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Chios (Χίος,; Sakız Adası alternative transliterations Khíos and Híos) is the fifth largest of the Greek islands, situated in the Aegean Sea, off the Anatolian coast. [1]

197 relations: Acephalous society, Achaemenid Empire, Adamantios Lemos, Adamantios Vassilakis, Administrative regions of Greece, Aegean Sea, Agios Minas, Alexander the Great, Alexandros Kontostavlos, Amani, Greece, Amphora, Anatolia, Andreas Papandreou, Andronikos II Palaiologos, Archaeological Museum of Chios, Archermus, Aristo of Chios, Asia (Roman province), Athens, Attalus II Philadelphus, Axis occupation of Greece, Battle of Lade, Battle of Leuctra, Battle of Mycale, Belgium, Benedetto I Zaccaria, Benedetto II Zaccaria, Bianco world map, Brezno, British School at Athens, Bronze Age, Bupalus and Athenis, Byzantine Empire, Castle of Chios, Cherry, Chian diaspora, Chian wine, China, Chios (regional unit), Chios (town), Chios Byzantine Museum, Chios massacre, Christopher Columbus, Cicero, Claudia Metrodora, Constantine Dalassenos (thalassokrator), Constantine IX Monomachos, Constantine V of Constantinople, Crete, Cyprus, ..., De Oratore, Delian League, Dimitris Varos, Dinant, Elata, Erasistratus, Ermoupoli, Erythrae, Etesian, Euboea, Eugène Delacroix, Eumenes II, F.C. Lailapas, Ficus, First Balkan War, First Crusade, Fourth Crusade, Galatia, Gaul, Genoa, Genoese dialect, George Colvocoresses, Gestapo, Glaucus of Chios, Grand Vizier, Greco-Turkish War (1919–22), Greece, Greek Archaeological Service, Greek Civil War, Greek Resistance, Greek shipping, Greek War of Independence, Guiyang, Herodotus, Hippocrates of Chios, Histories (Herodotus), Homer, Humidity, Ibrahim Edhem Pasha, Ioannis Despotopoulos, Ioannis Psycharis, Ion of Chios, Ionia, Chios, Ionian League, Ionian Revolt, Ionians, Isocrates, Italy, Jani Christou, John Sitaras, Kampochora, Kardamyla, Karfas, Kostia Vlastos, Latin Empire, Leleges, Leo Allatius, List of islands of Greece, Livy, Lord Byron, Lordship of Chios, Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Mandarin orange, Maona, Maona di Chio e di Focea, Marble, Mark Palios, Martino Zaccaria, Mastic (plant resin), Mastichochoria, Mastika, Matrona of Chios, Matthew Mirones, Mavrocordatos family, Mediterranean climate, Michel Emmanuel Rodocanachi, Middle Ages, Mikis Theodorakis, Minoan civilization, Minoan eruption, Moment magnitude scale, Mosaic, Namık Kemal, Nea Moni of Chios, Necropolis, Neolithic, Neophytos Vamvas, Nikephoros of Chios, North Aegean, Oenopides, Olive, Omiroupoli, Ortona, Osman Hamdi Bey, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Turkish language, Paleo Trikeri, Paleologo Zaccaria, Panhellenic Union of Fighting Youths, Patriarch Diodoros of Jerusalem, Peloponnesian War, Perseus of Macedon, Phanariotes, Pherecydes of Leros, Phocaea, Phoenicia, Pistacia lentiscus, Pliny the Elder, Polykastro, Ralli Brothers, Regions of ancient Greece, Republic of Genoa, Republic of Venice, Roman Empire, Romaniote Jews, Romanization of Greek, Rouketopolemos, Russia, Saint Markella, Samos, Sandstone, Second Athenian Empire, Sinclair Hood, Slovakia, Social War (357–355 BC), Solon, Sphinx, Stamatios Krimigis, Stavros G. Livanos, Strabo, Takis Fotopoulos, The Holocaust, Theopompus, Third Macedonian War, Treaty of London (1913), Treaty of Nymphaeum (1261), Turkey, Twin towns and sister cities, Tyrant, Tzachas, Upper Egypt, Victor Hugo, Volissos, Vrontados, World Heritage Site, 1881 Chios earthquake, 2012 Chios forest fire. Expand index (147 more) »

In anthropology, an acephalous society (from the Greek ἀκέφαλος "headless") is a society which lacks political leaders or hierarchies.

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The Achaemenid Empire, also called the, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great, notable for embracing various civilizations and becoming the largest empire of the ancient history, spanning at its maximum extent from the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east.

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Adamantios Lemos (Αδαμάντιος Λεμός; 1916–2006) was a Greek actor.

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Adamantios Vassilakis (Αδαμάντιος Βασιλάκης, born in Chios, Greece, June 13, 1942), is a distinguished Greek diplomat and negotiator.

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The administrative regions of Greece (περιφέρειες, peripheries) are the country's first-level administrative entities, each comprising several second-level units, originally prefectures and, since 2011, regional units.

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The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi or Adalar Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.

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Agios Minas (Άγιος Μηνάς) is a former municipality on the island of Chios, North Aegean, Greece.

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Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας, Aléxandros ho Mégas, from the Greek ἀλέξω (alexō) "defend" and ἀνδρ- (andr-), the stem of ἀνήρ (anēr) "man" and means "protector of men") was a King (Basileus) of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;. and a member of the Argead dynasty, a famous ancient Greek royal house.

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Alexandros Kontostavlos (1789, Chios – 1865, Athens) was a Greek banker, magnate and politician.

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Amani (Αμανή) is a former municipality on the island of Chios, North Aegean, Greece.

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An amphora (English plural: amphorae or amphoras) is a type of container of a characteristic shape and size, descending from at least as early as the Neolithic Period.

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Anatolia (from Greek Ἀνατολή, Anatolḗ — "east" or "(sun)rise"; in modern), in geography known as Asia Minor (from Mīkrá Asía — "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, Anatolian peninsula, or Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of the Republic of Turkey.

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Andreas G. Papandreou (Ανδρέας Γ. Παπανδρέου;; 5 February 1919 – 23 June 1996) was a Greek economist, a socialist politician and a dominant figure in Greek politics.

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Andronikos II Palaiologos (Ανδρόνικος Βʹ Παλαιολόγος; 25 March 1259 – 13 February 1332), usually Latinized as Andronicus II Palaeologus, was Byzantine emperor from 11 December 1282 to 23 or 24 May 1328.

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The Archaeological Museum of Chios is a museum located on Michalon Street in Chios town, Chios, Greece.

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Archermus was a sculptor of Chios working in the middle of the 6th century BC.

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Aristo of Chios (Ἀρίστων ὁ Χῖος Ariston ho Chios; fl. c. 260 BC) was a Stoic philosopher and colleague of Zeno of Citium.

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The Roman province of Asia or Asiana (Ἀσία or Ἀσιανή), in Byzantine times called Phrygia, was an administrative unit added to the late Republic.

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Athens (Αθήνα, Athína,; Ἀθῆναι, Athēnai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.

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Attalus II Philadelphus (Greek: Ἄτταλος Β΄ ὁ Φιλάδελφος, Attalos II Philadelphos, which means "Attalus the brother-loving"; 220–138 BC) was a King of Pergamon and the founder of modern-day Turkish city Antalya.

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The occupation of Greece by the Axis Powers (Η Κατοχή, I Katochi, meaning "The Occupation") began in April 1941 after Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany invaded Greece, and lasted until Germany and its satellite Bulgaria withdrew from mainland Greece in October 1944.

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For war between the navy of Rhodes and the navy of Macedon in 201 BC, see Battle of Lade (201 BC). The Battle of Lade (Ναυμαχία τῆς Λάδης, Naumachia tēs Ladēs) was a naval battle which occurred during the Ionian Revolt, in 494 BC.

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The Battle of Leuctra (Λεῦκτρα, Leûktra) was a battle fought on July 6, 371 BC, between the Boeotians led by Thebans and the Spartans along with their allies amidst the post-Corinthian War conflict.

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The Battle of Mycale (Μάχη τῆς Μυκάλης; Machē tēs Mykalēs) was one of the two major battles that ended the second Persian invasion of Greece during the Greco-Persian Wars.

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Belgium (België; Belgique; Belgien), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in Western Europe.

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Benedetto I Zaccaria (c. 1235 – 1307) was an Italian admiral of the Republic of Genoa.

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Benedetto II Zaccaria (died 1330) was the co-Lord of Chios, as well as many other Aegean islands from 1314 until ca.

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Andrea Bianco was an Italian sailor and cartographer of the 15th century.

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Brezno (1927 - 1948 Brezno nad Hronom, Bries or Briesen, Breznóbánya) is a town in central Slovakia, with a population of 21,534 (2013).

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The British School at Athens (BSA) (Βρετανική Σχολή Αθηνών) is one of the 17 Foreign Archaeological Institutes in Athens, Greece.

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The Bronze Age is a time period characterized by the use of bronze, proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Bupalus (Βούπαλος) and Athenis (Ἄθηνις), were sons of Archermus, and members of the celebrated school of sculpture in marble which flourished in Chios in the 6th century BC.

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The Byzantine Empire, or Eastern Roman Empire, was the predominantly Greek-speaking continuation of the eastern part of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.

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The Castle of Chios is a medieval citadel in Chios town on the Greek island of Chios.

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A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit).

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The Chian diaspora was the dispersal of most of the remaining population of the Aegean island of Chios, after the Chios Massacre of 1822.

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Chian wine was a product of the Greek island of Chios.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.

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Chios (Περιφερειακή ενότητα Χίου) is one of the regional units of Greece.

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Chios (Χίος) is the main town and a former municipality on the island of Chios, North Aegean, Greece.

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The Chios Byzantine Museum is a museum in Chios, Greece.

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The Chios massacre was the killing of tens of thousands of Greeks on the island of Chios by Ottoman troops during the Greek War of Independence in 1822.

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Christopher Columbus (Cristoforo Colombo; Cristóbal Colón; Cristóvão Colombo; born between 31 October 1450 and 30 October 1451, Genoa; died 20 May 1506, Valladolid) was an Italian explorer, navigator, colonizer and citizen of the Republic of Genoa.

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Marcus Tullius Cicero (Κικέρων, Kikerōn; 3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman philosopher, politician, lawyer, orator, political theorist, consul and constitutionalist.

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Claudia Metrodora (fl. ca. 54 - 68 AD) was a Graeco-Roman public benefactor.

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Constantine Dalassenos (Κωνσταντίνος Δαλασσηνός, fl. ca. 1086–1093) was a prominent Byzantine military leader on land and sea during the early reign of Emperor Alexios I Komnenos (r. 1081–1118), especially in the campaigns against Tzachas of Smyrna.

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Constantine IX Monomachos, Latinized as Constantine IX Monomachus (Κωνσταντίνος Θ΄ Μονομάχος, Kōnstantinos IX Monomakhos; c. 1000 – 11 January 1055), reigned as Byzantine emperor from June 11, 1042 to January 11, 1055.

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Constantine V was Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople from 1897 to 1901.

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Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, and the fifth-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.

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Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

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De Oratore (On the Orator; not to be confused with Orator) is a dialogue written by Cicero in 55 BCE.

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The Delian League, founded in 478 BC, was an association of Greek city-states, members numbering between 150 to 173, under the leadership of Athens, whose purpose was to continue fighting the Persian Empire after the Greek victory in the Battle of Plataea at the end of the Second Persian invasion of Greece.

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Dimitris Varos (Δημήτρης Βάρος) was born in 1949 on the island of Chios.

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Dinant is a Walloon city and municipality located on the River Meuse in the Belgian province of Namur.

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Elata is a Greek village on the island of Chios.

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Erasistratus (Ἐρασίστρατος; c. 304 – c. 250 BC) was a Greek anatomist and royal physician under Seleucus I Nicator of Syria.

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Ermoupoli (Ερμούπολη), also known by the formal older name Ermoupolis or Hermoupolis (Ἑρμούπολις Greece Ministry of Interior It is also the capital of the South Aegean region.

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Erythrae or Erythrai (Ἐρυθραί) later Litri, was one of the twelve Ionian cities of Asia Minor, situated 22 km north-east of the port of Cyssus (modern name: Çeşme), on a small peninsula stretching into the Bay of Erythrae, at an equal distance from the mountains Mimas and Corycus, and directly opposite the island of Chios.

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The etesians (or; periodic winds; sometimes found in the Latin form etesiae), meltemia (μελτέμια; pl. of μελτέμι meltemi), from meltem (Turkish) are the strong, dry north winds of the Aegean Sea, which blow from about mid-May to mid-September.

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Euboea (Εύβοια, Evvia; Εὔβοια, Eúboia) is the second-largest Greek island in area and population, after Crete.

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Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (26 April 1798 – 13 August 1863) was a French Romantic artist regarded from the outset of his career as the leader of the French Romantic school.

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Eumenes II of Pergamon (Εὐμένης Βʹ; ruled 197–159 BC) was king of Pergamon and a member of the Attalid dynasty.

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Lailapas Football Club (Αθλητικός Ποδοσφαιρικός Σύλλογος Λαίλαπας; transliterated Athlitikos Podosfairikos Syllogos Lailapas), is a Greek football club based in Chios, Greece currently competing in the Fourth Division of Greek football.

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Ficus is a genus of about 850 species of woody trees, shrubs, vines, epiphytes and hemiepiphytes in the family Moraceae.

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The First Balkan War (Балканска война, Α΄ Βαλκανικός πόλεμος, Први балкански рат Prvi Balkanski rat, Birinci Balkan Savaşı), which lasted from October 1912 to May 1913, comprised actions of the Balkan League (Serbia, Greece, Montenegro and Bulgaria) against the Ottoman Empire.

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The First Crusade (1096–1099) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to capture the Holy Lands, called by Pope Urban II in 1095.

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The Fourth Crusade (1202–04) was a Western European armed expedition originally intended to conquer Muslim-controlled Jerusalem by means of an invasion through Egypt.

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Ancient Galatia (Γαλατία) was an area in the highlands of central Anatolia (Ankara, Çorum, Yozgat Province) in modern Turkey.

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Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, parts of Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.

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Genoa (Genova; Genoese and Ligurian Zena; Gênes; Latin and archaic English Genua) is the capital of Liguria and the sixth largest city in Italy with a population of 592,995 within its administrative limits on a land area of.

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Genoese (Zeneize) is a dialect of the Ligurian language spoken in Genoa (the principal city of the Liguria region in Northern Italy).

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George Musalas "Colvos" Colvocoresses (October 22, 1816 – June 3, 1872) was a United States Navy officer who commanded the during the American Civil War.

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The Gestapo (abbreviation of Geheime Staatspolizei, "Secret State Police") was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe.

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Glaucus of Chios (Γλαῦκος) was an Greek sculptor in metal, distinguished as the inventor of the art of soldering metals (Greek: σιδήρου κόλλησις, lit. "gluing together of iron").

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In the Ottoman Empire, the Grand Vizier was the prime minister of the Ottoman sultan, with absolute power of attorney and, in principle, dismissible only by the sultan himself.

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The Greco-Turkish War of 1919–1922, known as the Western Front (Batı Cephesi) of the Turkish War of Independence in Turkey and the Asia Minor Campaign (Μικρασιατική Εκστρατεία) or the Asia Minor Catastrophe (Μικρασιατική Καταστροφή) in Greece, was fought between Greece and the Turkish National Movement during the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire after World War I between May 1919 and October 1922.

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Greece (Ελλάδα), officially the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία) and known since ancient times as Hellas (Greek: Ελλάς), is a country located in southeastern Europe.

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The Greek Archaeological Service (Αρχαιολογική Υπηρεσία) is a state service, under the auspices of the Greek Ministry of Culture, responsible for the oversight of all archaeological excavations, museums and the country's archaeological heritage in general.

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The Greek Civil War (ο Eμφύλιος, "the Civil War") was fought from 1946–49 between the Greek government army—backed by Great Britain and the United States—and the Democratic Army of Greece (DSE), the military branch of the Greek Communist Party (KKE), backed by Yugoslavia and Albania as well as Bulgaria.

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The Greek Resistance (Εθνική Αντίσταση, i.e., "National Resistance") is the blanket term for a number of armed and unarmed groups from across the political spectrum that resisted the Axis occupation of Greece in the period 1941–1944, during World War II.

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Greece is a maritime nation by tradition, as shipping is arguably the oldest form of occupation of the Greeks and has been a key element of Greek economic activity since ancient times.

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The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution (Ελληνική Επανάσταση, Elliniki Epanastasi; Ottoman: يونان عصياني Yunan İsyanı Greek Uprising), was a successful war of independence waged by the Greek revolutionaries between 1821 and 1832 against the Ottoman Empire.

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Guìyáng is the capital of Guizhou province of Southwest China.

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Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος Hēródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus, Caria (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484–425 BC).

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Hippocrates of Chios (Ἱπποκράτης ὁ Χῖος) was an ancient Greek mathematician, geometer, and astronomer, who lived c. 470 – c. 410 BCE.

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The Histories (Ἱστορίαι;; also known as The History) of Herodotus is now considered as the founding work of history in Western literature.

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Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is best known as the author of the Iliad and the Odyssey.

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Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air.

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Ibrahim Edhem Pasha (1819–1893) was an Ottoman statesman of Greek birth who held the office of Grand Vizier in the beginning of Abdulhamid II's reign between 5 February 1877 and 11 January 1878.

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Ioannis Despotopoulos (Ιωάννης Δεσποτόπουλος, 7 January 1903 – 1992) also known as Jan Despo, was a Greek architect born in Smyrna (modern Izmir), Aidin Vilayet, Ottoman Empire.

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Ioannis (or Yannis) Psycharis (Greek: Ιωάννης (Γιάννης) Ψυχάρης; French: Jean Psychari; 1854–1929) was a French philologist of Greek origin, author and promoter of Demotic Greek.

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Ion of Chios (Ἴων ὁ Χῖος; c. 490/480 – c. 420 BC) was a Greek writer, dramatist, lyric poet and philosopher.

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Ionia (Ιωνία) is a former municipality on the island of Chios, North Aegean, Greece.

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The Ionian League (ancient Greek: Ἴωνες, Íōnes; κοινὸν Ἰώνων, koinón Iōnōn; or κοινὴ σύνοδος Ἰώνων, koinē sýnodos Iōnōn; Latin: commune consilium), also called the Panionic League, was a confederation formed at the end of the Meliac War in the mid-7th century BC comprising twelve Ionian cities (a dodecapolis, of which there were many others).

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The Ionian Revolt, and associated revolts in Aeolis, Doris, Cyprus and Caria, were military rebellions by several Greek regions of Asia Minor against Persian rule, lasting from 499 BC to 493 BC.

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The Ionians (Ἴωνες, Íōnes, singular Ἴων, Íōn) were one of the four major tribes that the Greeks considered themselves divided into, during the ancient period; alongside Dorians, Aeolians and Achaeans.

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Isocrates (Ἰσοκράτης,; 436–338 BC), an ancient Greek rhetorician, was one of the ten Attic orators.

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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe.

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Jani Christou (Γιάννης Χρήστου, Giánnīs Chrī́stou; 8 or 9 January 1926 – 8 January 1970) was a Greek composer.

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John Sitaras is an American fitness professional, the creator of the Sitaras Method and the founder of Sitaras Fitness in New York City.

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Kampochora (Καμπόχωρα) is a former municipality on the island of Chios, North Aegean, Greece.

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Kardamyla (Καρδάμυλα) is a village and a former municipality on the island of Chios, North Aegean, Greece.

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Karfas (Καρφάς), is a small town on the island of Chios, Greece.

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Kostia Vlastos (1883-1967) was a Greek of the diaspora, scion of a family of bankers, whose origins are from the island of Chios.

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The Empire of Romania (Imperium Romaniae), more commonly known in historiography as the Latin Empire (Λατινική Αυτοκρατορία) or Latin Empire of Constantinople, was a feudal Crusader state founded by the leaders of the Fourth Crusade on lands captured from the Byzantine Empire.

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The Leleges (Λέλεγες) were one of the aboriginal peoples of the Aegean littoral, distinct from the Pelasgians, the Bronze Age Greeks, the Cretan Minoans, the Cycladic Telkhines, and the Tyrrhenians.

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Leo Allatius (c. 1586 – January 19, 1669) (Greek: Λέων Αλλάτιος, Leon Allatios, Λιωνής Αλάτζης, Lionis Allatzis; Italian: Leone Allacci, Allacio; Latin: Leo Allatius, Allacius) was an Ethnic Greek scholar, theologian and keeper of the Vatican library.

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Greece has an extremely large number of islands, with estimates ranging from somewhere around 1,200 to 6,000, depending on the minimum size to take into account.

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Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BCAD 17)—known as Livy in English—was a Roman historian who wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people – Ab Urbe Condita Libri (Books from the Foundation of the City) – covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome before the traditional foundation in 753 BC through the reign of Augustus in Livy's own time.

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George Gordon Byron (later Noel), 6th Baron Byron, FRS (22 January 1788 – 19 April 1824), commonly known simply as Lord Byron, was an English poet and a leading figure in the Romantic movement.

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The Lordship of Chios (Ηγεμονία της Χίου) was a short-lived autonomous lordship run by the Genoese Zaccaria family.

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Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the northern periphery of Classical Greece and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.

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The mandarin (Citrus reticulata), also known as the mandarine, is a small citrus tree with fruit resembling other oranges.

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A maona (معونة ma‘ūnah 'help', معاونة mu‘āwanah 'mutual help') or Societas comperarum was a medieval Italian association of investors formed to manage the purchased shares (loca or partes) of the revenue due to the relevant city-state through tax farming; the shares were individually sold to wealthy merchants, but the collection could be difficult and so these merchants would band together.

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The Maona di Chio e di Focea (1346–1566) was a maona formed to exact taxes for Genoa from the island of Chios and port of Phocaea.

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Marble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.

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Mark Palios (born 9 November 1952 in Liverpool) is an English chartered accountant, onetime Licensed Insolvency Practitioner, football administrator and former professional footballer of Greek descent.

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Martino Zaccaria was the Lord of Chios from 1314 to 1329, ruler of several other Aegean islands, and baron of Veligosti–Damala and Chalandritsa in the Principality of Achaea.

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Mastic (Μαστίχα) is a resin obtained from the mastic tree (Pistacia lentiscus).

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Mastichochoria (Μαστιχοχώρια "the mastic villages" in Greek) is a former municipality on the island of Chios, North Aegean, Greece.

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In Greece, Mastika or Mastiha is a liqueur seasoned with mastic, a resin gathered from the mastic tree, a small evergreen tree native to the Mediterranean region.

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Saint Matrona of Chios (also called "Saint Matrona Chiopolitis") was born during the 15th century in the village of Volissos on the island of Chios, Greece.

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Matthew Mirones (b. 1956 in Brooklyn, New York) is a former Republican politician from New York City who represented parts of Brooklyn and Staten Island in the New York State Assembly.

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Mavrocordatos (also Mavrocordato, Mavrokordatos, Mavrocordat or Mavrogordato; Μαυροκορδάτος) is the name of a family of Phanariot Greeks, distinguished in the history of the Ottoman Empire, Wallachia, Moldavia, and modern Greece.

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The term Mediterranean climate is one typical of the Mediterranean Basin and is a particular variety of subtropical climate.

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Michel-Emmanuel Rodocanachi (1821 - 1901) was an influential Greek trader and banker of London.

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In European history, the Middle Ages or Medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Michael "Mikis" Theodorakis (Μιχαήλ (Μίκης) Θεοδωράκης; born 29 July 1925) is a Greek songwriter and composer who has written over 1000 songs.

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The Minoan civilization was an Aegean Bronze Age civilization that arose on the island of Crete and other Aegean islands such as Santorini and flourished from approximately 2600 to 1400 BCE.

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The Minoan eruption of Thera, also referred to as the Thera eruption or Santorini eruption, was a major catastrophic volcanic eruption with a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of 6 or 7 and a dense-rock equivalent (DRE) of, which is estimated to have occurred in the mid-second millennium BCE.

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The moment magnitude scale (abbreviated as MMS; denoted as MW or M) is used by seismologists to measure the size of earthquakes in terms of the energy released.

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Mosaic is the art of creating images with an assemblage of small pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials.

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Namık Kemal (21 December 1840 – 2 December 1888) was an Ottoman Turkish writer, intellectual, reformer, journalist, playwright, and political activist who was influential in the formation of the Young Ottomans and their struggle for governmental reform in the Ottoman Empire during the 19th century, which would lead to the First Constitutional Era in the Empire in 1876.

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Nea Moni (Νέα Μονή, lit. "New Monastery") is an 11th-century monastery on the island of Chios that has been recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

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A necropolis is a large ancient cemetery with elaborate tomb monuments.

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The Neolithic Age, Era, or Period, from νέος (néos, "new") and λίθος (líthos, "stone"), or New Stone Age, was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world from First Farmers: The Origins of Agricultural Societies by Peter Bellwood, 2004 and ending between 4,500 and 2,000 BC.

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Neophytos Vamvas (Νεόφυτος Βάμβας; 1770 – 9 January 1856) was a Greek cleric and educator of the 19th century.

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Father Nikephoros of Chios (1750–1821; also Nicephoros, Nicephorus, Nikephorus) was the spiritual son and disciple of Macarius of Corinth and known for his holy life and character.

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The North Aegean (Περιφέρεια Βορείου Αιγαίου) is one of the thirteen regions of Greece.

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Oenopides of Chios (Οἰνοπίδης) was an ancient Greek mathematician (geometer) and astronomer, who lived around 450 BCE.

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The olive or, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "european olive", (syn. Olea sylvestrishttp://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-355062) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in much of Africa, the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands, Mauritius and Réunion.

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Omiroupoli (Ομηρούπολη) is a former municipality in the central part of on the island of Chios, North Aegean, Greece.

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Ortona is a coastal town and municipality of the Province of Chieti in the Italian region of Abruzzo, with some 23,000 inhabitants.

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Osman Hamdi Bey (184224 February 1910) was an Ottoman administrator, intellectual, art expert and also a prominent and pioneering painter.

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The Ottoman Empire (دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه Devlet-i Aliyye-i Osmâniyye, Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti) which is also known as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was an empire founded in 1299 by Oghuz Turks under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia.

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Ottoman Turkish, or the Ottoman language (Lisân-ı Osmânî) (also known as Türkçe or Türkî, "Turkish"), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire.

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Paleo Trikeri (Παλαιό Τρίκερι) or Old Trikeri, also known as Trikeri Island, is a small island in the Pagasitic Gulf off the end of the Pelion peninsula in Thessaly, Greece.

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Paleologo Zaccaria (1235–1314) was the Lord of Chios and Phocaea, as well as other Aegean islands from 1307 until his death.

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The Panhellenic Union of Fighting Youths (Πανελλήνιος Ένωσις Αγωνιζόμενων Νέων, Panellínios Énosis Agonizómenon Néon, PEAN, ΠΕΑΝ) was a Greek Resistance organization during the Axis Occupation of Greece in the Second World War.

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Diodoros or Diodorus Διόδωρος; Damianos G. Karivalis Δαμιανός Γ. Καρίβαλης (August 14, 1923 – December 20, 2000) was the Patriarch of Jerusalem in the Orthodox Church of Jerusalem from 1981 to 2000.

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The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) was an ancient Greek war fought by Athens and its empire against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta.

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Perseus (Greek: Περσεύς; c. 212 – 166 BC) was the last king (Basileus) of the Antigonid dynasty, who ruled the successor state in Macedon created upon the death of Alexander the Great.

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Phanariots, Phanariotes, or Phanariote Greeks (Φαναριώτες, Fanarioți, Fenerliler) were members of those prominent Greek families residing in PhanarEncyclopædia Britannica,Phanariote, 2008, O.Ed.

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Pherecydes of Leros (Φερεκύδης; 450s BC) was a Greek mythographer and logographer.

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Phocaea, or Phokaia (Φώκαια; modern-day Foça in Turkey) was an ancient Ionian Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia.

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Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη,; فينيقية) was an ancient Semitic thalassocratic civilization situated on the western, coastal part of the Fertile Crescent and centered on the coastline of modern Lebanon.

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Pistacia lentiscus (also mastic; μαστίχα) is a dioecious evergreen shrub or small tree of the pistacio genus growing up to tall which is cultivated for its aromatic resin, mainly on the Greek island of Chios.

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Gaius Plinius Secundus (AD 23 – August 25, AD 79), better known as Pliny the Elder, was a Roman author, naturalist, and natural philosopher, as well as naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire and personal friend of the emperor Vespasian.

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Polykastro (Πολύκαστρο, formerly Καρασούλι, Karasoúli; Bulgarian and Macedonian: Ругуновец, Rugunovec) is a town and a former municipality in Kilkis regional unit of Central Macedonia, Greece.

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The five Ralli brothers, Zannis a.k.a. John (1785–1859), Augustus (1792–1878), Pandia a.k.a. Zeus (1793–1865), Toumazis (1799–1858), and Eustratios (1800–84) founded Ralli Brothers, perhaps the most successful expatriate Greek merchant business of the Victorian era.

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The regions of ancient Greece were areas identified by the ancient Greeks as geographical sub-divisions of the Hellenic world.

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The Most Serene Republic of Genoa (Repubblica di Genova, Repúbrica de Zêna) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.

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The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia; Repùblica Vèneta), or traditionally known as the Most Serene Republic of Venice, was a state originating from the lagoon communities in the area of Venice, now northeastern Italy.

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The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum; Ancient and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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No description.

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Romanization of Greek is the transliteration (letter-mapping) or transcription (sound-mapping) of text from the Greek alphabet into the Latin alphabet.

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Rouketopolemos (Greek Рουκετοπόλεμος, literally Rocket-War) is the name of a local traditional event held annually at Easter in the town of Vrontados (Βροντάδος) on the Greek island of Chios.

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Russia (Ru-Россия.ogg), also officially known as the Russian Federation (a), is a country in northern Eurasia.

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Saint Markella (also Marcella) was an inhabitant of Chios, Greece who was canonized by the Greek Orthodox Church.

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Samos (Σάμος) is a Greek island in the eastern Aegean Sea, south of Chios, north of Patmos and the Dodecanese, and off the coast of Asia Minor, from which it is separated by the -wide Mycale Strait.

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Sandstone (sometimes known as arenite) is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized minerals or rock grains.

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The Second Athenian Empire or Confederacy was a maritime confederation of Aegean city-states from 378–355 BC and headed by Athens, primarily for self-defense against the growth of Sparta and secondly, the Persian Empire.

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Martin Sinclair F. Hood (born 31 January 1917), generally known as Sinclair Hood, is an archaeologist who was Director of the British School of Archaeology at Athens, 1954–62, and led the excavations at Knossos from 1957 to 1961.

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Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a country in Central Europe.

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The Social War, also known as the War of the Allies, was fought from 357 BC to 355 BC between Athens with its Second Athenian Empire and between the allies of Chios, Rhodes, Cos and Byzantion.

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Solon (Σόλων; BC) was an Athenian statesman, lawmaker, and poet.

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A sphinx (Greek: Σφίγξ, Bœotian: Φίξ, Arabic: أبو الهول) is a mythical creature with, as a minimum, the head of a human and the body of a lion.

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Stamatios (Tom) M. Krimigis (Σταμάτιος Κριμιζής) is a Greek-American scientist in space exploration.

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Stavros George Livanos (Σταύρος Λιβανός; 1891–1963), a native of Chios, was the founder of the Livanos shipping empire and was a rival as well as father-in-law to billionaire Greek shipping tycoons Aristotle Onassis and Stavros Niarchos.

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Strabo (Στράβων Strabōn; 64/63 BC – c. AD 24), was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian.

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Takis Fotopoulos (Τάκης Φωτόπουλος born October 14, 1940) is a political philosopher and economist who founded the Inclusive Democracy movement.

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The Holocaust (from the Greek ὁλόκαυστος holókaustos: hólos, "whole" and kaustós, "burnt"), also known as the Shoah (Hebrew: השואה, HaShoah, "the catastrophe"), was a genocide in which approximately six million Jews were killed by Adolf Hitler's Nazi regime and its collaborators.

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Theopompus (Θεόπομπος; c. 380 BC – c. 315 BC) was a Greek historian and rhetorician.

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The Third Macedonian War (171–168 BC) was a war fought between Rome and King Perseus of Macedon.

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The Treaty of London was signed on 30 May during the London Conference of 1912-1913.

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The Treaty of Nymphaeum was a trade and defense pact signed between the Empire of Nicaea and the Republic of Genoa in Nymphaion in March 1261.

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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Turkish), is a parliamentary republic in Eurasia, largely located in Western Asia, with the smaller portion of Eastern Thrace in Southeast Europe.

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Twin towns or sister cities are a form of legal and social agreement between towns, cities, counties, oblasts, prefectures, provinces, regions, states, and even countries in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.

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A tyrant (Greek τύραννος, tyrannos), in its modern English usage, is an absolute ruler unrestrained by law or constitution, or one who has usurped legitimate sovereignty.

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Tzachas (Τζαχᾶς.), also known as Chaka Bey (Çaka Bey.)The Turkish form of "Tzachas" does not appear in any historical documents.

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Upper Egypt (صعيد مصر, shortened to الصعيد /) is the strip of land, on both sides of the Nile valley, that extends between Nubia, and downriver (northwards) to Lower Egypt.

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Victor Marie Hugo (26 February 1802 – 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, and dramatist of the Romantic movement.

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Volissos (Greek: Βολισσός) is the largest village in the northwest part of Chios, Aegean Islands, Greece.

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Vrontados (Βροντάδος) is a small coastal town located at the eastern part of the island of Chios in Greece.

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A World Heritage Site is a place (such as a building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, or mountain) that is listed by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as being of special cultural or physical significance.

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The 1881 Chios earthquake occurred at 11:30 UTC on 3 April.

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The 2012 Chios forest fire was a wildfire that broke out in the southern half of the Greek island of Chios shortly after 2 a.m. on Saturday 18 August 2012.

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Ancient Chios, Chios Island, Chios in the middle ages, Chios island, Chios, Greece, Chiyos, Chíos, Classical chios, Hios, Hiyos, Híos, Island of Chios, Khios, Khiyos, Khíos, Medieval chios, Quios, Quiyos, Quíos, Sakiz, Sakiz Adasi, Sakız, Sakız Adası, Xíoç, Χίος.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chios

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