78 relations: Adenosine triphosphate, Allosteric regulation, American bullfrog, Amoeba, Apoptosis, Autonomic nervous system, C-terminus, Calcium, Cardiac muscle, Central nervous system, Chemical synapse, Chicken, Chronic pain, Circulatory system, Clathrin, Conformational change, Contractility, Depolarization, Desensitization (medicine), Ejaculation, Endocytosis, Endoplasmic reticulum, Endosome, Epithelial sodium channel, Fusion protein, Gating (electrophysiology), Golgi apparatus, Heteromer, Homomeric, Human, Human Genome Organisation, Ivermectin, Ligand-gated ion channel, Locus (genetics), Macrophage, Mouse, Muscle contraction, N-terminus, Neuroglia, Neuron, P2RX1, P2RX2, P2RX3, P2RX4, P2RX5, P2RX6, P2RX7, Pain, Peripheral nervous system, Platelet, ..., PPADS, Propidium iodide, Protein kinase C, Protein subunit, Protein targeting, Protein trimer, Rabbit, Rat, Sensory neuron, Sequence motif, Site-directed mutagenesis, Skeletal muscle, Smooth muscle tissue, SNARE (protein), Sodium, Suramin, TAX1BP3, Tissue (biology), Transmembrane domain, Trematoda, Urinary bladder, Urination, Vas deferens, Vascular resistance, Vesicle (biology and chemistry), White blood cell, X-ray crystallography, Zebrafish. Expand index (28 more) » « Shrink index
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.
In biochemistry, allosteric regulation (or allosteric control) is the regulation of an enzyme by binding an effector molecule at a site other than the enzyme's active site.
The American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeianus or Rana catesbeiana), often simply known as the bullfrog in Canada and the United States, is an amphibious frog, a member of the family Ranidae, or “true frogs”.
An amoeba (rarely spelled amœba, US English spelled ameba; plural am(o)ebas or am(o)ebae), often called amoeboid, is a type of cell or organism which has the ability to alter its shape, primarily by extending and retracting pseudopods.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
The C-terminus (also known as the carboxyl-terminus, carboxy-terminus, C-terminal tail, C-terminal end, or COOH-terminus) is the end of an amino acid chain (protein or polypeptide), terminated by a free carboxyl group (-COOH).
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) is one of the three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.
The chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a type of domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the red junglefowl.
Chronic pain is pain that lasts a long time.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Clathrin is a protein that plays a major role in the formation of coated vesicles.
In biochemistry, a conformational change is a change in the shape of a macromolecule, often induced by environmental factors.
Contractility refers to the ability for self-contraction, especially of the muscles, or similar active biological tissue.
In biology, depolarization is a change within a cell, during which the cell undergoes a shift in electric charge distribution, resulting in less negative charge inside the cell.
In medicine, desensitization is a method to reduce or eliminate an organism's negative reaction to a substance or stimulus.
Ejaculation is the discharge of semen (normally containing sperm) from the male reproductory tract, usually accompanied by orgasm.
Endocytosis is a form of bulk transport in which a cell transports molecules (such as proteins) into the cell (endo- + cytosis) by engulfing them in an energy-using process.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.
In cell biology, an endosome is a membrane-bound compartment inside eukaryotic cells.
The epithelial sodium channel (short: eNaC, also: amiloride-sensitive sodium channel) is a membrane-bound ion channel that is selectively permeable to Na+ ions and that is assembled as a heterotrimer composed of three homologous subunits α or δ, β, and γ, These subunits are encoded by four genes: SCNN1A, SCNN1B, SCNN1G, and SCNN1D.
Fusion proteins or chimeric (\kī-ˈmir-ik) proteins (literally, made of parts from different sources) are proteins created through the joining of two or more genes that originally coded for separate proteins.
In electrophysiology, the term gating refers to the opening (activation) or closing (by deactivation or inactivation) of ion channels.
The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.
A heteromer is something that consists of different parts.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
The Human Genome Organisation (HUGO) is an organization involved in the Human Genome Project, a project about mapping the human genome.
Ivermectin is a medication that is effective against many types of parasites.
Ligand-gated ion channels (LICs, LGIC), also commonly referred as ionotropic receptors, are a group of transmembrane ion-channel proteins which open to allow ions such as Na+, K+, Ca2+, and/or Cl− to pass through the membrane in response to the binding of a chemical messenger (i.e. a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter.
A locus (plural loci) in genetics is a fixed position on a chromosome, like the position of a gene or a marker (genetic marker).
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
A mouse (Mus), plural mice, is a small rodent characteristically having a pointed snout, small rounded ears, a body-length scaly tail and a high breeding rate.
Muscle contraction is the activation of tension-generating sites within muscle fibers.
The N-terminus (also known as the amino-terminus, NH2-terminus, N-terminal end or amine-terminus) is the start of a protein or polypeptide referring to the free amine group (-NH2) located at the end of a polypeptide.
Neuroglia, also called glial cells or simply glia, are non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
P2X purinoceptor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the P2RX1 gene.
P2X purinoceptor 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the P2RX2 gene.
P2X purinoceptor 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the P2RX3 gene.
P2X purinoceptor 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the P2RX4 gene.
P2X purinoceptor 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the P2RX5 gene.
P2X purinoceptor 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the P2RX6 gene.
P2X purinoceptor 7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the P2RX7 gene.
Pain is a distressing feeling often caused by intense or damaging stimuli.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.
PPADS (pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid) is a selective purinergic P2X antagonist.
Propidium iodide (or PI) is a fluorescent intercalating agent that can be used to stain cells.
Protein kinase C, commonly abbreviated to PKC (EC 188.8.131.52), is a family of protein kinase enzymes that are involved in controlling the function of other proteins through the phosphorylation of hydroxyl groups of serine and threonine amino acid residues on these proteins, or a member of this family.
In structural biology, a protein subunit is a single protein molecule that assembles (or "coassembles") with other protein molecules to form a protein complex.
Protein targeting or protein sorting is the biological mechanism by which proteins are transported to the appropriate destinations in the cell or outside it.
In biochemistry, a protein trimer is a macromolecular complex formed by three, usually non-covalently bound, macromolecules like proteins or nucleic acids.
Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha (along with the hare and the pika).
Rats are various medium-sized, long-tailed rodents in the superfamily Muroidea.
Sensory neurons also known as afferent neurons are neurons that convert a specific type of stimulus, via their receptors, into action potentials or graded potentials.
In genetics, a sequence motif is a nucleotide or amino-acid sequence pattern that is widespread and has, or is conjectured to have, a biological significance.
Site-directed mutagenesis is a molecular biology method that is used to make specific and intentional changes to the DNA sequence of a gene and any gene products.
Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.
Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle.
SNARE proteins (an acronym derived from "SNAP (Soluble NSF(N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor) Attachment Protein) REceptor)" are a large protein complex consisting of at least 24 members in yeasts and more than 60 members in mammalian cells.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Suramin is a medication used to treat African sleeping sickness and river blindness.
Tax1-binding protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TAX1BP3 gene.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Transmembrane domain usually denotes a transmembrane segment of single alpha helix of a transmembrane protein.
Trematoda is a class within the phylum Platyhelminthes.
The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ in humans and some other animals that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination.
Urination is the release of urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra to the outside of the body.
The vas deferens (Latin: "carrying-away vessel"; plural: vasa deferentia), also called ductus deferens (Latin: "carrying-away duct"; plural: ductus deferentes), is part of the male reproductive system of many vertebrates; these vasa transport sperm from the epididymis to the ejaculatory ducts in anticipation of ejaculation.
Vascular resistance is the resistance that must be overcome to push blood through the circulatory system and create flow.
In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a freshwater fish belonging to the minnow family (Cyprinidae) of the order Cypriniformes.