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Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865) was an American statesman and lawyer who served as the 16th President of the United States from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865.
The Abron or Bono are an Akan people of West Africa.
The achievement gap in the United States is the observed, persistent disparity in measures of educational performance among subgroups of U.S. students, especially groups defined by socioeconomic status (SES), race/ethnicity and gender.
An affair is a sexual relationship, romantic friendship, or passionate attachment between two people without the attached person's significant other knowing.
Affirmative action, also known as reservation in India and Nepal, positive action in the UK, and employment equity (in a narrower context) in Canada and South Africa, is the policy of protecting members of groups that are known to have previously suffered from discrimination.
The African American National Biography Project is a joint project of the W. E. B. Du Bois Institute for African and African American Research and Oxford University Press.
Atlanta has long been known as a center of black wealth, political power and culture; a cradle of the Civil Rights Movement and home to Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. It has often been called a "black mecca".
African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) in France are people of African American heritage or black people from the United States who are or have become residents or citizens of France, as well as students and temporary workers.
The history of African Americans in Ghana goes back to individuals such as American civil rights activist and writer W. E. B. Du Bois, who settled in Ghana in the last years of his life and is buried in the capital Accra.
The African diaspora in the Americas is used to refer to people born in the Americas with predominantly African ancestry.
African immigration to the United States refers to immigrants to the United States who are or were nationals of modern African countries.
The African Methodist Episcopal Church, usually called the A.M.E. Church or AME, is a predominantly African-American Methodist denomination based in the United States.
The African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church, or the AME Zion Church or AMEZ, is a historically African-American denomination based in the United States.
African-American art is a broad term describing the visual arts of the American black community (African Americans).
African-American businesses, also known as black-owned businesses or black businesses, originated in the days of slavery before 1865.
African-American culture, also known as Black-American culture, refers to the contributions of African Americans to the culture of the United States, either as part of or distinct from mainstream American culture.
African-American English (AAE), also known as Black English in North American linguistics, is the set of English dialects primarily spoken by most black people in North America; most commonly, it refers to a dialect continuum ranging from African-American Vernacular English to a more standard English.
The family structure of African-Americans has long been a matter of national public policy interest.
African-American history is the part of American history that looks at the African-Americans or Black Americans in the United States.
African-American literature is the body of literature produced in the United States by writers of African descent.
The African-American lobby in foreign policy refers to African-American groups and individuals who lobby to influence United States foreign policy in support of Africa.
The black middle class consists of black Americans who have middle-class status within the American class structure.
African-American music is an umbrella term covering a diverse range of musics and musical genres largely developed by African Americans.
African-American Muslims, also colloquially known as Black Muslims, are a religious minority among both the larger African American and Muslim population of the United States.
African-American names are an integral part of the traditions of the African-American community.
African-American neighborhoods or black neighborhoods are types of ethnic enclaves found in many cities in the United States.
The African-American upper class consists of African-American engineers, lawyers, accountants, doctors, politicians, business executives, venture capitalists, CEOs, celebrities, entertainers, entrepreneurs and heirs who have incomes amounting to $200,000 or more.
Afro-Brazilians (afro-brasileiros) are Brazilian people who have African ancestry.
Afro-Caribbean, a term not used by West Indians themselves but first coined by Americans in the late 1960s, describes Caribbean people who trace at least some of their ancestry to West Africa in the period since Christopher Columbus' arrival in the region in 1492.
The term Afro-Cuban refers to Cubans who mostly have West African ancestry, and to historical or cultural elements in Cuba thought to emanate from this community.
Afro-Latin Americans or Black Latin Americans refers to Latin American people of significant African ancestry.
Afrophobia is a perceived fear of the cultures and peoples of Africa, as well as the African diaspora.
The Akan are a meta-ethnicity predominantly speaking Central Tano languages and residing in the southern regions of the former Gold Coast region in what is today the nation of Ghana.
An all-white jury is a sworn body composed only of white people convened to render an impartial verdict in a legal proceeding.
Alvin Ailey (January 5, 1931 – December 1, 1989) was an African-American choreographer and activist who founded the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater in New York City.
The Northern Mbundu or Ambundu (distinct from the Southern Mbundu or Ovimbundu) are a Bantu people living in Angola's North-West, North of the river Kwanza.
American ancestry refers to people in the United States who self-identify their ancestry as "American", rather than the more common officially recognized racial and ethnic groups that make up the bulk of the American people.
The American Civil War (also known by other names) was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865.
The Society for the Colonization of Free People of Color of America, commonly known as the American Colonization Society (ACS), was a group established in 1816 by Robert Finley of New Jersey which supported the migration of free African Americans to the continent of Africa.
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
Americans are citizens of the United States of America.
Americo-Liberians, or African Americans in Liberian English, are a Liberian ethnicity of African-American, Afro-Caribbean, and liberated African descent.
Ancestry.com LLC is a privately held online company based in Lehi, Utah.
Anderson is a city in and the county seat of Anderson County, South Carolina, United States.
The Antebellum era was a period in the history of the Southern United States, from the late 18th century until the start of the American Civil War in 1861, marked by the economic growth of the South.
Anthony Johnson (1600 – 1670) was a black Angolan who achieved freedom in the early 17th-century Colony of Virginia after serving his term of indenture.
Anthony Overton (March 21, 1865 – July 2, 1946), a banker and manufacturer, was the first African American to lead a major business conglomerate.
Anti-miscegenation laws or miscegenation laws are laws that enforce racial segregation at the level of marriage and intimate relationships by criminalizing interracial marriage and sometimes also sex between members of different races.
Founded in 1985, the Arab American Institute is a non-profit membership organization based in Washington D.C. that focuses on the issues and interests of Arab-Americans nationwide.
Arab Americans (عَرَبٌ أَمْرِيكِيُّونَ or أمريكيون من أصل عربي) are Americans of Arab ethnic, cultural and linguistic heritage or identity, who identify themselves as Arab.
The Arab world (العالم العربي; formally: Arab homeland, الوطن العربي), also known as the Arab nation (الأمة العربية) or the Arab states, currently consists of the 22 Arab countries of the Arab League.
Ashanti also known as Asante are an ethnic group native to the Ashanti Region of modern-day Ghana.
Asian Americans are Americans of Asian descent.
An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Atlanta is the capital city and most populous municipality of the state of Georgia in the United States.
The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly to the Americas.
Augusta, officially Augusta–Richmond County, is a consolidated city-county on the central eastern border of the U.S. state of Georgia.
The Back-to-Africa movement, also known as the Colonization movement or After slave act, originated in the United States in the 19th century.
The Balanta (Guinea-Bissau Creole and Portuguese: balanta;; lit. “those who resist” in Balanta) are an ethnic group found in Guinea-Bissau, Senegal and The Gambia.
Baldwin Hills is a neighborhood in South Los Angeles, California.
Baltimore is the largest city in the U.S. state of Maryland, and the 30th-most populous city in the United States.
The Bamileke is the native group which is now dominant in Cameroon's West and Northwest Regions.
The Bamum, sometimes called Bamoum, Bamun, Bamoun, or Mum, are a Bantoid ethnic group of Cameroon with around 215,000 members.
The Bantu expansion is a major series of migrations of the original proto-Bantu language speaking group, who spread from an original nucleus around West Africa-Central Africa across much of sub-Sahara Africa.
The Bantu languages (English:, Proto-Bantu: */baⁿtʊ̀/) technically the Narrow Bantu languages, as opposed to "Wide Bantu", a loosely defined categorization which includes other "Bantoid" languages are a large family of languages spoken by the Bantu peoples throughout Sub-Saharan Africa.
The Bantu peoples are the speakers of Bantu languages, comprising several hundred ethnic groups in sub-Saharan Africa, spread over a vast area from Central Africa across the African Great Lakes to Southern Africa.
Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
Barbadians or Bajans are the people who are identified with the country of Barbados, be it the citizens of the country or their descendants in the Barbadian diaspora.
Barbershop vocal harmony, as codified during the barbershop revival era (1930s–present), is a style of a cappella close harmony, or unaccompanied vocal music, characterized by consonant four-part chords for every melody note in a predominantly homophonic texture.
The Bariba people, self designation Baatonu (plural Baatombu), are the principal inhabitants of Borgou Department, Benin, and cofounders of the Borgu kingdom of what is now northeast Benin and west-central Nigeria.
Baton Rouge is the capital of the U.S. state of Louisiana and its second-largest city.
Benin (Bénin), officially the Republic of Benin (République du Bénin) and formerly Dahomey, is a country in West Africa.
Bernardo Vicente de Gálvez y Madrid, 1st Viscount of Galveston, 1st Count of Gálvez, OCIII (Macharaviaya, Málaga, Spain 25 July 1746 – 30 November 1786) was a Spanish military leader and colonial administrator who served as colonial governor of Spanish Louisiana and Cuba, and later as Viceroy of New Spain.
Black Entertainment Television (BET, stylised as BET★) is an American basic cable and satellite television channel that is owned by the BET Networks division of Viacom.
BET Her is an American cable channel owned by Viacom.
The Biafada people is an ethnic group of Guinea-Bissau, Senegal and Gambia.
Bill T. Jones (born February 15, 1952) is an American choreographer, director, author and dancer.
Birmingham is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Alabama and the seat of Jefferson County.
Black Canadians is a designation used for people of Black African descent, who are citizens or permanent residents of Canada.
The term black church or African-American church refers to Protestant churches that currently or historically have ministered to predominantly black congregations in the United States.
Black feminism is a school of thought stating that sexism, class oppression, gender identity and racism are inextricably bound together.
Black Hebrew Israelites (also called Black Hebrews, African Hebrew Israelites, and Hebrew Israelites) are groups of Black Americans who believe that they are descendants of the ancient Israelites.
In the United States, a Black Hispanic or Afro-Hispanic (Afrohispano) is an American citizen or resident who is officially classified by the United States Census Bureau, Office of Management and Budget and other U.S. government agencies as a Black person or racially black of Hispanic descent." Hispanicity, which is independent of race, is the only ethnic category, as opposed to racial category, which is officially collated by the U.S. Census Bureau.
Black History Month, also known as African-American History Month in the U.S., is an annual observance in Canada, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and the United States.
Black Indians are people of mixed African-American and Native American heritage, who have strong ties to Native American culture.
Black Lives Matter (BLM) is an international activist movement, originating in the African-American community, that campaigns against violence and systemic racism toward black people.
A Black Loyalist was a United Empire Loyalist inhabitant of British America of African descent who joined the British colonial military forces during the American Revolutionary War.
Black nationalism is a type of nationalism which espouses the belief that black people are a nation and seeks to develop and maintain a black identity.
Black people is a term used in certain countries, often in socially based systems of racial classification or of ethnicity, to describe persons who are perceived to be dark-skinned compared to other populations.
Black Power is a political slogan and a name for various associated ideologies aimed at achieving self-determination for people of African descent.
The Black Power movement was a political movement that intended to achieve Black Power.
Black schools originated under legal segregation in the southern United States after the American Civil War and Reconstruction era, in southern states' public policy to keep races separated and maintain white supremacy.
Black-brown unity (or black-brown-red unity) is a racial-political ideology that developed in the United States, which pushes for activist associations between African Americans and Indigenous Americans.
Bluegrass music is a form of American roots music named after Kentucky mandolin player and songwriter Bill Monroe's band, the Bluegrass Boys 1939-96, and furthered by musicians who played with him, including 5-string banjo player Earl Scruggs and guitarist Lester Flatt, or who simply admired the high-energy instrumental and vocal music Monroe's group created, and carried it on into new bands, some of which created subgenres (Progressive Bluegrass, Newgrass, Dawg Music etc.). Bluegrass is influenced by the music of Appalachia and other styles, including gospel and jazz.
Blues is a music genre and musical form originated by African Americans in the Deep South of the United States around the end of the 19th century.
Boston Public is an American drama television series created by David E. Kelley and broadcast on Fox.
A boycott is an act of voluntary and intentional abstention from using, buying, or dealing with a person, organization, or country as an expression of protest, usually for moral, social, political, or environmental reasons.
The term "British North America" refers to the former territories of the British Empire on the mainland of North America.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) is a unit of the United States Department of Labor.
Proposition 8, known informally as Prop 8, was a California ballot proposition and a state constitutional amendment passed in the November 2008 California state elections.
California State Polytechnic University, Pomona (CPP, Cal Poly Pomona, or Cal Poly"Cal Poly" may also refer to California Polytechnic State University in San Luis Obispo; however, locals in southern California may also use the term to refer to the Pomona campus. See the name section of this article for more information.) is a public polytechnic university located in Pomona, California in the Los Angeles metropolitan area.
The Captaincy General of Santo Domingo (Capitanía General de Santo Domingo) was the first colony in the New World and was claimed for Spain.
Cardiac surgery, or cardiovascular surgery, is surgery on the heart or great vessels performed by cardiac surgeons.
Carol Elizabeth Moseley Braun, also sometimes Moseley-Braun (born August 16, 1947), is an American diplomat, politician and lawyer who represented Illinois in the United States Senate from 1993 to 1999.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Catherine L. Hughes (born Catherine Elizabeth Woods; April 22, 1947) is an African-American entrepreneur, radio and television personality and business executive.
Cedar Hill is a city in Dallas and Ellis counties in the U.S. state of Texas.
Central Africa is the core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda.
Charles City County is a historic county located in the U.S. commonwealth of Virginia.
Charles II of Spain (Carlos II; 6 November 1661 – 1 November 1700), also known as El Hechizado or the Bewitched, was the last Habsburg ruler of the Spanish Empire.
Charles Steele Jr. (born August 3, 1946) is an American businessman, politician and civil rights leader.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
The Chicago race riot of 1919 was a major racial conflict that began in Chicago, Illinois, on July 27, 1919, and ended on August 3.
The Chokwe people, known by many other names (including Kioko, Bajokwe, Chibokwe, Kibokwe, Ciokwe, Cokwe or Badjok), are an ethnic group of Central and Southern Africa.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Charles Edward Anderson Berry (October 18, 1926 – March 18, 2017) was an American singer, songwriter, musician, and one of the pioneers of rock and roll music.
The Church Of God in Christ (COGIC) is a Pentecostal-Holiness Christian denomination with a predominantly African-American membership.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964 is a landmark civil rights and US labor law in the United States that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
The civil rights movement (also known as the African-American civil rights movement, American civil rights movement and other terms) was a decades-long movement with the goal of securing legal rights for African Americans that other Americans already held.
The African-American civil rights movement (1865–1896) was aimed at eliminating racial discrimination against African Americans, improving educational and employment opportunities, and establishing electoral power, just after the abolition of Slavery in the United States.
The African-American civil rights movement (1896–1954) was a long, primarily nonviolent series of events to bring full civil rights and equality under the law to all Americans.
Clarence Thomas (born June 23, 1948) is an American judge, lawyer, and government official who currently serves as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
Cleveland is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio, and the county seat of Cuyahoga County.
Cognitive deficit or cognitive impairment is an inclusive term to describe any characteristic that acts as a barrier to the cognition process.
The colonial history of the United States covers the history of European colonization of the Americas from the start of colonization in the early 16th century until their incorporation into the United States of America.
In history, a colony is a territory under the immediate complete political control of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign.
Colored is an ethnic descriptor historically used in the United States (predominantly during the Jim Crow era) and the United Kingdom.
The Compromise of 1850 was a package of five separate bills passed by the United States Congress in September 1850, which defused a four-year political confrontation between slave and free states on the status of territories acquired during the Mexican–American War (1846–1848).
Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is an American political scientist and diplomat.
The Confederate States of America (CSA or C.S.), commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865.
Conservative Judaism (known as Masorti Judaism outside North America) is a major Jewish denomination, which views Jewish Law, or Halakha, as both binding and subject to historical development.
Contemporary R&B (also known as simply R&B), is a music genre that combines elements of rhythm and blues, pop, soul, funk, hip hop, and electronic music.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
Country music, also known as country and western or simply country, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s.
Creole peoples (and its cognates in other languages such as crioulo, criollo, creolo, créole, kriolu, criol, kreyol, kreol, kriol, krio, kriyoyo, etc.) are ethnic groups which originated from creolisation, linguistic, cultural and racial mixing between colonial-era emigrants from Europe with non-European peoples, climates and cuisines.
The cuisine of the Southern United States developed in the traditionally defined American South, influenced by African, English, Scottish, Irish, French, Spanish, and Native American cuisines.
Cultural heritage is the legacy of physical artifacts and intangible attributes of a group or society that are inherited from past generations, maintained in the present and preserved for the benefit of future generations.
The Dagombas are an ethnic group of northern Ghana, numbering about 931,000 (2012).
Dallas is a city in the U.S. state of Texas.
Daniel Hale Williams (January 18, 1856 – August 4, 1931) was an African-American general surgeon, who in 1893 performed the first documented, successful pericardium surgery in the United States to repair a wound.
Darlene Clark Hine (born February 7, 1947) is an American author and professor.
David Brion Davis (born February 16, 1927) is an American intellectual and cultural historian, and a leading authority on slavery and abolition in the Western world.
David Ehrenstein (born February 18, 1947) is an American critic who focuses primarily on LGBTQ issues in cinema.
Debra J. Dickerson (born 1959) is an American author, editor, writer, and current contributing writer and blogger for Mother Jones magazine.
DeKalb County is a county in the U.S. state of Georgia.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).
DeSoto is a city in Dallas County, Texas, in the United States.
Detroit is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Michigan, the largest city on the United States–Canada border, and the seat of Wayne County.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
A disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these.
The world's poor are significantly more likely to have or incur a disability within their lifetime compared to more financially privileged populations.
Disenfranchisement after the Reconstruction Era in the United States of America was based on a series of laws, new constitutions, and practices in the South that were deliberately used to prevent black citizens from registering to vote and voting.
Dominican Americans (domínico-americanos, norteamericanos de origen dominicano or estadounidenses de origen dominicano) are Americans who trace their ancestry to the Dominican Republic.
Doo-wop is a genre of rhythm and blues music that was developed in African-American communities in the East Coast of the United States in the 1940s, achieving mainstream popularity in the 1950s and early 1960s.
Lawrence Douglas Wilder (born January 17, 1931) is an American lawyer and politician who served as the 66th Governor of Virginia, from 1990 to 1994.
Dred Scott v. Sandford,, also known as the Dred Scott case, was a landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court on US labor law and constitutional law.
The Duala (or Douala) are an ethnic group of Cameroon.
Dutch West India Company (Geoctroyeerde Westindische Compagnie, or GWIC; Chartered West India Company) was a chartered company (known as the "WIC") of Dutch merchants as well as foreign investors.
Ebonics (a blend of the words ebony and phonics) is a term that was originally intended to refer to the language of all people descended from enslaved Black Africans, particularly in West Africa, the Caribbean, and North America.
The economy of the United States is a highly developed mixed economy.
The Edo or Bini (from the word "Benin") people are an ethnic group primarily found in Edo State, and spread across the Delta, Ondo, and Rivers states of Nigeria.
The Efik are an ethnic group located primarily in southeastern Nigeria, in the southern part of Cross River State.
Egyptian hieroglyphs were the formal writing system used in Ancient Egypt.
Elijah J. McCoy (May 2, 1844 – October 10, 1929) was a Canadian born African American inventor and engineer who was notable for his 57 U.S. patents, most having to do with the lubrication of steam engines.
Elijah Muhammad (born Elijah Robert Poole; October 7, 1897 – February 25, 1975) was a black religious leader, who led the Nation of Islam (NOI) from 1934 until his death in 1975.
Elisabeth Bumiller (born May 15, 1956) is an American author and journalist who is the Washington bureau chief for the New York Times.
The Emancipation Proclamation, or Proclamation 95, was a presidential proclamation and executive order issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863.
Emmett Louis Till (July 25, 1941 – August 28, 1955) was a 14-year-old African-American who was lynched in Mississippi in 1955, after a white woman said she was offended by him in her family's grocery store.
English Americans, also referred to as Anglo-Americans, are Americans whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in England, a country that is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Ethnic violence refers to violence expressly motivated by ethnic hatred and ethnic conflict.
An ethnolect is a variety of a language associated with a certain ethnic or cultural subgroup.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
European Americans (also referred to as Euro-Americans) are Americans of European ancestry.
The Ewe people (Eʋeawó, lit. "Ewe people"; or Mono Kple Volta Tɔ́sisiwo Dome, lit. "Ewe nation","Eʋenyigba" Eweland) are an African ethnic group.
Originally, Fante refers to tiny states within 50 miles radius of Mankessim.
The feminist movement (also known as the women's movement, or simply feminism) refers to a series of political campaigns for reforms on issues such as reproductive rights, domestic violence, maternity leave, equal pay, women's suffrage, sexual harassment, and sexual violence, all of which fall under the label of feminism and the feminist movement.
The Fifteenth Amendment (Amendment XV) to the United States Constitution prohibits the federal and state governments from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's "race, color, or previous condition of servitude".
The First Great Awakening (sometimes Great Awakening) or the Evangelical Revival was a series of Christian revivals that swept Britain and its Thirteen Colonies between the 1730s and 1740s.
Flint is the largest city and county seat of Genesee County, Michigan, United States.
Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.
The Fon people, also called Fon nu, Agadja or Dahomey, are a major African ethnic and linguistic group.
The Fourteenth Amendment (Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments.
Fox News (officially known as the Fox News Channel, commonly abbreviated to FNC) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel owned by the Fox Entertainment Group, a subsidiary of 21st Century Fox.
Francisco Luis Hector, barón de Carondelet (born 1748, Noyelles-sur-Selle, Flanders – died 1807 Quito, Ecuador) was an administrator of Burgundian descent in the employ of the Spanish Empire.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
Frederick Drew Gregory (born January 7, 1941), (Col, USAF, Ret.), is a former United States Air Force pilot, military engineer, test pilot, and NASA astronaut as well as former NASA Deputy Administrator.
Frederick McKinley Jones (May 17, 1893 – February 21, 1961) was an African-American inventor, entrepreneur, winner of the National Medal of Technology, and inductee of the National Inventors Hall of Fame.
In United States history, a free Negro or free black was the legal status, in the geographic area of the United States, of blacks who were not slaves.
The Free Speech Movement (FSM) was a massive, long-lasting student protest which took place during the 1964–65 academic year on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley.
A freedman or freedwoman is a former slave who has been released from slavery, usually by legal means.
The fugitive slave laws were laws passed by the United States Congress in 1793 and 1850 to provide for the return of slaves who escaped from one state into another state or territory.
The Fula people or Fulani or Fulany or Fulɓe (Fulɓe; Peul; Fulani or Hilani; Fula; Pël; Fulaw), numbering between 40 and 50 million people in total, are one of the largest ethnic groups in the Sahel and West Africa, widely dispersed across the region.
Funk is a music genre that originated in African American communities in the mid-1960s when African American musicians created a rhythmic, danceable new form of music through a mixture of soul music, jazz, and rhythm and blues (R&B).
The Ga-Adangme, Gã-Adaŋbɛ, Ga-Dangme, or GaDangme are an ethnic group in Ghana and Togo.
Gallup, Inc. is an American research-based, global performance-management consulting company.
Garrett Augustus Morgan, Sr. (March 4, 1877 – July 27, 1963) was an American inventor and community leader of African-American descent.
George Speck (also called George Crum;Hugh Bradley, Such Was Saratoga, New York: 1940 c. 1824– July 22, 1914) was an American chef.
George Padmore (28 June 1903 – 23 September 1959), born Malcolm Ivan Meredith Nurse in Trinidad, was a leading Pan-Africanist, journalist, and author.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
George Washington Carver (1860sThe Notable Names Database states around 1860 citing a census report from 1870: "1864 is frequently cited as his birth year, but in the 1870 census form filed by Moses and Susan Carver he is listed as being ten years old.", NNDB. – January 5, 1943), was an American botanist and inventor.
German Americans (Deutschamerikaner) are Americans who have full or partial German ancestry.
Good Times is an American sitcom that aired on CBS from February 8, 1974, to August 1, 1979.
Gospel music is a genre of Christian music.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
Granville Tailer Woods (April 23, 1856 – January 30, 1910) was an American inventor who held more than 50 patents.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
The Great Migration was the movement of 6 million African-Americans out of the rural Southern United States to the urban Northeast, Midwest, and West that occurred between 1916 and 1970.
The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s.
Grits is a porridge made from corn (maize) that is ground into a coarse meal and then boiled.
Gullah, also called Sea Island Creole English and Geechee, is a creole language spoken by the Gullah people (also called "Geechees" within the community), an African-American population living in coastal regions of the American states of South Carolina, Georgia and northeast Florida (including urban Charleston and Savannah).
Gurma (also called Gourma or Gourmantché) is an ethnic group living mainly in Burkina Faso, around Fada N'Gourma, and also in northern areas of Togo and Benin, as well as southwestern Niger.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
Haitian Americans (haïtien américain; ayisyen ameriken) are Americans of Haitian descent.
The Hajj (حَجّ "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.
Haplogroup E-V38 is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup I (M170) is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Haplogroup L1 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.
Haplogroup L2 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup with a widespread modern distribution, particularly in Subequatorial Africa.
Haplogroup L3 is a human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup.
Haplogroup R1b (R-M343), also known as Hg1 and Eu18, is a human Y-chromosome haplogroup.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
The Hausa (autonyms for singular: Bahaushe (m), Bahaushiya (f); plural: Hausawa and general: Hausa; exonyms: Ausa) are one of the largest ethnic groups in Africa.
Henry Clay Sr. (April 12, 1777 – June 29, 1852) was an American lawyer, planter, and statesman who represented Kentucky in both the United States Senate and House of Representatives.
Henry Louis "Skip" Gates Jr. (born September 16, 1950) is an American literary critic, teacher, historian, filmmaker and public intellectual who currently serves as the Alphonse Fletcher University Professor and Director of the Hutchins Center for African and African American Research at Harvard University.
Hillcrest is a hamlet incorporated in 1893 and census-designated place, in the town of Ramapo, Rockland County, New York, United States.
Hip hop, or hip-hop, is a subculture and art movement developed in the Bronx in New York City during the late 1970s.
Hip hop music, also called hip-hopMerriam-Webster Dictionary entry on hip-hop, retrieved from: A subculture especially of inner-city black youths who are typically devotees of rap music; the stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rap; also rap together with this music.
The term Hispanic (hispano or hispánico) broadly refers to the people, nations, and cultures that have a historical link to Spain.
Hispanic Americans and Latino Americans (Estadounidenses hispanos) are people in the United States who are descendants of people from countries of Latin America and Spain.
Historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) are institutions of higher education in the United States that were established before the Civil Rights Act of 1964 with the intention of primarily serving the African-American community.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
The AIDS epidemic, caused by HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), found its way to the United States as early as 1960, but was first noticed after doctors discovered clusters of Kaposi's sarcoma and pneumocystis pneumonia in young gay men in Los Angeles, New York City, and San Francisco in 1981.
Homie (from "homeboy") is an English language slang term found in American urban culture, whose origins etymologists generally trace to Mexican-American Spanglish from the late 19th century, with the word "homeboy" meaning a male friend from back home.
Houston is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 2.312 million within a land area of.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
The Ibibio people are from southern Nigeria.
The Igala are an ethnic group of Nigeria.
Igbo Americans, or Americans of Igbo ancestry, (Ṇ́dị́ Ígbò n'Emerịkà) are residents of the United States who identify as having Igbo ancestry from modern day Nigeria.
The Igbo people (also Ibo," formerly also Iboe, Ebo, Eboe, Eboans, Heebo; natively Ṇ́dị́ Ìgbò) are an ethnic group native to the present-day south-central and southeastern Nigeria.
Ijaw people (also known by the subgroups "Ijo" or "Izon") are a collection of peoples indigenous to the Niger Delta in Nigeria, inhabiting regions of the states of Bayelsa, Delta, Ondo, Akwa Ibom and Rivers.
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.
An indentured servant or indentured laborer is an employee (indenturee) within a system of unfree labor who is bound by a signed or forced contract (indenture) to work for a particular employer for a fixed time.
An African American is a citizen or resident of the United States who has origins in any of the black populations of Africa.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Indigo dye is an organic compound with a distinctive blue color (see indigo).
Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World is a book by American cultural and intellectual historian David Brion Davis, published by Oxford University Press in 2006.
Innovation can be defined simply as a "new idea, device or method".
International Data Group, Inc. (IDG) is a Chinese-owned, American-based media, data and marketing services and venture capital organization.
Interracial marriage is a form of marriage outside a specific social group (exogamy) involving spouses who belong to different socially-defined races or racialized ethnicities.
Irish Americans (Gael-Mheiriceánaigh) are an ethnic group comprising Americans who have full or partial ancestry from Ireland, especially those who identify with that ancestry, along with their cultural characteristics.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islam is the third largest religion in the United States after Christianity and Judaism.
The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.
The Itsekiri (also called the Isekiri, iJekri, Itsekri, Ishekiri, or Itsekhiri) are an ethnic group of Nigeria's Niger Delta area, Delta State.
Julius Caesar Watts Jr. (born November 18, 1957) is an American politician from Oklahoma who was a college football quarterback for the Oklahoma Sooners and later played professionally in the Canadian Football League.
Jackson, officially the City of Jackson, is the capital city and largest urban center of the U.S. state of Mississippi.
James Armistead Lafayette (December 10, 1760 – August 9, 1830) was an enslaved African American who served the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War under the Marquis de Lafayette.
James Arthur "Jimmy" Baldwin (August 2, 1924 – December 1, 1987) was an American novelist and social critic.
The Jamestown settlement in the Colony of Virginia was the first permanent English settlement in the Americas.
Jan Ernst Matzeliger (September 15, 1852 – August 24, 1889) was an inventor whose lasting machine brought significant change to the manufacturing of shoes.
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and developed from roots in blues and ragtime.
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
Jesse Louis Jackson Sr. (né Burns; born October 8, 1941) is an American civil rights activist, Baptist minister, and politician.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Jim Crow laws were state and local laws that enforced racial segregation in the Southern United States.
James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981.
John Casor (surname also recorded as Cazara and Corsala), a servant in Northampton County in the Virginia Colony, in 1655 became the first person of African descent in England's Thirteen Colonies to be declared as a slave for life as the result of a civil suit.
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
John Hope Franklin (January 2, 1915March 25, 2009) was an American historian of the United States and former president of Phi Beta Kappa, the Organization of American Historians, the American Historical Association, and the Southern Historical Association.
John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is an American politician who served as the 68th United States Secretary of State from 2013 to 2017.
John Sidney McCain III (born August 29, 1936) is an American politician serving as the senior United States Senator from Arizona, a seat he was first elected to in 1986.
John Punch (fl. 1630s, living 1640) was an enslaved African who lived in the Colony of Virginia during the seventeenth century.
The Jola (Diola, in French transliteration) are an ethnic group found in Senegal (where they predominate in the region of Casamance), the Gambia, and Guinea-Bissau.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
The Kalabari are a tribe of the Ijaw people living in the western Niger Delta region of Nigeria.
"King Cotton" is a slogan which summarized the strategy used before the American Civil War (of 1861–1865) by pro-secessionists in the southern states (the future Confederate States of America) to claim the feasibility of secession and to prove there was no need to fear a war with the northern states.
The Kongo people (Kongo: Esikongo (singular: Mwisikngo, also Bakongo (singular: Mukongo) "since about 1910 it is not uncommon for the term Bakongo (singular Mukongo) to be used, especially in areas north of the Zaire river, and by intellectuals and anthropologists adopting a standard nomenclature for Bantu-speaking peoples." J. K. Thornton, "Mbanza Kongo / São Salvador" in Anderson (ed.), Africa's Urban Past (2000)) are a Bantu ethnic group primarily defined as the speakers of Kikongo (Kongo languages). They have lived along the Atlantic coast of Central Africa, in a region that by the 15th century was a centralized and well organized Kongo kingdom, but is now a part of three countries. Their highest concentrations are found south of Pointe-Noire in the Republic of Congo, southwest of Pool Malebo and west of the Kwango River in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and north of Luanda, Angola., Encyclopædia Britannica They are the largest ethnic group in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and one of the major ethnic groups in the other two countries they are found in. In 1975, the Kongo population was reported as 10,220,000. The Kongo people were among the earliest sub-Saharan Africans to welcome Portuguese traders in 1483 CE, and began converting to Catholicism in the late 15th century. They were among the first to protest slavery in letters to the King of Portugal in the 1510s and 1520s, then succumbed to the demands for slaves from the Portuguese through the 16th century. The Kongo people were a part of the major slave raiding, capture and export trade of African slaves to the European colonial interests in 17th and 18th century. The slave raids, colonial wars and the 19th-century Scramble for Africa split the Kongo people into Portuguese, Belgian and French parts. In the early 20th century, they became one of the most active ethnic groups in the efforts to decolonize Africa, helping liberate the three nations to self governance. They now occupy influential positions in the politics, administration and business operations in the three countries they are most found in.
The Kpelle people (also known as the Guerze, Kpwesi, Kpessi, Sprd, Mpessi, Berlu, Gbelle, Bere, Gizima, or Buni) are the largest ethnic group in Liberia.
The Kru or Kroo are a West African ethnic group who originated in eastern Liberia and migrated and settled along various points of the West African coast, notably Freetown, Sierra Leone, but also the Ivorian and Nigerian coasts.
James Mercer Langston Hughes (February 1, 1902 – May 22, 1967) was an American poet, social activist, novelist, playwright, and columnist from Joplin, Missouri.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
Learning disability is a classification that includes several areas of functioning in which a person has difficulty learning in a typical manner, usually caused by an unknown factor or factors.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
The Lemelson Foundation is a private 501(c)(3) philanthropy founded in 1993 by Jerome H. Lemelson and his wife Dorothy.
Lewis Howard Latimer (September 4, 1848 – December 11, 1928) was an American inventor and draftsman.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) rights in the United States of America vary by jurisdiction.
Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast.
This is a list of African American neighborhoods, containing cities, districts, and neighborhoods in the US that are predominantly African American, or are strongly associated with African American culture, either currently or historically.
This is a list of recent black college football classics that have taken place between historically black colleges and universities that compete in college football in the United States.
There are 61 colleges and universities in the U.S. state of Alabama.
The ethnic groups of Africa number in the thousands, with each population generally having its own language (or dialect of a language) and culture.
This list of Historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) lists institutions of higher education in the United States that were established before 1964 with the intention of serving the black community.
The following is a list of United States cities, towns, and unincorporated areas (Census Designated Places) in which a plurality of the population is African American or Black.
This is a list of topics related to the African diaspora.
This is a list of the United States cities over 100,000 people that have populations that are more than 30% Black or African American.
This list contains populated places in the United States listed with African-American majority populations in the 2010 census.
The following is a list of United States counties in which a majority (over 50%) of the population is Black, according to data from the 2000 Census.
The following is a list of U.S. states and the District of Columbia ranked by the proportion of African Americans in the population.
This is a list of urban areas in the United States as defined by the United States Census Bureau, ordered according to their 2010 census populations.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
Lloyd A. Quarterman (May 31, 1918 – August 1982) was an African American chemist working mainly with fluorine.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
Louis Farrakhan Sr. (born Louis Eugene Walcott; May 11, 1933), formerly known as Louis X, is an American religious leader, black nationalist, activist, and social commentator.
Louisiana is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
Louisiana (Luisiana, sometimes called Luciana In some Spanish texts of the time the name of Luciana appears instead of Louisiana, as is the case in the Plan of the Internal Provinces of New Spain made in 1817 by the Spanish militar José Caballero.) was the name of an administrative Spanish Governorate belonging to the Captaincy General of Cuba, part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain from 1762 to 1802 that consisted of territory west of the Mississippi River basin, plus New Orleans.
Louisiana Creole (kréyol la lwizyàn; créole louisianais) is a French-based creole language spoken by far fewer than 10,000 people, mostly in the state of Louisiana.
Loving v. Virginia, is a landmark civil rights decision of the United States Supreme Court, which invalidated laws prohibiting interracial marriage.
The Luba people or baLuba are an ethno-linguistic group indigenous to the south-central region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón (c. 1475, probably Castile, Spain – 18 October 1526) was a Spanish explorer who in 1526 established the short-lived San Miguel de Guadalupe colony, the first European attempt at a settlement in what is now the continental United States.
Luchazes is a municipality in Moxico province, Angola.
The Lunda (Balunda, Luunda, Ruund) originated in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo along the Kalanyi River and formed the Kingdom of Lunda in the 17th century under their ruler, Mwata Yamvo or Mwaant Yav, with their capital at Musumba.
Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
The Magical Negro is a supporting stock character in American cinema who is portrayed as coming to the aid of a film's white protagonists.
The Mahi are a people of Benin.
Maine Question 1 was a voter referendum on an initiated state statute that occurred November 6, 2012.
Malcolm X (19251965) was an African-American Muslim minister and human rights activist.
Mamie Elizabeth Till-Mobley (born Mamie Elizabeth Carthan; November 23, 1921 – January 6, 2003) was the mother of Emmett Till, who was murdered in Mississippi on August 28, 1955, at the age of 14, after being accused for flirting with a white cashier woman, Carolyn Bryant, at the grocery store.
The Mandinka (also known as Mandenka, Mandinko, Mandingo, Manding or Malinke) are an African ethnic group with an estimated global population of 11 million (the other three largest ethnic groups in Africa being the unrelated Fula, Hausa and Songhai peoples).
The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.
The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, the March on Washington, or The Great March on Washington, was held in Washington, D.C. on Wednesday, August 28, 1963.
Marcus Mosiah Garvey Jr. ONH (17 August 188710 June 1940) was a proponent of Black nationalism in the United States and most importantly Jamaica.
Mark D. Shriver is an American population geneticist.
Mark E. Dean (born March 2, 1957) is an American inventor and computer engineer.
Martin is an American sitcom that aired for five seasons on Fox from August 27, 1992, to May 1, 1997.
Martin Luther King Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the civil rights movement from 1954 until his death in 1968.
Marva Delores Collins (née Knight; August 31, 1936 – June 24, 2015) was an American educator who started Westside Preparatory School in the impoverished Garfield Park neighborhood of Chicago in 1975.
Mary Jane McLeod Bethune (born Mary Jane McLeod; July 10, 1875 – May 18, 1955) was an American educator, stateswoman, philanthropist, humanitarian and civil rights activist best known for starting a private school for African-American students in Daytona Beach, Florida.
Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east.
Question 6 (colloquially called the Maryland same-sex marriage referendum) is a referendum that appeared on the general election ballot for the U.S. state of Maryland to allow voters to approve or reject the Civil Marriage Protection Act—a bill legalizing same-sex marriage passed by the General Assembly in 2012.
Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Percy Robert Miller, known by his stage name Master P or his business name P. Miller is an American rapper, actor, businessman, record producer, philanthropist, and former basketball player.
Maya Angelou (born Marguerite Annie Johnson; April 4, 1928 – May 28, 2014) was an American poet, singer, memoirist, and civil rights activist.
Meeting David Wilson is a 2008 American documentary film.
Memphis is a city located along the Mississippi River in the southwestern corner of the U.S. state of Tennessee.
The Mende people (also spelled Mendi) are one of the two largest ethnic groups in Sierra Leone; their neighbours, the Temne people, have roughly the same population.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
Mestizo is a term traditionally used in Spain, Latin America, and the Philippines that originally referred a person of combined European and Native American descent, regardless of where the person was born.
Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley, an Anglican minister in England.
A metropolitan area, sometimes referred to as a metro area or commuter belt, is a region consisting of a densely populated urban core and its less-populated surrounding territories, sharing industry, infrastructure, and housing.
Miami Gardens is a suburban city located in north-central Miami-Dade County, Florida.
The middle class is a class of people in the middle of a social hierarchy.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
The Midwestern United States, also referred to as the American Midwest, Middle West, or simply the Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau (also known as "Region 2").
A "migrant worker" is a person who either migrates within their home country or outside it to pursue work such as seasonal work.
The military history of African Americans spans from the arrival of the first enslaved Africans during the colonial history of the United States to the present day.
The military history of the United States spans a period of over two centuries.
Minnesota Amendment 1 (also called Minnesota Marriage Amendment or Minnesota Gay Marriage Amendment) was a legislatively referred constitutional amendment proposed to ban marriage between same-sex couples in the state of Minnesota, that appeared on the ballot on November 6, 2012.
A minority group refers to a category of people differentiated from the social majority, those who hold on to major positions of social power in a society.
Miscegenation (from the Latin miscere "to mix" + genus "kind") is the mixing of different racial groups through marriage, cohabitation, sexual relations, or procreation.
Missouri is a state in the Midwestern United States.
Missouri City is a city in the U.S. state of Texas, within the metropolitan area.
The Missouri Compromise is the title generally attached to the legislation passed by the 16th United States Congress on May 9, 1820.
Mitchellville is an unincorporated area and census-designated place (CDP) in Prince George's County, Maryland, United States.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
Mobile is the county seat of Mobile County, Alabama, United States.
Money is an unincorporated Mississippi Delta community in Leflore County, Mississippi, United States near Greenwood.
Montgomery is the capital city of the U.S. state of Alabama and the county seat of Montgomery County.
The Moorish Science Temple of America is an American national and religious organization founded by Noble Drew Ali.
Muhammad Ali (born Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr.; January 17, 1942 – June 3, 2016) was an American professional boxer, activist, and philanthropist.
Mulatto is a term used to refer to people born of one white parent and one black parent or to people born of a mulatto parent or parents.
Multiracial Americans are Americans who have mixed ancestry of "two or more races".
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) is a civil rights organization in the United States, formed in 1909 as a bi-racial organization to advance justice for African Americans by a group, including, W. E. B. Du Bois, Mary White Ovington and Moorfield Storey.
According to historian Rayford Logan, the nadir of American race relations was the period in the history of the Southern United States from the end of Reconstruction in 1877 through the early 20th century, when racism in the country was worse than in any other period after the American Civil War.
The Nalu people are an African people who live in Guinea and Guinea Bissau.
The Nation of Islam, abbreviated as NOI, is an African American political and religious movement, founded in Detroit, Michigan, United States, by Wallace D. Fard Muhammad on July 4, 1930.
The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives.
The National Baptist Convention of America International, Inc. (NBCA Intl or NBCA) is a predominantly African-American Baptist denomination with members in the United States, Canada, and Africa.
The National Baptist Convention, USA, Inc. (or simply National Baptist Convention) is the largest predominantly African-American Christian denomination in the United States.
The National Museum of African American History and Culture (NMAAHC) is a Smithsonian Institution museum established in December 2003.
Native Americans, also known as American Indians, Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States.
The original United States Naturalization Law of March 26, 1790 provided the first rules to be followed by the United States in the granting of national citizenship.
NBC News is the news division of the American broadcast television network NBC, formerly known as the National Broadcasting Company when it was founded on radio.
Negro (plural Negroes) is an archaic term traditionally used to denote persons considered to be of Negroid heritage.
Nevada (see pronunciations) is a state in the Western, Mountain West, and Southwestern regions of the United States of America.
New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam, or) was a 17th-century Dutch settlement established at the southern tip of Manhattan Island that served as the seat of the colonial government in New Netherland.
The New Deal was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms and regulations enacted in the United States 1933-36, in response to the Great Depression.
The New Deal coalition was the alignment of interest groups and voting blocs in the United States that supported the New Deal and voted for Democratic presidential candidates from 1932 until the late 1960s.
The New Great Migration is the demographic change from 1965 to the present, which is a reversal of the previous 35-year trend of black migration within the United States.
New Orleans (. Merriam-Webster.; La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The New York Daily News, officially titled Daily News, is an American newspaper based in New York City.
New York Life Insurance Company (NYLIC) is the third-largest life insurance company in the United States and one of the largest life insurers in the world, ranking #65 on the 2017 Fortune 500 list, with about $570 billion in total assets under management, and more than $25 billion in surplus and AVR.
Newark is the most populous city in the U.S. state of New Jersey and the seat of Essex County.
A nickname is a substitute for the proper name of a familiar person, place, or thing, for affection or ridicule.
Nicolas Paul Stéphane Sarközy de Nagy-Bocsa KOGF GCB (born 28 January 1955) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 16 May 2007 until 15 May 2012.
The Niger–Congo languages constitute one of the world's major language families and Africa's largest in terms of geographical area, number of speakers and number of distinct languages.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
Nigga is a colloquial term used in African-American Vernacular English that began as an eye dialect form of the word nigger, an ethnic slur against black people.
In the English language, the word nigger is a racial slur typically directed at black people.
Nonviolence is the personal practice of being harmless to self and others under every condition.
Norbert Rillieux (March 17, 1806 – October 8, 1894) was an American inventor who was widely considered one of the earliest chemical engineers and noted for his pioneering invention of the multiple-effect evaporator.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
North Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
The Northeastern United States, also referred to as the American Northeast or simply the Northeast, is a geographical region of the United States bordered to the north by Canada, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Southern United States, and to the west by the Midwestern United States.
The Northern United States, commonly referred to as the American North or simply the North, can be a geographic or historical term and definition.
The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOP).
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States.
Okra or okro, known in many English-speaking countries as ladies' fingers or ochro, is a flowering plant in the mallow family.
Old Point Comfort is a point of land located in the independent city of Hampton.
Oliver Cromwell (May 24, 1752 – January 1853) was an African-American soldier, who served in the American Revolutionary War.
The Omaha race riot occurred in Omaha, Nebraska, September 28–29, 1919.
An online newspaper is the online version of a newspaper, either as a stand-alone publication or as the online version of a printed periodical.
Oppression can refer to an authoritarian regime controlling its citizens via state control of politics, the monetary system, media, and the military; denying people any meaningful human or civil rights; and terrorizing the populace through harsh, unjust punishment, and a hidden network of obsequious informants reporting to a vicious secret police force.
Orthodox Judaism is a collective term for the traditionalist branches of Judaism, which seek to maximally maintain the received Jewish beliefs and observances and which coalesced in opposition to the various challenges of modernity and secularization.
Otis Frank Boykin (August 29, 1920, Dallas, Texas – March 13, 1982, Chicago, Illinois) was an African-American inventor and engineer.
The Ovimbundu, also known as the Southern Mbundu, are a Bantu ethnic group who lives on the Bié Plateau of central Angola and in the coastal strip west of these highlands.
Pardo is a term used in the Portuguese and Spanish colonies in the Americas to refer to the triracial descendants of Europeans, Indigenous Americans, and West Africans.
Partus sequitur ventrem, often abbreviated to partus, in the British American colonies and later in the United States, was a legal doctrine which the English royal colonies incorporated in legislation related to the status of children born in the colonies and the definitions of slavery.
Paul Robin Krugman (born February 28, 1953) is an American economist who is currently Distinguished Professor of Economics at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York, and a columnist for The New York Times.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
PC World, stylized PCWorld, is a global computer magazine published monthly by IDG.
The peanut, also known as the groundnut or the goober and taxonomically classified as Arachis hypogaea, is a legume crop grown mainly for its edible seeds.
A pejorative (also called a derogatory term, a slur, a term of abuse, or a term of disparagement) is a word or grammatical form expressing a negative connotation or a low opinion of someone or something, showing a lack of respect for someone or something.
Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.
The Pennsylvania State University (commonly referred to as Penn State or PSU) is a state-related, land-grant, doctoral university with campuses and facilities throughout Pennsylvania.
Pensacola is the westernmost city in the Florida Panhandle, approximately from the border with Alabama, and the county seat of Escambia County, in the U.S. state of Florida.
Pentecostalism or Classical Pentecostalism is a renewal movement"Spirit and Power: A 10-Country Survey of Pentecostals",.
The term "person of color" (plural: people of color, persons of color; sometimes abbreviated POC) is used primarily in the United States to describe any person who is not white.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
A physical disorder (as a medical term) is often used as a term in contrast to a mental disorder, in an attempt to differentiate medical disorders that have an available mechanical test (such as chemical tests or brain scans), from those disorders which have no laboratory or imaging test, and are diagnosed only by behavioral syndrome (such as those in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Differentiating the physical disorders from mental disorders can be a difficult problem in both medicine and law, most notably because it delves into deep issues, and very old and unresolved arguments in philosophy and religion. Many materialists believe that all mental disorders are physical disorders of some kind, even if tests for them have not yet been developed (and it has been the case that some disorders once widely thought to be purely mental, are known to have physical origins, such as schizophrenia). Some recognized physical disorders produce significant behavioral changes. For example, fever, head trauma, and hyperthyroidism can produce delirium. Category:Medical terminology.
Plantations were an important aspect of the history of the American South, particularly the antebellum (pre-American Civil War) era.
Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537 (1896),.
Politico, known earlier as The Politico, is an American political journalism company based in Arlington County, Virginia, that covers politics and policy in the United States and internationally.
Popular music is music with wide appeal that is typically distributed to large audiences through the music industry.
Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
Prince George’s County (often shortened to "PG County") is a county in the U.S. state of Maryland, bordering the eastern portion of Washington, D.C. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, the population was 863,420, making it the second-most populous county in Maryland, behind only Montgomery County.
Prince Whipple (1750–1796) in Africa and was an African American slave and later freedman who accompanied his former owner, General William Whipple of the New Hampshire militia, during the American Revolutionary War.
A progressive tax is a tax in which the tax rate increases as the taxable amount increases.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
The public sector (also called the state sector) is the part of the economy composed of both public services and public enterprises.
Puerto Ricans (Puertorriqueños; or boricuas) are people from Puerto Rico, the inhabitants and citizens of Puerto Rico, and their descendants.
Queens is the easternmost and largest in area of the five boroughs of New York City.
The United States of America has a racially and ethnically diverse population.
Racial inequality in the United States refers to social advantages and disparities that affect different races within the United States.
Racial segregation is the separation of people into racial or other ethnic groups in daily life.
Racism in the United States against non-whites is widespread and has been so the colonial era.
Ragtime – also spelled rag-time or rag time – is a musical style that enjoyed its peak popularity between 1895 and 1918.
Ralph Waldo Ellison (March 1, 1913 – April 16, 1994) was an American novelist, literary critic, and scholar.
Rapping (or rhyming, spitting, emceeing, MCing) is a musical form of vocal delivery that incorporates "rhyme, rhythmic speech, and street vernacular", which is performed or chanted in a variety of ways, usually over a backbeat or musical accompaniment.
The Reconstruction era was the period from 1863 (the Presidential Proclamation of December 8, 1863) to 1877.
The Red Summer refers to the summer and early autumn of 1919, which was marked by hundreds of deaths and higher casualties across the United States, as a result of racial riots that occurred in more than three dozen cities and one rural county.
In the United States, redlining is the systematic denial of various services to residents of specific, often racially associated, neighborhoods or communities, either directly or through the selective raising of prices.
Reform Judaism (also known as Liberal Judaism or Progressive Judaism) is a major Jewish denomination that emphasizes the evolving nature of the faith, the superiority of its ethical aspects to the ceremonial ones, and a belief in a continuous revelation not centered on the theophany at Mount Sinai.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
Rhythm and blues, commonly abbreviated as R&B, is a genre of popular music that originated in African American communities in the 1940s.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
Richard Nathaniel Wright (September 4, 1908 – November 28, 1960) was an American author of sometimes controversial novels, short stories, poems, and non-fiction.
Richmond is the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.
Right-wing politics hold that certain social orders and hierarchies are inevitable, natural, normal or desirable, typically supporting this position on the basis of natural law, economics or tradition.
Robert Louis Johnson (born April 8, 1946) is an American entrepreneur, media magnate, executive, philanthropist, and investor.
Rock and roll (often written as rock & roll or rock 'n' roll) is a genre of popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950sJim Dawson and Steve Propes, What Was the First Rock'n'Roll Record (1992),.
Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913 – October 24, 2005) was an activist in the civil rights movement best known for her pivotal role in the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
Rosalyn Terborg-Penn (born October 22, 1941) is an American historian and author.
The Rosetta Stone is a granodiorite stele, found in 1799, inscribed with three versions of a decree issued at Memphis, Egypt in 196 BC during the Ptolemaic dynasty on behalf of King Ptolemy V.
Sarah "Sally" Hemings (1773 – 1835) was an enslaved woman of mixed race owned by President Thomas Jefferson of the United States.
Salon is an American news and opinion website, created by David Talbot in 1995 and currently owned by the Salon Media Group.
San Miguel de Guadalupe, founded in 1526 by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón,In early 1521, Ponce de León had made a poorly documented, disastrous attempt to plant a colony near Charlotte Harbor, Florida but was quickly repulsed by the native Calusa.
Savannah is the oldest city in the U.S. state of Georgia and is the county seat of Chatham County.
Scientific racism (sometimes referred to as race biology, racial biology, or race realism) is the pseudoscientific belief that empirical evidence exists to support or justify racism (racial discrimination), racial inferiority, or racial superiority.
Scotch-Irish (or Scots-Irish) Americans are American descendants of Presbyterian and other Ulster Protestant Dissenters from various parts of Ireland, but usually from the province of Ulster, who migrated during the 18th and 19th centuries.
The Scottish people (Scots: Scots Fowk, Scottish Gaelic: Albannaich), or Scots, are a nation and ethnic group native to Scotland. Historically, they emerged from an amalgamation of two Celtic-speaking peoples, the Picts and Gaels, who founded the Kingdom of Scotland (or Alba) in the 9th century. Later, the neighbouring Celtic-speaking Cumbrians, as well as Germanic-speaking Anglo-Saxons and Norse, were incorporated into the Scottish nation. In modern usage, "Scottish people" or "Scots" is used to refer to anyone whose linguistic, cultural, family ancestral or genetic origins are from Scotland. The Latin word Scoti originally referred to the Gaels, but came to describe all inhabitants of Scotland. Considered archaic or pejorative, the term Scotch has also been used for Scottish people, primarily outside Scotland. John Kenneth Galbraith in his book The Scotch (Toronto: MacMillan, 1964) documents the descendants of 19th-century Scottish pioneers who settled in Southwestern Ontario and affectionately referred to themselves as 'Scotch'. He states the book was meant to give a true picture of life in the community in the early decades of the 20th century. People of Scottish descent live in many countries other than Scotland. Emigration, influenced by factors such as the Highland and Lowland Clearances, Scottish participation in the British Empire, and latterly industrial decline and unemployment, have resulted in Scottish people being found throughout the world. Scottish emigrants took with them their Scottish languages and culture. Large populations of Scottish people settled the new-world lands of North and South America, Australia and New Zealand. Canada has the highest level of Scottish descendants per capita in the world and the second-largest population of Scottish descendants, after the United States. Scotland has seen migration and settlement of many peoples at different periods in its history. The Gaels, the Picts and the Britons have their respective origin myths, like most medieval European peoples. Germanic peoples, such as the Anglo-Saxons, arrived beginning in the 7th century, while the Norse settled parts of Scotland from the 8th century onwards. In the High Middle Ages, from the reign of David I of Scotland, there was some emigration from France, England and the Low Countries to Scotland. Some famous Scottish family names, including those bearing the names which became Bruce, Balliol, Murray and Stewart came to Scotland at this time. Today Scotland is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens.
Seatack, Virginia was located in Princess Anne County and is now part of the Oceanfront resort strip and adjacent area of the independent city of Virginia Beach.
A second-class citizen is a person who is systematically discriminated against within a state or other political jurisdiction, despite their nominal status as a citizen or legal resident there.
Sectionalism is loyalty to one's own region or section of the country, rather than to the country as a whole.
Segovia is a city in the autonomous region of Castile and León, Spain.
The Serer people are a West African ethnoreligious group.
Seville (Sevilla) is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville, Spain.
Showtime at the Apollo (formerly It's Showtime at the Apollo and Apollo Live) is a syndicated music television show, first broadcast on September 12, 1987 to May 24, 2008 with 1093 episodes, and is produced by the Apollo Theater.
Shreveport is the third-largest city in the state of Louisiana and the 122nd-largest city in the United States.
The Sierra Leone Creole people (or Krio people) is an ethnic group in Sierra Leone.
A sit-in or sit-down is a form of direct action that involves one or more people occupying an area for a protest, often to promote political, social, or economic change.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Slavery in the United States was the legal institution of human chattel enslavement, primarily of Africans and African Americans, that existed in the United States of America in the 18th and 19th centuries.
In sociolinguistics, a sociolect or social dialect is a variety of language (a register) used by a socioeconomic class, a profession, an age group or other social group.
Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae.
Soul food is a variety of cuisine originating in the Southeastern United States.
Soul music (often referred to simply as soul) is a popular music genre that originated in the African American community in the United States in the late 1950s and early 1960s.
South Carolina is a U.S. state in the southeastern region of the United States.
The Southeastern United States (Sureste de Estados Unidos, Sud-Est des États-Unis) is the eastern portion of the Southern United States, and the southern portion of the Eastern United States.
Southern American English or Southern U.S. English is a large collection of related American English dialects spoken throughout the Southern United States, though increasingly in more rural areas and primarily by white Americans.
The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) is an African-American civil rights organization.
The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America.
Spanish Florida refers to the Spanish territory of La Florida, which was the first major European land claim and attempted settlement in North America during the European Age of Discovery.
Stanley Lawrence Crouch (born December 14, 1945) is an American poet, music and cultural critic, syndicated columnist, novelist and biographer, perhaps best known for his jazz criticism and his 2000 novel Don't the Moon Look Lonesome?.
Stepping or step-dancing is a form of percussive dance in which the participant's entire body is used as an instrument to produce complex rhythms and sounds through a mixture of footsteps, spoken word, and hand claps.
Stereotypes and generalizations about African Americans and their culture have evolved within American society dating back to the colonial years of settlement, particularly after slavery became a racial institution that was heritable.
A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
The Sun Belt is a region of the United States generally considered to stretch across the Southeast and Southwest.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
The Susu people, also called Soso or Soussou, are a West African ethnic group, one of the Mandé peoples living primarily in Guinea and Northwestern Sierra Leone, particularly in Kambia District.
The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is a dicotyledonous plant that belongs to the bindweed or morning glory family, Convolvulaceae.
Techno is a form of electronic dance music that emerged in Detroit, Michigan, in the United States during the mid-to-late 1980s.
The Teke people, or Bateke, are a Bantu Central African ethnic group that speak the Teke languages.
The Temne people, also called Time, Temen, Timni or Timmanee people, are an African ethnic group.
A term limit is a legal restriction that limits the number of terms an officeholder may serve in a particular elected office.
Terminology is the study of terms and their use.
The Anderson Independent-Mail, known as Independent Mail, is the local newspaper for Anderson County in the state of South Carolina.
The Atlanta Journal-Constitution (AJC) is the only major daily newspaper in the metropolitan area of Atlanta, Georgia, United States.
The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.
The Chronicle of Philanthropy is a magazine that covers the nonprofit world.
The Conscience of a Liberal is a 2007 book written by economist and Nobel laureate Paul Krugman.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The First Post was a British daily online news magazine based in London.
TheGrio is an American website with news, opinion, entertainment and video content geared toward African Americans.
The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education is a former academic journal, now an online magazine, for African Americans working in academia in the United States.
The Root is an online magazine launched on January 28, 2008, by Henry Louis Gates Jr. and Donald E. Graham, and was owned by Graham Holdings Company through its online subsidiary, The Slate Group.
The Thirteen Colonies were a group of British colonies on the east coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries that declared independence in 1776 and formed the United States of America.
The Thirteenth Amendment (Amendment XIII) to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as punishment for a crime.
The Three-Fifths Compromise was a compromise reached among state delegates during the 1787 United States Constitutional Convention.
The Tikar is a blanket term used for several ethnic groups in Cameroon.
This is a timeline of the civil rights movement, a nonviolent freedom movement to gain legal equality and the enforcement of constitutional rights for African Americans.
Toni Morrison (born Chloe Ardelia Wofford; February 18, 1931) is an American novelist, essayist, editor, teacher, and professor emeritus at Princeton University.
A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.
Trafford Publishing is a company for self publishing using print on demand technology, formerly based in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, and now based in Bloomington, Indiana, USA.
TV One (stylized as TV ONΞ) is an American digital cable and satellite television network that is owned by Urban One (formerly Radio One until May 8, 2017), having acquired Comcast's stake in the TV network in 2015.
U.S. News & World Report is an American media company that publishes news, opinion, consumer advice, rankings, and analysis.
UNCF, the United Negro College Fund, also known as the United Fund, is an American philanthropic organization that funds scholarships for black students and general scholarship funds for 37 private historically black colleges and universities.
Underemployment is the under-use of a worker due to a job that does not use the worker's skills, or is part time, or leaves the worker idle.
Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.
Uniondale is a hamlet and census-designated place (CDP), as well as a suburb in Nassau County, New York, United States, on Long Island, in the Town of Hempstead.
The United Church of Christ (UCC) is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination based in the United States, with historical confessional roots in the Reformed, Lutheran, Congregational and evangelical Protestant traditions, and "with over 5,000 churches and nearly one million members".
The United States Capitol, often called the Capitol Building, is the home of the United States Congress, and the seat of the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government.
The United States Census is a decennial census mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution, which states: "Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States...
The United States Census Bureau (USCB; officially the Bureau of the Census, as defined in Title) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U.S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration. The Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court), and running the federal prison system. The department is also responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet. The current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions.
The United States presidential election of 2004, the 55th quadrennial presidential election, was held on Tuesday, November 2, 2004.
The United States presidential election of 2008 was the 56th quadrennial presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 2012 was the 57th quadrennial American presidential election.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
The State University of New York at Buffalo is a public research university with campuses in Buffalo and Amherst, New York, United States.
The University of Rochester (U of R or UR) frequently referred to as Rochester, is a private research university in Rochester, New York.
The University of Texas Press (or UT Press) is a university press that is part of the University of Texas at Austin.
Upper Marlboro, officially the Town of Upper Marlboro, is the seat of Prince George's County, Maryland in the United States.
Urban One, Inc. (formerly Radio One) is a Silver Spring, Maryland-based media conglomerate.
In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster.
View Park−Windsor Hills is an unincorporated community in Los Angeles County, California, United States.
The Voting Rights Act of 1965 is a landmark piece of federal legislation in the United States that prohibits racial discrimination in voting.
William Edward Burghardt "W.
Warith Deen Mohammed (born Wallace D. Muhammad; October 30, 1933 – September 9, 2008), also known as W. Deen Mohammed, Imam W. Deen Muhammad and Imam Warith Deen, was a progressive African American Muslim leader, theologian, philosopher, Muslim revivalist, and Islamic thinker (1975–2008) who disbanded the original Nation of Islam (NOI) in 1976 and transformed it into an orthodox mainstream Islamic movement, the World Community of Al-Islam in the West which later became the American Society of Muslims.
Referendum 74 (R-74 or Ref 74) was a Washington state referendum to approve or reject the February 2012 bill that would legalize same-sex marriage in the state.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Citrullus lanatus is a plant species in the family Cucurbitaceae, a vine-like (scrambler and trailer) flowering plant originally from Africa.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
West Indian Americans or Caribbean Americans are Americans who can trace their recent ancestry to the Caribbean, unless they are of native descent.
The Western United States, commonly referred to as the American West, the Far West, or simply the West, traditionally refers to the region comprising the westernmost states of the United States.
White Americans are Americans who are descendants from any of the white racial groups of Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, or in census statistics, those who self-report as white based on having majority-white ancestry.
White flight is a term that originated in the United States, starting in the 1950s and 1960s, and applied to the large-scale migration of people of various European ancestries from racially mixed urban regions to more racially homogeneous suburban or exurban regions.
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.
White supremacy or white supremacism is a racist ideology based upon the belief that white people are superior in many ways to people of other races and that therefore white people should be dominant over other races.
In many countries (such as Australia, Canada, France, New Zealand, United Kingdom, and United States), a white-collar worker is a person who performs professional, managerial, or administrative work.
Winyah Bay is a coastal estuary that is the confluence of the Waccamaw River, the Pee Dee River, the Black River, and the Sampit River in Georgetown County, in eastern South Carolina.
A wolf whistle is a distinctive two-note whistled sound made to show high interest in or approval of something or someone, especially a woman viewed as physically or sexually attractive.
The Wolof people are a West African ethnic group found in northwestern Senegal, The Gambia and southwestern coastal Mauritania.
Woodmore is an unincorporated area and census-designated place (CDP 86710) in Prince George's County, Maryland within the boundaries of Route 193 (Enterprise Road) to the west, Church Road to the east, Route 214 (Central Avenue) to the south and Route 50 to the north.
The working class (also labouring class) are the people employed for wages, especially in manual-labour occupations and industrial work.
World music (also called global music or international music) is a musical category encompassing many different styles of music from around the globe, which includes many genres including some forms of Western music represented by folk music, as well as selected forms of ethnic music, indigenous music, neotraditional music, and music where more than one cultural tradition, such as ethnic music and Western popular music, intermingle.
The Y chromosome is one of two sex chromosomes (allosomes) in mammals, including humans, and many other animals.
The Yaka are an African ethnic group found in southwestern Democratic Republic of the Congo, with Angola border to their west.
Yoruba Americans are Americans of Yoruba descent.
The Yoruba people (name spelled also: Ioruba or Joruba;, lit. 'Yoruba lineage'; also known as Àwon omo Yorùbá, lit. 'Children of Yoruba', or simply as the Yoruba) are an ethnic group of southwestern and north-central Nigeria, as well as southern and central Benin.
Zora Neale Hurston (January 7, 1891 – January 28, 1960) was an influential author of African-American literature and anthropologist, who portrayed racial struggles in the early 20th century American South, and published research on Haitian voodoo.
The Twenty-second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13.2% over the 248,709,873 people enumerated during the 1990 Census.
The 2010 United States Census (commonly referred to as the 2010 Census) is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census.
227 is an American sitcom that originally aired on NBC from September 14, 1985 to May 6, 1990.
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