metal band formed in Meriden, West Midlands, England, in 1981.
The National Exhibition Centre (NEC) is an exhibition centre located in Birmingham, England.
National Express is a British multinational public transport company headquartered in Birmingham that operates bus, coach, train and tram services in the United Kingdom, United States, Canada, Spain, Portugal, Malta, Germany and Morocco and long-distance coach services across Europe.
National Express West Midlands (NXWM) is a bus operator in the West Midlands that operates services in Birmingham, Dudley, Sandwell, Walsall and Wolverhampton.
The National Grid is the high-voltage electric power transmission network in Great Britain, connecting power stations and major substations and ensuring that electricity generated anywhere in GB (England, Scotland and Wales) can be used to satisfy demand elsewhere.
The National Health Service (NHS) is the name used for each of the public health services in the United Kingdom – the National Health Service in England, NHS Scotland, NHS Wales, and Health and Social Care in Northern Ireland – as well as a term to describe them collectively.
National nature reserves in England are designated by Natural England as key places for wildlife and natural features in England.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
The National SEA LIFE Centre is an aquarium with over 60 displays of freshwater and marine life in Brindleyplace, Birmingham, England.
Nechells is a district ward in central Birmingham, England, whose population in 2011 was 33,957.
Arthur Neville Chamberlain (18 March 1869 – 9 November 1940) was a British statesman of the Conservative Party who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from May 1937 to May 1940.
The New Alexandra Theatre, commonly known as the Alex, is a theatre on Station Street in Birmingham, England.
New Style Radio 98.7 FM is a community radio station based in Birmingham, England, and broadcasting to the city's African-Caribbean community.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Newhall Street is a street located in Birmingham, England.
The Newlyn School was an art colony of artists based in or near Newlyn, a fishing village adjacent to Penzance, Cornwall, from the 1880s until the early twentieth century.
Newman University is a public university based in the suburb of Bartley Green in Birmingham, England.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
New Musical Express (NME) is a British music journalism website and former magazine that has been published since 1952.
In English church history, a nonconformist was a Protestant who did not "conform" to the governance and usages of the established Church of England.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
North Warwickshire is a local government district and borough in Warwickshire, England.
Northern England, also known simply as the North, is the northern part of England, considered as a single cultural area.
Novacon is an annual science fiction convention, usually held each November in the English Midlands.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
Nuneaton is a town in northern Warwickshire, England.
In the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) codes of the United Kingdom (UK), the three levels are.
O2 Academy Birmingham is a music venue located in Birmingham, West Midlands, England.
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
Ocean Colour Scene (often abbreviated to OCS) are an English rock band formed in Moseley, Birmingham, in 1989.
An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
Oceans Ate Alaska are a British metalcore band from Birmingham formed in 2010.
Odeon is a cinema brand name operating in the United Kingdom, Ireland and Norway, which along with UCI Cinemas and Nordic Cinema Group is part of the Odeon Cinemas Group subsidiary of AMC Theatres.
The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department which reports directly to the UK Parliament.
The Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills (Ofsted) is a non-ministerial department of the UK government, reporting to Parliament.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
The Old Joint Stock Theatre is a studio theatre and pub located at 4 Temple Row West in the centre of Birmingham, England.
Sleeping Venus'' (c. 1510), Dresden, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister. In art history, "Old Master" (or "old master"), Christies.com.
The Old Rep (originally Birmingham Repertory Theatre) is the United Kingdom's first ever purpose-built repertory theatre, constructed in 1913, located on Station Street in Birmingham, England.
A One Day International (ODI) is a form of limited overs cricket, played between two teams with international status, in which each team faces a fixed number of overs, usually 50.
In the United Kingdom, the Office for National Statistics maintains a series of codes to represent a wide range of geographical areas of the UK, for use in tabulating census and other statistical data.
The Open University (OU) is a public distance learning and research university, and one of the biggest universities in the UK for undergraduate education.
An orchestra is a large instrumental ensemble typical of classical music, which mixes instruments from different families, including bowed string instruments such as violin, viola, cello and double bass, as well as brass, woodwinds, and percussion instruments, each grouped in sections.
Orchestra of the Swan (OOTS) is an English professional chamber orchestra based in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire.
The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, and public service outside the Civil service.
The Ordnance Survey National Grid reference system is a system of geographic grid references used in Great Britain, distinct from latitude and longitude.
Oscar Deutsch (12 August 1893 – 5 December 1941)Allen Eyles, ‘Deutsch, Oscar (1893–1941)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 was a British businessman.
The term Other White is a classification of ethnicity in the United Kingdom and has been used in documents such as the 2011 UK Census to describe people who self-identify as white persons who are not of the English, Welsh, Scottish or Irish ethnic groupings.
Otto Robert Frisch FRS (1 October 1904 – 22 September 1979) was an Austrian-British physicist.
Oxford is a city in the South East region of England and the county town of Oxfordshire.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
John Michael "Ozzy" Osbourne (also known as The Prince of Darkness) (born 3 December 1948) is an English singer, songwriter and actor.
A parade (also called march or marchpast) is a procession of people, usually organized along a street, often in costume, and often accompanied by marching bands, floats or sometimes large balloons.
A parish church (or parochial church) in Christianity is the church which acts as the religious centre of a parish.
Birmingham has 571 parks totalling over of public open space, more than any other equivalent sized European city.
A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state or intergovernmental organization to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention.
Peace are an English indie rock quartet, formed in Worcester.
A Peace Pagoda is a Buddhist stupa; a monument to inspire peace, designed to provide a focus for people of all races and creeds, and to help unite them in their search for world peace.
Pebble Mill Studios was a television studio complex owned by the BBC located in Edgbaston, Birmingham, England.
The Permian is a geologic period and system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic period 251.902 Mya.
Perrott's Folly,, also known as The Monument, or The Observatory, is a 29-metre (96-foot) tall tower, built in 1758.
Perry Barr is a suburban area in north Birmingham, England.
Peter John Kay (born 2 July 1973) is an English comedian and actor.
Sir Peter Paul Rubens (28 June 1577 – 30 May 1640) was a Flemish artist.
Peter Phillips (born 21 May 1939) is an English artist.
The PGA European Tour is an organisation which operates the three leading men's professional golf tours in Europe: the elite European Tour, the European Senior Tour and the developmental Challenge Tour.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Photorealism is a genre of art that encompasses painting, drawing and other graphic media, in which an artist studies a photograph and then attempts to reproduce the image as realistically as possible in another medium.
A planetarium (plural planetaria or planetariums) is a theatre built primarily for presenting educational and entertaining shows about astronomy and the night sky, or for training in celestial navigation.
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
A playground, playpark, or play area is a place specifically designed to enable children to play there.
The term political radicalism (in political science known as radicalism) denotes political principles focused on altering social structures through revolutionary or other means and changing value systems in fundamental ways.
Pop art is an art movement that emerged in Britain and the United States during the mid- to late-1950s.
Birmingham's culture of popular music first developed in the mid-1950s.
A postage stamp is a small piece of paper that is purchased and displayed on an item of mail as evidence of payment of postage.
The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood (later known as the Pre-Raphaelites) was a group of English painters, poets, and critics, founded in 1848 by William Holman Hunt, John Everett Millais and Dante Gabriel Rossetti.
Preet Kaur Gill (born 21 November 1972) is a British Labour Co-operative politician.
The Premier League is the top level of the English football league system.
A producing house is a theatre which produces its own shows in-house.
Product design as a verb is to create a new product to be sold by a business to its customers.
The Professional Golfers' Association (PGA) is the professional body which represents the interests of teaching and club golf professionals in the United Kingdom and Ireland.
Property Week is a UK business-to-business magazine which reports on the worldwide commercial and residential property market.
Public Administration is the implementation of government policy and also an academic discipline that studies this implementation and prepares civil servants for working in the public service.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
The Puritans were English Reformed Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to "purify" the Church of England from its "Catholic" practices, maintaining that the Church of England was only partially reformed.
Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of materials at elevated temperatures in an inert atmosphere.
Quakers (or Friends) are members of a historically Christian group of religious movements formally known as the Religious Society of Friends or Friends Church.
Queen Alexandra College (QAC) is an independent specialist college of further education based in Harborne, Birmingham for students above the age of sixteen with visual impairment, autism and other disabilities.
The Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham is an NHS and military hospital in the Edgbaston area of Birmingham, situated very close to the University of Birmingham.
Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
Radiography is an imaging technique using X-rays to view the internal form of an object.
Reach plc (formerly known as Trinity Mirror between 1999 and 2018) is a British newspaper, magazine and digital publisher.
Redditch is a town and local government district in north-east Worcestershire, England, approximately south of Birmingham.
The Representation of the People Act 1832 (known informally as the 1832 Reform Act, Great Reform Act or First Reform Act to distinguish it from subsequent Reform Acts) was an Act of Parliament of the United Kingdom (indexed as 2 & 3 Will. IV c. 45) that introduced wide-ranging changes to the electoral system of England and Wales.
The Representation of the People Act 1867, 30 & 31 Vict.
The Regency in Great Britain was a period when King George III was deemed unfit to rule and his son ruled as his proxy as Prince Regent.
Reggae is a music genre that originated in Jamaica in the late 1960s.
Regiones (singular: regio) or provinciae,(singular: provincia), also referred to by historians as small shires or early folk territories, were early territorial divisions of Anglo-Saxon England, referred to in sources such as Anglo-Saxon charters and the writings of Bede.
The regions of England, formerly known as the government office regions, are the highest tier of sub-national division in England.
Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.
Resorts World Birmingham is an entertainment complex in Birmingham, England.
Richard Billingham (born 25 September 1970) is an English photographer and artist, film maker and art teacher.
Richard Haines Burden (born 1 September 1954) is a British Labour Party politician who has been the Member of Parliament (MP) for Birmingham Northfield since 1992.
"Rip Van Winkle" is a short story by the American author Washington Irving first published in 1819.
The River Avon or Avon is a river in central England.
The River Cole is a river in the English Midlands.
The River Rea (pronounced "ray") is a small river which passes through Birmingham, England.
The River Severn (Afon Hafren, Sabrina) is a river in the United Kingdom.
The River Tame is the main river of the West Midlands of England, and the most important tributary of the River Trent.
The River Trent is the third-longest river in the United Kingdom.
Roger Duncan Godsiff (born 28 June 1946) is a British Labour politician, who has served as Member of Parliament for Birmingham Hall Green since 2010 general election, prior to which he was Member of Parliament for Birmingham Sparkbrook and Small Heath from 1992–2010.
Roger Hiorns (born 1975) is a British Contemporary artist who works in London.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Birmingham is one of the principal Latin-rite Catholic administrative divisions of England and Wales in the hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church.
The Roman conquest of Britain was a gradual process, beginning effectively in AD 43 under Emperor Claudius, whose general Aulus Plautius served as first governor of Roman Britain (Britannia).
Roman roads in Britannia were initially designed for military use, created by the Roman Army during the nearly four centuries (43 – 410 AD) that Britannia was a province of the Roman Empire.
The Rotunda is a cylindrical highrise building in Birmingham, England.
Roundheads were supporters of the Parliament of England during the English Civil War.
Sir Rowland Hill, KCB, FRS (3 December 1795 – 27 August 1879) was an English teacher, inventor and social reformer.
Roy Wood (born 8 November 1947) is an English singer-songwriter and multi-instrumentalist.
The Royal Ballet Sinfonia is the Orchestra of Birmingham Royal Ballet.
The Royal Birmingham Conservatoire is a music school, drama school and concert venue in Birmingham, England.
The Royal Birmingham Society of Artists or RBSA is an art society, based in the Jewellery Quarter in Birmingham, England, where it owns and operates an art gallery, the RBSA Gallery, on Brook Street, just off St Paul's Square.
A royal charter is a formal document issued by a monarch as letters patent, granting a right or power to an individual or a body corporate.
The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (Dutch: Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut or KNMI) is the Dutch national weather forecasting service, which has its headquarters in De Bilt, in the province of Utrecht, Netherlands.
The Royal Orthopaedic Hospital is a National Health Service hospital situated in Northfield, Birmingham, England.
Sir Rudolf Ernst Peierls, (5 June 1907 – 19 September 1995) was a German-born British physicist who played a major role in the Manhattan Project and Tube Alloys, Britain's nuclear programme.
Rugby league football is a full-contact sport played by two teams of thirteen players on a rectangular field.
Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.
Rugby is a market town in Warwickshire, England, close to the River Avon.
The Ruskin Pottery was an English pottery studio founded in 1898 by Edward R. Taylor, the first Principal of both the Lincoln School of Art and the Birmingham School of Art, to be run by his son, William Howson Taylor, formerly a student there.
Ryanair is an Irish low-cost airline founded in 1984, headquartered in Swords, Dublin, Ireland, with its primary operational bases at Dublin and London Stansted airports.
The Ryder Cup is a biennial men's golf competition between teams from Europe and the United States.
Saint George (Γεώργιος, Geṓrgios; Georgius;; to 23 April 303), according to legend, was a Roman soldier of Greek origin and a member of the Praetorian Guard for Roman emperor Diocletian, who was sentenced to death for refusing to recant his Christian faith.
Saint Patrick's Day, or the Feast of Saint Patrick (Lá Fhéile Pádraig, "the Day of the Festival of Patrick"), is a cultural and religious celebration held on 17 March, the traditional death date of Saint Patrick (AD 385–461), the foremost patron saint of Ireland.
Saltley is an inner-city area of Birmingham, east of the city centre.
Samuel Johnson LL.D. (18 September 1709 – 13 December 1784), often referred to as Dr.
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.
Sandwell is a metropolitan borough of the West Midlands county in England.
The Saracen's Head is the name formerly given to a group of late medieval buildings in Kings Norton, Birmingham.
Sarehole Mill is a Grade II listed water mill (in an area once called Sarehole) on the River Cole in Hall Green, Birmingham, England.
In the United Kingdom, a scheduled monument is a "nationally important" archaeological site or historic building, given protection against unauthorised change.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
A science museum is a museum devoted primarily to science.
The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature.
Second City or The Second City may refer to.
In English football, the Second City Derby or Birmingham Derby, is the local derby between the two major clubs in the city of Birmingham – Aston Villa and Birmingham City.
A seigneurial borough was an administrative division of urban government within a manor of medieval England, that granted a town's citizens or burgesses rights of burgage tenure and a degree of self-government under a charter or prescription granted by the Lord of the Manor.
The Selfridges Building is a landmark building in Birmingham, England.
Selly Oak is an industrial and residential area in south west Birmingham, England.
Seminary, school of theology, theological seminary, Early-Morning Seminary, and divinity school are educational institutions for educating students (sometimes called seminarians) in scripture, theology, generally to prepare them for ordination as clergy, academia, or ministry.
The Severn Street Synagogue, built in 1813 as a synagogue in Birmingham, England, is now the Athol Masonic Hall.
Severn Trent plc is a water company based in the United Kingdom that is traded on the London Stock Exchange, and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index.
Shabana Mahmood (شبانہ محمود; born 17 September 1980) is a British Labour Party politician and barrister, Retrieved 7 December 2011 who has been the Member of Parliament (MP) for Birmingham, Ladywood since the May 2010 general election.
The shilling is a unit of currency formerly used in Austria, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, United States, and other British Commonwealth countries.
Shoreditch is a district and Church of England parish in the borough of Hackney in Greater London, England and is part of both Central London and the East End.
Shropshire (alternatively Salop; abbreviated, in print only, Shrops; demonym Salopian) is a county in the West Midlands of England, bordering Wales to the west, Cheshire to the north, Staffordshire to the east, and Worcestershire and Herefordshire to the south.
Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
The Birmingham Hebrew Congregation (Singers Hill) Synagogue is a Grade II* listed building comprising 26, 26A and 26B Blucher Street in central Birmingham, England.
Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal or social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.
Ska is a music genre that originated in Jamaica in the late 1950s and was the precursor to rocksteady and reggae.
Skateboarding is an action sport which involves riding and performing tricks using a skateboard, as well as a recreational activity, an art form, a entertainment industry job, and a method of transportation.
A slum is a highly populated urban residential area consisting mostly of closely packed, decrepit housing units in a situation of deteriorated or incomplete infrastructure, inhabited primarily by impoverished persons.
Small Heath is an area in South-East Birmingham, West Midlands, England.
The Smethwick Engine is a Watt steam engine made by Boulton and Watt, which was installed near Birmingham, England, and was brought into service in May 1779.
Smooth Radio is a network of adult contemporary local radio stations broadcasting on FM and MW stations in the United Kingdom.
Social mobility is the movement of individuals, families, households, or other categories of people within or between social strata in a society.
Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate) is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.
Soho House is a museum run by Birmingham Museums Trust, celebrating Matthew Boulton's life, his partnership with James Watt, his membership of the Lunar Society and his contribution to the Midlands Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution.
The Soho Manufactory was an early factory which pioneered mass production on the assembly line principle, in Soho, Birmingham, England, at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution.
Solihull Metropolitan Borough Council is the local council of the Metropolitan Borough of Solihull in the West Midlands, England.
South & City College Birmingham is an establishment of further education in Birmingham, England.
South Wales (De Cymru) is the region of Wales bordered by England and the Bristol Channel to the east and south, and Mid Wales and West Wales to the north and west.
Special education (also known as special needs education, aided education, exceptional education or Special Ed) is the practice of educating students with an IEP or Section 504 in a way that addresses their individual differences and needs.
St Andrew's, known also as St Andrew's Trillion Trophy Stadium for sponsorship reasons is an association football stadium in the Bordesley district of Birmingham, England.
The Metropolitan Cathedral Church and Basilica of Saint Chad is the mother church of the Archdiocese of Birmingham and province of the Catholic Church in Great Britain and is dedicated to Saint Chad of Mercia.
The church of St Martin in the Bull Ring in Birmingham, England, is a parish church of the Church of England.
St Mary's College in New Oscott, Birmingham, often called Oscott College, is the Roman Catholic seminary of the Archdiocese of Birmingham in England and one of the three seminaries of the Catholic Church in England and Wales;.
St Paul’s Square, is a Georgian square in the Jewellery Quarter, Birmingham, England, named after the church in its centre.
The Cathedral Church of Saint Philip is the Church of England cathedral and the seat of the Bishop of Birmingham.
Staffordshire (abbreviated Staffs) is a landlocked county in the West Midlands of England.
Stan's Cafe is a theatre company based in Birmingham, United Kingdom, with a long track record in producing experimental theatre, installations and live art.
Star City is a family leisure and entertainment complex in Nechells, Birmingham, England.
A startup company (startup or start-up) is an entrepreneurial venture which is typically a newly emerged business that aims to meet a marketplace need by developing a viable business model around a product, service, process or a platform.
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.
Steel Pulse is a roots reggae musical band from the Handsworth area of Birmingham, England, which has a large number of Afro-Caribbean, Indian and other Asian migrants.
Stephen James McCabe (born 4 August 1955) is a British Labour Party politician who was the Member of Parliament (MP) for Birmingham Hall Green from 1997 to 2010, when he was elected for Birmingham Selly Oak.
Stephen Lawrence Winwood (born 12 May 1948) is an English rock musician whose genres include progressive rock, blue-eyed soul, rhythm and blues, blues rock, pop rock, and jazz.
Stirchley is a district in the south west of Birmingham, England.
Stock car racing is a form of automobile racing found mainly and most prominently in the United States and Canada, with Australia, New Zealand, Great Britain and Brazil also having forms of stock car auto racing.
The Stone Age was a broad prehistoric period during which stone was widely used to make implements with an edge, a point, or a percussion surface.
Street food is ready-to-eat food or drink sold by a hawker, or vendor, in a street or other public place, such as at a market or fair.
Street performance or busking is the act of performing in public places for gratuities.
A street sweeper or street cleaner may refer to a person's occupation, or a machine that cleans streets.
Sukshinder Shinda (born Sukhshinder Singh Bhullar) is a bhangra Record producer and singer–songwriter from Handsworth in Birmingham, England.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
Sunday Mercury is a Sunday tabloid published in Birmingham, UK, and now owned by Trinity Mirror.
A supply chain is a system of organizations, people, activities, information, and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
The Royal Town of Sutton Coldfield, more colloquially known as Sutton Coldfield or simply Sutton, is a town and civil parish in Birmingham, West Midlands, England.
Sutton Park is a large urban park located in Sutton Coldfield, Birmingham, West Midlands, England.
Swim Deep is a British indie rock band formed in Birmingham, England.
Symbolism was a late nineteenth-century art movement of French, Russian and Belgian origin in poetry and other arts.
Symphony Hall is a 2,262 seat concert venue in Birmingham, England.
Take Me High is a 1973 British feature film, directed by David Askey, written by Christopher Penfold and starring Cliff Richard in his final film role, with Deborah Watling, Hugh Griffith, George Cole and Anthony Andrews.
Tamworth is a large market town in Staffordshire, England, northeast of Birmingham and northwest of London.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory.
Test cricket is the longest form of the sport of cricket and is considered its highest standard.
Textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution in Britain was centred in south Lancashire and the towns on both sides of the Pennines.
The Archers is the world's longest-running radio soap opera.
The Beat (known in the United States and Canada as The English Beat and in Australia as The British Beat) is a band founded in Birmingham, England, in 1978.
The Belfry is a golf resort and hotel in Wishaw, Warwickshire, close to Sutton Coldfield, Birmingham, England.
The Birmingham Stage Company is a theatre company resident at the Old Rep Theatre in Birmingham, England.
The Championships, Wimbledon, commonly known simply as Wimbledon, is the oldest tennis tournament in the world, and is widely regarded as the most prestigious.
The Dream of Gerontius, Op.
The Drum is an arts centre in the Newtown area of Aston, in Birmingham, England, established as the United Kingdom's national centre for Black British and British Asian arts.
The Electric is a cinema and sound recording facility in Birmingham, England.
The Fast Show, known as Brilliant in the US, is a BBC comedy sketch show programme that ran from 1994 to 1997, with specials in 2000 and 2014.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
"The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" is a horror story by American author Washington Irving, contained in his collection of 34 essays and short stories entitled The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon, Gent..
The Midlands is a cultural and geographic area roughly spanning central England that broadly corresponds to the early medieval Kingdom of Mercia.
The Moody Blues are an English rock band formed in Birmingham in 1964.
The Move were a British rock band of the late 1960s and the early 1970s.
The Old Crown a pub in Deritend, is the oldest extant secular building in Birmingham, England.
The Queen's Foundation, for Ecumenical Theological Education (called the Queen's Foundation, Birmingham), Somerset Road, Edgbaston, Birmingham, is an ecumenical theological college which, with the West Midlands Ministerial Training Course, forms the Centre for Ministerial Formation of the Queen's Foundation for Ecumenical Theological Education.
The Spencer Davis Group are a British beat and R&B band formed in Birmingham in 1963, by Spencer Davis with Steve Winwood and his brother, Muff Winwood.
The Streets is an English alternative hip hop music group from Birmingham, England, led by the vocalist and multi-instrumentalist Mike Skinner.
The Twang are an English indie rock band, formed in 2004 in Birmingham.
Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of fine art that uses live performers, typically actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place, often a stage.
What evidence remains of drama in medieval Birmingham suggests that it was largely religious in its basis.
Thinktank, Birmingham Science Museum (formerly known as simply Thinktank) is a science museum in Birmingham, England.
Thomas Attwood (6 October 1783 – 6 March 1856) was a British banker, economist, political campaigner and Member of Parliament.
Tindal Street Press is a Birmingham-based independent publisher of contemporary literary fiction, with a particular focus on writers born, or living, in Birmingham and the West Midlands.
Tiswas ("Today Is Saturday Watch And Smile") is a children's British television series which originally aired on Saturday mornings from 5 January 1974 to 3 April 1982 and was produced for the ITV network by ATV Network Limited.
The Tizard Mission, officially the British Technical and Scientific Mission, was a British delegation that visited the United States during the Second World War in order to obtain the industrial resources to exploit the military potential of the research and development (R&D) work completed by the UK up to the beginning of World War II, but that Britain itself could not exploit due to the immediate requirements of war-related production.
Anthony Frank Iommi (born 19 February 1948) is an English guitarist, songwriter and producer.
A tornado is a rapidly rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the Earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud.
Toyah Ann Willcox (born 18 May 1958) is an English singer and actress.
Traffic were an English rock band, formed in Birmingham, in April 1967 by Steve Winwood, Jim Capaldi, Chris Wood and Dave Mason.
Transport or transportation is the movement of humans, animals and goods from one location to another.
Transport for West Midlands (TfWM) is the public body responsible for co-ordinating transport services in the West Midlands metropolitan county in England.
The Triassic is a geologic period and system which spans 50.6 million years from the end of the Permian Period 251.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period Mya.
Triple accreditation (or Triple Crown accreditation) is the combination of accreditations awarded to 89 business schools worldwide as of May 2018 (up from 74 in May 2016) by the three largest and most influential business school accreditation organizations.
The Tudor architectural style is the final development of Medieval architecture in England, during the Tudor period (1485–1603) and even beyond, and also the tentative introduction of Renaissance architecture to England.
TUI Airways, formerly Thomson Airways and often referred to as TUI UK, is the world's largest charter airline, offering scheduled and charter flights from the United Kingdom and the Republic of Ireland to destinations in Europe, Africa, Asia and North America.
The Turner Prize, named after the English painter J. M. W. Turner, is an annual prize presented to a British visual artist.
Typhoo is a brand of tea in the United Kingdom.
Tyseley Energy Recovery Facility is a waste incineration plant in Birmingham, UK.
UB40 are an English reggae and pop band, formed in December 1978 in Birmingham, England.
The UEFA Champions League is an annual continental club football competition organised by the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) and contested by top-division European clubs.
UK Athletics (UKA) is the governing body for the sport of athletics in the United Kingdom.
List of railway stations in the United Kingdom, split alphabetically.
UK Sport is the UK Government's organisation for directing the development of elite-level sport within the United Kingdom.
The ultraviolet index or UV Index is an international standard measurement of the strength of sunburn-producing ultraviolet (UV) radiation at a particular place and time.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
A census of the population of the United Kingdom is taken every ten years.
The 2,520 railway stations on the National Rail network in Great Britain are classified into six categories (two of which are each divided into two subcategories) by the Department for Transport.
The United Reformed Church (URC) is a Christian church in the United Kingdom.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
University College Birmingham, is a university in Birmingham, England.
The University of Birmingham (informally Birmingham University) is a public research university located in Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom.
The University of Birmingham Medical School is one of Britain's largest and oldest medical schools with over 400 medical, 70 pharmacy, 140 biomedical science and 130 nursing students graduating each year.
The University of Law (ULaw) (formerly the College of Law) is a for-profit, private university in the United Kingdom, providing law degrees, specialist legal training, and continuing professional development courses for British barristers and solicitors.
The Upper Priory Cotton Mill, opened in Birmingham, England in the summer of 1741, was the world's first mechanised cotton-spinning factory or cotton mill.
An urban enterprise zone is an area in which policies to encourage economic growth and development are implemented.
An urban heat island (UHI) is an urban area or metropolitan area that is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas due to human activities.
Urban renewal (also called urban regeneration in the United Kingdom, urban renewal or urban redevelopment in the United States) is a program of land redevelopment in cities, often where there is urban decay.
Urban sprawl or suburban sprawl describes the expansion of human populations away from central urban areas into low-density, monofunctional and usually car-dependent communities, in a process called suburbanization.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Veolia Environnement S.A., branded as Veolia, is a French transnational company with activities in four main service and utility areas traditionally managed by public authorities – water management, waste management, transport and energy services.
The Victoria Law Courts on Corporation Street, Birmingham, England is a Grade I listed red brick and terracotta building that now houses Birmingham Magistrates' Court.
Victoria Square is a pedestrianised public square in Birmingham, England.
In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.
Villa Park is a football stadium in Aston, Birmingham, England, with a seating capacity of 42,682.
Virgin Trains (legal name West Coast Trains Limited) is a train operating company in the United Kingdom owned by Virgin Rail Group that has operated the InterCity West Coast franchise since 9 March 1997.
Visual impairment, also known as vision impairment or vision loss, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses.
A voluntary aided school (VA school) is a state-funded school in England and Wales in which a foundation or trust (usually a religious organisation), contributes to building costs and has a substantial influence in the running of the school.
Wystan Hugh Auden (21 February 1907 – 29 September 1973) was an English-American poet.
Walter Langley (8 June 1852 – 21 March 1922) was an English painter and founder of the Newlyn School of plein air artists.
At 316 metres above sea level, Walton Hill is the highest point in the range of hills in northern Worcestershire known as the Clent Hills.
A ward is a local authority area, typically used for electoral purposes.
Warwick is the county town of Warwickshire, England.
Warwickshire (abbreviated Warks) is a landlocked county in the West Midlands of England.
Warwickshire County Cricket Club is one of eighteen first-class county clubs within the domestic cricket structure of England and Wales.
Washington Irving (April 3, 1783 – November 28, 1859) was an American short story writer, essayist, biographer, historian, and diplomat of the early 19th century.
Washwood Heath is a ward in Birmingham, within the formal district of Hodge Hill, roughly two miles north-east of Birmingham city centre, England.
Waste collection is a part of the process of waste management.
Watercolor (American English) or watercolour (British English; see spelling differences), also aquarelle (French, diminutive of Latin aqua "water"), is a painting method in which the paints are made of pigments suspended in a water-based solution.
The Watt steam engine (alternatively known as the Boulton and Watt steam engine) was the first type of steam engine to make use of a separate condenser.
Wednesbury is a market town in England's Black Country, part of the Sandwell metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, near the source of the River Tame.
Welsh National Opera (WNO) (Opera Cenedlaethol Cymru) is an opera company based in Cardiff, Wales; it gave its first performances in 1946.
West Bromwich is a town in the borough of Sandwell, West Midlands, England.
The West Indies or the Caribbean Basin is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean in the Caribbean that includes the island countries and surrounding waters of three major archipelagoes: the Greater Antilles, the Lesser Antilles and the Lucayan Archipelago.
The West Midlands is a metropolitan county and city region in western-central England with a 2014 estimated population of 2,808,356, making it the second most populous county in England.
West Midlands is a constituency of the European Parliament.
The West Midlands is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes.
The West Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust (WMAS) is the second-largest ambulance service in the UK.
West Midlands bus route 11, also known as the Birmingham Outer Circle, is a 27-mile route that circumnavigates Birmingham via the A4040.
The West Midlands Combined Authority (WMCA) is a combined authority for the West Midlands metropolitan county in England.
The West Midlands conurbation is the large conurbation that includes the cities of Birmingham and Wolverhampton and the large towns of Sutton Coldfield, Dudley, Walsall, West Bromwich, Solihull, Stourbridge and Halesowen in the English West Midlands.
The West Midlands County Council (WMCC) was, from 1974 to 1986, the upper-tier administrative body for the West Midlands county, a metropolitan county in England.
West Midlands Fire Service (WMFS) is one of the largest fire and rescue service in the UK & only one of three fire services in which all stations are full-time (the others being London Fire Brigade and Greater Manchester Fire and Rescue Service), delivering emergency services to 2.83 million residents across seven local authority areas in the county of the West Midlands in England.
West Midlands Metro is a light-rail/tram line in the county of West Midlands, England, operating between the cities of Birmingham and Wolverhampton via the towns of West Bromwich and Wednesbury.
West Midlands Police is the territorial police force responsible for policing the metropolitan county of West Midlands in England.
West Midlands Trains (WMT) is a train operating company in the United Kingdom that operates passenger trains on the West Midlands franchise between London and stations in the English Midlands.
White British is an ethnicity classification used in the 2011 United Kingdom Census.
White people is a racial classification specifier, used mostly for people of European descent; depending on context, nationality, and point of view, the term has at times been expanded to encompass certain persons of North African, Middle Eastern, and South Asian descent, persons who are often considered non-white in other contexts.
Sir William James Ashley (25 February 1860 – 23 July 1927) was an influential English economic historian.
William Gear RA RBSA (2 August 1915 – 27 February 1997) was a Scottish painter, most notable for his abstract compositions.
William McGregor (1846 – 1911) was a Scottish association football administrator in the Victorian era who is regarded as the founder of the Football League, the first organised association football league in the world.
Wing Yip is a Chinese supermarket chain in the United Kingdom, founded in 1970.
Winson Green is a loosely defined inner-city area in the west of the city of Birmingham, England.
Winterbourne Botanic Garden is the botanic garden of the University of Birmingham, located in Edgbaston, Birmingham.
Wolverhampton is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England.
The ICC Women's Cricket World Cup is the oldest and most prestigious international women's cricket tournament.
The Women's Tennis Association (WTA), founded in 1973 by Billie Jean King, is the principal organising body of women's professional tennis.
Woodbrooke Study Centre is a Quaker college in Selly Oak, Birmingham, England.
Woodgate Valley Country Park is a Country Park within the Bartley Green and Quinton districts of Birmingham.
Worcestershire (written abbreviation: Worcs) is a county in the West Midlands of England.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wyre Forest is a local government district in Worcestershire, England, covering the towns of Kidderminster, Stourport-on-Severn and Bewdley, and several civil parishes and their villages.
Yardley is an area in east Birmingham, England.
Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.
10 Holloway Circus (also referred to as the Holloway Circus Tower or Beetham Tower) is a tall mixed-use skyscraper in Birmingham city centre, England.
The second Handsworth riots took place in the Handsworth district of Birmingham, West Midlands, from 9 to 11 September 1985.
The 1992 Summer Olympic Games (Spanish: Juegos Olímpicos de Verano de 1992; Catalan: Jocs Olímpics d'estiu de 1992), officially known as the Games of the XXV Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event celebrated in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain in 1992.
The 9th IAAF World Indoor Championships in Athletics were held in the National Indoor Arena in Birmingham, UK from 14 to 16 March 2003.
The 29th European Athletics Indoor Championships were held in the National Indoor Arena (NIA) in Birmingham, England, from Friday, 2 March to Sunday, 4 March 2007.
The 2015–16 season was Aston Villa's 24th season in the Premier League and 28th and final consecutive season in the top flight of English football, as well as their 141st season as a professional football club.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
The 2018 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XXI Commonwealth Games and commonly known as Gold Coast 2018, were an international multi-sport event for members of the Commonwealth that were held on the Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia, between 4 and 15 April 2018.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
The 2022 Commonwealth Games, officially known as the XXII Commonwealth Games and commonly known as Birmingham 2022, is an international multi-sport event for members of the Commonwealth that is scheduled to be held in Birmingham, England.
The 24th G8 Summit was held in Birmingham, England, United Kingdom on May 15–17, 1998.
B'Ham, B'ham, Beormingham, Bimringham, Birmingham (borough), Birmingham Climate, Birmingham Corporation, Birmingham Heritage Festival, Birmingham artistic figures, Birmingham overspill, Birmingham, England, Birmingham, UK, Birmingham, United Kingdom, Birmingham, West Midlands, Birminghamian, Bournville Junior School, City of Birmingham, City of a thousand and one trades, City of a thousand trades, City of birmingham, County Borough of Birmingham, Crime and policing in Birmingham, England Birmingham, Geography of Birmingham, Metropolitan Borough of Birmingham, Nelson Mandela Primary School, The weather in Birmingham, UN/LOCODE:GBBHM.