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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. [1]

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Zworykin, Vladimir Lenin, Vladimir Mayakovsky, Vladimir Motyl, Vladimir Nabokov, Vladimir Putin, Vladimir Sofronitsky, Vladimir Solovyov (philosopher), Vladimir the Great, Vladimir Vernadsky, Vladimir Vysotsky, Vladimir-Suzdal, Vladislav Tretiak, Vladivostok, Vnukovo International Airport, Volcano, Volga Bulgaria, Volga Finns, Volga region, Volga River, Volga trade route, Volgograd, Volgograd Metrotram, Voronezh, Vyacheslav Ivanov (poet), Vyacheslav Volodin, Vyborg, War and Peace, War and Peace (film series), War in Donbass, War of the Sixth Coalition, Warsaw Pact, Wassily Kandinsky, Wassily Leontief, Wehrmacht, Well, Just You Wait!, Westernizer, White émigré, White movement, White Sea, White Sun of the Desert, White Terror (Russia), Winnie-the-Pooh, Winter War, Workers' council, Working-class culture, World Bank, World Chess Championship, World Justice Project, World oil market chronology from 2003, World revolution, World Trade Organization, World War I casualties, Wrangel Island, Yakut language, Yakuts, Yakutsk, Yaroslav the Wise, Yaroslavl, Yekaterinburg, Yekaterinburg Metro, Yenisei River, Yermak Timofeyevich, Yevgeniya Kanayeva, Yevgeny Chertovsky, Yevgeny Vuchetich, Yevgeny Yevtushenko, Yevgeny Zamyatin, Yuri Gagarin, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, Zalesye, Zaporozhian Cossacks, Zapovednik, Zasechnaya cherta, Zemsky Sobor, Zhaleika, .рф, .ru, .su, 14th Dalai Lama, 169th meridian west, 1905 Russian Revolution, 1960 European Nations' Cup, 1965 Soviet economic reform, 1980 Summer Olympics, 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, 1993 Men's World Ice Hockey Championships, 1998 Russian financial crisis, 19th meridian east, 2001 Sino-Russian Treaty of Friendship, 2005–06 Euroleague, 2007–08 Euroleague, 2008 IIHF World Championship, 2009 IIHF World Championship, 2012 IIHF World Championship, 2014 Formula One World Championship, 2014 IIHF World Championship, 2014 Ukrainian revolution, 2014 Winter Olympics, 2017–2018 Russian protests, 2018 FIFA World Cup, 41st parallel north, 82nd parallel north. Expand index (1410 more) »

A Just Russia

A Just Russia (Справедливая Россия, СР, Spravedlivaya Rossiya, SR, esers (эсеры)) also translated as Fair Russia, or A Fair and Just Russia, is a social democratic political party in Russia currently holding 23 of the 450 seats in the State Duma.

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Abaza language

The Abaza language (абаза бызшва, abaza byzšwa; абазэбзэ) is a Northwest Caucasian language in Russia and many of the exiled communities in Turkey.

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Academy Awards

The Academy Awards, also known as the Oscars, are a set of 24 awards for artistic and technical merit in the American film industry, given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), to recognize excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership.

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Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.

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Adyghe language

Adyghe (or; Adyghe: Адыгабзэ, Adygabzæ), also known as West Circassian (КӀахыбзэ, K’axybzæ), is one of the two official languages of the Republic of Adygea in the Russian Federation, the other being Russian. It is spoken by various tribes of the Adyghe people: Abzekh, Adamey, Bzhedug, Hatuqwai, Temirgoy, Mamkhegh, Natekuay, Shapsug, Zhaney and Yegerikuay, each with its own dialect. The language is referred to by its speakers as Adygebze or Adəgăbză, and alternatively transliterated in English as Adygean, Adygeyan or Adygei. The literary language is based on the Temirgoy dialect. There are apparently around 128,000 speakers of Adyghe in Russia, almost all of them native speakers. In total, some 300,000 speak it worldwide. The largest Adyghe-speaking community is in Turkey, spoken by the post Russian–Circassian War (circa 1763–1864) diaspora; in addition to that, the Adyghe language is spoken by the Cherkesogai in Krasnodar Krai. Adyghe belongs to the family of Northwest Caucasian languages. Kabardian (also known as East Circassian) is a very close relative, treated by some as a dialect of Adyghe or of an overarching Circassian language. Ubykh, Abkhaz and Abaza are somewhat more distantly related to Adyghe. The language was standardised after the October Revolution in 1917. Since 1936, the Cyrillic script has been used to write Adyghe. Before that, an Arabic-based alphabet was used together with the Latin.

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Age of Enlightenment

The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".

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Agnosticism

Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.

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Agriculture

Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.

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Ahmed Shaheed

Ahmed Shaheed ޝަހީދު (born 27 January 1964) is a Maldivian diplomat and politician.

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Airliner

An airliner is a type of aircraft for transporting passengers and air cargo.

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AK-47

The AK-47, or AK as it is officially known, also known as the Kalashnikov, is a gas-operated, 7.62×39mm assault rifle, developed in the Soviet Union by Mikhail Kalashnikov.

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AK-74

The AK-74 (Russian: Автомат Калашникова образца 1974 года or "Kalashnikov automatic rifle model 1974") is an assault rifle developed in the early 1970s by Russian designer Mikhail Kalashnikov as the replacement for the earlier AKM (itself a refined version of the AK-47). It uses a smaller 5.45×39mm cartridge, replacing the 7.62×39mm chambering of earlier Kalashnikov-pattern weapons. The rifle first saw service with Soviet forces engaged in the 1979 Afghanistan conflict.Woźniak, Ryszard: Encyklopedia najnowszej broni palnej—tom 1 A-F, page 25. Bellona, 2001. The head of the Afghan bureau of the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence claimed that the CIA paid $5,000 for the first AK-74 captured by the Mujahideen during the Soviet–Afghan War. Presently, the rifle continues to be used by the majority of countries of the former Soviet Union. Additionally, licensed copies were produced in Bulgaria (AK-74, AKS-74 and AKS-74U), and the former East Germany (MPi-AK-74N, MPi-AKS-74N, MPi-AKS-74NK).Cutshaw, Charlie: The New World of Russian Small Arms & Ammo, page 92. Paladin Press, 1998.McNab, Chris: The AK47 (Weapons of War), page 25. Spellmount Publishers, 2001. Besides former Soviet republics and eastern European countries, Mongolia, North Korean Special Forces, and Vietnamese People's Naval infantry use AK-74s.

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Al-Nusra Front

Al-Nusra Front or Jabhat al-Nusra (جبهة النصرة.), known as Jabhat Fateh al-Sham (جبهة فتح الشام, transliteration: Jabhat Fataḥ al-Šām) after July 2016, and also described as al-Qaeda in Syria or al-Qaeda in the Levant, was a Salafist jihadist organization fighting against Syrian government forces in the Syrian Civil War.

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Alaska

Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.

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Aleksandr Lyapunov

Aleksandr Mikhailovich Lyapunov (Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Ляпуно́в,; – November 3, 1918) was a Russian mathematician, mechanician and physicist.

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Aleksandr Petrov (animator)

Aleksandr Konstantinovich Petrov (also Alexander or Alexandre) (Александр Константинович Петров) (born 17 July 1957 in Prechistoye, Yaroslavl Oblast) is a Russian animator and animation director.

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Aleksandr Ptushko

Aleksandr Lukich Ptushko (Алекса́ндр Луки́ч Птушко́, Олександр Лукич Птушко; – 6 March 1973) was a Soviet animation and fantasy film director, and Meritorious Artist of the RSFSR.

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Alexander Andreyevich Ivanov

Alexander Andreyevich Ivanov (Алекса́ндр Андре́евич Ива́нов; July 28 (July 16 OS), 1806 – July 15 (July 3), 1858) was a Russian painter who adhered to the waning tradition of Neoclassicism but found little sympathy with his contemporaries.

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Alexander Belyaev

Alexander Romanovich Belyaev (Алекса́ндр Рома́нович Беля́ев,; 16 March 1884 – 6 January 1942) was a Soviet Russian writer of science fiction.

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Alexander Blok

Alexander Alexandrovich Blok (a; 7 August 1921) was a Russian lyrical poet.

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Alexander Butlerov

Alexander Mikhaylovich Butlerov (Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Бу́тлеров; 15 September 1828 – 17 August 1886) was a Russian chemist, one of the principal creators of the theory of chemical structure (1857–1861), the first to incorporate double bonds into structural formulas, the discoverer of hexamine (1859), the discoverer of formaldehyde (1859) and the discoverer of the formose reaction (1861).

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Alexander I of Russia

Alexander I (Александр Павлович, Aleksandr Pavlovich; –) reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1801 and 1825.

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Alexander II of Russia

Alexander II (p; 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881) was the Emperor of Russia from the 2nd March 1855 until his assassination on 13 March 1881.

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Alexander III of Russia

Alexander III (r; 1845 1894) was the Emperor of Russia, King of Poland, and Grand Duke of Finland from until his death on.

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Alexander Lodygin

Alexander Nikolayevich Lodygin (Александр Николаевич Лодыгин; 18 October 1847 – 16 March 1923) was a Russian electrical engineer and inventor, one of inventors of the incandescent light bulb.

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Alexander Nevsky

St.

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Alexander Ostrovsky

Alexander Nikolayevich Ostrovsky (Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Остро́вский;, Moscow, Russian Empire, Shchelykovo, Kostroma Governorate, Russian Empire) was a Russian playwright, generally considered the greatest representative of the Russian realistic period.

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Alexander Popov (swimmer)

Aleksandr Vladimirovich Popov (Russian: Александр Владимирович Попов, born 16 November 1971), better known as Alexander Popov, is a Russian former swimmer.

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Alexander Prokhorov

Alexander Mikhailovich Prokhorov (born Alexander Michael Prochoroff, Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Про́хоров; 11 July 1916 – 8 January 2002) was an Australian born Russian physicist known for his pioneering research on lasers and masers for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1964 with Charles Hard Townes and Nikolay Basov.

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Alexander Pushkin

Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (a) was a Russian poet, playwright, and novelist of the Romantic eraBasker, Michael.

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Alexander Rou

Alexander Arturovich Rou (also, Rowe, from his Irish father's name) (Александр Артурович Роу, – 28 December 1973) was a Soviet film director, and People's Artist of the RSFSR (1968).

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Alexander Scriabin

Alexander Nikolayevich Scriabin (Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Скря́бин; –) was a Russian composer and pianist.

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Alexander Tatarsky

Aleksander Mihailovich Tatarskiy (Александр Михайлович Татарский; December 11, 1950 – July 22, 2007) was a Soviet and Russian animation director, screenwriter, animator, producer and artist, co-founder and artistic director of the Pilot studio.

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Alexandrov Ensemble

The Alexandrov Ensemble (commonly known as the Red Army Choir in the West) is an official army choir of the Russian armed forces.

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Alexei Kudrin

Alexei Leonidovich Kudrin (p; born 12 October 1960) is a Russian liberal politician serving as the 4th and current Chairman of the Accounts Chamber since 2018.

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Alexey Leonov

Alexey Arkhipovich Leonov (p; born 30 May 1934 in Listvyanka, West Siberian Krai, Soviet Union) is a retired Soviet/Russian cosmonaut, Air Force Major general, writer and artist.

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Alfred Nobel

Alfred Bernhard Nobel (21 October 1833 – 10 December 1896) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, inventor, businessman, and philanthropist.

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Alfred Schnittke

Alfred Garrievich Schnittke (Альфре́д Га́рриевич Шни́тке, Alfred Garrievich Shnitke; November 24, 1934 – August 3, 1998) was a Soviet and German composer.

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Alisa (Russian band)

Alisa (Алиса) is a Russian hard rock band, who are credited as one of the most influential bands in the Russian rock movement.

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All-Russian Central Executive Committee

The All-Russian Central Executive Committee (Vserossiysky Centralny Ispolnitelny Komitet (VTsIK)), was the highest legislative, administrative, and revising body of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR) from 1917 until 1937.

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Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War

The Allied intervention was a multi-national military expedition launched during the Russian Civil War in 1918.

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Allies of World War I

The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.

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Allies of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).

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Altai language

Gorno-Altai (also Gorno-Altay) is a Turkic language, spoken officially in the Altai Republic, Russia.

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Altai Mountains

The Altai Mountains (also spelled Altay Mountains; Altai: Алтай туулар, Altay tuular; Mongolian:, Altai-yin niruɣu (Chakhar) / Алтайн нуруу, Altain nuruu (Khalkha); Kazakh: Алтай таулары, Altai’ tay’lary, التاي تاۋلارى Алтайские горы, Altajskije gory; Chinese; 阿尔泰山脉, Ā'ěrtài Shānmài, Xiao'erjing: اَعَرتَىْ شًامَىْ; Dungan: Артэ Шанмэ) are a mountain range in Central and East Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia, and Kazakhstan come together, and are where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their headwaters.

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Amazon rainforest

The Amazon rainforest (Portuguese: Floresta Amazônica or Amazônia; Selva Amazónica, Amazonía or usually Amazonia; Forêt amazonienne; Amazoneregenwoud), also known in English as Amazonia or the Amazon Jungle, is a moist broadleaf forest in the Amazon biome that covers most of the Amazon basin of South America.

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American pioneer

American pioneers are any of the people in American history who migrated west to join in settling and developing new areas.

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Amnesty International

Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.

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Amur River

The Amur River (Even: Тамур, Tamur; река́ Аму́р) or Heilong Jiang ("Black Dragon River";, "Black Water") is the world's tenth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Northeastern China (Inner Manchuria).

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Andrei Rublev

Andrei Rublev (p, also transliterated as Andrey Rublyov; born in the 1360s, died 29 January 1427 or 1430, or 17 October 1428 in Moscow) is considered to be one of the greatest medieval Russian painters of Orthodox icons and frescos.

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Andrei Sakharov

Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov (p; 21 May 192114 December 1989) was a Russian nuclear physicist, dissident, and activist for disarmament, peace and human rights.

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Andrei Voznesensky

Andrei Andreyevich Voznesensky (Андре́й Андре́евич Вознесе́нский, May 12, 1933 – June 1, 2010) was a Soviet and Russian poet and writer who had been referred to by Robert Lowell as "one of the greatest living poets in any language." He was one of the "Children of the '60s," a new wave of iconic Russian intellectuals led by the Khrushchev Thaw.

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Andrew the Apostle

Andrew the Apostle (Ἀνδρέας; ⲁⲛⲇⲣⲉⲁⲥ, Andreas; from the early 1st century BC – mid to late 1st century AD), also known as Saint Andrew and referred to in the Orthodox tradition as the First-Called (Πρωτόκλητος, Prōtoklētos), was a Christian Apostle and the brother of Saint Peter.

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Andrey Kolmogorov

Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov (a, 25 April 1903 – 20 October 1987) was a 20th-century Soviet mathematician who made significant contributions to the mathematics of probability theory, topology, intuitionistic logic, turbulence, classical mechanics, algorithmic information theory and computational complexity.

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Andrey Markov

Andrey (Andrei) Andreyevich Markov (Андре́й Андре́евич Ма́рков, in older works also spelled Markoff) (14 June 1856 N.S. – 20 July 1922) was a Russian mathematician.

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Animal husbandry

Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products.

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Anna Akhmatova

Anna Andreyevna Gorenkoa; Анна Андріївна Горенко, Anna Andriyivna Horenko (– 5 March 1966), better known by the pen name Anna Akhmatova (Анна Ахматова), was one of the most significant Russian poets of the 20th century.

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Anna Netrebko

Anna Yuryevna Netrebko (Анна Юрьевна Нетребко, born 18 September 1971) is a Russian operatic soprano.

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Anna Pavlova

Anna Pavlovna (Matveyevna) Pavlova (Анна Павловна (Матвеевна) Павлова; – January 23, 1931) was a Russian prima ballerina of the late 19th and the early 20th centuries.

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Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation

The Crimean peninsula was annexed from Ukraine by the Russian Federation in February–March 2014.

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Anschluss

Anschluss ('joining') refers to the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany on 12 March 1938.

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Antarctica

Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.

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Anti-communism

Anti-communism is opposition to communism.

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Anti-fascism

Anti-fascism is opposition to fascist ideologies, groups and individuals.

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Anton Chekhov

Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (ɐnˈton ˈpavɫəvʲɪtɕ ˈtɕɛxəf; 29 January 1860 – 15 July 1904) was a Russian playwright and short-story writer, who is considered to be among the greatest writers of short fiction in history.

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Anton Rubinstein

Anton Grigorevich Rubinstein (r) was a Russian pianist, composer and conductor who became a pivotal figure in Russian culture when he founded the Saint Petersburg Conservatory.

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Apostles

In Christian theology and ecclesiology, the apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity.

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Appeasement

Appeasement in an international context is a diplomatic policy of making political or material concessions to an aggressive power in order to avoid conflict.

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Aquarium (band)

Aquarium or Akvarium (Аква́риум; often stylized as Åквариум) is a Russian rock group formed in Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg, Russia) in 1972.

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Arable land

Arable land (from Latin arabilis, "able to be plowed") is, according to one definition, land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops.

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Arbat Street

Arbat Street (Russian), mainly referred to in English as the Arbat, is a pedestrian street about one kilometer long in the historical centre of Moscow, Russia.

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Arc welding

Arc welding is a process that is used to join metal to metal by using electricity to create enough heat to melt metal, and the melted metals when cool result in a binding of the metals.

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Aria (band)

Aria (Ария) is a Russian heavy metal band that was formed in 1985 in Moscow.

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Aristotele Fioravanti

Ridolfo "Aristotele" Fioravanti (born c. 1415 or 1420 in Bologna; died c. 1486) was an Italian Renaissance architect and engineer, active in Muscovy from 1475, where he designed the Dormition Cathedral, Moscow during 1475–1479.

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Arkady and Boris Strugatsky

The brothers Arkady (Аркадий; 28 August 1925 – 12 October 1991) and Boris (Бори́с; 14 April 1933 – 19 November 2012) Strugatsky (Струга́цкий; alternate spellings: Strugatskiy, Strugatski, Strugatskii) were Soviet-Russian science fiction authors who collaborated through most of their careers.

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Arkhangelsk

Arkhangelsk (p), also known in English as Archangel and Archangelsk, is a city and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, in the north of European Russia.

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Arkhip Kuindzhi

Arkhip Ivanovich Kuindzhi (or Kuinji; Архи́п Ива́нович Куи́нджи; 27 January 1842(?) – 24 July 1910) was a Russian landscape painter of Greek descent.

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Armenia

Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.

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Armenian Apostolic Church

The Armenian Apostolic Church (translit) is the national church of the Armenian people.

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Armenians in Russia

Armenians in Russia or Russian Armenians are one of the country's largest ethnic minorities and the largest Armenian diaspora community outside Armenia.

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Army of Conquest

The Army of Conquest (جيش الفتح) or Jaish al-Fatah, abbreviated JaF, was a joint command center of Sunni Islamist Syrian rebel factions participating in the Syrian Civil War.

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Art Nouveau

Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between 1890 and 1910.

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Arto Luukkanen

Arto Pekka Luukkanen (born 28 November 1964) is a Finnish historian and social scientist, specialising in Russian and Eastern European research at the University of Helsinki Renvall Institute.

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Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a forum for 21 Pacific Rim member economies.

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Assault rifle

An assault rifle is a selective-fire rifle that uses an intermediate cartridge and a detachable magazine.

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Associated Press

The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.

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Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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Association of Southeast Asian Nations

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional intergovernmental organization comprising ten Southeast Asian countries that promotes intergovernmental cooperation and facilitates economic, political, security, military, educational, and sociocultural integration amongst its members, other Asian countries, and globally.

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Astrakhan

Astrakhan (p) is a city in southern Russia and the administrative center of Astrakhan Oblast.

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Astrakhan Khanate

The Khanate of Astrakhan (Xacitarxan Khanate) was a Tatar Turkic state that arose during the break-up of the Golden Horde.

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Astronaut

An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.

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Astronautics

Astronautics (or cosmonautics) is the theory and practice of navigation beyond Earth's atmosphere.

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Atheism

Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.

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Austria

Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.

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Austria-Hungary

Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.

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Autocracy

An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).

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Autonomous oblasts of Russia

The Russian Federation is divided into 83 federal subjects.

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Autonomous okrugs of Russia

Autonomous okrug (t), occasionally also referred to as "autonomous district", "autonomous area", and "autonomous region", is a type of federal subject of Russia and simultaneously an administrative division type of some federal subjects.

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Avant-garde

The avant-garde (from French, "advance guard" or "vanguard", literally "fore-guard") are people or works that are experimental, radical, or unorthodox with respect to art, culture, or society.

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Azerbaijan

No description.

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Élie Metchnikoff

Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (Илья́ Ильи́ч Ме́чников, also written as Élie Metchnikoff; 15 July 1916) was a Russian zoologist best known for his pioneering research in immunology.

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Balalaika

The balalaika (балала́йка) is a Russian stringed musical instrument with a characteristic triangular wooden, hollow body and three strings.

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Ballad of a Soldier

Ballad of a Soldier (Баллада о солдате, Ballada o soldate), is a 1959 Soviet film directed by Grigori Chukhrai and starring Vladimir Ivashov and Zhanna Prokhorenko.

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Ballets Russes

The Ballets Russes was an itinerant ballet company based in Paris that performed between 1909 and 1929 throughout Europe and on tours to North and South America.

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Ballistic missile submarine

A ballistic missile submarine is a submarine capable of deploying submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) with nuclear warheads.

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Baltic Sea

The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.

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Bandy

Bandy is a team winter sport played on ice, in which skaters use sticks to direct a ball into the opposing team's goal.

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Bandy World Championship

The Bandy World Championship is a competition between bandy-playing nations' men's teams.

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Banya (sauna)

A banya or banja (баня) is a small room or building designed as a place to experience dry or wet heat sessions or an establishment with one or more of these facilities.

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Bard (Soviet Union)

The term bard (bard) came to be used in the Soviet Union in the early 1960s, and continues to be used in Russia today, to refer to singer-songwriters who wrote songs outside the Soviet establishment, similarly to folk singers of the American folk music revival.

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Barents Sea

The Barents Sea (Barentshavet; Баренцево море, Barentsevo More) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, located off the northern coasts of Norway and Russia divided between Norwegian and Russian territorial waters.

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Barley

Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.

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Bashkir language

The Bashkir language (Башҡорт теле) is a Turkic language belonging to the Kipchak branch.

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Bashkirs

The Bashkirs (Башҡорттар, Başqorttar,; Башкиры, Baškiry) are a Turkic ethnic group, indigenous to Bashkortostan and to the historical region of Badzhgard, extending on both sides of the Ural Mountains, in the area where Eastern Europe meets North Asia.

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Bast shoe

Bast shoes are shoes made primarily from bast — fiber taken from the bark of trees such as linden or birch.

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Battle of Berlin

The Battle of Berlin, designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, and also known as the Fall of Berlin, was the final major offensive of the European theatre of World War II.

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Battle of Kulikovo

The Battle of Kulikovo (Мамаево побоище, Донское побоище, Куликовская битва, битва на Куликовом поле) was fought between the armies of the Golden Horde under the command of Mamai, and various Russian principalities under the united command of Prince Dmitry of Moscow.

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Battle of Kursk

The Battle of Kursk was a Second World War engagement between German and Soviet forces on the Eastern Front near Kursk (south-west of Moscow) in the Soviet Union, during July and August 1943.

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Battle of Molodi

The Battle of Molodi (Russian: Молодинская битва) was one of the key battles of Ivan the Terrible's reign.

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Battle of Moscow

The Battle of Moscow (translit) was a military campaign that consisted of two periods of strategically significant fighting on a sector of the Eastern Front during World War II.

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Battle of Stalingrad

The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was the largest confrontation of World War II, in which Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia.

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Battle of the Neva

The Battle of the Neva (Невская битва, Nevskaya bitva, slaget vid Neva, Finnish: Nevan taistelu) was fought between the Novgorod Republic and Karelians against Swedish, Norwegian, Finnish and Tavastian armies on the Neva River, near the settlement of Ust-Izhora, on 15 July 1240.

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Battle on the Ice

The Battle on the Ice (Ледовое побоище, Ledovoye poboish'ye); Schlacht auf dem Eise; Jäälahing; Schlacht auf dem Peipussee) was fought between the Republic of Novgorod led by prince Alexander Nevsky and the crusader army led by the Livonian branch of the Teutonic Knights on April 5, 1242, at Lake Peipus. The battle is notable for having been fought largely on the frozen lake, and this gave the battle its name. The battle was a significant defeat sustained by the crusaders during the Northern Crusades, which were directed against pagans and Eastern Orthodox Christians rather than Muslims in the Holy Land. The Crusaders' defeat in the battle marked the end of their campaigns against the Orthodox Novgorod Republic and other Slavic territories for the next century. The event was glorified in Sergei Eisenstein's historical drama film Alexander Nevsky, released in 1938, which created a popular image of the battle often mistaken for the real events. Sergei Prokofiev turned his score for the film into a concert cantata of the same title, with "The Battle on the Ice" being its longest movement.

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Battleship Potemkin

Battleship Potemkin (Бронено́сец «Потёмкин», Bronenosets Potyomkin), sometimes rendered as Battleship Potyomkin, is a 1925 Soviet silent film directed by Sergei Eisenstein and produced by Mosfilm.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Belarus

Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.

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Belarusian language

Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.

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Belavezha Accords

The Belavezha Accords (Беловежские соглашения, Белавежскае пагадненне, Біловезькі угоди) is the agreement that declared the Soviet Union effectively dissolved and established the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in its place.

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Belgorod Oblast

Belgorod Oblast (Белгоро́дская о́бласть, Belgorodskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).

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Belukha Mountain

Belukha Mountain (Белуха, lit "whitey"; Altai: Muztau or Üç Sümer), located in the Katun Mountains, is the highest peak of the Altai Mountains in Russia.

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Bering Sea

The Bering Sea (r) is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean.

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Bering Strait

The Bering Strait (Берингов пролив, Beringov proliv, Yupik: Imakpik) is a strait of the Pacific, which borders with the Arctic to north.

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Beslan school siege

The Beslan school siege (also referred to as the Beslan school hostage crisis or Beslan massacre) started on 1 September 2004, lasted three days, involved the illegal imprisonment of over 1,100 people as hostages (including 777 children), and ended with the deaths of at least 334 people.

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Bessarabia

Bessarabia (Basarabia; Бессарабия, Bessarabiya; Besarabya; Бессара́бія, Bessarabiya; Бесарабия, Besarabiya) is a historical region in Eastern Europe, bounded by the Dniester river on the east and the Prut river on the west.

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Bicameralism

A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.

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Big Bang

The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.

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Big Diomede

Big Diomede Island (о́стров Ратма́нова, ostrov Ratmanova (Russian for Ratmanov Island); Inupiat: Imaqłiq) or "Tomorrow Island" (due to the International Date Line) is the western island of the two Diomede Islands in the middle of the Bering Strait.

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Bill (law)

A bill is proposed legislation under consideration by a legislature.

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Birch

A birch is a thin-leaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams.

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Birth rate

The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 in a population in a year or period.

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Bishop

A bishop (English derivation from the New Testament of the Christian Bible Greek επίσκοπος, epískopos, "overseer", "guardian") is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight.

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Black Sea

The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.

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Blini

A blini (sometimes spelled bliny) (Russian: блины pl., diminutive: блинчики, blinchiki) or, sometimes, blin (more accurate as a single form of the noun), is a Russian pancake traditionally made from wheat or (more rarely) buckwheat flour and served with sour cream, quark, butter, caviar and other garnishes.

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Bloody Sunday (1905)

Bloody Sunday or Red Sunday (p) is the name given to the events of Sunday, in St Petersburg, Russia, when unarmed demonstrators led by Father Georgy Gapon were fired upon by soldiers of the Imperial Guard as they marched towards the Winter Palace to present a petition to Tsar Nicholas II of Russia.

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Bloomberg L.P.

Bloomberg L.P. is a privately held financial, software, data, and media company headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.

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Bloomberg News

Bloomberg News is an international news agency headquartered in New York, United States and a division of Bloomberg L.P. Content produced by Bloomberg News is disseminated through Bloomberg Terminals, Bloomberg Television, Bloomberg Radio, Bloomberg Businessweek, Bloomberg Markets, Bloomberg.com and Bloomberg's mobile platforms.

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Bohdan Khmelnytsky

Zynoviy Bohdan Khmelnytsky (Ruthenian language: Ѕѣнові Богдан Хмелнiцкiи; modern Bohdan Zynoviy Mykhailovych Khmelnytsky; Bohdan Zenobi Chmielnicki; 6 August 1657) was a Polish–Lithuanian-born Hetman of the Zaporozhian Host of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (now part of Ukraine).

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Bolsheviks

The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.

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Bolshoi Ballet

The Bolshoi Ballet is an internationally renowned classical ballet company, based at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow, Russian Federation.

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Bolshoi Theatre

The Bolshoi Theatre (p) is a historic theatre in Moscow, Russia, originally designed by architect Joseph Bové, which holds ballet and opera performances.

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Borders of Russia

Russia has international borders with 16 sovereign states, including two with maritime boundaries (US, Japan), as well as with the partially recognized states of South Ossetia and Abkhazia.

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Boris Kustodiev

Boris Mikhaylovich Kustodiev (Бори́с Миха́йлович Кусто́диев; – 28 May 1927) was a Russian painter and stage designer.

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Boris Yeltsin

Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (p; 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Soviet and Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.

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Borscht

Borscht is a sour soup popular in several Eastern European cuisines, including Ukrainian, Russian, Polish, Lithuanian, Belarusian, Romanian, Ashkenazi Jewish and Armenian cuisines.

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Bosporan Kingdom

The Bosporan Kingdom, also known as the Kingdom of the Cimmerian Bosporus (Basileion tou Kimmerikou Bosporou), was an ancient state located in eastern Crimea and the Taman Peninsula on the shores of the Cimmerian Bosporus, the present-day Strait of Kerch (it was not named after the more famous Bosphorus beside Istanbul at the other end of the Black Sea).

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Brian Glyn Williams

Brian Glyn Williams is a professor of Islamic History at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth.

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BRIC

In economics, BRIC is a grouping acronym that refers to the countries of '''B'''razil, '''R'''ussia, '''I'''ndia and '''C'''hina, which are all deemed to be at a similar stage of newly advanced economic development.

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Broad-gauge railway

A broad-gauge railway is a railway with a track gauge broader than the standard-gauge railways.

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Brusilov Offensive

The Brusilov Offensive (Брусиловский прорыв Brusilovskiĭ proryv, literally: "Brusilov's breakthrough"), also known as the "June Advance", of June to September 1916 was the Russian Empire’s greatest feat of arms during World War I, and among the most lethal offensives in world history.

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Buddhism

Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Buddhism in Russia

Historically, Buddhism was incorporated into Russian lands in the early 17th century.

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Bukovina

Bukovina (Bucovina; Bukowina/Buchenland; Bukowina; Bukovina, Буковина Bukovyna; see also other languages) is a historical region in Central Europe,Klaus Peter Berger,, Kluwer Law International, 2010, p. 132 divided between Romania and Ukraine, located on the northern slopes of the central Eastern Carpathians and the adjoining plains.

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Bulat Okudzhava

Bulat Shalvovich Okudzhava (Була́т Ша́лвович Окуджа́ва; ბულატ ოკუჯავა) (May 9, 1924 – June 12, 1997) was a Soviet and Russian poet, writer, musician, novelist, and singer-songwriter of Georgian-Armenian ancestry.

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Buran programme

The Buran programme (Бура́н,, "Snowstorm" or "Blizzard"), also known as the "VKK Space Orbiter programme" ("VKK" is for Воздушно Космический Корабль, "Air Space Ship"), was a Soviet and later Russian reusable spacecraft project that began in 1974 at the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute in Moscow and was formally suspended in 1993.

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Burka (Caucasus)

A burka (ნაბადი, Svan: ღა̈რთ, ауапа, кӏакӏо, щӏакӏуэ, нымӕг, ферта, верта, буртина) is a coat made from felt or karakul (the short curly fur of young lambs of the breed of that name).

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Buryat language

Buryat or Buriat (Buryat Cyrillic: буряад хэлэн, buryaad xelen) is a variety of Mongolic spoken by the Buryats that is classified either as a language or as a major dialect group of Mongolian.

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Buryatia

The Republic of Buryatia (p; Buryaad Ulas) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic), located in Asia in Siberia.

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Buryats

The Buryats (Buryaad; 1, Buriad), numbering approximately 500,000, are the largest indigenous group in Siberia, mainly concentrated in their homeland, the Buryat Republic, a federal subject of Russia.

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Business Insider

Business Insider is an American financial and business news website that also operates international editions in the UK, Australia, China, Germany, France, South Africa, India, Italy, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Netherlands, Nordics, Poland, Spanish and Singapore.

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Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic

The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR, or Byelorussian SSR; Bielaruskaja Savieckaja Sacyjalistyčnaja Respublika; Belorusskaya SSR.), also commonly referred to in English as Byelorussia, was a federal unit of the Soviet Union (USSR).

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Bylina

Bylina or starina (были́на; pl. были́ны byliny; also ста́рина; pl. ста́рины stariny) is a traditional East Slavic oral epic narrative poem.

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Byzantine architecture

Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire, also known as the Later Roman or Eastern Roman Empire.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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Byzantium

Byzantium or Byzantion (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and later Istanbul.

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Cabbage roll

A cabbage roll is a dish consisting of cooked cabbage leaves wrapped around a variety of fillings.

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Caesar (title)

Caesar (English Caesars; Latin Caesares) is a title of imperial character.

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Capital flight

Capital flight, in economics, occurs when assets or money rapidly flow out of a country, due to an event of economic consequence.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Caspian expeditions of the Rus'

The Caspian expeditions of the Rus' were military raids undertaken by the Rus' between 864 and 1041 on the Caspian Sea shores,Logan (1992), p. 201 of what are nowadays Iran, Dagestan, and Azerbaijan.

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Caspian Sea

The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.

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Cathedral of Christ the Saviour

The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour (Храм Христа Спасителя, Khram Khrista Spasitelya) is a Russian Orthodox cathedral in Moscow, Russia, on the northern bank of the Moskva River, a few hundred metres southwest of the Kremlin.

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Catherine the Great

Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; –), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader.

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Caucasus Mountains

The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system in West Asia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea in the Caucasus region.

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Central Intelligence Agency

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).

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Central Powers

The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).

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Chairman of the Federation Council (Russia)

The Chairman of the Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation (Председатель Совета Федерации Федерального собрания Российской Федерации), also called Speaker (спикер), is the presiding officer of the Upper house of the Russian parliament.

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Chairman of the State Duma

The Chairman of the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation (Председатель Государственной Думы Федерального собрания Российской Федерации), also called Speaker (спикер), is the presiding officer of the lower house of the Russian parliament.

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Chalcolithic

The Chalcolithic (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998), p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective Archaeology of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BCE, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. Also called Eneolithic... Also called Copper Age - Origin early 20th cent.: from Greek khalkos 'copper' + lithos 'stone' + -ic". χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and λίθος líthos, "stone") period or Copper Age, in particular for eastern Europe often named Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus "of copper"), was a period in the development of human technology, before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze, leading to the Bronze Age.

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Chamomile

Chamomile (American English) or camomile (British English; see spelling differences) is the common name for several daisy-like plants of the family Asteraceae.

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Chapaev (film)

Chapaev (Чапаев) is a 1934 Soviet war film, directed by the Vasilyev brothers for Lenfilm.

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Cheburashka

Cheburashka (p), also known as Topple in earlier English translations, is a character in children's literature, from a 1966 story by Soviet writer Eduard Uspensky.

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Chechen language

Chechen (нохчийн мотт / noxçiyn mott / نَاخچیین موٓتت / ნახჩიე მუოთთ, Nokhchiin mott) is a Northeast Caucasian language spoken by more than 1.4 million people, mostly in the Chechen Republic and by members of the Chechen diaspora throughout Russia, Jordan, Central Asia (mainly Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan), and Georgia.

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Chechens

Chechens (Нохчий; Old Chechen: Нахчой Naxçoy) are a Northeast Caucasian ethnic group of the Nakh peoples originating in the North Caucasus region of Eastern Europe.

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Chechnya

The Chechen Republic (tɕɪˈtɕɛnskəjə rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə; Нохчийн Республика, Noxçiyn Respublika), commonly referred to as Chechnya (p; Нохчийчоь, Noxçiyçö), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia.

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Chelyabinsk

Chelyabinsk (a) is a city and the administrative center of Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, located in the northeast of the oblast, south of Yekaterinburg, just to the east of the Ural Mountains, on the Miass River, on the border of Europe and Asia.

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Chemical structure

A chemical structure determination includes a chemist's specifying the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic structure of the target molecule or other solid.

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Chemistry

Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.

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Cherenkov radiation

Cherenkov radiation (sometimes spelled "Cerenkov") is electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle (such as an electron) passes through a dielectric medium at a speed greater than the phase velocity of light in that medium.

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Chersonesus

Chersonesus (Khersónēsos; Chersonesus; modern Russian and Ukrainian: Херсонес, Khersones; also rendered as Chersonese, Chersonesos), in medieval Greek contracted to Cherson (Χερσών; Old East Slavic: Корсунь, Korsun) is an ancient Greek colony founded approximately 2,500 years ago in the southwestern part of the Crimean Peninsula.

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Chess

Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.

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Chicken Kiev

Chicken Kiev (котлета по-київськи, kotleta po-kyivsky, котлета по-киевски, kotleta po-kiyevski; literally "cutlet Kiev-style") is a dish of chicken fillet pounded and rolled around cold butter, then coated with eggs and bread crumbs, and either fried or baked.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Cholera

Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.

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Christian Today

Christian Today is a non-denominational Christian news company, with its international headquarters in London, England.

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Christianity

ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Christianity in Russia

Christianity in Russia is by some estimates the largest religion in the country, with nearly 50% of the population identifying as Christian.

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Christianization

Christianization (or Christianisation) is the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire groups at once.

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Christianization of Kievan Rus'

The Christianization of Kievan Rus' took place in several stages.

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Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Chukchi Peninsula

The Chukchi Peninsula (or Chukotka Peninsula or Chukotski Peninsula) (Чуко́тский полуо́стров, Чуко́тка), at about 66° N 172° W, is the eastmost peninsula of Asia.

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Chukchi Sea

Chukchi Sea (p) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean.

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Chukotka Autonomous Okrug

Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (p; Chukchi: Чукоткакэн автономныкэн округ, Chukotkaken avtonomnyken okrug) or Chukotka (Чуко́тка) is a federal subject (an autonomous okrug) of Russia.

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Church of the Savior on Blood

The Church of the Savior on Spilled Blood (Церковь Спаса на Крови, Tserkovʹ Spasa na Krovi) is one of the main sights of Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Chuvash language

Chuvash (Чӑвашла, Čăvašla) is a Turkic language spoken in European Russia, primarily in the Chuvash Republic and adjacent areas.

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Chuvash people

The Chuvash people (чăваш,; чуваши) are a Turkic ethnic group, native to an area stretching from the Volga Region to Siberia.

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Cinema of the Soviet Union

The cinema of the Soviet Union, not to be confused with "cinema of Russia" despite films in the Russian language being predominant in the body of work so described, includes films produced by the constituent republics of the Soviet Union reflecting elements of their pre-Soviet culture, language and history, albeit they were all regulated by the central government in Moscow.

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Circassian languages

Circassian, also known as Cherkess, is a subdivision of the Northwest Caucasian language family.

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Circassians

The Circassians (Черкесы Čerkesy), also known by their endonym Adyghe (Circassian: Адыгэхэр Adygekher, Ады́ги Adýgi), are a Northwest Caucasian nation native to Circassia, many of whom were displaced in the course of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century, especially after the Russian–Circassian War in 1864.

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Citizenship of Russia

Citizenship of Russia is regulated by the federal act regarding citizenship of the Russian Federation (of 2002, with the amendments of 2003, 2004, 2006), Constitution of the Russian Federation (of 1993), and the international treaties that cover citizenship questions to which the Russian Federation is a party.

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Classical antiquity

Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

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Classical conditioning

Classical conditioning (also known as Pavlovian or respondent conditioning) refers to a learning procedure in which a biologically potent stimulus (e.g. food) is paired with a previously neutral stimulus (e.g. a bell).

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Coal

Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.

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Coat of arms of Moscow

The coat of arms of Moscow depicts a horseman with a spear in his hand slaying a basilisk and is identified with Saint George and the Dragon.

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Coat of arms of Russia

The coat of arms of the Russian Federation derives from the earlier coat of arms of the Russian Empire which was abolished with the Russian Revolution in 1917 and restored in 1993 after the constitutional crisis.

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Code of law

A code of law, also called a law code or legal code, is a type of legislation that purports to exhaustively cover a complete system of laws or a particular area of law as it existed at the time the code was enacted, by a process of codification.

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).

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Collective leadership

Collective leadership is a distribution of power within an organisational structure.

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Collective leadership in the Soviet Union

Collective leadership (коллективное руководство) or Collectivity of leadership (коллективность руководства), was considered an ideal form of governance in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and other socialist states espousing communism.

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Collective Security Treaty Organization

The Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO; Организация Договора о Коллективной Безопасности, Organizacija Dogovora o Kollektivnoj Bezopasnosti, ODKB) is an intergovernmental military alliance that was signed on 15 May 1992.

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Collectivization in the Soviet Union

The Soviet Union enforced the collectivization (Коллективизация) of its agricultural sector between 1928 and 1940 (in West - between 1948 and 1952) during the ascendancy of Joseph Stalin.

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Commissioner for Human Rights

The Commissioner for Human Rights is an independent and impartial non-judicial institution established in 1999 by the Strasbourg-based Council of Europe, to promote awareness of and respect for human rights in the 47 member states.

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Commonwealth of Independent States

The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r), also nicknamed the Russian Commonwealth (in order to distinguish it from the Commonwealth of Nations), is a political and economic intergovernmental organization of nine member states and one associate member, all of which are former Soviet Republics located in Eurasia (primarily in Central to North Asia), formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

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Communism

In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.

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Communist party

A communist party is a political party that advocates the application of the social and economic principles of communism through state policy.

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Communist Party of the Russian Federation

The Communist Party of the Russian Federation (CPRF; Коммунистическая Партия Российской Федерации; КПРФ; Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii, KPRF) is a communist and Marxist–Leninist political party in Russia.

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Complex system

A complex system is a system composed of many components which may interact with each other.

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Congress of Vienna

The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.

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Congress Poland

The Kingdom of Poland, informally known as Congress Poland or Russian Poland, was created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna as a sovereign state of the Russian part of Poland connected by personal union with the Russian Empire under the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland until 1832.

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Conscription

Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.

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Conservation of energy

In physics, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant, it is said to be ''conserved'' over time.

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Constitution of Russia

The current Constitution of the Russian Federation (Конституция Российской Федерации, Konstitutsiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii) was adopted by national referendum on.

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Constitutional Court of Russia

The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation (Конституционный Суд Российской Федерации) is a high court within the judiciary of Russia which is empowered to rule on whether certain laws or presidential decrees are in fact contrary to the Constitution of Russia.

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Constitutionality

Constitutionality is the condition of acting in accordance with an applicable constitution; the status of a law, a procedure, or an act's accordance with the laws or guidelines set forth in the applicable constitution.

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Constructivism (art)

Constructivism was an artistic and architectural philosophy that originated in Russia beginning in 1913 by Vladimir Tatlin.

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Constructivist architecture

Constructivist architecture was a form of modern architecture that flourished in the Soviet Union in the 1920s and early 1930s.

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Continental shelf of Russia

The continental shelf of Russia (also called the Russian continental shelf or the Arctic shelf in the Arctic region) is a continental shelf adjacent to Russia.

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Corruption in Russia

Political corruption is perceived to be a significant problem in Russia, impacting all aspects of administration, law enforcement, healthcare and education.

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Corruption Perceptions Index

Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".

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Cosmonautics Day

Cosmonautics Day (День Космона́втики, Den Kosmonavtiki) is an anniversary celebrated in Russia and some other former USSR countries on 12 April.

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Cossacks

Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.

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Council of Europe

The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.

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Coup d'état

A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.

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Crimean Khanate

The Crimean Khanate (Mongolian: Крымын ханлиг; Crimean Tatar / Ottoman Turkish: Къырым Ханлыгъы, Qırım Hanlığı, rtl or Къырым Юрту, Qırım Yurtu, rtl; Крымское ханство, Krymskoje hanstvo; Кримське ханство, Krymśke chanstvo; Chanat Krymski) was a Turkic vassal state of the Ottoman Empire from 1478 to 1774, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde.

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Crimean status referendum, 2014

A controversial referendum on the status of Crimea was held on March 16, 2014, by the legislature of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and by the local government of Sevastopol (both subdivisions of Ukraine).

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Crimean Tatar language

Crimean Tatar (Къырымтатарджа, Qırımtatarca; Къырымтатар тили, Qırımtatar tili), also called Crimean Turkish or simply Crimean, is a Kipchak Turkic language spoken in Crimea and the Crimean Tatar diasporas of Uzbekistan, Turkey, Romania and Bulgaria, as well as small communities in the United States and Canada.

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Crimean War

The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.

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Crimean–Nogai raids into East Slavic lands

The Crimean-Nogai raids were slave raids carried out by the Khanate of Crimea and by the Nogai Horde into the region of Rus' then controlled by the Grand Duchy of Moscow (until 1547), by the Tsardom of Russia (1547-1721), by the Russian Empire (1721 onwards) and by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569).

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Critical realism (philosophy of the social sciences)

Critical realism, a philosophical approach associated with Roy Bhaskar (1944–2014), combines a general philosophy of science (transcendental realism) with a philosophy of social science (critical naturalism) to describe an interface between the natural and social worlds.

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Croatia

Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.

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Crystal

A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.

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Cuba

Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.

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Cuban Missile Crisis

The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis of 1962 (Crisis de Octubre), the Caribbean Crisis, or the Missile Scare, was a 13-day (October 16–28, 1962) confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning American ballistic missile deployment in Italy and Turkey with consequent Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba.

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Cult of personality

A cult of personality arises when a country's regime – or, more rarely, an individual politician – uses the techniques of mass media, propaganda, the big lie, spectacle, the arts, patriotism, and government-organized demonstrations and rallies to create an idealized, heroic, and worshipful image of a leader, often through unquestioning flattery and praise.

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Cumania

The name Cumania originated as the Latin exonym for the Cuman-Kipchak confederation, which was a Turkic confederation in the western part of the Eurasian Steppe, between the 10th and 13th centuries.

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Dagestan

The Republic of Dagestan (Респу́блика Дагеста́н), or simply Dagestan (or; Дагеста́н), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia, located in the North Caucasus region.

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Daniil Kvyat

Daniil Vyacheslavovich Kvyat (p, born 26 April 1994), is a Russian auto racing driver currently working as a development driver for Scuderia Ferrari.

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Datsan

Datsan (Дацан, Дацан) is the term used for Buddhist university monasteries in the Tibetan tradition of Gelukpa located throughout Mongolia, Tibet and Siberia.

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David Kaye (law professor)

David Kaye is the current United Nations special rapporteur on the Promotion and Protection of the Right to Freedom of Opinion and Expression, a post he has held since August 2014.

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David Oistrakh

David Fyodorovich Oistrakh (– 24 October 1974), PAU, was a renowned Soviet classical violinist and violist.

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DDT (band)

DDT (or ДДТ in Cyrillic) is a popular Russian rock band founded by its lead singer and the only remaining original member, Yuri Shevchuk (Юрий Шевчук), in Ufa (Bashkir ASSR, RSFSR) in 1980.

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De-Stalinization

De-Stalinization (Russian: десталинизация, destalinizatsiya) consisted of a series of political reforms in the Soviet Union after the death of long-time leader Joseph Stalin in 1953, and the ascension of Nikita Khrushchev to power.

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Decembrist revolt

The Decembrist revolt or the Decembrist uprising (r) took place in Imperial Russia on.

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Decentralization

Decentralization is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding planning and decision-making, are distributed or delegated away from a central, authoritative location or group.

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Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

The Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Russian SFSR (r) was a political act of the Russian SFSR (Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic), then part of the Soviet Union, which marked the beginning of constitutional reform in Russia.

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Declaration of war

A declaration of war is a formal act by which one state goes to war against another.

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Ded Moroz

Ded Moroz (Дед Мороз, Ded Moroz; Дзед Мароз, Dzyed Maróz; Дід Мороз, Did Moróz; Russian diminutive Дедушка Мороз, Dédushka Moróz; Montenegrin: Đed Mraz (Ђед Мраз)) is a Slavic fictional character similar to that of Father Christmas.

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Defender of the Fatherland Day

Defender of the Fatherland Day (День защитника Отечества Den' zashchitnika Otechestva); Отан қорғаушы күні; Рӯзи артиши миллӣ; Мекенди коргоочулардын күнү; Дзень абаронцы Айчыны) is a holiday observed in Russia, Turkmenistan, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Tajikistan. It is celebrated on 23 February, except in Kazakhstan, where it is celebrated on 7 May.

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Defense industry of Russia

The defense industry of Russia is a strategically important sector and a large employer in Russia.

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Democracy Index

The Democracy Index is an index compiled by the UK-based company the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) that intends to measure the state of democracy in 167 countries, of which 166 are sovereign states and 165 are UN member states.

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Demographics of atheism

Accurate demographics of atheism are difficult to obtain since conceptions of atheism vary across different cultures and languages from being an active concept to being unimportant or not developed.

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Denis Fonvizin

Denis Ivanovich Fonvizin (Дени́с Ива́нович Фонви́зин, from von Wiesen) was a playwright of the Russian Enlightenment, whose plays are still staged today.

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Der Spiegel

Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.

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Diomede Islands

The Diomede Islands (острова́ Диоми́да, ostrová Diomída), also known in Russia as Gvozdev Islands (острова́ Гво́здева, ostrová Gvozdjeva), consist of two rocky, mesa-like islands.

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Dionisius

Dionisius (Диони́сий, variously transliterated as Dionisy, Dionysiy, etc., also Dionisius the Wise) (ca. 1440 – 1502) was acknowledged as a head of the Moscow school of icon painters at the turn of the 15th and 16th centuries.

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Dissipative system

A dissipative system is a thermodynamically open system which is operating out of, and often far from, thermodynamic equilibrium in an environment with which it exchanges energy and matter.

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Dissolution of the Soviet Union

The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.

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Dmitri Hvorostovsky

Dmitri Aleksandrovich Hvorostovsky (Дми́трий Алекса́ндрович Хворосто́вский, 16 October 1962 – 22 November 2017) was a Russian operatic baritone.

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Dmitri Ivanovsky

Dmitri Iosifovich Ivanovsky (alternative spelling Dmitrii or Dmitry Iwanowski; Дми́трий Ио́сифович Ивано́вский; 28 October 1864 – 20 June 1920) was a Russian botanist, the discoverer of viruses (1892) and one of the founders of virology.

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Dmitri Mendeleev

Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (a; 8 February 18342 February 1907 O.S. 27 January 183420 January 1907) was a Russian chemist and inventor.

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Dmitri Shostakovich

Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich (Дми́трий Дми́триевич Шостако́вич|Dmitriy Dmitrievich Shostakovich,; 9 August 1975) was a Russian composer and pianist.

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Dmitry Donskoy

Saint Dmitry Ivanovich Donskoy (Дми́трий Ива́нович Донско́й, also known as Dimitrii or Demetrius), or Dmitry of the Don, sometimes referred to simply as Dmitry (12 October 1350 in Moscow – 19 May 1389 in Moscow), son of Ivan II the Fair of Moscow (1326–1359), reigned as the Prince of Moscow from 1359 and Grand Prince of Vladimir from 1363 to his death.

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Dmitry Levitzky

Dmytro Levytsky (Dmitry Grigoryevich Levitsky) (Дмитро Григорович Левицький; Дмитрий Григорьевич Левицкий; May 1735 – 17 April 1822) was a Russian-Ukrainian portrait painter.

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Dmitry Medvedev

Dmitry Anatolyevich Medvedev (p; born 14 September 1965) is a Russian politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Russia since 2012.

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Dmitry Pozharsky

Dmitry Mikhaylovich Pozharsky (p; October 17, 1577 - April 30, 1642), a Rurikid prince, led Russian forces against Polish-Lithuanian invaders in 1611-1612 towards the end of the Time of Troubles.

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Dnieper

The Dnieper River, known in Russian as: Dnepr, and in Ukrainian as Dnipro is one of the major rivers of Europe, rising near Smolensk, Russia and flowing through Russia, Belarus and Ukraine to the Black Sea.

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Dombay, Karachay-Cherkess Republic

Dombay (Домба́й; Доммай) is an urban locality (a resort settlement) under the administrative jurisdiction of the town of republic significance of Karachayevsk in the Karachay-Cherkess Republic, Russia.

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Dome

Interior view upward to the Byzantine domes and semi-domes of Hagia Sophia. See Commons file for annotations. A dome (from Latin: domus) is an architectural element that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere.

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Don Cossacks

Don Cossacks (Донские казаки) are Cossacks who settled along the middle and lower Don.

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Doping at the Olympic Games

This article is about the history of competitors at the Olympic Games using banned athletic performance-enhancing drugs.

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Doping in Russia

Doping in Russian sports has a systemic nature.

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Double-headed eagle

In heraldry and vexillology, the double-headed eagle is a charge associated with the concept of Empire.

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Dressed herring

Dressed herring, colloquially known as herring under a fur coat (selyodka pod shuboy or just shuba) is a layered salad composed of diced pickled herring covered with layers of grated boiled vegetables (potatoes, carrots, beet roots), chopped onions, and mayonnaise.

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Dymkovo toys

Dymkovo toys, also known as the Vyatka toys or Kirov toys (Дымковская игрушка, вятская игрушка, кировская игрушка in Russian) are moulded painted clay figures of people and animals (sometimes in the form of a pennywhistle).

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Dziga Vertov

Dziga Vertov (Дзига Вертов; born David Abelevich Kaufman, Дави́д А́белевич Ка́уфман., and also known as Denis Kaufman; 2 January 1896 – 12 February 1954) was a Soviet pioneer documentary film and newsreel director, as well as a cinema theorist.

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East European Plain

The East European Plain (also called the Russian Plain, "Extending from eastern Poland to the Urals, the East European Plain encompasses all of the Baltic states and Belarus, nearly all of Ukraine, and much of the European portion of Russia and reaches north into Finland." — Britannica. predominantly by Russian scientists, or historically the Sarmatic Plain) is a vast interior plain extending east of the North/Central European Plain, and comprising several plateaus stretching roughly from 25 degrees longitude eastward.

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East Germany

East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.

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East Prussia

East Prussia (Ostpreußen,; Prusy Wschodnie; Rytų Prūsija; Borussia orientalis; Восточная Пруссия) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire from 1871); following World War I it formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia, until 1945.

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East Siberian Sea

The East Siberian Sea (r) is a marginal sea in the Arctic Ocean.

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East Slavic languages

The East Slavic languages constitute one of three regional subgroups of Slavic languages, currently spoken throughout Eastern Europe, Northern Asia, and the Caucasus.

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East Slavs

The East Slavs are Slavic peoples speaking the East Slavic languages.

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Eastern Bloc

The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.

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Eastern Europe

Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.

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Eastern Front (World War II)

The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.

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Eastern Orthodox Church

The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.

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Eastern Orthodox church architecture

Eastern Orthodox church architecture constitutes a distinct, recognizable family of styles among church architectures.

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Eastern Siberia–Pacific Ocean oil pipeline

The Eastern Siberia–Pacific Ocean oil pipeline (ESPO pipeline or ESPOOP, Нефтепровод "Восточная Сибирь - Тихий океан" (ВСТО)) is a pipeline system for exporting Russian crude oil to the Asia-Pacific markets (Japan, China and Korea).

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Economy of Russia

Russia has an upper-middle income, World Bank mixed economy with state ownership in strategic areas of the economy.

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Economy of the Soviet Union

The economy of the Soviet Union (экономика Советского Союза) was based on a system of state ownership of the means of production, collective farming, industrial manufacturing and centralized administrative planning.

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Education in Russia

In Russia the state provides most education services, regulating education through the Ministry of Education and Science.

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Efficient energy use

Efficient energy use, sometimes simply called energy efficiency, is the goal to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services.

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Eid al-Adha

Eid al-Adha (lit), also called the "Festival of Sacrifice", is the second of two Islamic holidays celebrated worldwide each year (the other being Eid al-Fitr), and considered the holier of the two.

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Eid al-Fitr

Eid al-Fitr (عيد الفطر) is an important religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting (sawm).

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El Lissitzky

Lazar Markovich Lissitzky (Ла́зарь Ма́ркович Лиси́цкий,; – December 30, 1941), known as El Lissitzky (Эль Лиси́цкий, על ליסיצקי), was a Russian artist, designer, photographer, typographer, polemicist and architect.

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Eldar Ryazanov

Eldar Alexandrovich Ryazanov (Эльда́р Алекса́ндрович Ряза́нов; 18 November 1927 – 30 November 2015) was a Soviet and Russian film director and screenwriter whose popular comedies, satirizing the daily life of the Soviet Union and Russia, are celebrated throughout the former Soviet Union.

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Electric arc

An electric arc, or arc discharge, is an electrical breakdown of a gas that produces an ongoing electrical discharge.

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Electric light

An electric light is a device that produces visible light from electric current.

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Electron paramagnetic resonance

Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) or electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is a method for studying materials with unpaired electrons.

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Elena Obraztsova

Elena Vasiliyevna Obraztsova (Елена Васильевна Образцова; 7 July 1939 – 12 January 2015) was a Russian mezzo-soprano.

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Elista

Elista (p or;"Большой энциклопедический словарь", под ред. А. М. Прохорова. Москва и Санкт-Петербург, 1997, стр. 1402, Elst)The approximate pronunciation of the Cyrillic Kalmyk name in IPA is.

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Elizabeth of Russia

Elizabeth Petrovna (Елизаве́та (Елисаве́та) Петро́вна) (–), also known as Yelisaveta or Elizaveta, was the Empress of Russia from 1741 until her death.

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Emancipation reform of 1861

The Emancipation Reform of 1861 in Russia (translit, literally: "the peasants Reform of 1861") was the first and most important of liberal reforms passed during the reign (1855-1881) of Emperor Alexander II of Russia.

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Emil Gilels

Emil Grigoryevich Gilels (sometimes transliterated Hilels; Емі́ль Григо́рович Гі́лельс, Эми́ль Григо́рьевич Ги́лельс, Emiľ Grigorievič Gileľs; 19 October 1916 – 14 October 1985), HSL, PAU, was a Soviet pianist, widely regarded as one of the greatest pianists of the twentieth century.

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Eminent domain

Eminent domain (United States, Philippines), land acquisition (Singapore), compulsory purchase (United Kingdom, New Zealand, Ireland), resumption (Hong Kong, Uganda), resumption/compulsory acquisition (Australia), or expropriation (France, Italy, Mexico, South Africa, Canada, Brazil, Portugal, Spain, Chile, Denmark, Sweden) is the power of a state, provincial, or national government to take private property for public use.

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Empire of Japan

The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Energy conservation

Energy conservation is the effort made to reduce the consumption of energy by using less of an energy service.

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Energy Information Administration

The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System responsible for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, and public understanding of energy and its interaction with the economy and the environment.

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Energy superpower

An energy superpower is a country that supplies large amounts of energy resources (crude oil, natural gas, coal, uranium, etc.) to a significant number of other countries, and therefore has the potential to influence world markets to gain a political or economic advantage.

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Environment of Russia

The environment of Russia.

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Era of Stagnation

The Era of Stagnation (Период застоя, Stagnation Period, also called the Brezhnevian Stagnation) was the period in the history of the Soviet Union which began during the rule of Leonid Brezhnev (1964–1982) and continued under Yuri Andropov (1982–1984) and Konstantin Chernenko (1984–1985).

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Ernst Neizvestny

Ernst Iosifovich Neizvestny (Эрнст Ио́сифович Неизве́стный; April 9, 1925 – August 9, 2016) was a Russian-American sculptor, painter, graphic artist, and art philosopher.

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Erzya language

The Erzya language (erzänj kelj) is spoken by about 37,000 people in the northern, eastern and north-western parts of the Republic of Mordovia and adjacent regions of Nizhny Novgorod, Chuvashia, Penza, Samara, Saratov, Orenburg, Ulyanovsk, Tatarstan and Bashkortostan in Russia.

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Estonia

Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.

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Ethnic religion

In religious studies, an ethnic religion (or indigenous religion) is a religion associated with a particular ethnic group.

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Eurasia

Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.

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Eurasian Economic Community

The Eurasian Economic Community (EAEC or EurAsEC) was a regional organisation between 2000 and 2014 which aimed for the economic integration of its member states.

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Eurasian Economic Union

The Eurasian Economic Union (officially EAEU, but sometimes called EEU or EAU)The acronym is used in the.

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Eurasianism

Eurasianism (Евразийство, Yevraziystvo) is a political movement in Russia, formerly within the primarily Russian émigré community, that posits that Russian civilisation does not belong in the "European" or "Asian" categories but instead to the geopolitical concept of Eurasia.

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EuroBasket 2007

The 2007 FIBA European Championship, commonly called FIBA EuroBasket 2007, was the 35th FIBA EuroBasket regional basketball championship held by FIBA Europe, which also served as Europe qualifier for the 2008 Summer Olympics, giving a berth to the champion and runner-up teams (or to the third-placed team in case Spain should reach the final).

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EuroLeague

The EuroLeague, also known as the Turkish Airlines EuroLeague for name sponsorship reasons, is the European-wide top-tier level professional basketball club competition that is organized by Euroleague Basketball, since 2000, for eligible European basketball clubs.

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Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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European Convention on Human Rights

The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) (formally the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms) is an international treaty to protect human rights and political freedoms in Europe.

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European Russia

European Russia is the western part of Russia that is a part of Eastern Europe.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Evgeny Kissin

Evgeny Igorevitch Kissin (Евге́ний И́горевич Ки́син, Yevgeniy Igorevich Kisin; born 10 October 1971) is a Russian classical pianist.

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Execution of the Romanov family

The Russian Imperial Romanov family (Tsar Nicholas II, his wife Tsarina Alexandra and their five children Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, and Alexei) and all those who chose to accompany them into imprisonment—notably Eugene Botkin, Anna Demidova, Alexei Trupp and Ivan Kharitonov—were shot, bayoneted and clubbed to death in Yekaterinburg on the night of 16-17 July 1918.

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Extravehicular activity

Extravehicular activity (EVA) is any activity done by an astronaut or cosmonaut outside a spacecraft beyond the Earth's appreciable atmosphere.

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Fall of Constantinople

The Fall of Constantinople (Ἅλωσις τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Halōsis tēs Kōnstantinoupoleōs; İstanbul'un Fethi Conquest of Istanbul) was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading Ottoman army on 29 May 1453.

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Far Eastern Federal University

Far Eastern Federal University (Дальневосто́чный федера́льный университе́т, Dalnevostochny federalny universitet) is a university located in Vladivostok, Primorsky Krai, Russia.

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Far North (Russia)

The Extreme North or Far North (Крайний Север, Дальний Север) is a large part of Russia located mainly north of the Arctic Circle and boasting enormous mineral and natural resources.

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FC Zenit Saint Petersburg

Football Club Zenit (Футбо́льный клуб «Зени́т», Zenith), also known as Zenit Saint Petersburg or simply Zenit, is a Russian football club from the city of Saint Petersburg.

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February Revolution

The February Revolution (p), known in Soviet historiography as the February Bourgeois Democratic Revolution, was the first of two revolutions which took place in Russia in 1917.

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Federal Assembly (Russia)

The Federal Assembly (p) is the national legislature of the Russian Federation, according to the Constitution of Russian Federation (1993).

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Federal cities of Russia

A city of federal importance (r) or federal city in Russia is a city that has a status of both an inhabited locality and a constituent federal subject.

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Federal city

The term federal city (Bundesstadt in German) is a title for certain cities in Germany, Switzerland, the Russian Federation, India, and the United States.

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Federal districts of Russia

The federal districts (федера́льные округа́, federalnyye okruga) are groupings of the federal subjects of Russia.

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Federal law

Federal law is the body of law created by the federal government of a country.

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Federal Service for State Registration, Cadastre and Cartography

The Federal Service for State Registration, Cadastre and Cartography (Rosreestr) (Федеральная служба государственной регистрации, кадастра и картографии) (prior to December 30, 2008, Federal Registration Service) is a federal agency in Russia, responsible for the organization of the Unified State Register of Rights on Real Estate and Transactions (Единый государственный реестр прав на недвижимое имущество и сделок с ним), as well as the spatial data infrastructure of the Russian Federation.

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Federal subjects of Russia

The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (субъекты Российской Федерации subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (субъекты федерации subyekty federatsii), are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia.

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Federalism

Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.

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Federation

A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.

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Federation Council (Russia)

The Federation Council (Сове́т Федера́ции; Sovet Federatsii, common abbreviation: Совфед (Sovfed) or Senate) is the upper house of the Federal Assembly of Russia (the parliament of the Russian Federation), according to the 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation.

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Fedor Emelianenko

Fedor Vladimirovich Emelianenko (r,; born 28 September 1976) is a Ukrainian-born Russian heavyweight mixed martial artist (MMA), sambist, and judoka, currently competing for Rizin Fighting Federation and Bellator MMA.

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Fedot Alekseyevich Popov

Fedot Alekseyevich Popov (Федот Алексеевич Попов, also Fedot Alekseyev, Федот Алексеев; nickname Kholmogorian, Холмогорец, for his place of birth (Kholmogory), date of birth unknown, died between 1648 and 1654) was a Russian explorer who organized the first European expedition through the Bering Strait.

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Feodor Chaliapin

Feodor Ivanovich Chaliapin (ˈfʲɵdər ɪˈvanəvʲɪtɕ ʂɐˈlʲapʲɪn; April 12, 1938) was a Russian opera singer.

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Feudalism

Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.

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Fields Medal

The Fields Medal is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematicians under 40 years of age at the International Congress of the International Mathematical Union (IMU), a meeting that takes place every four years.

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FIFA World Cup

The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.

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FIFA World Cup Dream Team

The FIFA World Cup Dream Team is an all-time FIFA World Cup all-star team published by FIFA in 2002 after conducting an internet poll of fans to select a World Cup dream team.

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Figure skating

Figure skating is a sport in which individuals, duos, or groups perform on figure skates on ice.

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Figure skating at the 2010 Winter Olympics

Figure skating at the 2010 Winter Olympics was held at the Pacific Coliseum in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

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Final good

In economics, any commodity which is produced and subsequently consumed by the consumer, to satisfy his current wants or needs, is a consumer good or final good.

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Financial crisis

A financial crisis is any of a broad variety of situations in which some financial assets suddenly lose a large part of their nominal value.

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Finland

Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.

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Finno-Ugric peoples

The Finno-Ugric peoples are any of several peoples of North-West Eurasia who speak languages of the Finno-Ugric group of the Uralic language family, such as the Khanty, Mansi, Hungarians, Maris, Mordvins, Sámi, Estonians, Karelians, Finns, Udmurts and Komis.

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Fire of Moscow (1571)

The Fire of Moscow (1571) occurred in May of that year when the 120,000-strong Crimean and Turkish army (80,000 Tatars, 33,000 irregular Turks and 7,000 janissaries) led by the khan of Crimea Devlet I Giray, raided the city Moscow during the Russo–Crimean Wars.

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First Chechen War

The First Chechen War (Пе́рвая чече́нская война́), also known as the First Chechen Сampaign (Пе́рвая чече́нская кампа́ния) or First Russian-Chechen war, was a rebellion by the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria against the Russian Federation, fought from December 1994 to August 1996.

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First Russian circumnavigation

The first Russian circumnavigation of the Earth took place from August 1803 to August 1806.

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Fishing industry by country

This page lists the world fisheries production for 2005.

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Flag of Russia

The flag of Russia (Флаг России) is a tricolor flag consisting of three equal horizontal fields: white on the top, blue in the middle and red on the bottom.

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Flat tax

A flat tax (short for flat tax rate) is a tax system with a constant marginal rate, usually applied to individual or corporate income.

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Floral emblem

In a number of countries, plants have been chosen as symbols to represent specific geographic areas.

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Folk music

Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.

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Folklore

Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.

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Folklore of Russia

Folklore of Russia is folklore of Russians and other ethnic groups of Russia.

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Food and Agriculture Organization

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.

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Formula One

Formula One (also Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) and owned by the Formula One Group.

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Fort Ross, California

Fort Ross (Форт-Росс), originally Fortress Ross (Крѣпость Россъ, tr. Krepostʹ Ross), is a former Russian establishment on the west coast of North America in what is now Sonoma County, California, in the United States.

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Four Policemen

The term "Four Policemen" refers to a post-war council consisting of the Big Four that U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt proposed as a guarantor of world peace.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli

Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli (Russian: Франче́ско Бартоломе́о (Варфоломе́й Варфоломеевич) Растрелли) (1700 in Paris, Kingdom of France — 29 April 1771 in Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire) was a Russian architect of Italian origin.

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Franz Josef Land

Franz Josef Land, Franz Joseph Land or Francis Joseph's Land (r) is a Russian archipelago, inhabited only by military personnel, located in the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea and Kara Sea, constituting the northernmost part of Arkhangelsk Oblast.

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Free education

Free education is education funded through taxation or charitable organizations rather than tuition funding.

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Free trade

Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.

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Freedom House

Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.

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Freedom in the World

Freedom in the World is a yearly survey and report by the U.S.-based non-governmental organization Freedom House that measures the degree of civil liberties and political rights in every nation and significant related and disputed territories around the world.

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Freedom of assembly

Freedom of assembly, sometimes used interchangeably with the freedom of association, is the individual right or ability of people to come together and collectively express, promote, pursue, and defend their collective or shared ideas.

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Freedom of speech

Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.

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French invasion of Russia

The French invasion of Russia, known in Russia as the Patriotic War of 1812 (Отечественная война 1812 года Otechestvennaya Voyna 1812 Goda) and in France as the Russian Campaign (Campagne de Russie), began on 24 June 1812 when Napoleon's Grande Armée crossed the Neman River in an attempt to engage and defeat the Russian army.

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Fresco

Fresco (plural frescos or frescoes) is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly laid, or wet lime plaster.

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Fresh water

Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.

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Functionalism (architecture)

In architecture, functionalism is the principle that buildings should be designed based solely on the purpose and function of the building.

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Fur trade

The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur.

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Fyodor Dostoevsky

Fyodor Mikhailovich DostoevskyHis name has been variously transcribed into English, his first name sometimes being rendered as Theodore or Fedor.

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Fyodor Khitruk

Fyodor Savelyevich Khitruk (Фёдор Саве́льевич Хитру́к; 1 May 1917 – 3 December 2012) was a Russian animator and animation director.

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G20

The G20 (or Group of Twenty) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union.

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Galina Ulanova

Galína Sergéyevna Ulánova (Гали́на Серге́евна Ула́нова, 21 March 1998) was a Russian ballet dancer.

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Galina Vishnevskaya

Galina Pavlovna Vishnevskaya (née Ivanova, Гали́на Па́вловна Вишне́вская; 25 October 192611 December 2012) was a Russian soprano opera singer and recitalist who was named a People's Artist of the USSR in 1966.

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Garmon

The garmon (p, from garmonika (p), which means "harmonicа") is a kind of Russian button accordion, a free-reed wind instrument.

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Gatchina Palace

The Great Gatchina Palace (Большой Гатчинский дворец) is a palace in Gatchina, Leningrad Oblast, Russia.

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Gdańsk Bay

Gdansk Bay or the Bay of Gdansk Zatoka Gdańska; Gduńskô Hôwinga; Гданьская бухта, Gdan'skaja bukhta, and Danziger Bucht) is a southeastern bay of the Baltic Sea. It is named after the adjacent port city of Gdańsk in Poland and is sometimes referred to as the Gulf of Gdańsk.

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General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was an office of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) that by the late 1920s had evolved into the most powerful of the Central Committee's various secretaries.

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Geodesic

In differential geometry, a geodesic is a generalization of the notion of a "straight line" to "curved spaces".

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Geometry

Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.

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George Gamow

George Gamow (March 4, 1904- August 19, 1968), born Georgiy Antonovich Gamov, was a Russian-American theoretical physicist and cosmologist.

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Georgia (country)

Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.

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Georgy Zhukov

Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (– 18 June 1974) was a Soviet Red Army General who became Chief of General Staff, Deputy Commander-in-Chief, Minister of Defence and a member of the Politburo.

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Gerasimov Institute of Cinematography

The Gerasimov Institute of Cinematography (Всероссийский государственный университет кинематографии имени С.А.Герасимова, meaning All-Russian State University of Cinematography named after S. A. Gerasimov), a.k.a. VGIK, is a film school in Moscow, Russia.

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German occupation of Czechoslovakia

The German occupation of Czechoslovakia (1938–1945) began with the German annexation of Czechoslovakia's northern and western border regions, formerly being part of German-Austria known collectively as the Sudetenland, under terms outlined by the Munich Agreement.

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Gidon Kremer

Gidon Kremer (Gidons Krēmers; born 27 February 1947) is a Latvian classical violinist, artistic director, and founder of Kremerata Baltica.

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Glasnost

In the Russian language the word glasnost (гла́сность) has several general and specific meanings.

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Gleb Kotelnikov

Gleb Yevgeniyevich Kotelnikov (Котельников, Глеб Евгеньевич in Russian, – November 22, 1944), was the Russian-Soviet inventor of the knapsack parachute (first in the hard casing and then in the soft pack), and braking parachute.

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Global city

A global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center, is a city which is a primary node in the global economic network.

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GLONASS

GLONASS (ГЛОНАСС,; Глобальная навигационная спутниковая система; transliteration), or "Global Navigation Satellite System", is a space-based satellite navigation system operating in the radionavigation-satellite service.

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Golden Age

The term Golden Age comes from Greek mythology, particularly the Works and Days of Hesiod, and is part of the description of temporal decline of the state of peoples through five Ages, Gold being the first and the one during which the Golden Race of humanity (chrýseon génos) lived.

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Golden Age of Russian Poetry

Golden Age of Russian Poetry is the name traditionally applied by philologists to the first half of the 19th century.

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Golden Horde

The Golden Horde (Алтан Орд, Altan Ord; Золотая Орда, Zolotaya Orda; Алтын Урда, Altın Urda) was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.

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Golden Ring

The Golden Ring (Золото́е кольцо&#769) is a ring of cities northeast of Moscow, the capital of Russia.

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Government of Russia

The Government of Russia exercises executive power in the Russian Federation.

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Government of the Soviet Union

The Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Правительство СССР, Pravitel'stvo SSSR) was the main body of the executive branch of government in the Soviet Union.

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Government reform of Peter the Great

The government reforms of Peter I aimed to modernize the Tsardom of Russia (later the Russian Empire) based on Western and Central European models.

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Governorate of Estonia

The Governorate of Est(h)onia (Eestimaa kubermang) or Duchy of Estonia, also known as the Government of Estonia, was a governorate of the Russian Empire in what is now northern Estonia.

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Grand Duchy of Moscow

The Grand Duchy or Grand Principality of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское, Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye), also known in English simply as Muscovy from the Moscovia, was a late medieval Russian principality centered on Moscow and the predecessor state of the early modern Tsardom of Russia.

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Grande Armée

The Grande Armée (French for Great Army) was the army commanded by Napoleon during the Napoleonic Wars.

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Granite

Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.

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Grazhdanskaya Oborona

Grazhdanskaya Oborona (Russian: Гражданская Оборона), Russian for Civil Defense, or ГО, often referred to as ГрОб, Russian for coffin) were one of the earliest Soviet and Russian psychedelic/punk rock bands. They influenced many Soviet and, subsequently, Russian bands. From the early 1990s, the band's music began to evolve in the direction of psychedelic rock and shoegaze, and band leader Yegor Letov's lyrics became more metaphysical than political.

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Great Lent

Great Lent, or the Great Fast, (Greek: Μεγάλη Τεσσαρακοστή or Μεγάλη Νηστεία, meaning "Great 40 Days," and "Great Fast," respectively) is the most important fasting season in the church year in the Byzantine Rite of the Eastern Orthodox Church (including Western Rite Orthodoxy) and the Eastern Catholic Churches, which prepares Christians for the greatest feast of the church year, Pascha (Easter).

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Great Northern War

The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.

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Great Patriotic War (term)

The Great Patriotic War (translit) is a term used in Russia and other former republics of the Soviet Union (except for some Baltic States) to describe the conflict fought during the period from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945 along the many fronts of the Eastern Front of World War II between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany and its allies.

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Great power

A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.

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Great Purge

The Great Purge or the Great Terror (Большо́й терро́р) was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union which occurred from 1936 to 1938.

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Great Recession

The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s.

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Grigori Perelman

Grigori Yakovlevich Perelman (a; born 13 June 1966) is a Russian mathematician.

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Grigori Sokolnikov

Grigori Yakovlevich Sokolnikov (born Girsh Yankelevich Brilliant; 1888–1939) was a Russian old Bolshevik revolutionary, economist, and Soviet politician.

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Grigory Zinoviev

Grigory Yevseevich Zinoviev (– August 25, 1936), born Hirsch Apfelbaum, known also under the name Ovsei-Gershon Aronovich Radomyslsky, was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet Communist politician.

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Gross domestic product

Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.

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Groundwater

Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.

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Group of Eight

The G8, reformatted as G7 from 2014 due to the suspension of Russia's participation, was an inter-governmental political forum from 1997 until 2014, with the participation of some major industrialized countries in the world, that viewed themselves as democracies.

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Gulag

The Gulag (ГУЛАГ, acronym of Главное управление лагерей и мест заключения, "Main Camps' Administration" or "Chief Administration of Camps") was the government agency in charge of the Soviet forced labor camp system that was created under Vladimir Lenin and reached its peak during Joseph Stalin's rule from the 1930s to the 1950s.

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Gusli

Gusli (p) is the oldest East Slavic multi-string plucked instrument.

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Gzhel

Gzhel is a Russian style of ceramics which takes its name from the village of Gzhel and surrounding area, where it has been produced since 1802.

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Hammer and sickle

The hammer and sickle (☭) or sickle and hammer (translit) is a communist symbol that was adopted during the Russian Revolution.

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Handicraft

A handicraft, sometimes more precisely expressed as artisanal handicraft or handmade, is any of a wide variety of types of work where useful and decorative objects are made completely by hand or by using only simple tools.

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Hanseatic League

The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.

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He Is Not Dimon to You

He Is Not Dimon to You or Don't call him "Dimon" (Он вам не Димон, On vam ne Dimon) is a 2017 Russian documentary film about Dmitry Medvedev's corruption.

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Head of government

A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.

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Head of state

A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.

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Healthcare in Russia

Healthcare in Russia is provided by the state through the Federal Compulsory Medical Insurance Fund, and regulated through the Ministry of Health.

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Heavy industry

Heavy industry is industry that involves one or more characteristics such as large and heavy products; large and heavy equipment and facilities (such as heavy equipment, large machine tools, and huge buildings); or complex or numerous processes.

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Heavy metal music

Heavy metal (or simply metal) is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United Kingdom.

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Hermitage Museum

The State Hermitage Museum (p) is a museum of art and culture in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Hero City

Hero City is a Soviet honorary title awarded for outstanding heroism during World War II (the Eastern Front is known in most countries of the former Soviet Union as The Great Patriotic War).

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Hertza region

Hertza region (Край Герца, Kraj Herca; Ținutul Herța) is a border region within an administrative district (raion) of Hertsa (Herța) in the southern part of Chernivtsi Oblast in southwestern Ukraine, near Romania.

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Heterojunction

A heterojunction is the interface that occurs between two layers or regions of dissimilar crystalline semiconductors.

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Hill Mari language

Hill Mari or Western Mari (Мары йӹлмӹ) is a Uralic language closely related to Meadow Mari.

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Hinduism

Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.

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Hinduism in Russia

hare krishno Hinduism has been spread in Russia primarily due to the work of missionaries from the Vaishnava Hindu organization International Society for Krishna Consciousness and by itinerant Swamis from India and small communities of Indian immigrants.

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History of Russia

The History of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs.

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History of Russian animation

The history of Russian animation is the film art produced by Russian animation makers.

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History of the Russo-Turkish wars

The Russo–Turkish wars (or Ottoman–Russian wars) were a series of wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 20th centuries.

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Hokkaido

(), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is the second largest island of Japan, and the largest and northernmost prefecture.

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Holography

Holography is the science and practice of making holograms.

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House of Romanov

The House of Romanov (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. also Romanoff; Рома́новы, Románovy) was the second dynasty to rule Russia, after the House of Rurik, reigning from 1613 until the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II on March 15, 1917, as a result of the February Revolution.

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Household plot

Household plot is a legally defined farm type in all former socialist countries in CIS and CEE.

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HuffPost

HuffPost (formerly The Huffington Post and sometimes abbreviated HuffPo) is a liberal American news and opinion website and blog that has both localized and international editions.

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Human capital flight

Human capital flight refers to the emigration of individuals who have received advanced training at home.

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Human rights in Russia

As a successor to the Soviet Union the Russian Federation remains bound by such human rights instruments, adopted by the USSR, as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (fully).

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Human Rights Watch

Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.

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Humid continental climate

A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.

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Humid subtropical climate

A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and mild to cool winters.

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Huns

The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe, between the 4th and 6th century AD.

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Hydroelectricity

Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.

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Ice dancing

Ice dancing is a discipline of figure skating that draws from ballroom dancing.

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Ice hockey

Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points.

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Ice hockey at the Olympic Games

Ice hockey tournaments have been staged at the Olympic Games since 1920.

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Ice Hockey World Championships

The Ice Hockey World Championships are an annual international men's ice hockey tournament organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF).

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Igor of Kiev

Igor I (Old East Slavic: Игорь, Igor; Old Norse: Ingvar Røriksen; Ihor; Igor'; Ihar) was a Varangian ruler of Kievan Rus' from 912 to 945.

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Igor Sikorsky

Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky (a, tr. Ígor' Ivánovič Sikórskij; May 25, 1889 – October 26, 1972),Fortier, Rénald.

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Igor Stravinsky

Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (ˈiɡərʲ ˈfʲɵdərəvʲɪtɕ strɐˈvʲinskʲɪj; 6 April 1971) was a Russian-born composer, pianist, and conductor.

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Igor Tamm

Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm (a; 8 July 1895 – 12 April 1971) was a Soviet physicist who received the 1958 Nobel Prize in Physics, jointly with Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov and Ilya Mikhailovich Frank, for their 1934 discovery of Cherenkov radiation.

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Ilf and Petrov

Ilya Ilf (Ilya Arnoldovich Feinsilberg) (Илья Арнольдович Файнзильберг, 1897–1937) and Evgeny or Yevgeni Petrov (Yevgeniy Petrovich Kataev/Katayev or Евгений Петрович Катаев, 1903–1942) were two Soviet prose authors of the 1920s and 1930s.

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Illegal immigration to Russia

Illegal immigration to Russia/Soviet Union has been ongoing since the Great Depression.

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Ilya Muromets (film)

Ilya Muromets (Илья Муромец), known in the US as The Sword and the Dragon and in the UK as The Epic Hero and the Beast (significantly altered versions), is a Soviet fantasy film directed by the noted fantasy director Aleksandr Ptushko, made at Mosfilm and released in 1956.

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Ilya Prigogine

Viscount Ilya Romanovich Prigogine (Илья́ Рома́нович Приго́жин; 28 May 2003) was a physical chemist and Nobel laureate noted for his work on dissipative structures, complex systems, and irreversibility.

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Ilya Repin

Ilya Yefimovich Repin (p; Ilja Jefimovitš Repin; r; – 29 September 1930) was a Russian realist painter.

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Immigration

Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.

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Immune system

The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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Impeachment

Impeachment is the process by which a legislative body formally levels charges against a high official of government.

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Index of Soviet Union-related articles

Articles related to the former nation known as the Soviet Union include.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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India–Russia relations

Indo-Russian relations (Российско-индийские отношения भारत-रूस सम्बन्ध) refer to the bilateral relations between the Republic of India and the Russian Federation.

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Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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Ingria

Historical Ingria (Inkeri or Inkerinmaa; Ингрия, Ingriya, Ижорская земля, Izhorskaya zemlya, or Ингерманландия, Ingermanlandiya; Ingermanland; Ingeri or Ingerimaa) is the geographical area located along the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland, bordered by Lake Ladoga on the Karelian Isthmus in the north and by the River Narva on the border with Estonia in the west.

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Ingush language

Ingush (ГӀалгӀай,, pronounced) is a Northeast Caucasian language spoken by about 500,000 people, known as the Ingush, across a region covering the Russian republics of Ingushetia and Chechnya.

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Ingush people

The Ingush (ГIалгIай,, pronounced) are a Caucasian native ethnic group of the North Caucasus, mostly inhabiting their native Ingushetia, a federal republic of Russian Federation.

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Innovation

Innovation can be defined simply as a "new idea, device or method".

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International Atomic Energy Agency

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.

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International Futures

International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.

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International Ice Hockey Federation

The International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF; Fédération internationale de hockey sur glace; Internationale Eishockey-Föderation) is a worldwide governing body for ice hockey and in-line hockey.

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International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.

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International Olympic Committee

The International Olympic Committee (IOC; French: Comité International Olympique, CIO) is a Swiss private non-governmental organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, which is the authority responsible for the modern Olympic Games.

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International relations within the Comecon

The "Council for Mutual Economic Assistance" (Comecon) was an economic organization of communist states, created in 1949, and dissolved in 1991, with the collapse of the Soviet Union.

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International sanctions during the Ukrainian crisis

International sanctions were imposed during the Ukrainian crisis by a large number of countries against Russia and Crimea following the Russian military intervention in Ukraine, which began in late February 2014.

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International Space Station

The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.

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International Studies Quarterly

International Studies Quarterly is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal of international studies and the official journal of the International Studies Association.

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International Women's Day

International Women's Day (IWD) is celebrated on March 8 every year.

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International Workers' Day

International Workers' Day, also known as Labour Day or Workers' Day in some countries and often referred to as May Day, is a celebration of labourers and the working classes that is promoted by the international labour movement which occurs every year on May Day (1 May), an ancient European spring festival.

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Internet

The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.

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Inuit

The Inuit (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, "the people") are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska.

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Ipsos MORI

Ipsos MORI is a market research organisation in the United Kingdom.

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Irkutsk

Irkutsk (p) is a city and the administrative center of Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, and one of the largest cities in Siberia.

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Irreligion

Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.

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Isaac Levitan

Isaac Ilyich Levitan (Исаа́к Ильи́ч Левита́н; &ndash) was a classical Russian landscape painter who advanced the genre of the "mood landscape".

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Islam

IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).

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Islam in Russia

Islam is the second most widely professed religion in Russia, encompassing somewhere between 7% and 15% of all Russians.

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Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant

The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.

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Islamism

Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.

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Israel Gelfand

Israel Moiseevich Gelfand, also written Israïl Moyseyovich Gel'fand, or Izrail M. Gelfand (ישראל געלפֿאַנד, Изра́иль Моисе́евич Гельфа́нд; – 5 October 2009) was a prominent Soviet mathematician.

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ITER

ITER (Latin for "the way") is an international nuclear fusion research and engineering megaproject, which will be the world's largest magnetic confinement plasma physics experiment.

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Ivan Argunov

Ivan Petrovich Argunov (Иван Петрович Аргунов) (1729–1802) was a Russian painter, one of the founders of the Russian school of portrait painting.

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Ivan Bunin

Ivan Alekseyevich Bunin (or; a; – 8 November 1953) was the first Russian writer awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature.

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Ivan Ivanov-Vano

Ivan Petrovich Ivanov-Vano (Ива́н Петро́вич Ивано́в-Вано́;, Moscow – 25 March 1987, Moscow), born Ivanov, was a Soviet animation director, animator, screenwriter, educator, professor at VGIK.

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Ivan Kramskoi

Ivan Nikolaevich Kramskoi (June 8 (O.S. May 27), 1837, Ostrogozhsk – April 6 (O.S. March 24), 1887, Saint Petersburg; Ива́н Никола́евич Крамско́й) was a Russian painter and art critic.

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Ivan Pavlov

Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (a; 27 February 1936) was a Russian physiologist known primarily for his work in classical conditioning.

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Ivan Shishkin

Ivan Ivanovich Shishkin (Ива́н Ива́нович Ши́шкин; 25 January 1832 – 20 March 1898) was a Russian landscape painter closely associated with the Peredvizhniki movement.

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Ivan the Terrible

Ivan IV Vasilyevich (pron; 25 August 1530 –), commonly known as Ivan the Terrible or Ivan the Fearsome (Ivan Grozny; a better translation into modern English would be Ivan the Formidable), was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547, then Tsar of All Rus' until his death in 1584.

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Ivan Turgenev

Ivan Sergeyevich Turgenev (ɪˈvan sʲɪrˈɡʲeɪvʲɪtɕ tʊrˈɡʲenʲɪf; September 3, 1883) was a Russian novelist, short story writer, poet, playwright, translator and popularizer of Russian literature in the West.

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Ivan Yefremov

Ivan Antonovich (real patronymic Antipovich) Yefremov (Ива́н Анто́нович (Анти́пович) Ефре́мов; April 22, 1908 – October 5, 1972), last name sometimes spelled Efremov, was a Soviet paleontologist, science fiction author and social thinker.

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Jack Frost (1964 film)

Jack Frost (Морозко, Morózko) is a Soviet film made by Gorky Film Studio, originally released in 1964.

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Jamestown Foundation

The Jamestown Foundation is a Washington, D.C.-based institute for research and analysis, founded in 1984 as a platform to support Soviet defectors.

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Japan

Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Jascha Heifetz

Jascha Heifetz (10 December 1987) was a Russian-American violinist.

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Jesus

Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.

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Jewish Autonomous Oblast

The Jewish Autonomous Oblast (Евре́йская автоно́мная о́бласть, Yevreyskaya avtonomnaya oblast; ייִדישע אװטאָנאָמע געגנט, yidishe avtonome GegntIn standard Yiddish: ייִדישע אױטאָנאָמע געגנט, Yidishe Oytonome Gegnt) is a federal subject of Russia in the Russian Far East, bordering Khabarovsk Krai and Amur Oblast in Russia and Heilongjiang province in China.

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Joseph Stalin

Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.

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Judaism

Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.

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Judiciary of Russia

The Judiciary of Russia interprets and applies the law of Russia.

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Julian calendar

The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.

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Kabardian language

Kabardian (адыгэбзэ, къэбэрдей адыгэбзэ, къэбэрдейбзэ; Adyghe: адыгэбзэ, къэбэртай адыгабзэ, къэбэртайбзэ), also known as Kabardino-Cherkess (къэбэрдей-черкесыбзэ) or, is a Northwest Caucasian language closely related to the Adyghe language.

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Kabardians

The Kabardians (Highland Adyghe: Къэбэрдей адыгэхэр; Lowland Adyghe: Къэбэртай адыгэхэр; Кабардинцы), or Kabardinians, are the largest one of the twelve Adyghe (Circassian) tribes (sub-ethnic groups).

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Kachkanar

Kachkanar (Качкана́р) is a town in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia, located between the Isa and Vyya Rivers in the Tura River's basin, north of Yekaterinburg, the administrative center of the oblast.

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Kaftan

A kaftan or caftan (قفطان qafṭān) is a variant of the robe or tunic and has been worn by several cultures around the world for thousands of years.

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Kaliningrad

Kaliningrad (p; former German name: Königsberg; Yiddish: קעניגסבערג, Kenigsberg; r; Old Prussian: Twangste, Kunnegsgarbs, Knigsberg; Polish: Królewiec) is a city in the administrative centre of Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea.

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Kaliningrad Oblast

Kaliningrad Oblast (Калинингра́дская о́бласть, Kaliningradskaya oblast), often referred to as the Kaliningrad Region in English, or simply Kaliningrad, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation that is located on the coast of the Baltic Sea.

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Kalmyk Oirat

Kalmyk Oirat (Хальмг Өөрдин келн, Xaľmg Öördin keln), commonly known as the Kalmyk language (Хальмг келн, Xaľmg keln), is a register of the Oirat language, natively spoken by the Kalmyk people of Kalmykia, a federal subject of Russia.

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Kalmykia

The Republic of Kalmykia (p; Хальмг Таңһч, Xaľmg Tañhç) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).

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Kalmyks

The Kalmyks (Kalmyk: Хальмгуд, Xaľmgud, Mongolian: Халимаг, Halimag) are the Oirats in Russia, whose ancestors migrated from Dzungaria in 1607.

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Kamchatka Peninsula

The Kamchatka Peninsula (полуо́стров Камча́тка, Poluostrov Kamchatka) is a 1,250-kilometre-long (780 mi) peninsula in the Russian Far East, with an area of about 270,000 km2 (100,000 sq mi).

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Kamov

Kamov JSC (Камов) is a Russian rotorcraft manufacturing company based in Lyubertsy, Russia.

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Kara Sea

The Kara Sea (Ка́рское мо́ре, Karskoye more) is part of the Arctic Ocean north of Siberia.

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Karachay-Balkar language

The Karachay-Balkar language (Къарачай-Малкъар тил, Qaraçay-Malqar til or Таулу тил, Tawlu til) is a Turkic language spoken by the Karachays and Balkars in Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay–Cherkessia, European Russia, as well as by an immigrant population in Afyonkarahisar Province, Turkey.

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Karelia

Karelia (Karelian, Finnish and Estonian: Karjala; Карелия, Kareliya; Karelen), the land of the Karelian peoples, is an area in Northern Europe of historical significance for Finland, Russia, and Sweden.

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Karl Bryullov

Karl Pavlovich Bryullov (Карл Па́влович Брюлло́в; 12 December 1799 – 11 June 1852), original name Charles Bruleau, also transliterated Briullov or Briuloff and referred to by his friends as "The Great Karl", was a Russian painter.

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Karl Marx

Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.

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Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.

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Kazan

Kazan (p; Казан) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia.

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Kazan (Volga region) Federal University

Kazan (Volga region) Federal University (Казанский (Приволжский) федеральный университет, Kazanskiy (Privolzhskiy) federalnyy universitet; Казан (Идел Буе) федераль университеты) is located in Kazan, Russia.

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Kazan Metro

Kazan Metro (Каза́нское метро́; Казан метросы Tatar Latin: Qazan metrosı) is a rapid-transit system that serves the city of Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, Russia. The metro system was the seventh opened in Russia, and the fifteenth in the former Soviet Union region. Opened on August 27, 2005, it is the newest system in Russia.

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Kazimir Malevich

Kazimir Severinovich Malevich (// ЦГИАК Украины, ф. 1268, оп. 1, д. 26, л. 13об—14.–May 15, 1935) was a Russian avant-garde artist and art theorist, whose pioneering work and writing had a profound influence on the development of non-objective, or abstract art, in the 20th century.

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Khabarovsk

Khabarovsk (p;; ᠪᠣᡥᠣᡵᡳ|v.

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Khakas language

Khakas (endonym: Хакас тілі, Xakas tili) is a Turkic language spoken by the Khakas people, who mainly live in the southwestern Siberian Khakas Republic, or Khakassia, in Russia.

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Khanate of Kazan

The Khanate of Kazan (Казан ханлыгы; Russian: Казанское ханство, Romanization: Kazanskoye khanstvo) was a medieval Tatar Turkic state that occupied the territory of former Volga Bulgaria between 1438 and 1552.

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Khanate of Sibir

The Khanate of Sibir, also historically called the Khanate of Turan, was a Tatar Khanate located in southwestern Siberia with a Turco-Mongol ruling class.

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Khazars

The Khazars (خزر, Xəzərlər; Hazarlar; Хазарлар; Хәзәрләр, Xäzärlär; כוזרים, Kuzarim;, Xazar; Хоза́ри, Chozáry; Хаза́ры, Hazáry; Kazárok; Xazar; Χάζαροι, Cházaroi; p./Gasani) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people, who created what for its duration was the most powerful polity to emerge from the break-up of the Western Turkic Khaganate.

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Khmelnytsky Uprising

The Khmelnytsky Uprising (Powstanie Chmielnickiego; Chmelnickio sukilimas; повстання Богдана Хмельницького; восстание Богдана Хмельницкого; also known as the Cossack-Polish War, Chmielnicki Uprising, or the Khmelnytsky insurrection) was a Cossack rebellion within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1648–1657, which led to the creation of a Cossack Hetmanate in Ukrainian lands.

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Khokhloma

Khokhloma or Khokhloma painting (хохлома or хохломская роспись in Russian, or Khokhlomskaya rospis') is the name of a Russian wood painting handicraft style and national ornament, known for its vivid flower patterns, red, green, and gold colors over a black background, and the effect it has when applied to wooden tableware or furniture, making it look heavier and metal-like.

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Khrushchev Thaw

The Khrushchev Thaw (or Khrushchev's Thaw; p or simply ottepel)William Taubman, Khrushchev: The Man and His Era, London: Free Press, 2004 refers to the period from the early 1950s to the early 1960s when repression and censorship in the Soviet Union were relaxed, and millions of Soviet political prisoners were released from Gulag labor camps due to Nikita Khrushchev's policies of de-Stalinization and peaceful coexistence with other nations.

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Kiev

Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.

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Kievan Rus'

Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.

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Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia

The Kingdom or Principality of Galicia–Volhynia (Old East Slavic: Галицко-Волинскоє князство, Галицько-Волинське князівство, Regnum Galiciae et Lodomeriae), also known as the Kingdom of Ruthenia (Old East Slavic: Королѣвство Русь, Королівство Русі, Regnum Russiae) since 1253, was a state in the regions of Galicia and Volhynia, of present-day western Ukraine, which was formed after the conquest of Galicia by the Prince of Volhynia Roman the Great, with the help of Leszek the White of Poland.

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Kingdom of Poland (1025–1385)

The Kingdom of Poland (Polish: Królestwo Polskie; Latin: Regnum Poloniae) was the Polish state from the coronation of the first King Bolesław I the Brave in 1025 to the union with Lithuania and the rule of the Jagiellon dynasty in 1385.

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Kingdom of Prussia

The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.

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Kino (band)

Kino (lit) was a Soviet rock band formed in Leningrad in 1982.

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Kipchaks

The Kipchaks were a Turkic nomadic people and confederation that existed in the Middle Ages, inhabiting parts of the Eurasian Steppe.

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Kipelov

Kipelov (Кипе́лов) is a Russian heavy metal band formed and led by former Aria vocalist Valery Kipelov.

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Kir Bulychov

Kir Bulychov (Кир Булычёв) (18 October 1934 – 5 September 2003) was a pen name of Igor Vsevolodovich Mozheiko (И́горь Все́володович Може́йко), a Soviet Russian science fiction writer and historian.

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Klyuchevskaya Sopka

Klyuchevskaya Sopka (Ключевская сопка; also known as Klyuchevskoi, Ключевской) is a stratovolcano, the highest mountain on the Kamchatka Peninsula of Russia and the highest active volcano of Eurasia.

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Kokoshnik

The kokoshnik (p) is a traditional Russian headdress worn by women and girls to accompany the sarafan, primarily worn in the northern regions of Russia in the 16th to 19th centuries.

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Kolkhoz

A kolkhoz (p) was a form of collective farm in the Soviet Union.

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Kolomenskoye

Kolomenskoye (Коло́менское) is a former royal estate situated several kilometers to the southeast of the city center of Moscow, Russia, on the ancient road leading to the town of Kolomna (hence the name).

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Komi language

The Komi language (endonym: Коми кыв, tr. Komi kyv) is a Uralic macrolanguage spoken by the Komi peoples in the northeastern European part of Russia.

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Komi peoples

The Komi are a Uralic ethnic group whose homeland is in the north-east of European Russia around the basins of the Vychegda, Pechora and Kama rivers.

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Konstantin Khrenov

Konstantin Konstantinovich Khrenov (Константин Константинович Хренов; 13 February 1894 – 12 October 1984) was a Soviet engineer and inventor who in 1932 introduced underwater welding and cutting of metals.

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Konstantin Leontiev

Konstantin Nikolayevich Leontiev (Константи́н Никола́евич Лео́нтьев; January 25, 1831 in Kudinovo, Kaluga Governorate – November 24, 1891 in Sergiyev Posad) was a conservative tsarist and imperial monarchist Russian philosopher who advocated closer cultural ties between Russia and the East against what he believed to be the West's catastrophic egalitarian, utilitarian and revolutionary influences.

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Konstantin Rokossovsky

Konstantin Konstantinovich (Xaverevich) Rokossovsky (December 21, 1896 – August 3, 1968) was a Soviet officer of Polish origin who became Marshal of the Soviet Union, Marshal of Poland and served as Poland's Defence Minister from 1949 until his removal in 1956 during the Polish October.

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Konstantin Tsiolkovsky

Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky (a; Konstanty Ciołkowski; 19 September 1935) was a Russian and Soviet rocket scientist and pioneer of the astronautic theory of ethnic Polish descent.

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Kontinental Hockey League

The Kontinental Hockey League (KHL) (Континентальная хоккейная лига (КХЛ), Kontinental'naya hokkeynaya liga) is an international professional ice hockey league founded in 2008.

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Korol i Shut

Korol' i Shut (The King and the Jester, Король и Шут) were a Russian horror punk band from Saint Petersburg that took inspiration and costumes from tales and fables.

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Kosovorotka

A kosovorotka (p) is a Russian, skewed-collared shirt.

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Krais of Russia

A krai (p) is a type of federal subject of Russia.

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Krasnodar Krai

Krasnodar Krai (p) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai), located in the North Caucasus region in Southern Russia and administratively a part of the Southern Federal District.

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Krasnoyarsk

Krasnoyarsk (p) is a city and the administrative center of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, located on the Yenisei River.

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Kuchum

Kuchum Khan (Kuchum Khan of Sibir - Tatar: Küçüm, Күчүм, Russian: Кучум; in Siberian Tatar Köçöm is pronounced approximately as /kœtsœm/ - Көцөм; the name in English comes from the Tatar pronunciation) (died ca. 1605) was the last khan (ruled 1563–1598) of the Khanate of Sibir.

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Kunashir Island

Kunashir Island (Кунаши́р; 国後島, Kunashiri-tō; クナシㇼ or クナシㇽ, Kunasir), possibly meaning Black Island or Grass Island in Ainu, is the southernmost island of the Kuril Islands, an archipelago currently under Russian control, among which four (including Kunashiri Island) are claimed by Japan (see Kuril Islands dispute).

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Kupala Night

Kupala Night, (Іван Купала; Купалле; Иван-Купала; Noc Kupały), is celebrated in Ukraine, Poland, Belarus and Russia, currently on the night of 6/7 July in the Gregorian calendar, which is 24/25 June in the Julian calendar.

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Kuril Islands

The Kuril Islands or Kurile Islands (or; p or r; Japanese: or), in Russia's Sakhalin Oblast region, form a volcanic archipelago that stretches approximately northeast from Hokkaido, Japan, to Kamchatka, Russia, separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the north Pacific Ocean.

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Kuril Islands dispute

The Kuril Islands dispute, also known as the Northern Territories dispute, is a disagreement between Japan and Russia and also some individuals of the Ainu people over sovereignty of the South Kuril Islands.

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Kuzma Minin

Kuzma (Kozma) Minin (Кузьма́ (Козьма́) Ми́нин; full name Kuzma Minich Zakhariev-Sukhoruky, Кузьма́ Ми́нич Заха́рьев Сухору́кий; died 1616) was a Russian merchant from Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, who, together with Prince Dmitry Pozharsky, became a national hero for his role in defending the country against the Polish invasion in the early 17th century.

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Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin

Kuzma Sergeevich Petrov-Vodkin, (November 5, 1878 – February 15, 1939) was an important Russian and Soviet painter and writer.

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Kvass

Kvass is a traditional Slavic and Baltic beverage commonly made from rye bread, known in many Eastern European countries and especially in Ukraine and Russia as black bread.

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Kyrgyzstan

The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.

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Kyzyl

Kyzyl (p; Кызыл, Kьzьl/Kızıl) is the capital city of the Tuva Republic, Russia.

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Lake Baikal

Lake Baikal (p; Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur; Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur, etymologically meaning, in Mongolian, "the Nature Lake") is a rift lake in Russia, located in southern Siberia, between Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and the Buryat Republic to the southeast.

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Lake Ladoga

Lake Ladoga (p or p; Laatokka;; Ladog, Ladoganjärv) is a freshwater lake located in the Republic of Karelia and Leningrad Oblast in northwestern Russia, in the vicinity of Saint Petersburg.

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Lake Onega

Lake Onega (also known as Onego, p; Ääninen or Äänisjärvi; Oniegu or Oniegu-järve; Änine or Änižjärv) is a lake in the north-west European part of Russia, located on the territory of Republic of Karelia, Leningrad Oblast and Vologda Oblast.

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Land use statistics by country

This article includes the table with land use statistics by country.

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Languages of Russia

Of all the languages of Russia, Russian is the only official language at the national level.

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Laptev Sea

The Laptev Sea (r; Лаптевтар байҕаллара) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean.

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Larisa Latynina

Larisa Semyonovna Latynina (Лариса Семенівна Латиніна, Лари́са Семёновна Латы́нина; née Diriy; born 27 December 1934) is a former Soviet artistic gymnast from southern Ukraine.

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Laser

A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.

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Latvia

Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.

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Law enforcement in Russia

Law enforcement in the Russian Federation is the responsibility of a variety of different agencies.

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Law on the languages of the peoples of the Republic of Bashkortostan

The Law on the languages of the peoples of the Republic of Bashkortostan is a law aimed at protecting and preserving the languages of the peoples of Bashkortostan.

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League of Militant Atheists

The League of Militant AtheistsBurleigh, Michael.

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Left-bank Ukraine

Left-bank Ukraine (translit; translit; Lewobrzeżna Ukraina) is a historic name of the part of Ukraine on the left (East) bank of the Dnieper River, comprising the modern-day oblasts of Chernihiv, Poltava and Sumy as well as the eastern parts of Kiev and Cherkasy.

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Lena River

The Lena (Ле́на,; Зүлхэ; Елюенэ; Өлүөнэ) is the easternmost of the three great Siberian rivers that flow into the Arctic Ocean (the other two being the Ob' and the Yenisey).

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Lenz's law

Lenz's law (pronounced), named after the physicist Heinrich Friedrich Emil Lenz who formulated it in 1834, states that the direction of current induced in a conductor by a changing magnetic field due to induction is such that it creates a magnetic field that opposes the change that produced it.

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Leo Tolstoy

Count Lyov (also Lev) Nikolayevich Tolstoy (also Лев) Николаевич ТолстойIn Tolstoy's day, his name was written Левъ Николаевичъ Толстой.

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Leon Trotsky

Leon Trotsky (born Lev Davidovich Bronstein; – 21 August 1940) was a Russian revolutionary, theorist, and Soviet politician.

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Leonhard Euler

Leonhard Euler (Swiss Standard German:; German Standard German:; 15 April 170718 September 1783) was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, logician and engineer, who made important and influential discoveries in many branches of mathematics, such as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory, while also making pioneering contributions to several branches such as topology and analytic number theory.

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Leonid Andreyev

Leonid Nikolaievich Andreyev (Леони́д Никола́евич Андре́ев, – 12 September 1919) was a Russian playwright, novelist and short-story writer, who is considered to be a father of Expressionism in Russian literature.

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Leonid Brezhnev

Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (a; Леоні́д Іллі́ч Бре́жнєв, 19 December 1906 (O.S. 6 December) – 10 November 1982) was a Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982 as the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), presiding over the country until his death and funeral in 1982.

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Leonid Filatov

Leonid Alekseyevich Filatov (a; 24 December 1946 – 26 October 2003) was a Soviet and Russian actor, director, poet, pamphleteer, who shot to fame while a member of the troupe of the Taganka Theatre under director Yury Lyubimov.

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Leonid Gaidai

Leonid Iovich Gaidai (Леони́д И́ович Гайда́й; 30 January 1923, Svobodny, Amur Oblast – 19 November 1993, Moscow) was one of the most popular Soviet comedy directors, enjoying immense popularity and broad public recognition in the former USSR and modern Russia.

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Leonid Kogan

Leonid Borisovich Kogan (Леони́д Бори́сович Ко́ган; Леонід Борисович Коган; November 14, 1924 – December 17, 1982) was a preeminent Soviet violinist during the 20th century.

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Lev Artsimovich

Lev Andreevich Artsimovich (Арцимович, Лев Андреевич in Russian; also transliterated Arzimowitsch) (February 25, 1909 (NS) – March 1, 1973) was a Soviet physicist, academician of the Soviet Academy of Sciences (1953), member of the Presidium of the Soviet Academy of Sciences (since 1957), and Hero of Socialist Labor (1969).

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Lev Kamenev

Lev Borisovich Kamenev (born Rozenfeld; – 25 August 1936) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a prominent Soviet politician.

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Lev Kuleshov

Lev Vladimirovich Kuleshov (Лев Влади́мирович Кулешо́в; – 29 March 1970) was a Russian and Soviet filmmaker and film theorist, one of the founders of the world's first film school, the Moscow Film School.

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Lev Yashin

Lev Ivanovich Yashin (Лев Ива́нович Я́шин, 22 October 1929 – 20 March 1990), nicknamed the "Black Spider" or the "Black Panther", was a Soviet professional footballer, widely regarded as the greatest goalkeeper in the history of the sport.

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Levada Center

Levada-Center is a Russian independent, non-governmental polling and sociological research organization.

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LGBT rights in Russia

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) people in Russia face legal and social challenges not experienced by non-LGBT persons.

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Liberal Democratic Party of Russia

The LDPR — Liberal Democratic Party of Russia (ЛДПР — Либерально-Демократическая Партия России), briefly, the LDPR or Liberal Democratic Party, is a socially conservative and economically interventionist political party in Russia led by Vladimir Zhirinovsky since its founding in 1989.

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Library of Congress

The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.

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Library of Congress Country Studies

The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.

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Light industry

Light industry is industries that usually are less capital-intensive than heavy industry and is more consumer-oriented than business-oriented, as it typically produces smaller consumer goods.

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List of ancient Slavic peoples and tribes

This is a list of Slavic tribes reported in the Middle Ages, that is, before the year AD 1500.

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List of battles by casualties

The following is a list of the casualties count in battles in world history.

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List of bridges in Saint Petersburg

There are 342 bridges in the city limits of Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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List of Byzantine emperors

This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Byzantine Empire (or the Eastern Roman Empire), to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD.

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List of cities and towns in Russia by population

This is a list of cities and towns in Russia with a population of over 50,000 as of the 2010 Census. These numbers are the population within the limits of the city/town proper, not the urban area or metropolitan area figures. The list excludes the city of Sevastopol and the cities/towns of the Republic of Crimea, as those were not a part of the 2010 Census, are a subject of an unresolved dispute between Russia and Ukraine, and are considered to be a part of Ukraine by the majority of the international community. The city of Zelenograd (a part of the federal city of Moscow) and the municipal cities/towns of the federal city of St. Petersburg are also excluded, as they are not enumerated in the 2010 Census as stand-alone localities.

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List of cosmonauts

This is a list of cosmonauts who have taken part in the missions of the Soviet space program and the Russian Federal Space Agency, including ethnic Russians and people of other ethnicities.

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List of countries and dependencies by area

This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.

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List of countries and dependencies by population

This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population.

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List of countries and dependencies by population density

This is a list of countries and dependent territories ranked by population density, measured by the number of human inhabitants per square kilometer.

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List of countries by electricity production

The list of countries by electricity generation per year based on multiple sources.

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List of countries by electricity production from renewable sources

This article is a list of countries by electricity generation from renewable sources every year.

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List of countries by external debt

This is a list of countries by external debt, which is the total public and private debt owed to nonresidents repayable in internationally accepted currencies, goods or services, where the public debt is the money or credit owed by any level of government, from central to local, and the private debt the money or credit owed by private households or private corporations based in the country under consideration.

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List of countries by GDP (nominal)

Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.

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List of countries by GDP (PPP)

This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP (PPP).

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List of countries by level of military equipment

This is a list of countries by level of military equipment, including naval ships, fighter aircraft and nuclear weapons.

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List of countries by military expenditures

This article is a list of countries by military expenditure in a given year.

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List of countries by natural gas exports

This is a list of countries by natural gas exports mostly based on The World Factbook.

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List of countries by natural gas production

This is a list of countries by natural gas production based on statistics from the International Energy Agency.

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List of countries by natural gas proven reserves

This is a list of countries by natural gas proven reserves based on The World Factbook (when no citation is given).

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List of countries by oil exports

This is a list of oil-producing countries by oil exports based on The World Factbook and other Sources.

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List of countries by oil production

This is a list of countries by oil production, as compiled from the U.S. Energy Information Administration database for calendar year 2016, tabulating all countries on a comparable best-estimate basis.

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List of countries by percentage of population living in poverty

Countries by percentage of population living in poverty, as recorded by World bank and other sources.

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List of countries by road network size

This is a list of countries by total road network size, both paved and unpaved.

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List of countries by total length of pipelines

This is a sortable list of countries and their total length of pipelines, mostly based on the CIA World Factbook, accessed in November 2015.

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List of countries by total renewable water resources

This is a list of countries by total renewable water resources mostly based on The World Factbook.

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List of countries by waterways length

This is a list of countries by total waterways length mostly based on The World Factbook accessed in May 2009.

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List of diplomatic missions of Russia

This is a list of diplomatic missions of Russia.

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List of ethnic groups in Russia

Russian Federation is a dual-national state with over 185 ethnic groups designated as nationalities, population of these groups varying enormously, from millions in case of e.g. Russians and Tatars to under ten thousand in the case of Samis and Kets.

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List of federal subjects of Russia by GRP

The article is a list of Russia Federal subjects by Gross Regional Product (GRP) in main years.

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List of institutions of higher education in Russia

The following is a list of universities and other higher educational institutions in Russia, based primarily on the National Information Centre on Academic Recognition and Mobility webpage of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation.

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List of journalists killed in Russia

The dangers to journalists in Russia have been well known since the early 1990s but concern over the number of unsolved killings soared after Anna Politkovskaya's murder in Moscow on 7 October 2006.

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List of largest cities

Determining the world's largest cities depends on which definitions of city are used.

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List of largest empires

This is a list of the largest empires in world history, but the list is not and cannot be definitive since the decision about which entities to consider as "empires" is difficult and fraught with controversy.

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List of largest lakes of Europe

This is a list of lakes of Europe with an average area greater than 100 km².

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List of merchant navy capacity by country

List of merchant navy capacity by flag is a list of the world foremost fleets of registered trading vessels ranked in both gross register tonnage (GRT) and deadweight tonnage (DWT) sorted by flag state.

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List of metro systems

This list of metro systems includes electrified rapid transit train systems worldwide.

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List of Mongol and Tatar raids against Rus'

The following is a list of Mongol and Tatar raids against Rus' principalities following the Mongol invasion.

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List of most expensive films

Due to the secretive nature of Hollywood accounting it is not clear which film is the most expensive film ever made.

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List of most-produced aircraft

This is a list of the most-produced aircraft types whose numbers exceed or exceeded 5,000.

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List of national trees

This is a list of national trees, most official, but some unofficial.

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List of rivers by length

This is a list of the longest rivers on Earth.

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List of rivers of Europe

This page lists the principal rivers of Europe with their main attributes.

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List of rivers of Russia

Russia can be divided into a European and an Asian part.

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List of Russian aerospace engineers

This list of Russian aerospace engineers includes the designers of aircraft, rocketry and spacecraft, and developers of auxiliary aerospace technologies from the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation.

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List of Russian biologists

This list of Russian biologists includes the famous biologists from the Russian Federation, the Soviet Union, the Russian Empire and other predecessor states of Russia.

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List of Russian chemists

This list of Russian chemists includes the famous chemists and material scientists of the Russian Federation, the Soviet Union, the Russian Empire and other predecessor states of Russia.

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List of Russian explorers

The history of exploration by citizens or subjects of the Russian Federation, the Soviet Union, the Russian Empire, the Tsardom of Russia and other Russian predecessor states forms a significant part of the history of Russia as well as the history of the world.

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List of Russian mathematicians

This list of Russian mathematicians includes the famous mathematicians from the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation.

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List of Russian philosophers

Russian philosophy includes a variety of philosophical movements.

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List of Russian physicists

This list of Russian physicists includes the famous physicists from the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation.

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List of Russian-language radio stations

This is a list of radio stations in Russian language.

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List of states with nuclear weapons

There are eight sovereign states that have successfully detonated nuclear weapons.

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List of stripped Olympic medals

The following is a list of stripped Olympic medals.

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List of transcontinental countries

This is a list of countries located on more than one continent, known as transcontinental states or intercontinental states.

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List of World Heritage Sites in Russia

This a list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Russia.

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Literary realism

Literary realism is part of the realist art movement beginning with mid nineteenth-century French literature (Stendhal), and Russian literature (Alexander Pushkin) and extending to the late nineteenth and early twentieth century.

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Lithuania

Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.

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Little Ice Age

The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling that occurred after the Medieval Warm Period.

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Livonia

Livonia (Līvõmō, Liivimaa, German and Scandinavian languages: Livland, Latvian and Livonija, Inflanty, archaic English Livland, Liwlandia; Liflyandiya) is a historical region on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea.

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Livonian War

The Livonian War (1558–1583) was fought for control of Old Livonia (in the territory of present-day Estonia and Latvia), when the Tsardom of Russia faced a varying coalition of Denmark–Norway, the Kingdom of Sweden, and the Union (later Commonwealth) of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland.

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Longitude

Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.

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Lunokhod programme

Lunokhod (Луноход, "Moonwalker") was a series of Soviet robotic lunar rovers designed to land on the Moon between 1969 and 1977.

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Magadan

Magadan (p) is a port town and the administrative center of Magadan Oblast, Russia, located on the Sea of Okhotsk in Nagayev Bay (within Taui Bay) and serving as a gateway to the Kolyma region.

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Maina Kiai

Maina Kiai is a Kenyan lawyer and human rights activist who formerly served as the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the rights to freedom of peaceful assembly and of association.

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Makhachkala

Makhachkala (p; Анжи-кала; Lak: Гьанжи; Avar: МахӀачхъала; Lezgian: Магьачкъала; Rutul: МахаӀчкала) is the capital city of the Republic of Dagestan, Russia.

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Man and the Biosphere Programme

Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) is an intergovernmental scientific programme, launched in 1971 by UNESCO, that aims to establish a scientific basis for the improvement of relationships between people and their environments.

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Manchukuo

Manchukuo was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945.

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Marc Chagall

Marc Zakharovich Chagall (born Moishe Zakharovich Shagal; 28 March 1985) was a Russian-French artist of Belarusian Jewish origin.

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Maria Sharapova

Maria Yuryevna Sharapova (a; born April 19, 1987) is a Russian professional tennis player.

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Mariinsky Ballet

The Mariinsky Ballet is the resident classical ballet company of the Mariinsky Theatre in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Mariinsky Theatre

The Mariinsky Theatre (Мариинский театр, Mariinskiy Teatr, also spelled Maryinsky or Mariyinsky) is a historic theatre of opera and ballet in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Maritime boundary

A maritime boundary is a conceptual division of the Earth's water surface areas using physiographic or geopolitical criteria.

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Mark Reizen

Mark Osipovich Reizen, also Reisen or Reyzen (Марк Осипович Рейзен, – November 25, 1992), PAU, was a leading Soviet opera singer with a beautiful and expansive bass voice.

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Markov chain

A Markov chain is "a stochastic model describing a sequence of possible events in which the probability of each event depends only on the state attained in the previous event".

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Mars

Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.

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Marxism–Leninism

In political science, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, of the Communist International and of Stalinist political parties.

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Marxist–Leninist atheism

In the philosophy of Marxism, Marxist–Leninist atheism (also known as Marxist–Leninist scientific atheism) is the irreligious and anti-clerical element of Marxism–Leninism, the official state ideology of the Soviet Union.

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Mary, mother of Jesus

Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.

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Maser

A maser (an acronym for "microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation") is a device that produces coherent electromagnetic waves through amplification by stimulated emission.

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Mashina Vremeni

Mashina Vremeni ("Time Machine") is a Russian rock band founded in 1969.

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Maslenitsa

Maslenitsa (Мaсленица, Масниця, Масленіца; also known as Butter Week, Crepe week, or Cheesefare Week) is an Eastern Slavic religious and folk holiday, celebrated during the last week before Great Lent, that is, the eighth week before Eastern Orthodox Pascha (Easter).

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Matryoshka doll

A matryoshka doll (a), also known as a Russian nesting doll, stacking dolls, or Russian doll, is a set of wooden dolls of decreasing size placed one inside another.

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Maxim Gorky

Alexei Maximovich Peshkov (Алексе́й Макси́мович Пешко́в or Пе́шков; – 18 June 1936), primarily known as Maxim (Maksim) Gorky (Макси́м Го́рький), was a Russian and Soviet writer, a founder of the socialist realism literary method and a political activist.

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Maxim Vengerov

Maxim Alexandrovich Vengerov (Максим Александрович Венгеров) (born 20 August 1974 in Novosibirsk) is a Russian-born Israeli violinist, violist, and conductor.

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Maya Plisetskaya

Maya Mikhailovna Plisetskaya (Ма́йя Миха́йловна Плисе́цкая; 20 November 1925 – 2 May 2015) was a Soviet ballet dancer, choreographer, ballet director, and actress, who held in post-Soviet times Spanish and Lithuanian citizenship.

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McLaren Report

The McLaren Report (Доклад Макларена) is the name given to an independent report released in two parts by professor Richard McLaren into allegations and evidence of state-sponsored doping in Russia.

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Meadow Mari language

Meadow Mari or Eastern Mari is a standardized dialect of the Mari language used by about half a million people mostly in the European part of the Russian Federation.

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Media freedom in Russia

Media freedom in Russia concerns both the ability of directors of mass media outlets to carry out independent policies and the ability of journalists to access sources of information and to work without outside pressure.

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Medication

A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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Medieval Greek

Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453.

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Medvedev modernisation programme

The Medvedev modernisation programme is an initiative launched by President of Russia Dmitry Medvedev in 2009, which aims at modernising Russia's economy and society, decreasing the country's dependency on oil and gas revenues and creating a diversified economy based on high technology and innovation.

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Melnitsa Animation Studio

Melnitsa Animation Studio (Студия анимационного кино «Мельница», "melnitsa" meaning "windmill") is one of the largest animation studios in Russia.

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Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly

Prince Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly (–) was a Russian Field Marshal and Minister of War during Napoleon's invasion in 1812 and War of the Sixth Coalition.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Mikhail Baryshnikov

Mikhail Nikolayevich Baryshnikov (p; Mihails Barišņikovs; born January 27, 1948), nicknamed "Misha" (Russian diminutive of the name "Mikhail"), is a Latvian and American dancer, choreographer, and actor.

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Mikhail Bulgakov

Mikhail Afanasyevich Bulgakov (p; – 10 March 1940) was a Russian writer, medical doctor and playwright active in the first half of the 20th century.

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Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky

Mikhail Osipovich Dolivo-Dobrovolsky (Михаи́л О́сипович Доли́во-Доброво́льский; Michail von Dolivo-Dobrowolsky or Michail Ossipowitsch Doliwo-Dobrowolski; Michał Doliwo-Dobrowolski; &ndash) was a Polish-Russian engineer, electrician, and inventor.

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Mikhail Glinka

Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (Mikhaíl Ivánovich Glínka) was the first Russian composer to gain wide recognition within his own country, and is often regarded as the fountainhead of Russian classical music.

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Mikhail Gorbachev

Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.

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Mikhail Kalashnikov

Lieutenant-General Mikhail Timofeyevich Kalashnikov (p; 10 November 1919 – 23 December 2013) was a Russian general, inventor, military engineer and small arms designer.

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Mikhail Kutuzov

Prince Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov (князь Михаи́л Илларио́нович Голени́щев-Куту́зов) was a Field Marshal of the Russian Empire.

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Mikhail Lermontov

Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov (p; –) was a Russian Romantic writer, poet and painter, sometimes called "the poet of the Caucasus", the most important Russian poet after Alexander Pushkin's death in 1837 and the greatest figure in Russian Romanticism.

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Mikhail Lomonosov

Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov (ləmɐˈnosəf|a.

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Mikhail Sholokhov

Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov (p; – February 21, 1984) was a Soviet/Russian novelist and winner of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Literature.

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Mikhail Vrubel

Mikhail Aleksandrovich Vrubel (Михаи́л Алекса́ндрович Вру́бель; March 17, 1856 – April 14, 1910, all n.s.) is usually regarded amongst the Russian painters of the Symbolist movement and of Art Nouveau.

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Mikoyan

Russian Aircraft Corporation MiG (Rossiyskaya samoletostroitel'naya korporatsiya "MiG") is a Russian aerospace joint stock company.

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Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant

Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant (Московский вертолётный завод им.) is a Russian designer and producer of helicopters headquartered in Tomilino.

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Military parade

A military parade is a formation of soldiers whose movement is restricted by close-order manouvering known as drilling or marching.

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Millennium Prize Problems

The Millennium Prize Problems are seven problems in mathematics that were stated by the Clay Mathematics Institute in 2000.

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Millet

Millets (/ˈmɪlɪts/) are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food.

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Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Russia)

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation (MFA Russia; Министерство иностранных дел Российской Федерации, МИД РФ) is the central government institution charged with leading the foreign policy and foreign relations of Russia.

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Mir

Mir (Мир,; lit. peace or world) was a space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, operated by the Soviet Union and later by Russia.

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Mixed economy

A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system blending elements of market economies with elements of planned economies, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise.

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Modern art

Modern art includes artistic work produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the styles and philosophy of the art produced during that era.

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Modern Greek

Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική Γλώσσα "Neo-Hellenic", historically and colloquially also known as Ρωμαίικα "Romaic" or "Roman", and Γραικικά "Greek") refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era.

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Moksha language

The Moksha language (mokšenj kälj) is a member of the Mordvinic branch of the Uralic languages, with around 2,000 native speakers (2010 Russian census).

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Moldova

Moldova (or sometimes), officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south (by way of the disputed territory of Transnistria).

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Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact

The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.

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Mongol Empire

The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.

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Mongol invasion of Rus'

As part of the Mongol invasion of Europe, the Mongol Empire invaded Kievan Rus' in the 13th century, destroying numerous cities, including Ryazan, Kolomna, Moscow, Vladimir and Kiev.

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Mongolia

Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.

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Mongolic languages

The Mongolic languages are a group of languages spoken in East-Central Asia, mostly in Mongolia and surrounding areas plus in Kalmykia.

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Mongols

The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

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Moon

The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.

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Mortality rate

Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.

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Moscow

Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.

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Moscow Cathedral Mosque

Moscow Cathedral Mosque (Московская соборная мечеть., Moskovskaya sobornaya mechet) is the main mosque of Moscow, Russia.

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Moscow Domodedovo Airport

Moscow Domodedovo Airport (p) is an international airport located on the territory of Domodedovo, Moscow Oblast, Russia, south-southeast from the centre of Moscow.

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Moscow International Business Center

The Moscow International Business Centre (MIBC) (r), also known as “Moscow City” (r), is a commercial district in central Moscow, Russia.

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Moscow Kremlin

The Moscow Kremlin (p), usually referred to as the Kremlin, is a fortified complex at the heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River to the south, Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square to the east, and the Alexander Garden to the west.

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Moscow Metro

The Moscow Metro (p) is a rapid transit system serving Moscow, Russia and the neighbouring Moscow Oblast cities of Krasnogorsk, Reutov, Lyubertsy and Kotelniki.

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Moscow Oblast

Moscow Oblast (p), or Podmoskovye (p, literally "around/near Moscow"), is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).

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Moscow State University

Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU; Московский государственный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ) is a coeducational and public research university located in Moscow, Russia.

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Moscow theater hostage crisis

The Moscow theater hostage crisis (also known as the 2002 Nord-Ost siege) was the seizure of a crowded Dubrovka Theater by 40 to 50 armed Chechens on 23 October 2002 that involved 850 hostages and ended with the death of at least 170 people.

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Mother's Day

Mother's Day is a celebration honoring the mother of the family, as well as motherhood, maternal bonds, and the influence of mothers in society.

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Motto

A motto (derived from the Latin muttum, 'mutter', by way of Italian motto, 'word', 'sentence') is a maxim; a phrase meant to formally summarize the general motivation or intention of an individual, family, social group or organization.

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Mount Elbrus

Mount Elbrus (ɪlʲˈbrus; Минги тау, Miñi taw,; Ӏуащхьэмахуэ, ’Wāśhamāxwa) is the highest mountain in Europe, and the tenth most prominent peak in the world.

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Mstislav Rostropovich

Mstislav Leopoldovich "Slava" Rostropovich (Мстисла́в Леопо́льдович Ростропо́вич, Mstislav Leopol'dovič Rostropovič,; 27 March 192727 April 2007) was a Soviet and Russian cellist and conductor.

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Multi-party system

A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition.

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Multinational state

A multinational state is a sovereign state that comprises two or more nations.

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Murmansk

Murmansk (p; Мурман ланнҍ; Murmánska; Muurman) is a port city and the administrative center of Murmansk Oblast in the far northwest part of Russia.

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Murom

Murom (p; Old Norse: Moramar) is a historical city in Vladimir Oblast, Russia, which sprawls along the left bank of the Oka River.

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Music of the Soviet Union

Music of the Soviet Union varied in many genres and epochs.

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Muslim

A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.

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Names of Rus', Russia and Ruthenia

Originally, the name Rus' (Русь) referred to the people, regions, and medieval states (9th to 12th centuries) of the Kievan Rus'.

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Napoleon

Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.

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Napoleonic Wars

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.

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Naryshkin Baroque

Naryshkin Baroque, also called Moscow Baroque, or Muscovite Baroque, is the name given to a particular style of Baroque architecture and decoration which was fashionable in Moscow from the turn of the 17th into the early 18th centuries.

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Natalia Gutman

Natalia Grigoryevna Gutman (Наталья Григорьевна Гутман) (born 14 November 1942 in Kazan), PAU, is a Russian cellist.

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National anthem of Russia

The "State Anthem of the Russian Federation" (p) is the name of the official national anthem of Russia.

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National language

A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy.

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National parks of Russia

There are currently 48 national parks in Russia, a list of which is given below.

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National personification

A national personification is an anthropomorphism of a nation or its people.

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NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.

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Nature reserve

A nature reserve (also called a natural reserve, bioreserve, (natural/nature) preserve, or (national/nature) conserve) is a protected area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research.

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Nautilus Pompilius (band)

Nautilus Pompilius (Наутилус Помпилиус), sometimes nicknamed Nau (Нау), was an influential Soviet, and later Russian, rock band founded in 1983 by Vyacheslav Butusov and Dmitry Umetsky, the band's lead singer and bassist respectively.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Nazism

National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.

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Neo-Byzantine architecture in the Russian Empire

Neo-Byzantine architecture in the Russian Empire emerged in the 1850s and became an officially endorsed preferred architectural style for church construction during the reign of Alexander II of Russia (1855–1881), replacing the Russo-Byzantine style of Konstantin Thon.

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Neo-primitivism

Neo-primitivism was a Russian art movement which took its name from the 31-page pamphlet Neo-primitivizm, by Aleksandr.

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Neoclassical architecture

Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.

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Neoclassicism

Neoclassicism (from Greek νέος nèos, "new" and Latin classicus, "of the highest rank") is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of classical antiquity.

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Nevsky Prospect

Nevsky Prospect (p) is the main street in the city of St. Petersburg, Russia, named after the 13th-century Russian prince Alexander Nevsky.

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New Siberian Islands

The New Siberian Islands (r; translit) are an archipelago in the Extreme North of Russia, to the North of the East Siberian coast between the Laptev Sea and the East Siberian Sea north of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic.

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New Year tree

New Year trees are decorated trees similar to Christmas trees that are displayed to specifically celebrate the New Year.

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Nicholas II of Russia

Nicholas II or Nikolai II (r; 1868 – 17 July 1918), known as Saint Nicholas II of Russia in the Russian Orthodox Church, was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917.

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Nicholas Roerich

Nicholas Roerich (October 9, 1874 – December 13, 1947) – known also as Nikolai Konstantinovich Rerikh (Никола́й Константи́нович Ре́рих) – was a Russian painter, writer, archaeologist, theosophist, perceived by some in Russia as an enlightener, philosopher, and public figure, who in his youth was influenced by a movement in Russian society around the spiritual.

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Nicolaus Copernicus

Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.

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Nikita Khrushchev

Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.

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Nikolai Berdyaev

Nikolai Alexandrovich Berdyaev (Никола́й Алекса́ндрович Бердя́ев; – March 24, 1948) was a Russian political and also Christian religious philosopher who emphasized the existential spiritual significance of human freedom and the human person.

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Nikolai Gogol

Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol (31 March 1809 – 4 March 1852) was a Russian speaking dramatist of Ukrainian origin.

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Nikolai Lobachevsky

Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky (a; –) was a Russian mathematician and geometer, known primarily for his work on hyperbolic geometry, otherwise known as Lobachevskian geometry and also his fundamental study on Dirichlet integrals known as Lobachevsky integral formula.

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Nikolai Rubinstein

Nikolai Grigoryevich Rubinstein (Никола́й Григо́рьевич Рубинште́йн; &ndash) was a Russian pianist, conductor and composer.

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Nikolay Basov

Nikolay Gennadiyevich Basov (Никола́й Генна́диевич Ба́сов; 14 December 1922 – 1 July 2001) was a Soviet physicist and educator.

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Nikolay Benardos

Nikolay Nikolayevich Benardos (Никола́й Никола́евич Бенардо́с) (1842–1905) was a Russian inventor of Greek origin who in 1881 introduced carbon arc welding, which was the first practical arc welding method.

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Nikolay Brusentsov

Nikolay Petrovich Brusentsov (Никола́й Петро́вич Брусенцо́в; 7 February 1925 in Kamenskoe, Ukrainian SSR – 4 December 2014) was a computer scientist, most famous for having built a (balanced) ternary computer, Setun, together with Sergei Sobolev in 1958.

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Nikolay Danilevsky

Nikolay Yakovlevich Danilevsky (Никола́й Я́ковлевич Даниле́вский; 28 November 1822 – 7 November 1885) was a Russian Empire naturalist, economist, ethnologist, philosopher, historian and ideologue of Pan-Slavism and the Slavophile movement.

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Nikolay Gumilyov

Nikolay Stepanovich Gumilyov (a; April 15 NS 1886 – August 26, 1921) was an influential Russian poet, literary critic, traveler, and military officer.

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Nikolay Nekrasov

Nikolay Alexeyevich Nekrasov (a, –) was a Russian poet, writer, critic and publisher, whose deeply compassionate poems about peasant Russia made him the hero of liberal and radical circles of Russian intelligentsia, as represented by Vissarion Belinsky, Nikolay Chernyshevsky and Fyodor Dostoyevsky.

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Nikolay Slavyanov

Nikolay Gavrilovich Slavyanov (Никола́й Гаври́лович Славя́нов; –) was a Russian inventor who in 1888 introduced arc welding with consumable metal electrodes, or shielded metal arc welding, the second historical arc welding method after carbon arc welding invented earlier by Nikolay Benardos.

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Nikolay Yegorovich Zhukovsky

Nikolay Yegorovich Zhukovsky (p; – March 17, 1921) was a Russian scientist, mathematician and engineer, and a founding father of modern aero- and hydrodynamics.

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Nizhny Novgorod

Nizhny Novgorod (p), colloquially shortened to Nizhny, is a city in Russia and the administrative center (capital) of Volga Federal District and Nizhny Novgorod Oblast.

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Nizhny Novgorod Metro

The Nizhny Novgorod Metro (Нижегородское метро), formerly known as Gorky Metro (Горьковское метро) is a rapid-transit system that serves the city of Nizhny Novgorod, Russia.

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Nogai language

Nogai (also Nogay or Nogai Tatar) is a Turkic language spoken in southwestern European Russia.

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Nomad

A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.

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Nomadic pastoralism

Nomadic pastoralism is a form of pastoralism when livestock are herded in order to find fresh pastures on which to graze.

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Non-aggression pact

A non-aggression pact or neutrality pact is a national treaty between two or more states/countries where the signatories promise not to engage in military action against each other.

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Non-Euclidean geometry

In mathematics, non-Euclidean geometry consists of two geometries based on axioms closely related to those specifying Euclidean geometry.

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Nord Stream

Nord Stream (former names: North Transgas and North European Gas Pipeline; Северный поток, Severny potok) is an offshore natural gas pipeline from Vyborg in the Russian Federation to Greifswald in Germany that is owned and operated by Nord Stream AG.

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North Asia

North Asia or Northern Asia, sometimes known as Siberia, is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the Russian regions of Siberia, Ural and the Russian Far East – an area east of the Ural Mountains.

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North Caucasus

The North Caucasus (p) or Ciscaucasia is the northern part of the Caucasus region between the Sea of Azov and Black Sea on the west and the Caspian Sea on the east, within European Russia.

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North Korea

North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.

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North-Eastern Federal University

The, NEFU, (in Russian: Северо-Восточный федеральный университет имени Максима Кировича Аммосова) previously known as Yakutsk State University (Якутский государственный университет имени Максима Кировича Аммосова), is the largest higher education institution in the Russian northeast and it is one of the ten federal universities of the nation.

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Northeast Caucasian languages

The Northeast Caucasian languages, or Nakh-Daghestanian languages, are a language family spoken in the Russian republics of Dagestan, Chechnya and Ingushetia and in northern Azerbaijan as well as in diaspora populations in Western Europe, Turkey and the Middle East.

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Northern Crusades

The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were religious wars undertaken by Catholic Christian military orders and kingdoms, primarily against the pagan Baltic, Finnic and West Slavic peoples around the southern and eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, and to a lesser extent also against Orthodox Christian Slavs (East Slavs).

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Northern Sea Route

The Northern Sea Route (Се́верный морско́й путь, Severnyy morskoy put, shortened to Севморпуть, Sevmorput) is a shipping route officially defined by Russian legislation as lying east of Novaya Zemlya and specifically running along the Russian Arctic coast from the Kara Sea, along Siberia, to the Bering Strait.

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Northwest Caucasian languages

The Northwest Caucasian languages, also called West Caucasian, Abkhazo-Adyghean, Circassic, or sometimes Pontic (as opposed to Caspian for the Northeast Caucasian languages), are a group of languages spoken in the northwestern Caucasus region,Hoiberg, Dale H. (2010) chiefly in three Russian republics (Adygea, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay–Cherkessia), the disputed territory of Abkhazia (whose sovereignty is claimed by Georgia), and Turkey, with smaller communities scattered throughout the Middle East.

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Northwestern Federal District

Northwestern Federal District (Се́веро-За́падный федера́льный о́круг, Severo-Zapadny federalny okrug) is one of the eight federal districts of Russia.

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Norway

Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.

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Novaya Zemlya

Novaya Zemlya (p, lit. the new land), also known as Nova Zembla (especially in Dutch), is an archipelago in the Arctic Ocean in northern Russia and the extreme northeast of Europe, the easternmost point of Europe lying at Cape Flissingsky on the Northern island.

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Novgorod Republic

The Novgorod Republic (p; Новгородскаѧ землѧ / Novgorodskaję zemlę) was a medieval East Slavic state from the 12th to 15th centuries, stretching from the Baltic Sea to the northern Ural Mountains, including the city of Novgorod and the Lake Ladoga regions of modern Russia.

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Novorossiysk

Novorossiysk (p) is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia.

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Novosibirsk

Novosibirsk (p) is the third-most populous city in Russia after Moscow and St. Petersburg.

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Novosibirsk Metro

Novosibirsk Metro is a rapid transit system that serves Novosibirsk, Russia.

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Nu Virgos

Nu Virgos (ВІА Гра) was the name used to promote the musical group VIA Gra (ВИА Гра) outside of Ukraine and other nearby countries.

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Nuclear fusion

In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).

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Nuclear power

Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.

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Nuclear power by country

Nuclear power plants currently operate in 31 countries.

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Nuclear power in Russia

In 2012 total electricity generated in nuclear power plants in Russia was 177.3 TWh, 17.78% of all power generation.

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Nuclear-powered icebreaker

A nuclear-powered icebreaker is a nuclear-powered ship purpose-built for use in waters covered with ice.

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Ob River

The Ob River (p), also Obi, is a major river in western Siberia, Russia, and is the world's seventh-longest river.

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Oblasts of Russia

An Oblast (область) is a type of federal subject of the Russian Federation.

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Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant

Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant (Обнинская АЭС, Obninskaja AES) was built in the "Science City" of Obninsk,, who was there at the time.

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October Revolution

The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.

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Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights

The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (commonly known as the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)) is a United Nations agency that works to promote and protect the human rights that are guaranteed under international law and stipulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948.

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Official language

An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.

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Official languages of the United Nations

The official languages of the United Nations are the six languages that are used in UN meetings, and in which all official UN documents are written.

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Oil reserves

Oil reserves denote the amount of crude oil that can be technically recovered at a cost that is financially feasible at the present price of oil.

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Oium

Oium or Aujum (𐌰𐌿𐌾𐌼) was a name for an area in Scythia (modern Ukraine), where the Goths, under King Filimer, arguably settled after leaving Gothiscandza, according to the Getica by Jordanes, written around 551.

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Okroshka

Okróshka (окрошка) is a cold soup of Russian origin.

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Old Bolshevik

Old Bolshevik (ста́рый большеви́к, stary bolshevik), also Old Bolshevik Guard or Old Party Guard, became an unofficial designation for those who were members of the Bolshevik party before the Russian Revolution of 1917.

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Old East Slavic

Old East Slavic or Old Russian was a language used during the 10th–15th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus' and states which evolved after the collapse of Kievan Rus'.

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Old New Year

The Old New Year or the Orthodox New Year is an informal traditional holiday, celebrated as the start of the New Year by the Julian calendar.

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Oleg of Novgorod

Oleg of Novgorod (Old East Slavic: Олег, Old Norse: Helgi) was a Varangian prince (or konung) who ruled all or part of the Rus' people during the late 9th and early 10th centuries.

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Olivier salad

Olivier salad (салат Оливье Salat Olivye)It is called "Olivier salad" in Belarus, Russia, Ukraine, as well as in Iran and the United States.

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Omsk

Omsk (p) is a city and the administrative center of Omsk Oblast, Russia, located in southwestern Siberia from Moscow.

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Onion dome

An onion dome (луковичная глава, lúkovichnaya glavá; compare лук, luk, "onion") is a dome whose shape resembles an onion.

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Oranienbaum, Russia

Oranienbaum (Ораниенба́ум) is a Russian royal residence, located on the Gulf of Finland west of St. Petersburg.

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Organic chemistry

Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.

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Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe

The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.

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Orthodoxy

Orthodoxy (from Greek ὀρθοδοξία orthodoxía "right opinion") is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion.

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Ossetian language

Ossetian, also known as Ossete and Ossetic, is an Eastern Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the northern slopes of the Caucasus Mountains.

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Ossetians

The Ossetians or Ossetes (ир, ирæттæ,; дигорæ, дигорæнттæ) are an Iranian ethnic group of the Caucasus Mountains, indigenous to the region known as Ossetia.

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Ostern

The Ostern (Eastern) or Red Western (also known as "Borscht Western") was a genre film created in the Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc as a version of the Western films that originated in the United States.

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Ottoman Empire

The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.

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Outline of Russia

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Russia.

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Outline of space technology

Space technology is technology developed by space science or the aerospace industry for use in spaceflight, satellites, or space exploration.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Pafnuty Chebyshev

Pafnuty Lvovich Chebyshev (p) (–) was a Russian mathematician.

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Pair skating

Pair skating is a figure skating discipline.

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Palace Square

Palace Square (p), connecting Nevsky Prospekt with Palace Bridge leading to Vasilievsky Island, is the central city square of St Petersburg and of the former Russian Empire.

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Palekh miniature

Palekh miniature (Палехская миниатюра) is a Russian folk handicraft of a miniature painting, which is done with tempera paints on varnished articles made of papier-mâché (small boxes, cigarette and powder cases etc.). Palekh Russian lacquer art on papier-mâché first appeared in 1923 in the village of Palekh, located in the Palekhsky District (Ivanovo Oblast), and is based on a long local history of icon painting.

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Pancake

A pancake (or hotcake, griddlecake, or flapjack) is a flat cake, often thin and round, prepared from a starch-based batter that may contain eggs, milk and butter and cooked on a hot surface such as a griddle or frying pan, often frying with oil or butter.

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Pannonian Avars

The Pannonian Avars (also known as the Obri in chronicles of Rus, the Abaroi or Varchonitai at the Encyclopedia of Ukraine (Varchonites) or Pseudo-Avars in Byzantine sources) were a group of Eurasian nomads of unknown origin: "...

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Papakha

Papakha (холхазан куй, xolxazan kuy), also known as astrakhan hat in English, is a wool hat worn by men throughout the Caucasus.

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Paphlagonian expedition of the Rus'

The Paphlagonian expedition of the Rus' was an attack by the Rus' on cities on the Propontis (Sea of Marmara) and on the coast of the Paphlagonia, marking the first known contact between the Rus' and the Byzantine Empire.

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Parachute

A parachute is a device used to slow the motion of an object through an atmosphere by creating drag (or in the case of ram-air parachutes, aerodynamic lift).

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Partitions of Poland

The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.

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Paskha

Paskha (also spelled pascha, or pasha; па́сха;; "Easter") is a festive dish made in Eastern Orthodox countries which consists of food that is forbidden during the fast of Great Lent.

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Patriarch Kirill of Moscow

Kirill or Cyril (Кирилл, Ст҃ѣ́йшїй патрїа́рхъ кѷрі́ллъ, secular name Vladimir Mikhailovich Gundyayev, Владимир Михайлович Гундяев; born 20 November 1946) is a Russian Orthodox bishop.

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Patron saint

A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism, Eastern Orthodoxy, or particular branches of Islam, is regarded as the heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family or person.

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Pavel Yablochkov

Pavel Nikolayevich Yablochkov (also transliterated as Jablochkoff) (Павел Николаевич Яблочков in Russian) (&ndash) was a Russian electrical engineer, businessman and the inventor of the Yablochkov candle (a type of electric carbon arc lamp) and the transformer.

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Pavlovsk Palace

Pavlovsk Palace (Павловский дворец) is an 18th-century Russian Imperial residence built by the order of Catherine the Great for her son, Grand Duke Paul, in Pavlovsk, within Saint Petersburg.

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PBC CSKA Moscow

PBC CSKA Moscow (ПБК ЦСКА Москва) is a Russian professional basketball team based in Moscow, Russia.

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Pechenegs

The Pechenegs or Patzinaks were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Oghuz branch of Turkic language family.

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Pelmeni

Pelmeni (пельме́ни — plural, пельмень — singular) are dumplings of Russian cuisine which consist of a filling wrapped in thin, unleavened dough.

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Peoples of the Caucasus

This article deals with the various ethnic groups inhabiting the Caucasus region.

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Peredvizhniki

Peredvizhniki (pʲɪrʲɪˈdvʲiʐnʲɪkʲɪ), often called The Wanderers or The Itinerants in English, were a group of Russian realist artists who formed an artists' cooperative in protest of academic restrictions; it evolved into the Society for Travelling Art Exhibitions in 1870.

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Perestroika

Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s until 1991 and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.

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Periodic table

The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.

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Perm

Perm (p;Gramota.ru.) is a city and the administrative center of Perm Krai, Russia, located on the banks of the Kama River in the European part of Russia near the Ural Mountains.

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Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council

The permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (also known as the Permanent Five, Big Five, or P5) are the five states which the UN Charter of 1945 grants a permanent seat on the UN Security Council.

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Personifications of Russia

Since medieval times personifications of Russia are traditionally feminine, and most commonly are maternal.

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Peter and Fevronia Day

The Day of Saint Peter and Saint Fevronia (День Святых Петра и Февроньи / Den' Svyatyh Petra i Phevronii) also known as the Day of Family, Love and Faithfulness (Де́нь семьи́, любви́ и ве́рности / Den' sem'i lyubvi i vernosti), the Orthodox patrons of marriage, was officially introduced in Russia in 2008.

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Peter and Paul Fortress

The Peter and Paul Fortress is the original citadel of St. Petersburg, Russia, founded by Peter the Great in 1703 and built to Domenico Trezzini's designs from 1706 to 1740 as a star fortress.

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Peter the Great

Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.

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Peterhof Palace

The Peterhof Palace (p, Dutch for Peter's Court) is a series of palaces and gardens located in Petergof, Saint Petersburg, Russia, laid out on the orders of Peter the Great.

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Petrograd Soviet

The Petrograd Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies (Петроградский Совет рабочих и солдатских депутатов, Petrogradskiy soviet rabochikh i soldatskikh deputatov) was a city council of Petrograd (Saint Petersburg), the capital of the Russian Empire.

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Petroleum industry in Russia

The petroleum industry in Russia is one of the largest in the world.

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Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky

Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (Петропа́вловск-Камча́тский) is a city and the administrative, industrial, scientific, and cultural center of Kamchatka Krai, Russia.

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Pew Research Center

The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.

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PFC CSKA Moscow

PFC Central Sport Club of the Army Moscow (Профессиональный футбольный клуб – ЦСКА) is a Russian professional football club.

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PGM-19 Jupiter

The PGM-19 Jupiter was the first nuclear tipped, medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) of the United States Air Force (USAF).

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Phanagoria

Phanagoria (Phanagóreia) was the largest ancient Greek city on the Taman peninsula, spread over two plateaus along the eastern shore of the Cimmerian Bosporus.

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Pinsk Marshes

The Pinsk Marshes (Пінскія балоты, Pinskiya baloty), also known as the Pripet Marshes (Прыпяцкія балоты, Prypiackija baloty) and the Rokitno Marshes, are a vast natural region of wetlands along the forested basin of the Pripyat River and its tributaries from Brest to the west to Mogilev to the northeast and Kiev to the southeast.

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Piracy

Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.

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Pirozhki

Pirozhki (пирожки, plural form of pirozhok, literally a "small pie"), also transliterated as piroshki (singular piroshok) or pyrizhky (пиріжки), are a Russian puff pastry which consists of individual-sized baked or fried buns stuffed with a variety of fillings with origins in Russia and Ukraine.

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Pitirim Sorokin

Pitirim Alexandrovich Sorokin (Питири́м Алекса́ндрович Соро́кин, – 10 February 1968) was a Russian-born American sociologist and political activist, best known for his contributions to the social cycle theory.

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Plague (disease)

Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.

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Planned economy

A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.

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Podolsky District

Podolsky District (Подо́льский райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #11/2013-OZ and municipalLaw #65/2005-OZ district (raion), one of the thirty-six in Moscow Oblast, Russia.

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Poincaré conjecture

In mathematics, the Poincaré conjecture is a theorem about the characterization of the 3-sphere, which is the hypersphere that bounds the unit ball in four-dimensional space.

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Poland

Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.

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Polar climate

The polar climate regions are characterized by a lack of warm summers.

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Polarity (international relations)

Polarity in international relations is any of the various ways in which power is distributed within the international system.

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Pole of Cold

The Poles of Cold are the places in the southern and northern hemispheres where the lowest air temperatures have been recorded.

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Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth

The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.

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Political status of Crimea

The political status of Crimea is the subject of a territorial dispute between Ukraine and Russia.

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Polotsk

Polack (official transliteration), Polotsk or Polatsk (translit, translit, Połock, Polockas, Polotsk) is a historical city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina River.

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Polymath

A polymath (πολυμαθής,, "having learned much,"The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century Latin: uomo universalis, "universal man") is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.

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Pontic–Caspian steppe

The Pontic–Caspian steppe, Pontic steppe or Ukrainian steppe is the vast steppeland stretching from the northern shores of the Black Sea (called Euxeinos Pontos in antiquity) as far east as the Caspian Sea, from Moldova and eastern Ukraine across the Southern Federal District and the Volga Federal District of Russia to western Kazakhstan, forming part of the larger Eurasian steppe, adjacent to the Kazakh steppe to the east.

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Population transfer in the Soviet Union

Population transfer in the Soviet Union refers to forced transfer of various groups from the 1930s up to the 1950s ordered by Joseph Stalin and may be classified into the following broad categories: deportations of "anti-Soviet" categories of population (often classified as "enemies of workers"), deportations of entire nationalities, labor force transfer, and organized migrations in opposite directions to fill the ethnically cleansed territories.

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Portrait painting

Portrait painting is a genre in painting, where the intent is to depict a human subject.

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Post-Soviet states

The post-Soviet states, also collectively known as the former Soviet Union (FSU) or former Soviet Republics, are the states that emerged and re-emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in 1991, with Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union after the Cold War.

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Potential superpowers

A potential superpower is a state or a political and economic entity that is speculated to be – or to have the potential to soon become – a superpower.

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Potsdam Conference

The Potsdam Conference (Potsdamer Konferenz) was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm, in Potsdam, occupied Germany, from 17 July to 2 August 1945.

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Power of Siberia

The Power of Siberia (Сила Сибири) pipeline (formerly known as Yakutia–Khabarovsk–Vladivostok pipeline) is a natural gas pipeline under construction in Eastern Siberia to transport Yakutia's gas to Primorsky Krai and Far East countries.

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Power of the purse

The power of the purse is the ability of one group to manipulate and control the actions of another group by withholding funding, or putting stipulations on the use of funds.

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President of Russia

The President of the Russian Federation (Prezident Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the elected head of state of the Russian Federation, as well as holder of the highest office in Russia and commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces.

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Pressure suit

A pressure suit is a protective suit worn by high-altitude pilots who may fly at altitudes where the air pressure is too low for an unprotected person to survive, even breathing pure oxygen at positive pressure.

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Priest

A priest or priestess (feminine) is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities.

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Primary Chronicle

The Tale of Past Years (Повѣсть времѧньныхъ лѣтъ, Pověstĭ Vremęnĭnyhŭ Lětŭ) or Primary Chronicle is a history of Kievan Rus' from about 850 to 1110, originally compiled in Kiev about 1113.

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Prime Minister of Russia

The Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation (translit), colloquially referred to as the Prime Minister (translit) is the head of the Russian government and the second most powerful figure of the Russian Federation.

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Principality of Tver

Principality of Tver (Тверское княжество) was a Russian principality or duchy, which existed between the 13th and the 15th centuries.

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Privatization in Russia

Privatization in Russia describes the series of post-Soviet reforms that resulted in large-scale privatization of Russia's state-owned assets, particularly in the industrial, energy, and financial sectors.

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Probiotic

Probiotics are microorganisms that are claimed to provide health benefits when consumed.

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Promulgation

Promulgation is the formal proclamation or declaration that a new statutory or administrative law is enacted after its final approval.

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Pskov

Pskov (p; see also names in other languages) is a city and the administrative center of Pskov Oblast, Russia, located about east from the Estonian border, on the Velikaya River.

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Public holidays in Russia

The following is the list of official public holidays recognized by the Government of Russia.

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Pulkovo Airport

Pulkovo Airport (p) is an international airport serving Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Purchasing power parity

Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.

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Pyatigorsk

Pyatigorsk (Пятиго́рск) is a city in Stavropol Krai located on the Podkumok River, about from the town of Mineralnye Vody where there is an international airport and about from Kislovodsk.

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Pyongyang

Pyongyang, or P'yŏngyang, is the capital and largest city of North Korea.

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Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky

Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Often "Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky" in English.

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Pyotr Pavlovich Yershov

Pyotr Pavlovich Yershov (Пётр Павлович Ершов; –) was a Russian poet and author of the famous fairy-tale poem The Little Humpbacked Horse (Konyok-Gorbunok).

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Qajar dynasty

The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; script Qacarlar) was an IranianAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3 royal dynasty of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.

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Quartet on the Middle East

The Quartet on the Middle East or Middle East Quartet, sometimes called the Diplomatic Quartet or Madrid Quartet or simply the Quartet, is a foursome of nations and international and supranational entities involved in mediating the Israeli–Palestinian peace process.

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Railway electrification system

A railway electrification system supplies electric power to railway trains and trams without an on-board prime mover or local fuel supply.

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Ratha-Yatra

Ratha Yatra, also referred to as Rathayatra, Rathjatra or Chariot festival is any public procession in a chariot.

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Rayonism

Rayonism (or Rayism or Rayonnism) is a style of abstract art that developed in Russia in 1911.

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Realism (arts)

Realism, sometimes called naturalism, in the arts is generally the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, or implausible, exotic, and supernatural elements.

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Red Army

The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

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Red Banner

Red Banner (Красное знамя) was a symbol of the USSR associated with the Soviet state flag.

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Red Data Book of the Russian Federation

Red Data Book of the Russian Federation (RDBRF), also known as Red Book (Красная книга) or Russian Red Data Book is a state document established for documenting rare and endangered species of animals, plants and fungi, as well as some local subspecies (such as the Ladoga seal) that exist within the territory of the Russian Federation and its continental shelf and marine economic zone.

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Red Square

Red Square (ˈkrasnəjə ˈploɕːətʲ) is a city square (plaza) in Moscow, Russia.

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Red star

A red star, five-pointed and filled (★), is an important symbol often associated with communist ideology, particularly in combination with hammer and sickle.

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Red Terror

The Red Terror was a period of political repression and mass killings carried out by Bolsheviks after the beginning of the Russian Civil War in 1918.

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Regional power

In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region.

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Religion in Russia

Religion in Russia is very diversified.

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Religious denomination

A religious denomination is a subgroup within a religion that operates under a common name, tradition, and identity.

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Renaissance

The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.

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Representative democracy

Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.

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Republic

A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.

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Republic of Crimea

The Republic of Crimea (or; Республика Крым, Respublika Krym, Республіка Крим, Respublika Krym, Къырым Джумхуриети, Qirim Cumhuriyeti) is a federal subject of Russia that is located on the Crimean Peninsula.

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Republics of Russia

According to the Constitution, the Russian Federation is divided into 85 federal subjects (constituent units), 22 of which are "republics".

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Republics of the Soviet Union

The Republics of the Soviet Union or the Union Republics (r) of the Soviet Union were ethnically based proto-states that were subordinated directly to the Government of the Soviet Union.

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Resident registration in Russia

Registration in the Russian Federation is the system that records the residence and internal migration of Russian citizens.

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Rhythmic gymnastics

Rhythmic gymnastics is a sport in which individuals or groups of five manipulate one or two pieces of apparatus: rope, hoop, ball, clubs, ribbon and freehand (no apparatus).

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Right-bank Ukraine

Right-bank Ukraine (Правобережна Україна, Pravoberezhna Ukrayina; Правобережная Украина, Pravoberezhnaya Ukraina; Prawobrzeżna Ukraina, Pravo breh Ukrajiny, Jobb folyópart Ukrajna) is a historical and territorial name for a part of modern Ukraine on the right (west) bank of the Dnieper River, corresponding to the modern-day oblasts of Vinnytsia, Zhytomyr, Kirovohrad, as well as the western parts of Kiev and Cherkasy.

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Ringing Cedars' Anastasianism

The Ringing Cedars (Russian: Звенящие Кедры) or Anastasianism (Анастасианство, Анастасиизм) is a new spiritual and religious movement that started in central Russia in 1997, based on the series of ten books entitled The Ringing Cedars of Russia written by Vladimir Megre.

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Rock and roll

Rock and roll (often written as rock & roll or rock 'n' roll) is a genre of popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950sJim Dawson and Steve Propes, What Was the First Rock'n'Roll Record (1992),.

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Rock music in Russia

Rock and roll became known in the Soviet Union in the 1960s and quickly broke free from its western roots.

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Rococo

Rococo, less commonly roccoco, or "Late Baroque", was an exuberantly decorative 18th-century European style which was the final expression of the baroque movement.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Romanization of Russian

Romanization of Russian is the process of transliterating the Russian language from the Cyrillic script into the Latin script.

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Romantic music

Romantic music is a period of Western classical music that began in the late 18th or early 19th century.

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Romanticism

Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.

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Ronald Steel

Ronald Lewis Steel (born March 25, 1931) is an American writer, historian, and professor.

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Rosatom

Rosatom, (r) stylized as ROSATOM and also known as the Rosatom State Nuclear Energy Corporation, the State Atomic Energy Corporation Rosatom, or the Rosatom State Corporation, is a Russian state corporation headquartered in Moscow that specializes in nuclear energy.

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Rostov

Rostov (p) is a town in Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia, one of the oldest in the country and a tourist center of the Golden Ring.

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Rostov-on-Don

Rostov-on-Don (p) is a port city and the administrative center of Rostov Oblast and the Southern Federal District of Russia.

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Rover (space exploration)

A rover (or sometimes planetary rover) is a space exploration vehicle designed to move across the surface of a planet or other celestial body.

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RT (TV network)

RT (formerly Russia Today) is a Russian international television network funded by the Russian government.

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RT Arabic

RT Arabic, formerly known as Rusiya Al-Yaum (Arabic: روسيا اليوم, meaning Russia Today, called Россия сегодня Rossiya segodnya (read: Rasíya sivódnya) or Русия аль-Яум (Rusiya Al-Yaum) in Russian) is a Russian TV news channel broadcasting in Arabic and headquartered in Moscow, Russia.

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Ruble

The ruble or rouble (p) is or was a currency unit of a number of countries in Eastern Europe closely associated with the economy of Russia.

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Ruble sign

The ruble sign (₽) is the currency sign used for the Russian ruble, the official currency of Russia.

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Rudolf Nureyev

Rudolf Khametovich Nureyev (Рудольф Хәмит улы Нуриев Rudolf Xämid ulı Nuriyev, p; 17 March 1938 – 6 January 1993) was a Soviet ballet and contemporary dancer and choreographer.

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Rule of law

The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".

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Rurik

Rurik (also Riurik; Old Church Slavonic Рюрикъ Rjurikŭ, from Old Norse Hrøríkʀ; 830 – 879), according to the 12th-century Primary Chronicle, was a Varangian chieftain of the Rus' who in the year 862 gained control of Ladoga, and built the Holmgard settlement near Novgorod.

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Rurik dynasty

The Rurik dynasty, or Rurikids (Рю́риковичи, Ryúrikovichi; Рю́риковичі, Ryúrykovychi; Ру́рыкавічы, Rúrykavichi, literally "sons of Rurik"), was a dynasty founded by the Varangian prince Rurik, who established himself in Novgorod around the year AD 862.

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Rus' people

The Rus (Русь, Ῥῶς) were an early medieval group, who lived in a large area of what is now Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and other countries, and are the ancestors of modern East Slavic peoples.

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Russia and weapons of mass destruction

According to the Federation of American Scientists, an organization that assesses nuclear weapon stockpiles, as of 2017, the Russian Federation possesses 7,300 total nuclear warheads, of which 4,500 are strategically operational.

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Russia at the Olympics

Russia, also known as the Russian Federation, has competed at the modern Olympic Games on many occasions, but as different nations in its history.

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Russia Day

Russia Day (День России, Den' Rossii), previously, before 2002, Day of adoption of the declaration of state sovereignty of RSFSR (День принятия Декларации о государственном суверенитете РСФСР, Den' prinyatia Declaratsii o gosudarstvennom suvernitete RSFSR) is the national holiday of the Russian Federation.

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Russia national basketball team

The Russian national basketball team (Мужская сборная России по баскетболу) is organized and run by the Russian Basketball Federation (RBF).

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Russia national football team

The Russia national football team (национа́льная сбо́рная Росси́и по футбо́лу, natsionálnaya sbórnaya Rossii po futbólu) represents Russia in association football and is controlled by the Russian Football Union (Российский Футбольный Союз, Rossiyskiy Futboľnyy Soyuz), the governing body for football in Russia.

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Russia–European Union relations

Russian–European relations are the international relations between the European Union (EU) and its largest bordering state, Russia, to the east.

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Russia–NATO relations

NATO–Russian relations, relations between the NATO Military Alliance and the Russian Federation were established in 1991 within the framework of the North Atlantic Cooperation Council.

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Russia–United States relations

Russia–United States relations refers to the bilateral relationship between the United States and Russia.

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Russian Academy of Arts

Russian Academy of Arts (RAKh / rus. РАХ, Росси́йская акаде́мия худо́жеств) is the State scientific Institution of Russian Federation, eligible heir to the USSR Academy of Arts.

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Russian Academy of Sciences

The Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS; Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к (РАН) Rossíiskaya akadémiya naúk) consists of the national academy of Russia; a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation; and additional scientific and social units such as libraries, publishing units, and hospitals.

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Russian Aerospace Defence Forces

The Aerospace Defence Forces Branch, short: ASDFB (Voyska vozdushno-kosmicheskoy oborony (VVKO) was a branch of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation responsible for aerospace defence, and the operation of Russian military satellites and the Plesetsk Cosmodrome. It was established on the 1 December 2011 and replaced the Russian Space Forces. The ASDFB was first commanded by former Space Forces commander Colonel General Oleg Ostapenko, who was promoted to Deputy Minister of Defence in November 2012. On 24 December 2012, Aleksandr Golovko was appointed the new commander. Although it is officially translated as aerospace in English, it covers both attacks from the air and from (outer) space, and some Russian writers translate it as "air and space" instead. On the 1 August 2015, the Russian Air Force and the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces were merged to form the Russian Aerospace Forces. The Russian Aerospace Defence Forces duties for space defense are now with the Russian Space Forces under the umbrella of the new Russian Aerospace Forces. The RADF today only provides air defense responsibilities.

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Russian Air Force

The Russian Air Force (r, literally "military air forces of Russia") is a branch of the Russian Aerospace Forces, the latter being formed on 1 August 2015 with the merger of the Russian Air Force and the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces.

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Russian Airborne Troops

The Russian Airborne Troops or VDV (from "Vozdushno-desantnye voyska Rossii", Russian: Воздушно-десантные войска России, ВДВ; Air-landing Forces) is a military branch of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.

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Russian America

Russian America (Русская Америка, Russkaya Amerika) was the name of the Russian colonial possessions in North America from 1733 to 1867.

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Russian Arctic islands

The Russian Arctic islands are a number of islands groups and sole islands scattered around the Arctic Ocean.

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Russian Ark

Russian Ark (Русский ковчег, Russkij Kovcheg) is a 2002 experimental historical drama film directed by Alexander Sokurov.

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Russian Armed Forces

The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (r) are the military service of the Russian Federation, established after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

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Russian avant-garde

The Russian avant-garde was a large, influential wave of avant-garde modern art that flourished in the Russian Empire and Soviet Union, approximately from 1890 to 1930—although some have placed its beginning as early as 1850 and its end as late as 1960.

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Russian Bear

The Russian Bear is a widespread symbol (generally of a Eurasian brown bear) for Russia, used in cartoons, articles and dramatic plays since as early as the 16th century, and relating alike to the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union and the present-day Russian Federation.

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Russian Census (2010)

The Russian Census of 2010 (Всеросси́йская пе́репись населе́ния 2010 го́да) is the first census of the Russian Federation population since 2002 and the second after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

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Russian Civil War

The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.

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Russian Constituent Assembly

The All Russian Constituent Assembly (Всероссийское Учредительное собрание, Vserossiyskoye Uchreditelnoye sobraniye) was a constitutional body convened in Russia after the October Revolution of 1917.

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Russian Constitution of 1906

The Russian Constitution of 1906 refers to a major revision of the 1832 Fundamental Laws of the Russian Empire, which transformed the formerly absolutist state into one in which the Emperor agreed for the first time to share his autocratic power with a parliament.

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Russian cosmism

Russian cosmism is a philosophical and cultural movement that emerged in Russia in the early 20th century.

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Russian cuisine

Russian cuisine is a collection of the different cooking traditions of the Russian people.

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Russian culture

Russian culture has a long history.

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Russian diaspora

The Russian diaspora is the global community of ethnic Russians.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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Russian Enlightenment

The Russian Age of Enlightenment was a period in the 18th century in which the government began to actively encourage the proliferation of arts and sciences, which had a profound impact on Russian culture.

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Russian Fairy Tales

Russian Fairy Tales (Народные Русские Сказки, variously translated; English titles include also Russian Folk Tales), is a collection of nearly 600 fairy and folktales, collected and published by Alexander Afanasyev between 1855 and 1863.

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Russian famine of 1601–03

The Russian famine of 1601–1603 was Russia's worst famine in terms of proportional effect on the population, killing perhaps two million people, a third of the Russian people.

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Russian famine of 1921–22

The Russian famine of 1921–22, also known as Povolzhye famine, was a severe famine in Russia which began in early spring of 1921 and lasted through 1922.

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Russian Far East

The Russian Far East (p) comprises the Russian part of the Far East - the extreme eastern territory of Russia, between Lake Baikal in Eastern Siberia and the Pacific Ocean.

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Russian federal highways

Russian federal highways (r; lit. Highways of federal importance of the Russian Federation) are the most important highways in Russia that are federal property.

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Russian Federal State Statistics Service

Russian Federal State Statistics Service (Федеральная служба государственной статистики, Federal'naya sluzhba gosudarstvennoi statistiki) (also known as Rosstat) is the governmental statistics agency in Russia.

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Russian financial crisis (2014–2017)

The financial crisis in Russia in 2014–2017 was the result of the collapse of the Russian ruble beginning in the second half of 2014.

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Russian floating nuclear power station

Floating nuclear power stations (Russian: плавучая атомная теплоэлектростанция малой мощности, ПАТЭС ММ - lit. floating combined heat and power (CHP) low-power nuclear station) are vessels designed by Rosatom.

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Russian Futurism

Russian Futurism was a movement of Russian poets and artists who adopted the principles of Filippo Marinetti's "Manifesto of Futurism," which espoused the rejection of the past, and a celebration of speed, machinery, violence, youth and industry; it also advocated the modernization and cultural rejuvenation.

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Russian Grand Prix

The Russian Grand Prix (Gran-Pri Rossii) is an annual auto race held at Sochi Autodrom—a street circuit built around Olympic Park in Sochi, Russia, as part of the Formula One World Championship.

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Russian Ground Forces

The Ground Forces of the Russian Federation (r) are the land forces of the Russian Armed Forces, formed from parts of the collapsing Soviet Army in 1992.

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Russian icons

The use and making of icons entered Kievan Rus' following its conversion to Orthodox Christianity in AD 988.

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Russian language

Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.

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Russian literature

Russian literature refers to the literature of Russia and its émigrés and to the Russian-language literature of several independent nations once a part of what was historically Rus', the Russian Empire or the Soviet Union.

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Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War

The Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War began in September 2015, after an official request by the Syrian government for military aid against rebel and jihadist groups.

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Russian military intervention in Ukraine (2014–present)

In February 2014, Russia made several military incursions into Ukrainian territory.

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Russian Musical Society

The Russian Musical Society (RMS) (Русское музыкальное общество) was an organization founded in 1859 by the Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna (a German-born aunt of Tsar Alexander II) and her protégé, pianist and composer Anton Rubinstein, with the intent of raising the standard of music in the country and disseminating musical education.

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Russian Navy

The Russian Navy (r, lit. Military-Maritime Fleet of the Russian Federation) is the naval arm of the Russian Armed Forces.

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Russian Orthodox Church

The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.

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Russian pop

Russian pop music is Russian language pop music produced either in Russia, CIS countries, Baltic states and other foreign countries in which the songs are performed primarily in Russian language, languages of the countries of the CIS, and in the other languages of the world.

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Russian presidential election, 2000

Presidential elections were held in Russia on 26 March 2000.

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Russian presidential election, 2012

Presidential elections were held in Russia on 4 March 2012.

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Russian Provisional Government

The Russian Provisional Government (Vremennoye pravitel'stvo Rossii) was a provisional government of Russia established immediately following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II of the Russian Empire on 2 March 1917.

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Russian Public Opinion Research Center

Russian Public Opinion Research Center (VTsIOM) (Vsyerossiǐskiǐ tsentr izučenija obščestvennogo mnenija – VTsIOM), established in 1987, known as the "All-Union Center for the Study of Public Opinion" until 1992, is the oldest polling institution in post-Soviet Russia.

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Russian Railways

JSC Russian Railways (JSC RZhD; ОАО «Российские железные дороги» (ОАО «РЖД») tr. OAO Rossiyskie zheleznye dorogi (OAO RZhD)) is a Russian fully state-owned vertically integrated company, both managing infrastructure and operating freight and passenger train services.

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Russian Republic

The Russian Republic (p) was a short-lived state that controlled, de jure, the territory of the former Russian Empire between its proclamation by the Russian Provisional Government on 1 September (14 September) in a decree signed by Alexander Kerensky as Minister-President and Alexander Zarudny as Minister of Justice.

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Russian Revival architecture

The Russian Revival style is the generic term for a number of different movements within Russian architecture (pseudo-Russian style, neo-Russian style, Russian-Byzantine style/Byzantine style (псевдорусский стиль, неорусский стиль, русско-византийский стиль)) that arose in second quarter of the 19th century and was an eclectic melding of pre-Peterine Russian architecture and elements of Byzantine architecture.

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Russian Revolution

The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.

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Russian ruble

The Russian ruble or rouble (рубль rublʹ, plural: рубли́ rubli; sign: ₽, руб; code: RUB) is the currency of the Russian Federation, the two partially recognized republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia and the two unrecognized republics of Donetsk and Luhansk.

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Russian science fiction and fantasy

Science fiction and fantasy have been part of mainstream Russian literature since the 19th century.

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Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.

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Russian Superleague

The Russian Superleague (Чемпионат России Суперлига, Russian Championship Superleague), commonly abbreviated as RSL, was the highest division of the main professional ice hockey league in Russia.

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Russian traditional music

Russian traditional music specifically deals with the folk music traditions of the ethnic Russian people.

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Russian traditions and superstitions

Russian traditions, superstitions and beliefs include superstitions and customs of Russians.

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Russian Winter

Russian Winter, General Winter, General Frost, or General Snow refers to the winter climate of Russia as a contributing factor to the military failures of several invasions of Russia.

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Russians

Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.

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Russkaya Pravda

Russkaya Pravda (Rus' Justice or Rus’ Law; Правда роусьскаꙗ, Pravda Rusĭskaya (13th century, 1280), Правда Руськая, Pravda Rus'kaya (second half of the 15th century); Русская правда, Russkaya Pravda; Руська Правда, Rus'ka Pravda) was the legal code of Kievan Rus' and the subsequent Rus' principalities during the times of feudal division.

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Russo-Crimean Wars

The Russo-Crimean Wars were fought between the forces of Muscovy and the Tatars of the Crimean Khanate during the 16th century over the region around Volga River.

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Russo-Japanese War

The Russo–Japanese War (Russko-yaponskaya voina; Nichirosensō; 1904–05) was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.

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Russo-Persian Wars

The Russo-Persian Wars or Russo-Iranian Wars were a series of wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Persian Empire between the 17th and 19th centuries.

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Russo-Polish War (1654–1667)

The Russo-Polish War of 1654–1667, also called Thirteen Years' War, First Northern War, War for Ukraine or Russian Deluge (Potop rosyjski, Российский потоп), was a major conflict between Tsardom of Russia and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878)

The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 (lit, named for the year 1293 in the Islamic calendar; Руско-турска Освободителна война, Russian-Turkish Liberation war) was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro.

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Rusyn language

Rusyn (Carpathian Rusyn), по нашому (po našomu); Pannonian Rusyn)), also known in English as Ruthene (sometimes Ruthenian), is a Slavic language spoken by the Rusyns of Eastern Europe.

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Ruthenia

Ruthenia (Рѹ́сь (Rus) and Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ (Rus'kaya zemlya), Ῥωσία, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia, Roxolania, Garðaríki) is a proper geographical exonym for Kievan Rus' and other, more local, historical states.

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Rye

Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop.

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Rye bread

Rye bread is a type of bread made with various proportions of flour from rye grain.

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Sadko (film)

Sadko (Садко) is a 1952 Russian fantasy film directed by Aleksandr Ptushko.

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Saint Basil's Cathedral

The Cathedral of Vasily the Blessed (Собор Василия Блаженного, Sobor Vasiliya Blazhennogo), commonly known as Saint Basil's Cathedral, is a church in Red Square in Moscow, Russia.

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Saint George

Saint George (Γεώργιος, Geṓrgios; Georgius;; to 23 April 303), according to legend, was a Roman soldier of Greek origin and a member of the Praetorian Guard for Roman emperor Diocletian, who was sentenced to death for refusing to recant his Christian faith.

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Saint Isaac's Cathedral

Saint Isaac's Cathedral or Isaakievskiy Sobor (Исаа́киевский Собо́р) in Saint Petersburg, Russia, is the largest Russian Orthodox cathedral (sobor) in the city.

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Saint Nicholas

Saint Nicholas (Ἅγιος Νικόλαος,, Sanctus Nicolaus; 15 March 270 – 6 December 343), also called Nikolaos of Myra or Nicholas of Bari, was Bishop of Myra, in Asia Minor (modern-day Demre, Turkey), and is a historic Christian saint.

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Saint Petersburg

Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).

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Saint Petersburg Metro

The Saint Petersburg Metro (Петербу́ргский метрополитен) is the underground railway system in Saint Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast, Russia.

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Saint Petersburg State University

Saint Petersburg State University (SPbU, Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет, СПбГУ) is a Russian federal state-owned higher education institution based in Saint Petersburg.

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Sakha Republic

The Sakha (Yakutia) Republic (p; Sakha Öröspüübülükete), simply Sakha (Yakutia) (Саха (Якутия); Sakha Sire), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).

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Sakhalin

Sakhalin (Сахалин), previously also known as Kuye Dao (Traditional Chinese:庫頁島, Simplified Chinese:库页岛) in Chinese and in Japanese, is a large Russian island in the North Pacific Ocean, lying between 45°50' and 54°24' N.

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Samara

Samara (p), known from 1935 to 1991 as Kuybyshev (Ќуйбышев), is the sixth largest city in Russia and the administrative center of Samara Oblast.

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Samara Metro

Samara Metro (Самарское Метро), formerly known as the Kuybyshev Metro (Куйбышевское Метро), is a rapid transit system which serves the city of Samara, Russia.

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Sambo (martial art)

Sambo (p; САМозащита Без Оружия) is a Russian-Soviet martial art and combat sport.

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Sami people

The Sami people (also known as the Sámi or the Saami) are a Finno-Ugric people inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses large parts of Norway and Sweden, northern parts of Finland, and the Murmansk Oblast of Russia.

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Santa Claus

Santa Claus, also known as Saint Nicholas, Kris Kringle, Father Christmas, or simply Santa, is a legendary figure originating in Western Christian culture who is said to bring gifts to the homes of well-behaved ("good" or "nice") children on Christmas Eve (24 December) and the early morning hours of Christmas Day (25 December).

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Sarafan

A sarafan (p, from Persian sarāрā) is a long, trapezoidal traditional Russian jumper dress (pinafore) worn as Russian folk costume by women and girls.

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Satellite

In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.

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Satellite navigation

A satellite navigation or satnav system is a system that uses satellites to provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning.

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Sauna

A sauna, or sudatory, is a small room or building designed as a place to experience dry or wet heat sessions, or an establishment with one or more of these facilities.

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Scandinavia

Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.

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Scythia

Scythia (Ancient Greek: Σκυθική, Skythikē) was a region of Central Eurasia in classical antiquity, occupied by the Eastern Iranian Scythians, encompassing Central Asia and parts of Eastern Europe east of the Vistula River, with the eastern edges of the region vaguely defined by the Greeks.

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Sea of Azov

The Sea of Azov (Азо́вское мо́ре, Azóvskoje móre; Азо́вське мо́ре, Azóvśke móre; Azaq deñizi, Азакъ денъизи, ازاق دﻩﯕىزى) is a sea in Eastern Europe.

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Sea of Japan

The Sea of Japan (see below for other names) is a marginal sea between the Japanese archipelago, Sakhalin, the Korean Peninsula and Russia.

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Sea of Okhotsk

The Sea of Okhotsk (Ohōtsuku-kai) is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean, between the Kamchatka Peninsula on the east, the Kuril Islands on the southeast, the island of Hokkaido to the south, the island of Sakhalin along the west, and a long stretch of eastern Siberian coast along the west and north.

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Second Chechen War

Second Chechen War (Втора́я чече́нская война́), also known as the Second Chechen Сampaign (Втора́я чече́нская кампа́ния), was an armed conflict on the territory of Chechnya and the border regions of the North Caucasus between the Russian Federation and the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, also with militants of various Islamist groups, fought from August 1999 to April 2009.

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Semi-arid climate

A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.

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Semi-presidential system

A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible for the legislature of a state.

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Semyon Dezhnev

Semyon Ivanovich Dezhnev (p; sometimes spelled Dezhnyov; c. 1605 – 1673) was a Russian explorer of Siberia and the first European to sail through the Bering Strait, 80 years before Vitus Bering did.

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Seraphim of Sarov

Saint Seraphim of Sarov (Серафим Саровский) (–), born Prokhor Moshnin (Прохор Мошнин), is one of the most renowned Russian saints in the Eastern Orthodox Church.

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Sergei Bondarchuk

Sergei Fedorovich Bondarchuk (Серге́й Фё́дорович Бондарчу́к; Ukrainian: Сергі́й Фе́дорович Бондарчу́к, Serhiy Fedorovych Bondarchuk; 25 September 192020 October 1994) was a Soviet film director, screenwriter and actor.

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Sergei Bulgakov

Sergei Nikolaevich Bulgakov (Серге́й Никола́евич Булга́ков; – 13 July 1944) was a Russian Orthodox Christian theologian, philosopher, and economist.

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Sergei Diaghilev

Sergei Pavlovich Diaghilev (sʲɪˈrɡʲej ˈpavɫovʲɪtɕ ˈdʲæɡʲɪlʲɪf; 19 August 1929), usually referred to outside Russia as Serge Diaghilev, was a Russian art critic, patron, ballet impresario and founder of the Ballets Russes, from which many famous dancers and choreographers would arise.

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Sergei Eisenstein

Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein (p; 11 February 1948) was a Soviet film director and film theorist, a pioneer in the theory and practice of montage.

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Sergei Korolev

Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (a,, also transliterated as Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov, Сергій Павлович Корольов Serhiy Pavlovych Korolyov; – 14 January 1966) worked as the lead Soviet rocket engineer and spacecraft designer during the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union in the 1950s and 1960s.

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Sergei Makarov (ice hockey)

Sergei Mikhailovich Makarov (Серге́й Михайлович Макаров; born 19 June 1958 in Chelyabinsk, Soviet Union) is a Russian former ice hockey right wing and two-time Olympic gold medalist.

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Sergei Prokofiev

Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (r; 27 April 1891 – 5 March 1953) was a Russian Soviet composer, pianist and conductor.

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Sergei Rachmaninoff

Sergei Vasilyevich Rachmaninoff (28 March 1943) was a Russian pianist, composer, and conductor of the late R