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Mitosis

Index Mitosis

In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei. [1]

179 relations: Acantharea, Actin, Adenosine triphosphate, Algae, Amitosis, Anaphase, Anaphase lag, Aneuploidy, Animal, Antibody, Apicomplexa, Apoptosis, Archaea, Ascetosporea, Ascomycota, Asexual reproduction, August Weismann, Bacteria, Binucleated cells, BioEssays, Bookmarking, Cancer, Cardiac muscle cell, Cell (biology), Cell biology, Cell cortex, Cell cycle, Cell cycle checkpoint, Cell division, Cell membrane, Cell plate, Cellular differentiation, Central spindle, Centriole, Centromere, Centrosome, Centrosome cycle, Chromatin, Chromosome, Chromosome abnormality, Chytridiomycota, Ciliate, Cladophora, Cleavage furrow, Coenocyte, Cohesin, Cornea, Cyclin, Cyclin-dependent kinase, Cyclin-dependent kinase 1, ..., Cytokinesis, Cytoplasm, Cytoskeleton, Density dependence, Developmental biology, Diatom, Dinoflagellate, DNA, DNA damage (naturally occurring), DNA replication, Drosophila melanogaster, Dye, ECT2, Egg cell, Embryo, Embryophyte, Endoreduplication, Epidermis, Epigenetics & Chromatin, Epithelium, Eukaryote, Excavata, Extracellular matrix, Fission (biology), Flowering plant, Fluorescence, Foraminifera, Formins, Function (biology), Fungus, G0 phase, G1 phase, G2 phase, Gamete, Gene, Genome, Golgi apparatus, Greek language, Green algae, Histology, Homologous chromosome, Homologous recombination, Homology (biology), Hugo von Mohl, Hydra (genus), Hydrostatics, Interphase, Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, Kinetochore, Kinetoplastida, Lamin, Lobosa, Mammal, Matthias Jakob Schleiden, Maturation promoting factor, Megakaryocyte, Meiosis, Metaphase, Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, Microsporidia, Microtubule, Mitogen, Mitotic cell rounding, Molecular cloning, Monosomy, Motor protein, Multicellular organism, Multinucleate, Mutation, Myosin, Nematode, Neuron, Nondisjunction, Nuclear envelope, Nucleic acid sequence, Nucleolus, Online Etymology Dictionary, Oomycete, Optical microscope, Organelle, Otto Bütschli, Oxymonad, Pericentriolar material, Phragmoplast, Phragmosome, Phycoplast, Plant cell, Platelet, Polyploid, Polytene chromosome, Prasinophyceae, Preprophase band, Prokaryote, Prometaphase, Prophase, Protein, Protist, Radiolaria, Raphidophyte, Red blood cell, Rho-associated protein kinase, RHOA, Robert Remak, S phase, Sister chromatid exchange, Sister chromatids, Slime mold, Sperm, Spindle apparatus, Spindle checkpoint, Spumellaria, Staining, Starfish, Telophase, Transcription (biology), Trichomonadida, Trisomy, Tubulin, Vacuole, Vegetative reproduction, Vesicle (biology and chemistry), Volvox, W. H. Freeman and Company, Wacław Mayzel, Walther Flemming, X-ray, Yeast, Zygomycota, Zygote. Expand index (129 more) »

Acantharea

The Acantharea (Acantharia) are a group of radiolarian protozoa, distinguished mainly by their skeletons.

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Actin

Actin is a family of globular multi-functional proteins that form microfilaments.

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Adenosine triphosphate

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.

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Algae

Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.

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Amitosis

Amitosis (a- + mitosis) is cell proliferation that does not occur by mitosis, the mechanism usually identified as essential for cell division in eukaryotes.

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Anaphase

Anaphase (from the Greek ἀνά, "up" and φάσις, "stage"), is the stage of mitosis after the metaphase when replicated chromosomes are split and the daughter chromatids are moved to opposite poles of the cell.

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Anaphase lag

One of many ways to induce Aneuploidy, Anaphase Lag is a mechanism by which a sister chromatid is lost through the course of cell division due to improper spindle formation and subsequent segregation of chromatids.

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Aneuploidy

Aneuploidy is the presence of an abnormal number of chromosomes in a cell, for example a human cell having 45 or 47 chromosomes instead of the usual 46.

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Animal

Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.

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Antibody

An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.

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Apicomplexa

The Apicomplexa (also called Apicomplexia) are a large phylum of parasitic alveolates.

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Apoptosis

Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.

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Archaea

Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.

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Ascetosporea

The Ascetosporea are a group of eukaryotes that are parasites of animals, especially marine invertebrates.

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Ascomycota

Ascomycota is a division or phylum of the kingdom Fungi that, together with the Basidiomycota, form the subkingdom Dikarya.

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Asexual reproduction

Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.

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August Weismann

August Friedrich Leopold Weismann (17 January 1834 – 5 November 1914) was a German evolutionary biologist.

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Bacteria

Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Binucleated cells

Binucleated cells are cells that contain two nuclei.

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BioEssays

BioEssays is a monthly peer-reviewed review journal covering molecular and cellular biology.

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Bookmarking

Bookmarking (also "gene bookmarking" or "mitotic bookmarking") refers to a potential mechanism of transmission of gene expression programs through cell division.

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Cancer

Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

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Cardiac muscle cell

Cardiac muscle cells or cardiomyocytes (also known as myocardiocytes or cardiac myocytes) are the muscle cells (myocytes) that make up the cardiac muscle (heart muscle).

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cell biology

Cell biology (also called cytology, from the Greek κυτος, kytos, "vessel") is a branch of biology that studies the structure and function of the cell, the basic unit of life.

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Cell cortex

The cell cortex, also known as the actin cortex or actomyosin cortex, is a specialized layer of cytoplasmic protein on the inner face of the plasma membrane of the cell periphery.

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Cell cycle

The cell cycle or cell-division cycle is the series of events that take place in a cell leading to its division and duplication of its DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.

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Cell cycle checkpoint

Cell cycle checkpoints are control mechanisms in eukaryotic cells which ensure proper division of the cell.

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Cell division

Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells.

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Cell membrane

The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).

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Cell plate

Phragmoplast and cell plate formation in a plant cell during cytokinesis. Left side: Phragmoplast forms and cell plate starts to assemble in the center of the cell. Towards the right: Phragmoplast enlarges in a donut-shape towards the outside of the cell, leaving behind mature cell plate in the center. The cell plate will transform into the new cell wall once cytokinesis is complete. Cytokinesis in terrestrial plants occurs by cell plate formation.

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Cellular differentiation

In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.

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Central spindle

The central spindle is a microtubule based structure, which forms in between segregating chromosomes during anaphase where the two sets of microtubules, emanating from opposite halves of the cell, overlap, and become arranged into antiparallel bundles by various microtubule associated proteins (MAPs) and motor proteins.

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Centriole

In cell biology a centriole is a cylindrical cellular organelle composed mainly of a protein called tubulin.

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Centromere

The centromere is the specialized DNA sequence of a chromosome that links a pair of sister chromatids (a dyad).

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Centrosome

In cell biology, the centrosome (Latin centrum 'center' + Greek sōma 'body') is an organelle that serves as the main microtubule organizing center (MTOC) of the animal cell as well as a regulator of cell-cycle progression.

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Centrosome cycle

Centrosomes are the major microtubule organizing center (MTOC) in mammalian cells.

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Chromatin

Chromatin is a complex of macromolecules found in cells, consisting of DNA, protein, and RNA.

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Chromosome

A chromosome (from Ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means colour, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.

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Chromosome abnormality

A chromosome abnormality, disorder, anomaly, aberration, or mutation is a missing, extra, or irregular portion of chromosomal DNA.

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Chytridiomycota

Chytridiomycota is a division of zoosporic organisms in the kingdom Fungi, informally known as chytrids.

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Ciliate

The ciliates are a group of protozoans characterized by the presence of hair-like organelles called cilia, which are identical in structure to eukaryotic flagella, but are in general shorter and present in much larger numbers, with a different undulating pattern than flagella.

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Cladophora

Cladophora is a genus of reticulated filamentous Ulvophyceae (green algae).

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Cleavage furrow

In cell biology, the cleavage furrow is the indentation of the cell's surface that begins the progression of cleavage, by which animal and some algal cells undergo cytokinesis, the final splitting of the membrane, in the process of cell division.

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Coenocyte

A coenocyte (from Greek: κοινός (koinós).

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Cohesin

Cohesin is a protein complex that regulates the separation of sister chromatids during cell division, either mitosis or meiosis.

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Cornea

The cornea is the transparent front part of the eye that covers the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber.

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Cyclin

Cyclin is a family of proteins that control the progression of cells through the cell cycle by activating cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) enzymes.

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Cyclin-dependent kinase

Gap phase 2. The duration of mitosis in relation to the other phases has been exaggerated in this diagram Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are a family of sugar kinases first discovered for their role in regulating the cell cycle.

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Cyclin-dependent kinase 1

Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 also known as CDK1 or cell division cycle protein 2 homolog is a highly conserved protein that functions as a serine/threonine kinase, and is a key player in cell cycle regulation.

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Cytokinesis

Cytokinesis is the part of the cell division process during which the cytoplasm of a single eukaryotic cell divides into two daughter cells.

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Cytoplasm

In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.

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Cytoskeleton

A cytoskeleton is present in all cells of all domains of life (archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes).

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Density dependence

In population ecology, density-dependent processes occur when population growth rates are regulated by the density of a population.

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Developmental biology

Developmental biology is the study of the process by which animals and plants grow and develop.

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Diatom

Diatoms (diá-tom-os "cut in half", from diá, "through" or "apart"; and the root of tém-n-ō, "I cut".) are a major group of microorganisms found in the oceans, waterways and soils of the world.

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Dinoflagellate

The dinoflagellates (Greek δῖνος dinos "whirling" and Latin flagellum "whip, scourge") are a large group of flagellate eukaryotes that constitute the phylum Dinoflagellata.

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DNA

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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DNA damage (naturally occurring)

DNA damage is distinctly different from mutation, although both are types of error in DNA.

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DNA replication

In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.

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Drosophila melanogaster

Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the family Drosophilidae.

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Dye

A dye is a colored substance that has an affinity to the substrate to which it is being applied.

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ECT2

Protein ECT2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ECT2 gene.

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Egg cell

The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.

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Embryo

An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.

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Embryophyte

The Embryophyta are the most familiar group of green plants that form vegetation on earth.

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Endoreduplication

Endoreduplication (also referred to as endoreplication or endocycling) is replication of the nuclear genome in the absence of mitosis, which leads to elevated nuclear gene content and polyploidy.

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Epidermis

The epidermis is the outer layer of the three layers that make up the skin, the inner layers being the dermis and hypodermis.

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Epigenetics & Chromatin

Epigenetics & Chromatin is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal that covers the biology of epigenetics and chromatin.

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Epithelium

Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.

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Eukaryote

Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).

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Excavata

Excavata is a major supergroup of unicellular organisms belonging to the domain Eukaryota.

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Extracellular matrix

In biology, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by support cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells.

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Fission (biology)

Fission, in biology, is the division of a single entity into two or more parts and the regeneration of those parts into separate entities resembling the original.

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Flowering plant

The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.

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Fluorescence

Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.

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Foraminifera

Foraminifera (Latin for "hole bearers"; informally called "forams") are members of a phylum or class of amoeboid protists characterized by streaming granular ectoplasm for catching food and other uses; and commonly an external shell (called a "test") of diverse forms and materials.

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Formins

Formins (formin homology proteins) are a group of proteins that are involved in the polymerization of actin and associate with the fast-growing end (barbed end) of actin filaments.

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Function (biology)

In biology, function has been defined in many ways.

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Fungus

A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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G0 phase

The G0 phase describes a cellular state outside of the replicative cell cycle.

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G1 phase

The g1 phase, or Gap 1 phase, is the first of four phases of the cell cycle that takes place in eukaryotic cell division.

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G2 phase

G2 phase, or Gap 2 phase, is the second subphase of Interphase in the cell cycle directly preceding mitosis.

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Gamete

A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.

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Gene

In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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Genome

In the fields of molecular biology and genetics, a genome is the genetic material of an organism.

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Golgi apparatus

The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Green algae

The green algae (singular: green alga) are a large, informal grouping of algae consisting of the Chlorophyta and Charophyta/Streptophyta, which are now placed in separate divisions, as well as the more basal Mesostigmatophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae and Spirotaenia.

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Histology

Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.

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Homologous chromosome

A couple of homologous chromosomes, or homologs, are a set of one maternal and one paternal chromosome that pair up with each other inside a cell during meiosis.

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Homologous recombination

Homologous recombination is a type of genetic recombination in which nucleotide sequences are exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA.

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Homology (biology)

In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.

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Hugo von Mohl

Hugo von Mohl FFRS HFRSE (8 April 1805 – 1 April 1872) was a German botanist from Stuttgart.

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Hydra (genus)

Hydra is a genus of small, fresh-water organisms of the phylum Cnidaria and class Hydrozoa.

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Hydrostatics

Fluid statics or hydrostatics is the branch of fluid mechanics that studies fluids at rest.

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Interphase

Interphase is the phase of the cell cycle in which a typical cell spends most of its life.

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Journal of Cellular Biochemistry

The Journal of Cellular Biochemistry publishes descriptions of original research in which complex cellular, pathogenic, clinical, or animal model systems are studied by biochemical, molecular, genetic, epigenetic, or quantitative ultrastructural approaches.

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Kinetochore

A kinetochore is a disc-shaped protein structure, found at the centromere of a chromatid, to which microtubules attach during cell division.

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Kinetoplastida

Kinetoplastida (or Kinetoplastea, as a class) is a group of flagellated protists belonging to the phylum Euglenozoa, and characterised by the presence of an organelle with a large massed DNA called kinetoplast (hence the name).

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Lamin

Nuclear lamins, also known as Class V intermediate filaments, are fibrous proteins providing structural function and transcriptional regulation in the cell nucleus.

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Lobosa

Lobosa is a taxonomic group of amoebae possessing broad, bluntly rounded pseudopods.

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Mammal

Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.

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Matthias Jakob Schleiden

Matthias Jakob Schleiden (5 April 1804 23 June 1881) was a German botanist and co-founder of cell theory, along with Theodor Schwann and Rudolf Virchow.

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Maturation promoting factor

Maturation-promoting factor (abbreviated MPF, also called mitosis-promoting factor or M-Phase-promoting factor) is the cyclin-Cdk complex that was discovered first in frog eggs.

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Megakaryocyte

A megakaryocyte (mega- + karyo- + -cyte, "large-nucleus cell") is a large bone marrow cell with a lobated nucleus responsible for the production of blood thrombocytes (platelets), which are necessary for normal blood clotting.

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Meiosis

Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.

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Metaphase

Metaphase (from the Greek μετά, "adjacent" and φάσις, "stage") is a stage of mitosis in the eukaryotic cell cycle in which chromosomes are at their second-most condensed and coiled stage (they are at their most condensed in anaphase).

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Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews

Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews (published as MMBR) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Society for Microbiology.

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Microsporidia

Microsporidia are a group of spore-forming unicellular parasites.

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Microtubule

Microtubules are tubular polymers of tubulin that form part of the cytoskeleton that provides the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells and some bacteria with structure and shape.

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Mitogen

A mitogen is a chemical substance that encourages a cell to commence cell division, triggering mitosis.

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Mitotic cell rounding

Mitotic cell rounding is a shape change that occurs in most animal cells that undergo mitosis.

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Molecular cloning

Molecular cloning is a set of experimental methods in molecular biology that are used to assemble recombinant DNA molecules and to direct their replication within host organisms.

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Monosomy

Monosomy is a form of aneuploidy with the presence of only one chromosome from a pair.

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Motor protein

Motor proteins are a class of molecular motors that can move along the cytoplasm of animal cells.

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Multicellular organism

Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.

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Multinucleate

Multinucleate cells (also called multinucleated or polynuclear cells) are eukaryotic cells that have more than one nucleus per cell, i.e., multiple nuclei share one common cytoplasm.

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Mutation

In biology, a mutation is the permanent alteration of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.

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Myosin

Myosins are a superfamily of motor proteins best known for their roles in muscle contraction and in a wide range of other motility processes in eukaryotes.

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Nematode

The nematodes or roundworms constitute the phylum Nematoda (also called Nemathelminthes).

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Neuron

A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.

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Nondisjunction

Nondisjunction is the failure of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate properly during cell division.

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Nuclear envelope

The nuclear envelope, also known as the nuclear membrane, is made up of two lipid bilayer membranes which surrounds the nucleus, and in eukaryotic cells it encases the genetic material.

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Nucleic acid sequence

A nucleic acid sequence is a succession of letters that indicate the order of nucleotides forming alleles within a DNA (using GACT) or RNA (GACU) molecule.

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Nucleolus

The nucleolus (plural nucleoli) is the largest structure in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells.

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Online Etymology Dictionary

The Online Etymology Dictionary is a free online dictionary written and compiled by Douglas Harper that describes the origins of English-language words.

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Oomycete

Oomycota or oomycetes form a distinct phylogenetic lineage of fungus-like eukaryotic microorganisms.

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Optical microscope

The optical microscope, often referred to as the light microscope, is a type of microscope that uses visible light and a system of lenses to magnify images of small subjects.

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Organelle

In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.

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Otto Bütschli

Johann Adam Otto Bütschli (3 May 1848 – 2 February 1920) was a German zoologist and professor at the University of Heidelberg.

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Oxymonad

The Oxymonads are a group of flagellated protozoa found exclusively in the intestines of termites and other wood-eating insects.

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Pericentriolar material

Pericentriolar material (PCM, sometimes also called pericentriolar matrix) is an amorphous mass of protein which makes up the part of the animal centrosome that surrounds the two centrioles.

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Phragmoplast

Phragmoplast and cell plate formation in a plant cell during cytokinesis. Left side: Phragmoplast forms and cell plate starts to assemble in the center of the cell. Towards the right: Phragmoplast enlarges in a donut-shape towards the outside of the cell, leaving behind mature cell plate in the center. The cell plate will transform into the new cell wall once cytokinesis is complete. The phragmoplast is a plant cell specific structure that forms during late cytokinesis.

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Phragmosome

The phragmosome is a sheet of cytoplasm forming in highly vacuolated plant cells in preparation for mitosis.

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Phycoplast

Schematic representation of types of cytokinesis in the green algae: 1) Phycoplast formation with cleavage furrow (e.g. ''Chlamydomonas''); 2) Cleavage furrow and persistent telophase spindle (e.g. ''Klebsormidium''); 3) Phycoplast and cell plate formation (e.g. ''Fritschiella''); 4) Persistent telophase spindle/phragmoplast with cell plate formation (e.g. ''Coleochaete'') The phycoplast is a microtubule structure observed during cytokinesis in members of the Chlorophyceae, the largest class of green algae.

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Plant cell

Plant cells are eukaryotic cells that differ in several key aspects from the cells of other eukaryotic organisms.

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Platelet

Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.

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Polyploid

Polyploid cells and organisms are those containing more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes.

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Polytene chromosome

Polytene chromosomes are large chromosomes which have thousands of DNA strands.

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Prasinophyceae

The Prasinophytes are a paraphyletic class of unicellular green algae.

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Preprophase band

The preprophase band is a microtubule array found in plant cells that are about to undergo cell division and enter the preprophase stage of the plant cell cycle.

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Prokaryote

A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle.

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Prometaphase

Prometaphase is the phase of mitosis following prophase and preceding metaphase, in eukaryotic somatic cells.

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Prophase

Prophase (from the Greek πρό, "before" and φάσις, "stage") is the first stage of cell division in both mitosis and meiosis.

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Protein

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protist

A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.

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Radiolaria

The Radiolaria, also called Radiozoa, are protozoa of diameter 0.1–0.2 mm that produce intricate mineral skeletons, typically with a central capsule dividing the cell into the inner and outer portions of endoplasm and ectoplasm.The elaborate mineral skeleton is usually made of silica.

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Raphidophyte

The Raphidophyceae (raphidophytes, formerly referred to as Chloromonadophyceae and Chloromonadineae) are a small group of eukaryotic algae that includes both marine and freshwater species.

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Red blood cell

Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.

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Rho-associated protein kinase

Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) is a kinase belonging to the AGC (PKA/ PKG/PKC) family of serine-threonine kinases.

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RHOA

Ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA) is a small GTPase protein in the Rho family.

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Robert Remak

Robert Remak (26 July 1815 – 29 August 1865) was a Jewish Polish-German embryologist, physiologist, and neurologist, born in Posen, Prussia, who discovered that the origin of cells was by the division of pre-existing cells.

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S phase

S phase (synthesis phase) is the part of the cell cycle in which DNA is replicated, occurring between G1 phase and G2 phase.

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Sister chromatid exchange

Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) is the exchange of genetic material between two identical sister chromatids.

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Sister chromatids

A sister chromatid refers to the identical copies (chromatids) formed by the replication of a chromosome, with both copies joined together by a common centromere.

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Slime mold

Slime mold or slime mould is an informal name given to several kinds of unrelated eukaryotic organisms that can live freely as single cells, but can aggregate together to form multicellular reproductive structures.

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Sperm

Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").

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Spindle apparatus

In cell biology, the spindle apparatus (or mitotic spindle) refers to the cytoskeletal structure of eukaryotic cells that forms during cell division to separate sister chromatids between daughter cells.

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Spindle checkpoint

During the process of cell division, the spindle checkpoint prevents separation of the duplicated chromosomes until each chromosome is properly attached to the spindle apparatus.

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Spumellaria

Spumellaria is an order of radiolarians in the class Polycystinea.

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Staining

Staining is an auxiliary technique used in microscopy to enhance contrast in the microscopic image.

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Starfish

Starfish or sea stars are star-shaped echinoderms belonging to the class Asteroidea.

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Telophase

Telophase (from the Greek τέλος (télos), "end" and φάσις (phásis), "stage") is the final stage in both meiosis and mitosis in a eukaryotic cell.

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Transcription (biology)

Transcription is the first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA (especially mRNA) by the enzyme RNA polymerase.

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Trichomonadida

Trichomonadida is an order of anaerobic protists, included with the parabasalids.

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Trisomy

A trisomy is a type of polysomy in which there are three instances of a particular chromosome, instead of the normal two.

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Tubulin

Tubulin in molecular biology can refer either to the tubulin protein superfamily of globular proteins, or one of the member proteins of that superfamily.

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Vacuole

A vacuole is a membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal and bacterial cells.

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Vegetative reproduction

Vegetative reproduction (also known as vegetative propagation, vegetative multiplication or vegetative cloning) is any form of asexual reproduction occurring in plants in which a new plant grows from a fragment of the parent plant or grows from a specialized reproductive structure.

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Vesicle (biology and chemistry)

In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer.

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Volvox

Volvox is a polyphyletic genus of chlorophyte green algae in the family Volvocaceae.

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W. H. Freeman and Company

W.

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Wacław Mayzel

Wacław Mayzel (September 12, 1847 – April 19, 1916) was a Polish histologist and the first person to describe mitosis.

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Walther Flemming

Walther Flemming (21 April 1843 – 4 August 1905) was a German biologist and a founder of cytogenetics.

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X-ray

X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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Yeast

Yeasts are eukaryotic, single-celled microorganisms classified as members of the fungus kingdom.

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Zygomycota

Zygomycota, or zygote fungi, is a division or phylum of the kingdom Fungi.

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Zygote

A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke") is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes.

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Atypical mitoses, Cellular mitosis, Closed mitosis, Endomitosis, Eumitosis, IPMATC, Karyokineis, Karyokinesis, M-phase, Mitoses, Mitosis modulators, Mitosis phase, Mitotic, Mitotic cell division, Mitotic division, Mitotically, Mytosis, Nuclear division.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mitosis

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