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Russia (Ru-Россия.ogg), also officially known as the Russian Federation (a), is a country in northern Eurasia. [1]

1323 relations: A Just Russia, Academy Awards, Adolf Hitler, Adygea, Age of Enlightenment, Agriculture, Ahmadiyya, Airliner, AK-47, AK-74, Alaska, Aleksandr Lyapunov, Aleksandr Petrov (animator), Aleksandr Ptushko, Alexander Andreyevich Ivanov, Alexander Belyaev, Alexander Blok, Alexander Butlerov, Alexander I of Russia, Alexander II of Russia, Alexander III of Russia, Alexander Lodygin, Alexander Nevsky, Alexander Ostrovsky, Alexander Prokhorov, Alexander Pushkin, Alexander Rou, Alexander Scriabin, Alexander Tatarsky, Alexandrov Ensemble, Alexei Kudrin, Alexey Leonov, Alfred Nobel, Alfred Schnittke, Alisa, All-time Olympic Games medal table, Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, Allies of World War I, Allies of World War II, Altai Mountains, Amazon rainforest, American pioneer, Amnesty International, Amur River, Ancient Greek, Ancient Rome, Andrei Rublev, Andrei Sakharov, Andrei Voznesensky, Andrew the Apostle, ..., Andrey Kolmogorov, Andrey Markov, Animal husbandry, Anna Akhmatova, Anna Netrebko, Anna Pavlova, Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation, Anschluss, Antarctica, Anti-communism, Anti-fascism, Anton Chekhov, Anton Rubinstein, Appeasement, Aquarium (band), Arable land, Arc welding, Aria (band), Aristotele Fioravanti, Arkady and Boris Strugatsky, Arkaim, Arkhangelsk, Arkhip Kuindzhi, Armenia, Armenian Apostolic Church, Art Nouveau, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Assault rifle, Astrakhan, Astrakhan Khanate, Astrakhan Oblast, Astronaut, Astronautics, Austria, Austria-Hungary, Autonomous oblasts of Russia, Autonomous okrugs of Russia, Avant-garde, Azerbaijan, Élie Metchnikoff, Balalaika, Ballad of a Soldier, Ballets Russes, Ballistic missile submarine, Baltic Sea, Bandy, Bandy World Championship for men, Banya (sauna), Bard (Soviet Union), Barents Sea, Barley, Bashkirs, Bashkortostan, Bast shoe, Battle of Berlin, Battle of Kulikovo, Battle of Kursk, Battle of Molodi, Battle of Moscow, Battle of Stalingrad, Battle of the Neva, Battle on the Ice, Battleship Potemkin, BBC News, Belarus, Belarusian language, Belukha Mountain, Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Beslan school siege, Bessarabia, Bicameralism, Big Bang, Big Diomede, Bill (law), Birch, Birth rate, Black Sea, Blintz, Bloody Sunday (1905), Bloomberg L.P., Bloomberg News, Bohdan Khmelnytsky, Bolsheviks, Bolshoi Ballet, Bolshoi Theatre, Borders of Russia, Boris Kustodiev, Boris Yeltsin, Borscht, Brian Glyn Williams, BRIC, Broad gauge, Brusilov Offensive, Buddhism, Buddhism in Russia, Bukovina, Bulat Okudzhava, Buran programme, Burka (Caucasus), Buryatia, Buryats, Business Insider, Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Bylina, Byzantine architecture, Byzantine Empire, Byzantium, Cabbage roll, Caesar (title), Capital flight, Carbon dioxide, Caspian expeditions of the Rus', Caspian Sea, Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, Catherine the Great, Caucasus Mountains, Central Intelligence Agency, Central Powers, Chairman of the Federation Council (Russia), Chairman of the State Duma, Chamomile, Chapaev (film), Cheburashka, Chechens, Chechnya, Chemical structure, Chemistry, Cherenkov radiation, Chess, Chicken Kiev, China, Cholera, Christianity in Russia, Christianization of Kievan Rus', Christmas, Chukchi Peninsula, Chukchi Sea, Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Church of the Savior on Blood, Chuvash people, Cinema of the Soviet Union, Circassians, Classical antiquity, Classical conditioning, Climate of Russia, Coal, Coat of arms of Moscow, Coat of arms of Russia, Code (law), Cold War, Collective leadership, Collective leadership in the Soviet Union, Collective Security Treaty Organization, Collectivization in the Soviet Union, Commonwealth of Independent States, Communist Party of the Russian Federation, Complex systems, Congress of Vienna, Conscription, Conservation of energy, Constitution of Russia, Constitutional Court of Russia, Constitutionality, Constructivism (art), Constructivist architecture, Continental shelf of Russia, Corruption Perceptions Index, Cosmonautics Day, Cossacks, Council of Europe, Crimea, Crimean Khanate, Crimean status referendum, 2014, Crimean War, Crimean–Nogai raids into East Slavic lands, Critical realism (philosophy of the social sciences), Croatia, Crystal, Cuba, Cuban Missile Crisis, Cult of personality, Cumania, Czech Republic, Dagestan, David Oistrakh, DDT (band), De-Stalinization, Decembrist revolt, Decentralization, Declaration of war, Ded Moroz, Defender of the Fatherland Day, Defense industry of Russia, Democracy Index, Denis Fonvizin, Der Spiegel, Diomede Islands, Dionisius, Dissipative system, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Dmitri Hvorostovsky, Dmitri Ivanovsky, Dmitri Mendeleev, Dmitri Shostakovich, Dmitry Donskoy, Dmitry Levitzky, Dmitry Medvedev, Dmitry Pozharsky, Dnieper, Dombay, Karachay-Cherkess Republic, Dome, Domodedovo International Airport, Don Cossacks, Double-headed eagle, Dressed herring, Dymkovo toys, Dziga Vertov, East European Plain, East Germany, East Prussia, East Siberian Sea, East Slavic languages, East Slavs, Eastern Bloc, Eastern Front (World War II), Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern Orthodox church architecture, Eastern Siberia–Pacific Ocean oil pipeline, Economy of Russia, Economy of the Soviet Union, Efficient energy use, Eid al-Adha, Eid al-Fitr, El Lissitzky, Eldar Ryazanov, Electric arc, Electric light, Electron paramagnetic resonance, Elena Obraztsova, Elizabeth of Russia, Emancipation reform of 1861, Emil Gilels, Empire of Japan, Encyclopædia Britannica, Energy conservation, Energy superpower, Environment of Russia, Era of Stagnation, Ernst Neizvestny, Estonia, Eurasia, Eurasian Economic Community, Eurasian Economic Union, Eurasianism, EuroBasket 2007, Euroleague, European Convention on Human Rights, European Russia, European Union, Evgeny Kissin, Extravehicular activity, Extreme North, Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen, Fall of Constantinople, Far Eastern Federal University, FC Zenit Saint Petersburg, February Revolution, Federal Assembly (Russia), Federal cities of Russia, Federal city, Federal districts of Russia, Federal law, Federal subjects of Russia, Federalism, Federation, Federation Council (Russia), Federation Island, Fedor Emelianenko, Fedot Alekseyevich Popov, Feodor Chaliapin, Feudalism, Fields Medal, FIFA World Cup, FIFA World Cup Dream Team, Figure skating, Figure skating at the 2010 Winter Olympics, Final good, Financial crisis, Finland, Finno-Ugric peoples, Fire of Moscow (1571), First Chechen War, First Russian circumnavigation, Fishing industry by country, Flag of Russia, Flat tax, Floral emblem, Folk culture, Folk music, Folklore of Russia, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Formula One, Fort Ross, California, Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli, Franz Josef Land, Free education, Free trade, Freedom House, Freedom in the World, Freedom of assembly, Freedom of speech, Freedom of the press in Russia, French invasion of Russia, Fresco, Fresh water, Functionalism (architecture), Fur trade, Fyodor Dostoyevsky, Fyodor Khitruk, G-20 major economies, G8 (forum), Galina Ulanova, Galina Vishnevskaya, Garmon, Gatchina Palace, Gdańsk Bay, Gender inequality, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Geodesic, Geology of Russia, Geometry, George Gamow, Georgia (country), Georgy Zhukov, Gerasimov Institute of Cinematography, German occupation of Czechoslovakia, Gidon Kremer, Glasnost, Gleb Kotelnikov, Global city, Global Peace Index, GLONASS, Golden Age, Golden Age of Russian Poetry, Golden Horde, Golden Ring, Government of Russia, Government of the Soviet Union, Government reform of Peter the Great, Governorate of Estonia, Grand Duchy of Moscow, Grande Armée, Granite, Grazhdanskaya Oborona, Great Lent, Great Northern War, Great Patriotic War (term), Great power, Great Purge, Great Recession, Grigori Perelman, Gross domestic product, Groundwater, Gulag, Gulf of Finland, Gusli, Gzhel, Hammer and sickle, Handicraft, Hanseatic League, Head of government, Head of state, Heavy industry, Heavy metal music, Hermitage Museum, Hero City, Hertza region, Heterojunction, History of Russia, History of Russian animation, History of the Jews in Russia, History of the Russo-Turkish wars, Hokkaido, Holography, Horses in warfare, House of Romanov, Household plot, Human capital flight, Human rights in Russia, Human Rights Watch, Humid continental climate, Humid subtropical climate, Huns, Hydroelectricity, Ice dancing, Ice hockey, Ice hockey at the Olympic Games, Igor of Kiev, Igor Sikorsky, Igor Stravinsky, Igor Tamm, Ilf and Petrov, Illegal immigration in Russia, Ilya Muromets (film), Ilya Prigogine, Ilya Repin, Immigration, Immune system, Impeachment, Index of Soviet Union-related articles, India, India–Russia relations, Indo-European languages, Ingria, Ingush people, Ingushetia, Innovation, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Ice Hockey Federation, International Monetary Fund, International Olympic Committee, International rankings of Russia, International relations within the Comecon, International Space Station, International Studies Quarterly, International Women's Day, International Workers' Day, Internet, Ipatiev House, Ipatovo kurgan, Ipsos MORI, Irreligion, Isaac Levitan, Islam, Islam in Russia, Islamic schools and branches, Islamism, Israel Gelfand, ITER, Ivan Argunov, Ivan Bunin, Ivan Ivanov-Vano, Ivan Kramskoi, Ivan Pavlov, Ivan Shishkin, Ivan the Terrible, Ivan Turgenev, Ivan Yefremov, Jack Frost (1964 film), Japan, Jascha Heifetz, Jewish Autonomous Oblast, Joseph Stalin, Judiciary of Russia, Julian calendar, Kabardino-Balkaria, Kaftan, Kaliningrad, Kaliningrad Oblast, Kalmyk people, Kalmykia, Kamchatka Peninsula, Kamov, Kara Sea, Karachay-Cherkessia, Karelia, Karl Bryullov, Kazakhstan, Kazan, Kazan (Volga region) Federal University, Kazan Metro, Kazimir Malevich, Khanate of Kazan, Khanate of Sibir, Khazars, Khmelnytsky Uprising, Khokhloma, Khrushchev Thaw, Kiev, Kievan Rus', Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia, Kingdom of Prussia, Kino (band), Kipchaks, Kipelov, Kir Bulychev, Klyuchevskaya Sopka, Kokoshnik, Kolkhoz, Kolomenskoye, Konstantin Khrenov, Konstantin Leontiev, Konstantin Rokossovsky, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, Kontinental Hockey League, Korol i Shut, Kosovorotka, Krais of Russia, Krasnodar Krai, Kremlin, Kuchum, Kunashir Island, Kupala Night, Kuril Islands, Kuzma Minin, Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin, Kvass, Kyrgyzstan, Lake Baikal, Lake Ladoga, Lake Onega, Land use statistics by country, Languages of Russia, Laptev Sea, Larisa Latynina, Laser, Latvia, Left-bank Ukraine, Lena River, Lenz's law, Leo Tolstoy, Leon Trotsky, Leonhard Euler, Leonid Andreyev, Leonid Brezhnev, Leonid Filatov, Leonid Gaidai, Leonid Kogan, Lev Artsimovich, Lev Kuleshov, Lev Yashin, Levada Center, LGBT rights in Russia, Liberal Democratic Party of Russia, Library of Congress, Library of Congress Country Studies, Light industry, List of battles by casualties, List of bridges in Saint Petersburg, List of Byzantine emperors, List of cosmonauts, List of countries and dependencies by area, List of countries and dependencies by population, List of countries by electricity production, List of countries by electricity production from renewable sources, List of countries by external debt, List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves, List of countries by GDP (nominal), List of countries by GDP (PPP), List of countries by military expenditures, List of countries by natural gas exports, List of countries by natural gas production, List of countries by natural gas proven reserves, List of countries by oil exports, List of countries by oil production, List of countries by percentage of population living in poverty, List of countries by road network size, List of countries by total length of pipelines, List of countries by total renewable water resources, List of countries by waterways length, List of diplomatic missions of Russia, List of federal subjects of Russia by GRP, List of institutions of higher learning in Russia, List of journalists killed in Russia, List of largest empires, List of largest lakes of Europe, List of merchant navy capacity by country, List of metro systems, List of Mongol and Tatar raids against Rus', List of most expensive films, List of most-produced aircraft, List of national trees, List of rivers by length, List of rivers of Europe, List of rivers of Russia, List of Russian aerospace engineers, List of Russian biologists, List of Russian chemists, List of Russian explorers, List of Russian mathematicians, List of Russian philosophers, List of Russian physicists, List of Russian-language radio stations, List of sovereign states and dependent territories by population density, List of states with nuclear weapons, List of transcontinental countries, List of World Heritage Sites in Russia, Literary realism, Lithuania, Little Ice Age, Livonia, Livonian War, Longitude, Lunokhod programme, Makhachkala, Man and the Biosphere Programme, Manchukuo, Marc Chagall, Maria Sharapova, Mariinsky Ballet, Mariinsky Theatre, Maritime boundary, Mark Reizen, Market economy, Markov chain, Mars, Mary (mother of Jesus), Maser, Mashina Vremeni, Maslenitsa, Matryoshka doll, Maxim Gorky, Maxim Vengerov, Maya Plisetskaya, Medieval Greek, Medvedev modernisation programme, Melnitsa, Melnitsa Animation Studio, Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly, Michael Phelps, Michael Prawdin, Middle Ages, Mikhail Baryshnikov, Mikhail Bulgakov, Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky, Mikhail Glinka, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mikhail Kalashnikov, Mikhail Kutuzov, Mikhail Lermontov, Mikhail Lomonosov, Mikhail Sholokhov, Mikhail Vrubel, Mikoyan, Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant, Military parade, Millennium of Russia, Millennium Prize Problems, Millet, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Russia), Mir, Modern art, Modern Greek, Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Mongol Empire, Mongol invasion of Rus', Mongolia, Mongols, Moon, Mortality rate, Moscow, Moscow International Business Center, Moscow Kremlin, Moscow Metro, Moscow State University, Moscow theater hostage crisis, Mother Russia, Mother's Day, Motto, Mount Elbrus, Mstislav Rostropovich, Multi-party system, Multinational state, Murmansk, Murom, Music in the Soviet Union, Napoleon, Napoleonic Wars, Naryshkin Baroque, Natalia Gutman, National Anthem of Russia, National Hockey League, National parks of Russia, National personification, NATO, NATO–Russia relations, Nature reserve, Nautilus Pompilius (band), Nazi Germany, Nazism, Neo-Byzantine architecture in the Russian Empire, Neo-primitivism, Neoclassical architecture, Neoclassicism, Nevsky Prospect, New Siberian Islands, New Year tree, Nicholas Roerich, Nicolaus Copernicus, Nikita Khrushchev, Nikolai Berdyaev, Nikolai Gogol, Nikolai Lobachevsky, Nikolai Rubinstein, Nikolay Basov, Nikolay Benardos, Nikolay Brusentsov, Nikolay Danilevsky, Nikolay Gumilyov, Nikolay Nekrasov, Nikolay Slavyanov, Nikolay Yegorovich Zhukovsky, Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod Metro, Nomad, Nomadic pastoralism, Non-aggression pact, Non-Euclidean geometry, Nord Stream, North Asia, North Caucasus, North Korea, North-Eastern Federal University, Northern Crusades, Northern Sea Route, Northwestern Federal District, Norway, Novaya Zemlya, Novgorod Republic, Novorossiysk, Novosibirsk, Novosibirsk Metro, Nu Virgos, Nu, pogodi!, Nuclear fusion, Nuclear power, Nuclear power by country, Nuclear power in Russia, Nuclear-powered icebreaker, Ob River, Oblasts of Russia, Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant, October Revolution, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Official languages of the United Nations, Oil reserves, Oium, Okroshka, Old Bolshevik, Old East Slavic, Old New Year, Oleg of Novgorod, Olivier salad, Onion dome, Oranienbaum, Russia, Orenburg Oblast, Organic chemistry, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Ostern, Ottoman Empire, Outline of Russia, Outline of space technology, Oxford University Press, Pafnuty Chebyshev, Paganism, Pair skating, Palace Square, Palekh miniature, Pancake, Pannonian Avars, Pantheism, Papakha, Paphlagonian expedition of the Rus', Parachute, Partitions of Poland, Paskha, Patron saint, Pavel Yablochkov, Pavlovsk Palace, Pazyryk burials, PBC CSKA Moscow, Pechenegs, Pelmeni, Peoples of the Caucasus, Peredvizhniki, Perestroika, Periodic table, Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, Peter and Fevronia Day, Peter and Paul Fortress, Peter the Great, Peterhof Palace, Petrograd Soviet, Petroleum industry in Russia, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, Pew Research Center, PFC CSKA Moscow, PGM-19 Jupiter, Phanagoria, Pharmaceutical drug, Pinsk Marshes, Piracy, Pirozhki, Pitirim Sorokin, Plague (disease), Planned economy, Poincaré conjecture, Poland, Polar climate, Polarity (international relations), Pole of Cold, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Political status of Crimea, Polotsk, Polymath, Pontic–Caspian steppe, Population transfer in the Soviet Union, Portrait painting, Post-Soviet states, Potential superpowers, Power of Siberia, Power of the purse, President of Russia, Pressure suit, Primary Chronicle, Prime Minister of Russia, Principality of Tver, Privatization in Russia, Probiotic, Pskov, Public holidays in Russia, Pulkovo Airport, Purchasing power parity, Pyongyang, Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Pyotr Pavlovich Yershov, Qajar dynasty, Quartet on the Middle East, Radio Day, Railway electrification system, Rayonism, Realism (arts), Red Army, Red Banner, Red Data Book of the Russian Federation, Red Square, Red star, Red Terror, Religion in Russia, Religious denomination, Representative democracy, Republic, Republic of Crimea, Republics of Russia, Republics of the Soviet Union, Resident registration in Russia, Revolution of 1905, Rhythmic gymnastics, Right-bank Ukraine, Rock and roll, Rococo, Roman Empire, Romanization of Russian, Romantic music, Romanticism, Ronald Steel, Rosatom, Rossiyskaya Gazeta, Rostov, Rostov-on-Don, Rover (space exploration), RT (TV network), Ruble, Rudolf Nureyev, Rurik, Rurik dynasty, Rus (name), Rus' people, Rusiya Al-Yaum, Russia and weapons of mass destruction, Russia at the Olympics, Russia Day, Russia national basketball team, Russia national football team, Russia–European Union relations, Russia–United States relations, Russian, Russian Academy of Arts, Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian Aerospace Defence Forces, Russian Air Force, Russian Airborne Troops, Russian America, Russian Arctic islands, Russian Ark, Russian avant-garde, Russian Bear, Russian Census (2010), Russian Civil War, Russian constitution, Russian cosmism, Russian cuisine, Russian culture, Russian Empire, Russian Enlightenment, Russian Fairy Tales, Russian famine of 1601–03, Russian famine of 1921, Russian Far East, Russian federal highways, Russian Federal State Statistics Service, Russian floating nuclear power station, Russian Futurism, Russian Grand Prix, Russian Ground Forces, Russian icons, Russian language, Russian literature, Russian Musical Society, Russian Navy, Russian Orthodox Church, Russian pop, Russian presidential election, 2000, Russian presidential election, 2012, Russian Provisional Government, Russian Public Opinion Research Center, Russian Railways, Russian Revival architecture, Russian Revolution, Russian rock, Russian ruble, Russian science fiction and fantasy, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Russian Superleague, Russian traditional music, Russian traditions and superstitions, Russians, Russkaya Pravda, Russo-Crimean Wars, Russo-Japanese War, Russo-Persian Wars, Russo-Polish War (1654–67), Russo-Turkish War (1877–78), Rusyn language, Ruthenia, Rye, Rye bread, Sadko (film), Saint Basil's Cathedral, Saint George, Saint Isaac's Cathedral, Saint Nicholas, Saint Petersburg, Saint Petersburg Metro, Saint Petersburg State University, Sakha Republic, Sakhalin, Samara Metro, Sambo (martial art), Santa Claus, Sarafan, Satellite, Satellite navigation, Sauna, Scandinavia, Sea of Azov, Sea of Japan, Sea of Okhotsk, Second Chechen War, Semi-arid climate, Semi-presidential system, Semyon Dezhnev, Seraphim of Sarov, Sergei Bondarchuk, Sergei Bulgakov, Sergei Diaghilev, Sergei Eisenstein, Sergei Korolev, Sergei Makarov (ice hockey), Sergei Prokofiev, Sergei Rachmaninoff, Sergei Sobolev, Sergey Chaplygin, Sergey Lebedev (chemist), Sergey Naryshkin, Sergey Zagraevsky, Sergius of Radonezh, Setun, Sevastopol, Seven Years' War, Severnaya Zemlya, Shamanism, Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, Shashlik, Shchi, Sheremetyevo International Airport, Shia Islam, Shock therapy (economics), Siberia, Siberian Federal University, Siberian River Routes, Siege of Leningrad, Silver Age of Russian Poetry, Simon Kuznets, Sintashta, Six-party talks, Slavic languages, Slavic mythology, Slavophilia, Slavs, Slovakia, Smetana (dairy product), Sochi, Social criticism, Socialism in One Country, Socialist realism, Socialist state, Solar cell, Solyanka, Sophia Palaiologina, Sour cream, South Stream, Southern Federal University, Soviet (council), Soviet Army, 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Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Supreme Court of Russia, Suzdal, Sviatoslav I of Kiev, Sviatoslav Richter, Swedes (Germanic tribe), Symbolism (arts), Synchronized swimming, Synthetic rubber, Syrniki, T-34, T-54/55, T.A.T.u., Taiga, Tamara Sinyavskaya, Tanais, Tank, Tatar language, Tatars, Tatarstan, Tatiana Day, Telephone numbers in Russia, Television in Russia, Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest, Tented roof, Ternary computer, Terrorism in Russia, The Cranes Are Flying, The Economist, The Five (composers), The Guardian, The Huffington Post, The Jamestown Foundation, The Renaissance, The Wall Street Journal, The World Factbook, Theophanes the Greek, Third Rome, Three-phase electric power, Time in Russia, Time of Troubles, Time zone, Timeline of Russian history, Timeline of Russian innovation, Timeline of space exploration, Timeline of the introduction of television in countries, Tokamak, Tourism, Trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks, 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A Just Russia (Справедливая Россия, СР, Spravedlivaya Rossiya, SR) also translated as Fair Russia, or A Fair and Just Russia, is a social democratic political party in Russia currently holding 64 of the 450 seats in the State Duma.

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The Academy Awards or The Oscars is an annual American awards ceremony honoring cinematic achievements in the film industry.

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Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was an Austrian-born German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party (NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and Führer ("leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.

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The Republic of Adygea (r; Адыгэ Республик, Adıge Respublik), also known as the Adyghe Republic, is a federal subject of Russia (a republic), with its territory enclaved within Krasnodar Krai.

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The Age of Enlightenment or simply the Enlightenment or Age of Reason is an era from the 1620s to the 1780s in which cultural and intellectual forces in Western Europe emphasized reason, analysis, and individualism rather than traditional lines of authority.

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Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi, and other life forms for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal and other products used to sustain and enhance human life.

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Ahmadiyya (officially the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community or the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at; الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية, transliterated) is an Islamic religious movement founded in British India near the end of the 19th century.

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An airliner is a type of transportation service for transporting passengers and air cargo.

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The AK-47 (also known as Kalashnikov, AK, or in Russian slang, Kalash) is a selective-fire (semi-automatic and automatic), gas-operated 7.62×39mm assault rifle, developed in the Soviet Union by Mikhail Kalashnikov.

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The AK-74 (Russian: Автомат Калашникова образца 1974 года or "Kalashnikov automatic rifle model 1974") is an assault rifle developed in the early 1970s, by Russian designer Mikhail Kalashnikov as the replacement for the earlier AKM (itself a refined version of the AK-47). It uses a smaller 5.45×39mm cartridge, replacing the 7.62×39mm chambering of earlier Kalashnikov-pattern weapons. The rifle first saw service with Soviet forces engaged in the 1979 Afghanistan conflict.Woźniak, Ryszard: Encyklopedia najnowszej broni palnej—tom 1 A-F, page 25. Bellona, 2001. The head of the Afghan bureau of the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence claimed that the CIA paid $5,000 for the first AK-74 captured by the mujahadeen during the Soviet–Afghan War. Presently, the rifle continues to be used by the majority of countries of the former USSR. Additionally, licensed copies were produced in Bulgaria (AK-74, AKS-74 and AKS-74U), the former East Germany (MPi-AK-74N, MPi-AKS-74N, MPi-AKS-74NK) and Romania (PA md. 86).Cutshaw, Charlie: The New World of Russian Small Arms & Ammo, page 92. Paladin Press, 1998.McNab, Chris: The AK47 (Weapons of War), page 25. Spellmount Publishers, 2001. Besides former Soviet republics and eastern European countries, Mongolia, North Korean Special Forces, and Vietnamese People's Naval infantry use AK-74s.

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Alaska is a U.S. state situated in the northwest extremity of the North American continent.

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Aleksandr Mikhailovich Lyapunov (Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Ляпуно́в,; – November 3, 1918) was a Russian mathematician, mechanician and physicist.

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Aleksandr Konstantinovich Petrov (also Alexander or Alexandre) (Александр Константинович Петров) (born July 17, 1957 in Prechistoye, Yaroslavl Oblast) is a Russian animator and animation director.

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Aleksandr Lukich Ptushko (Алекса́ндр Луки́ч Пту́шко; Олександр Лукич Птушко in Lugansk, Russian Empire (now Luhansk, Ukraine) – March 6, 1973 in Moscow, Soviet Union) was a Soviet animation and fantasy film director, and Meritorious Artist of the RSFSR.

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Alexander Andreyevich Ivanov (Алекса́ндр Андре́евич Ива́нов; July 28 (July 16 OS), 1806 – July 15 (July 3), 1858) was a Russian painter who adhered to the waning tradition of Neoclassicism but found little sympathy with his contemporaries.

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Alexander Romanovich Belyaev (Алекса́ндр Рома́нович Беля́ев,; 16 March 1884 – 6 January 1942) was a Soviet Russian writer of science fiction.

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Alexander Alexandrovich Blok (a; 7 August 1921) was a Russian lyrical poet.

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Alexander Mikhaylovich Butlerov (Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Бу́тлеров; September 15, 1828 – August 17, 1886) was a Russian chemist, one of the principal creators of the theory of chemical structure (1857–1861), the first to incorporate double bonds into structural formulas, the discoverer of hexamine (1859), the discoverer of formaldehyde (1859) and the discoverer of the formose reaction (1861).

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Alexander I (Александр Павлович, Aleksandr Pavlovich; –), reigned as Emperor of Russia from 23 March 1801 to 1 December 1825.

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Alexander II (p; in Moscow – in Saint Petersburg) was the Emperor of Russia from 2 March 1855 until his assassination in 1881.

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Alexander III (p), or Alexander Alexandrovich Romanov (p; 10 March 1845 – 1 November 1894) was the penultimate Emperor of Russia, King of Poland, and Grand Prince of Finland from until his death on.

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Alexander Nikolayevich Lodygin (Александр Николаевич Лодыгин; October 18, 1847 – March 16, 1923) was a Russian electrical engineer and inventor, one of inventors of the incandescent light bulb.

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Alexander Yaroslavich Nevsky (Алекса́ндр Яросла́вич Не́вский;; Олександр Ярославович Не́вський); 13 May 1221 – 14 November 1263) served as Prince of Novgorod, Grand Prince of Kiev and Grand Prince of Vladimir during some of the most difficult times in Kievan Rus' history.

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Alexander Nikolayevich Ostrovsky (Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Остро́вский;, Moscow, Russian Empire, Shchelykovo, Kostroma, Russian Empire) was a Russian playwright, generally considered the greatest representative of the Russian realistic period.

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Alexander Mikhaylovich Prokhorov, or Aleksandr Mikhailovich Prokhorov, (Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Про́хоров; 11 July 1916 – 8 January 2002) was a Soviet physicist known for his pioneering research on lasers and masers for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1964 with Charles Hard Townes and Nikolay Basov.

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Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (a) was a Russian poet, playwright, and novelist of the Romantic eraBasker, Michael.

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Alexander Arturovich Rou (also, Rowe, from his Irish father's name) (Александр Артурович Роу, – 28 December 1973) was a Soviet film director, and People's Artist of the RSFSR (1968).

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Alexander Nikolayevich Scriabin (Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Скря́бин,; –) was a Russian composer and pianist.

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Aleksander Mihailovich Tatarskiy (Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Тата́рский, December 11, 1950 – July 22, 2007) was a Soviet/Russian animation film director, script writer and producer, animator and an artist of Ukrainian Jewish origin.

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Alexandrov Ensemble is an official army choir of the Russian armed forces.

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Alexei Leonidovich Kudrin (p; born 12 October 1960) is a Russian political figure who served in the government of Russia as Minister of Finance from 18 May 2000 to 26 September 2011.

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Alexey Arkhipovich Leonov (p; born 30 May 1934 in Listvyanka, West Siberian Krai, Soviet Union) is a retired Soviet/Russian cosmonaut and Air Force Major General.

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Alfred Bernhard Nobel (21 October 1833 – 10 December 1896) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, innovator, and armaments manufacturer.

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Alfred Schnittke (Альфре́д Га́рриевич Шни́тке, Alfred Garrievič Šnitke; November 24, 1934August 3, 1998) was a Soviet and Russian composer.

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Alisa (Алиса) is a Russian hard rock band, who are credited as one of the most influential bands in the Russian rock movement.

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An all-time medal table for all Olympic Games from 1896 to 2014, including Summer Olympic Games, Winter Olympic Games, and a combined total of both, is tabulated below.

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The Allied intervention was a multi-national military expedition launched during the Russian Civil War in 1918.

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The Allies of World War I, also known as the Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers during the First World War.

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The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that opposed the Axis powers together during the Second World War (1939–1945).

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The Altai Mountains (Altay Mountains) are a mountain range in Central Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia and Kazakhstan come together, and are where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their headwaters.

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The Amazon rainforest (Portuguese: Floresta Amazônica or Amazônia; Selva Amazónica, Amazonía or usually Amazonia; Forêt amazonienne; Amazoneregenwoud), also known in English as Amazonia or the Amazon Jungle, is a moist broadleaf forest that covers most of the Amazon basin of South America.

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American pioneers are any of the people in American history who migrated west to join in settling and developing new areas.

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Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty and AI) is a non-governmental organisation focused on human rights with over 7 million members and supporters around the world.

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The Amur River (Even: Тамур, Tamur; река́ Аму́р) or Heilong Jiang ("Black Dragon River";, "Black Water") is the world's tenth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Northeastern China (Inner Manchuria). The largest fish species in the Amur is the kaluga, attaining a length as great as.

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Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Ancient Rome was an Italic civilization that began on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC.

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Andrei Rublev (p, also transliterated as Andrey Rublyov; born in the 1360s, died 29 January 1427 or 1430, or 17 October 1428 in Moscow) is considered to be the greatest medieval Russian painter of Orthodox icons and frescos.

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Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov (p; May 21, 1921December 14, 1989) was a Russian nuclear physicist, Soviet dissident and human rights activist.

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Andrei Andreyevich Voznesensky (Андре́й Андре́евич Вознесе́нский, May 12, 1933 – June 1, 2010) was a Soviet and Russian poet and writer who had been referred to by Robert Lowell as "one of the greatest living poets in any language." He was one of the "Children of the '60s," a new wave of iconic Russian intellectuals led by the Khrushchev Thaw.

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Andrew the Apostle (Ἀνδρέας, Andreas; from the early 1st century – mid to late 1st century AD), also known as Saint Andrew and called in the Orthodox tradition Prōtoklētos (Πρωτόκλητος) or the First-called, was a Christian Apostle and the elder brother of Saint Peter.

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Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov (a, 25 April 1903 – 20 October 1987) was a 20th-century Soviet mathematician who made significant contributions to the mathematics of probability theory, topology, intuitionistic logic, turbulence, classical mechanics, algorithmic information theory and computational complexity.

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Andrey (Andrei) Andreyevich Markov (Андре́й Андре́евич Ма́рков, in older works also spelled Markoff) (14 June 1856 N.S. – 20 July 1922) was a Russian mathematician.

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Animal husbandry is the management and care of farm animals by humans for profit, in which genetic qualities and behavior, considered to be advantageous to humans, are further developed.

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Anna Andreyevna Gorenkoa; Анна Андріївна Горенко, Anna Andriyivna Horenko (– 5 March 1966), better known by the pen name Anna Akhmatova (Анна Ахматова), was a Russian modernist poet, one of the most acclaimed writers in the Russian canon.

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Anna Yuryevna Netrebko (Анна Юрьевна Нетребко, born 18 September 1971) is a Russian operatic soprano.

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Anna Pavlovna (Matveyevna) Pavlova (Анна Павловна (Матвеевна) Павлова; – January 23, 1931) was a Russian prima ballerina of the late 19th and the early 20th centuries.

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The internationally recognised Ukrainian territory of Crimea was annexed by the Russian Federation in March 2014.

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The Anschluss (or Connection) was the Nazi propaganda term for the invasion and forced incorporation of Austria by Nazi Germany in March 1938.

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Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent, containing the geographic South Pole.

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Anti-communism is opposition to communism.

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Anti-fascism is opposition to fascist ideologies, groups and individuals.

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Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (Анто́н Па́влович Че́хов,; 29 January 1860 – 15 July 1904) was a Russian physician, playwright and author who is considered to be among the greatest writers of short stories in history.

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Anton Grigorevich Rubinstein (r) was a Russian pianist, composer and conductor who became a pivotal figure in Russian culture when he founded the Saint Petersburg Conservatory.

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Appeasement in a political context is a diplomatic policy of making political or material concessions to an enemy power in order to avoid conflict.

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Aquarium or Akvarium (Аква́риум) is a Russian rock group formed in Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg, Russia) in 1972.

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Arable land (from Latin arabilis, "able to be plowed") is, according to one definition, land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops.

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Arc welding is a type of welding that uses a welding power supply to create an electric arc between an electrode and the base material to melt the metals at the welding point.

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Aria (Ария) is a Russian heavy metal band that was formed in 1985 in Moscow.

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Ridolfo "Aristotele" Fioravanti (c. 1415 or 1420 in Bologna – c. 1486) was an Italian Renaissance architect and engineer.

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The brothers Arkady (Аркадий; August 28, 1925 – October 12, 1991) and Boris (Бори́с; April 14, 1933 – November 19, 2012) Strugatsky (Струга́цкий; alternate spellings: Strugatskiy, Strugatski, Strugatskii) were Soviet-Russian science fiction authors who collaborated on their fiction.

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Arkaim (Аркаим) is an archaeological site situated in the Southern Urals steppe, north-to-northwest of the village of Amurskiy and south-to-southeast of the village of Alexandrovskiy, in the Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, just to the north from the Kazakhstan border.

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Arkhangelsk (p), also known in English as Archangel and Archangelsk, is a city and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, in the north of European Russia.

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Arkhip Ivanovich Kuindzhi (or Kuinji; Архи́п Ива́нович Куи́нджи; Архип Іванович Куїнджі; January 27, 1842(?) – July 24, 1910) was a Russian-born landscape painter of Greek descent.

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Armenia (Հայաստան, tr. Hayastan), officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն, tr. Hayastani Hanrapetut’yun), is a mountainous country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.

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The Armenian Apostolic Church (Հայ Առաքելական Եկեղեցի, Hay Aṙak’elakan Yekeġetsi) is the world's oldest national church.

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Art Nouveau (Anglicised to; at. Sezession, Czech Secese, Eng. Modern Style, Ger.. Jugendstil, Slovak. Secesia) or Jugendstil is an international philosophyDuncan (1994), 7.

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Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a forum for 21 Pacific Rim member economies.

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An assault rifle is a selective fire rifle that uses an intermediate cartridge and a detachable magazine.

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Astrakhan (p) is a city in southern European Russia and the administrative center of Astrakhan Oblast.

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The Khanate of Astrakhan (Xacitarxan Khanate) was a Tatar Turkic state that appeared after the collapse of the Golden Horde.

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Astrakhan Oblast (Астраха́нская о́бласть, Astrakhanskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).

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An astronaut (or cosmonaut) is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.

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Astronautics (alternatively cosmonautics), is the theory and practice of navigation beyond Earth's atmosphere.

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Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.5 million people in Central Europe.

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Austria-Hungary (Österreich-Ungarn; Osztrák-Magyar Monarchia), also known by other names and often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Empire of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867, when the compromise was ratified by the Hungarian parliament.

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The Russian Federation is divided into 83 federal subjects.

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Autonomous okrug (t), occasionally also referred to as "autonomous district", "autonomous area", and "autonomous region", is a type of federal subject of Russia and simultaneously an administrative division type of some federal subjects.

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The avant-garde (from French, "advance guard" or "vanguard", literally "fore-guard") are people or works that are experimental or innovative, particularly with respect to art, culture, and politics.

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Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan), officially the Republic of Azerbaijan (Azərbaycan Respublikası), is a transcontinental country in the Caucasus region, situated at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.

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Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (Илья́ Ильи́ч Ме́чников, also written as Élie Metchnikoff) (16 July 1916) was a Russian zoologist best known for his pioneering research into the immune system.

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The balalaika (балала́йка) is a Russian stringed musical instrument with a characteristic triangular body and three strings.

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Ballad of a Soldier (Баллада о солдате, Ballada o soldate), is a 1959 Soviet film directed by Grigori Chukhrai and starring Vladimir Ivashov and Zhanna Prokhorenko.

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The Ballets Russes was an itinerant ballet company based in Paris that performed between 1909 and 1929 throughout Europe and on tours to North and South America.

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A ballistic missile submarine is a submarine deploying submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) with nuclear warheads.

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The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, the Baltic countries, and the North European Plain.

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Bandy is a team winter sport played on ice, in which skaters use sticks to direct a ball into the opposing team's goal.

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The Bandy World Championships are a competition between bandy-playing nations.

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Banya or banja (баня; бања; бања) can refer to a number of types of steam baths popular in Eastern Europe.

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The term bard ("бард" bard) came to be used in the Soviet Union in the early 1960s, and continues to be used in Russia today, to refer to singer-songwriters who wrote songs outside the Soviet establishment, similarly to folk singers of the American folk music revival.

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The Barents Sea (Баренцево море, Barentsevo More Barentshavet) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, located off the northern coasts of Norway and Russia with vast majority of it lying in Russian territorial waters.

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Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain.

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The Bashkirs (Башҡорттар; Башкиры) are a Turkic people indigenous to Bashkortostan, extending on both sides of the Ural Mountains, on the place where Europe meets Asia.

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The Republic of Bashkortostan (p; Башҡортостан Республикаһы, Başqortostan Respublikahı), also known as Bashkiria (p) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).

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Bast shoes are shoes made primarily from bast - fiber from the bark of the linden tree or birch tree: they are a kind of basket woven and fitted to the shape of a foot.

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The Battle of Berlin, designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, was the final major offensive of the European theatre of World War II.

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The Battle of Kulikovo (Мамаево побоище, Донское побоище, Куликовская битва, битва на Куликовом поле) was fought between the armies of the Golden Horde under the command of Mamai, and various Russian principalities under the united command of Prince Dmitri of Moscow.

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The Battle of Kursk was a Second World War engagement between German and Soviet forces on the Eastern Front near Kursk (south-west of Moscow) in the Soviet Union during July and August 1943.

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The Battle of Molodi (Russian: Молодинская битва) was one of the key battles of Ivan the Terrible's reign.

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The Battle of Moscow (Битва за Москву) is the name given by Soviet historians to two periods of strategically significant fighting on a sector of the Eastern Front during World War II.

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The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was a major battle of World War II in which Nazi Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia, on the eastern boundary of Europe.

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The Battle of the Neva (Невская битва, Nevskaya bitva, slaget vid Neva) was fought between the Novgorod Republic and Swedish armies on the Neva River, near the settlement of Ust-Izhora, on July 15, 1240.

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The Battle on the Ice (Ледовое побоище, Ledovoye poboish'ye; Schlacht auf dem Eise; Jäälahing; Schlacht auf dem Peipussee; битва на Чудском озере, bitva na Chudskom ozere) was fought between the Republic of Novgorod led by prince Alexander Nevsky and the crusader army led by the Livonian branch of the Teutonic Knights on April 5, 1242, at Lake Peipus.

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Battleship Potemkin (Броненосец «Потёмкин», Bronenosets Potyomkin), sometimes rendered as Battleship Potyomkin, is a 1925 silent film directed by Sergei Eisenstein and produced by Mosfilm.

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BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Belarus (Белару́сь, tr.,; bʲɪlɐˈrusʲ), officially the Republic of Belarus, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.

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Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, chiefly in Russia, Ukraine, and Poland.

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Belukha Mountain (Белуха, lit "whitey"; Altai: Muztau or Üç Sümer), located in the Katun Mountains, is the highest peak of the Altai Mountains in Russia.

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The Bering Sea is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean.

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The Bering Strait (Берингов пролив, Beringov proliv, Yupik: Imakpik) is a strait connecting the Pacific and Arctic oceans between Russia and the US state of Alaska.

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The Beslan school siege (also referred to as the Beslan school hostage crisis or Beslan massacre) started on 1 September 2004, lasted three days and involved the capture of over 1,100 people as hostages (including 777 children), ending with the death of 385 people.

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Bessarabia (Basarabia; Бессарабия Bessarabiya, Бессарабія Bessarabiya) is a historical region in Eastern Europe, bounded by the Dniester river on the east and the Prut river on the west.

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A bicameral legislature is one in which the legislators are divided into two separate assemblies, chambers or houses.

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The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.

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Big Diomede Island (о́стров Ратма́нова, ostrov Ratmanova (Russian for Ratmanov Island); native name Imaqłiq) is an island among the Diomede Islands in the middle of the Bering Strait.

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A bill is proposed legislation under consideration by a legislature.

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Birch is a thinleaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams, and is closely related to the beech/oak family, Fagaceae.

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The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 of a population in a year.

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The Black Sea is a sea between Southeastern Europe and Western Asia.

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A blin (pl. blini) or blintchik (pl. blintchiki) is a type of thin pancakes which typically lacks a leavening agent; ISBN 9780470391303 blin and blintchick are Russian names for crêpes.

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Bloody Sunday (p) is the name given to the events of Sunday, in St Petersburg, Russia, when unarmed demonstrators led by Father Georgy Gapon were fired upon by soldiers of the Imperial Guard as they marched towards the Winter Palace to present a petition to Tsar Nicholas II of Russia.

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Bloomberg L.P. is a privately held financial software, data, and media company headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.

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Bloomberg News is an international news agency headquartered in New York, United States and a division of Bloomberg L.P. Content produced by Bloomberg News is disseminated through the Bloomberg terminal, Bloomberg Television, Bloomberg Radio, Bloomberg Businessweek, Bloomberg Markets, Bloomberg.com and Bloomberg's mobile platforms.

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Bohdan Zynoviy Mykhailovych Khmelnytsky (Богдан Зиновій Михайлович Хмельницький; Богда́н Хмельни́цкий, Bogdan Khmelnitsky; Bohdan Zenobi Chmielnicki (c. 1595 – 6 August 1657), was the Hetman of the Zaporozhian Host of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (now part of Ukraine). He led an uprising against the Commonwealth and its magnates (1648–1654) which resulted in the creation of a Ukrainian Cossack state. In 1654, he concluded the Treaty of Pereyaslav with the Tsardom of Russia.

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The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from большинство bol'shinstvo, "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority") were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.

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The Bolshoi Ballet is an internationally renowned classical ballet company, based at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow, Russia.

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The Bolshoi Theatre (p) is a historic theatre in Moscow, Russia, designed by architect Joseph Bové, which holds performances of ballet and opera.

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Russia has international borders with 16 sovereign states, including two with maritime boundaries (US, Japan), as well as with the occupied Georgian territories of South Ossetia and Abkhazia.

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Boris Mikhaylovich Kustodiev (Бори́с Миха́йлович Кусто́диев) (March 7, 1878 – May 28, 1927) was a Russian painter and stage designer.

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Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (p; 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.

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Borscht is a soup of Ukrainian origin that is common in Eastern and Central Europe, especially in Ashkenazi Jewish, Belarusian, Lithuanian, Moldovan/Romanian, Polish, Russian, and Ukrainian cuisine.

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Brian Glyn Williams is a professor of Islamic History at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth.

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In economics, BRIC is a grouping acronym that refers to the countries of '''B'''razil, '''R'''ussia, '''I'''ndia and '''C'''hina, which are all deemed to be at a similar stage of newly advanced economic development.

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Broad gauge railways use a track gauge (distance between the rails) greater than the standard gauge of.

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The Brusilov Offensive (Брусиловский прорыв Brusilovskiĭ proryv), also known as the "June Advance", of June-September 1916 was the Russian Empire's greatest feat of arms during World War I, and among the most lethal offensives in world history.

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Buddhism is a nontheistic religion or philosophy (Sanskrit: dharma; Pali: धम्म dhamma) that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to Gautama Buddha, commonly known as the Buddha ("the awakened one").

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Historically, Buddhism was incorporated into Russian lands in the early 17th century.

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Bukovina (Bucovina; Буковина Bukovyna; Hungarian: Bukovina; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region in Central Europe, divided between modern-day Romania and Ukraine, located on the northern slopes of the central Eastern Carpathians and the adjoining plains.

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Bulat Shalvovich Okudzhava (Була́т Ша́лвович Окуджа́ва; ბულატ ოკუჯავა) (May 9, 1924 – June 12, 1997) was a Soviet poet, writer, musician, novelist, and singer-songwriter of Georgian-Armenian ancestry.

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The Buran (Бура́н,, Snowstorm or Blizzard) programme, also known as the VKK Space Orbiter (Воздушно Космический Корабль, Air Space Ship) programme, was a Soviet and later Russian reusable spacecraft project that began in 1974 at the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute and was formally suspended in 1993.

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A burka (ნაბადი, Svan: ღა̈რთ, ауапа, кӏакӏо, щӏакӏуэ, нымӕг, ферта, верта, буртина) is a coat made from felt or karakul (the short curly fur of young lambs of the breed of that name).

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The Republic of Buryatia (p; Буряад Орон, Buryaad Oron) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).

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The Buryats (Buryat: Буряад, Buryaad; Буриад/Buriad), numbering approximately 500,000, are the largest indigenous group in Siberia, mainly concentrated in their homeland, the Buryat Republic, a federal subject of Russia.

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Business Insider is an American business, celebrity and technology news website launched in February 2009 and based in New York City.

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The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (Byelorussian SSR or BSSR; Белару́ская Саве́цкая Сацыялісты́чная Рэспу́бліка, Белару́ская ССР Bielaruskaja Savieckaja Sacyjalistyčnaja Respublika, Bielaruskaja SSR; Белору́сская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика, Белорусская ССР Belorusskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika, Belorusskaya SSR), also referred to as Byelorussia, was one of fifteen constituent republics of the Soviet Union (USSR).

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Bylina or Starina (были́на; pl. были́ны Byliny; also стари́на; pl. стари́ны Stariny) is a traditional East Slavic oral epic narrative poem.

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Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire, also known as the Later Roman or Eastern Roman Empire.

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The Byzantine Empire, or Eastern Roman Empire, was the predominantly Greek-speaking continuation of the eastern part of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.

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Byzantium (Βυζάντιον Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony on the site that later became Constantinople, and later still Istanbul.

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A cabbage roll is a dish consisting of cooked cabbage leaves wrapped around a variety of fillings.

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Caesar (English Caesars; Latin Caesares) is a title of imperial character.

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Capital flight, in economics, occurs when assets or money rapidly flow out of a country, due to an event of economic consequence.

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Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas vital to life on Earth.

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The Caspian expeditions of the Rus' were military raids undertaken by the Rus' between 864 and 1041 on the Caspian Sea shores,Logan (1992), p. 201 of what are nowadays Iran, Dagestan, and Azerbaijan.

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The Caspian Sea (kɐˈspʲijskəjə ˈmorʲə, Xəzər dənizi, Каспий теңізі Kaspiy teñizi, دریای خزر Daryā-e Xazar,دریای کاسپین Daryā-e Kāspiyan, Hazar deňizi) is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.

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The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour (Храм Христа Спасителя, Khram Khrista Spasitelya) is a cathedral in Moscow, Russia, on the northern bank of the Moskva River, a few blocks southwest of the Kremlin.

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Yekaterina Alexeyevna (Екатерина Алексеевна) or Catherine II, also known as Catherine the Great (Екатерина II Великая, Yekaterina II Velikaya; –), was the most renowned and the longest-ruling female leader of Russia, reigning from 1762 until her death in 1796 at the age of 67.

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The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system in Eurasia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea in the Caucasus region. The Caucasus Mountains include the Greater Caucasus Range, which extends from the Caucasian Natural Reserve in the vicinity of Sochi on the northeastern shore of the Black Sea, aligned west-northwest to east-southeast and reaching nearly to Baku on the Caspian Sea; and the Lesser Caucasus, which runs parallel to the greater range, at a distance averaging about south. The Meskheti Range is a part of the Lesser Caucasus system. The Greater and Lesser Caucasus ranges are connected by the Likhi Range, which separates the Kolkhida Lowland from the Kura-Aras Lowland. In the southeast the Aras River separates the Lesser Caucasus from the Talysh Mountains which straddle the border of southeastern Azerbaijan and Iran. The Lesser Caucasus and the Armenian Highland constitute the Transcaucasian Highland, which at their western end converge with the highland plateau of Eastern Anatolia in the far north east of Turkey. The highest peak in the Caucasus range is Mount Elbrus in the Greater Caucasus, which rises to a height of above sea level. Mountains near Sochi hosted part of the 2014 Winter Olympics.

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The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the U.S. Government, tasked with gathering, processing and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).

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The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri or Bağlaşma Devletleri; Централни сили Tsentralni sili), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).

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The Chairman of the Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation (Председатель Совета Федерации Федерального собрания Российской Федерации), also called Speaker (спикер), is the presiding officer of the Upper house of the Russian parliament.

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The Chairman of the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation (Председатель Государственной Думы Федерального собрания Российской Федерации), also called Speaker (спикер), is the presiding officer of the lower house of the Russian parliament.

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Chamomile or camomile is the common name for several daisy-like plants of the family Asteraceae that are commonly used to make herb infusion to serve various medicinal purposes.

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Chapaev (Чапаев) is a 1934 Soviet film.

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Cheburashka (p), also known as Topple in earlier English translations, is a character in children's literature, from a 1966 story by Soviet writer Eduard Uspensky.

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Chechens (Нохчий; Old Chechen: Нахчой Nakhchuoi) are a Caucasian ethnic group of the Nakh peoples originating in the North Caucasus region of Eastern Europe.

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The Chechen Republic (tɕɪˈtɕɛnskəjə rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə; Нохчийн Республика, Noxçiyn Respublika), commonly referred to as Chechnya (p; Нохчийчоь, Noxçiyçö), also spelled Chechnia or Chechenia, sometimes referred to as Ichkeria (lit land of minerals), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia.

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A chemical structure determination includes a chemist's specifying the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic structure of the target molecule or other solid.

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Chemistry is a branch of physical science that studies the composition, structure, properties and change of matter.

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Cherenkov radiation, also known as Vavilov–Cherenkov radiation, is electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle (such as an electron) passes through a dielectric medium at a speed greater than the phase velocity of light in that medium.

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Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an eight-by-eight grid.

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Chicken Kiev (Котлета по-київськи, kotleta po-kyivsky, Котлета по-киевски, kotleta po-kiyevski; literally "cutlet Kiev-style") is a popular entree of boneless chicken breast pounded and rolled around cold garlic butter with herbs, then coated with eggs and breadcrumbs, and either fried or baked.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.

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Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.

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Christians in Russia constitute by some estimates the largest religion of the country, with nearly 50% of the population identifying as Christian.

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The Christianization of Kievan Rus' took place in several stages.

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Christmas or Christmas Day (Crīstesmæsse, meaning "Christ's Mass") is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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The Chukchi Peninsula, Chukotka Peninsula, or Chukotski Peninsula (Чуко́тский полуо́стров, Чуко́тка), at about 66° N 172° W, is the eastmost peninsula of Asia.

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Chukchi Sea (p) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean.

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Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (p; Chukchi: Чукоткакэн автономныкэн округ, Chukotkaken avtonomnyken okrug) or Chukotka (Чуко́тка) is a federal subject of Russia (an autonomous okrug) located in the Russian Far East.

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The Church of the Savior on Spilled Blood (Церковь Спаса на Крови, Tserkovʹ Spasa na Krovi) is one of the main sights of St. Petersburg, Russia.

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The Chuvash people (чăваш; чуваши) are a Turkic ethnic group, native to an area stretching from the Volga Region to Siberia.

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The cinema of the Soviet Union, not to be confused with "Cinema of Russia" despite films in the Russian language being predominant in the body of work so described, includes films produced by the constituent republics of the Soviet Union reflecting elements of their pre-Soviet culture, language and history, albeit they were all regulated by the Central Government in Moscow.

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The Circassians (Circassian: Адыгэхэр, Adygekher) are a North Caucasian ethnic group native to Circassia, who were displaced in the course of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century, especially after the Russian–Circassian War in 1864.

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Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.

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Classical conditioning (also known as Pavlovian or respondent conditioning) is a learning process in which an innate response to a potent stimulus comes to be elicited in response to a previously neutral stimulus; this is achieved by repeated pairings of the neutral stimulus with the potent stimulus.

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The climate of Russia is formed under the influence of several determining factors.

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Coal (from the Old English term col, which has meant "mineral of fossilized carbon" since the 13th century) is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.

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The coat of arms of Moscow depicts a horseman with a spear in his hand slaying a basilisk and is identified with Saint George and the Dragon.

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The coat of arms of the Russian Federation derives from the earlier coat of arms of the Russian Empire which was abolished with the Russian Revolution in 1917 and restored in 1993 after the constitutional crisis.

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A code is a type of legislation that purports to exhaustively cover a complete system of laws or a particular area of law as it existed at the time the code was enacted, by a process of codification.

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The Cold War was a state of political and military tension after World War II between powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others) and powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its allies in the Warsaw Pact).

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Collective leadership is considered an ideal form of ruling a communist party, both within and outside a socialist state.

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Collective leadership (коллективное руководство, kollektivnoye rukovodstvo) or Collectivity of leadership (коллективность руководства, kollektivnost rukovodstva), was considered an ideal form of governance in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and other socialist states espousing communism.

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The Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO; Организация Договора о Коллективной Безопасности, Organizatsiya Dogovora o Kollektivnoy Bezopasnosti, ODKB) is an intergovernmental military alliance, acting as counterpart to the NATO alliance, which was signed on 15 May 1992.

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The Soviet Union enforced the collectivization of its agricultural sector between 1928 and 1940 during the ascendancy of Stalin.

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The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r; also called the Russian Commonwealth) is a regional organisation whose participating countries are former Soviet Republics, formed during the breakup of the Soviet Union.

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The Communist Party of the Russian Federation (CPRF) (Коммунистическая Партия Российской Федерации; КПРФ; Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii, KPRF) is a Communist party in Russia.

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Complex systems present problems both in mathematical modelling and philosophical foundations.

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The Congress of Vienna was a conference of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich, and held in Vienna from September 1814 to June 1815.

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Conscription, or drafting, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.

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In physics, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant—it is said to be ''conserved'' over time.

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The current Constitution of the Russian Federation (Конституция Российской Федерации, Konstitutsiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii) was adopted by national referendum on.

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The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation (Конституционный Суд Российской Федерации) is a high court within the judiciary of Russia which is empowered to rule on whether certain laws or presidential decrees are in fact contrary to the Constitution of Russia.

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Constitutionality is the condition of acting in accordance with an applicable constitution; the status of a law, a procedure, or an act's accordance with the laws or guidelines set forth in the applicable constitution.

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Constructivism was an artistic and architectural philosophy that originated in Russia beginning in 1919 and was a rejection of the idea of autonomous art.

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Constructivist architecture was a form of modern architecture that flourished in the Soviet Union in the 1920s and early 1930s.

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The continental shelf of Russia (also called the Russian continental shelf or the Arctic shelf in the Arctic region) is a continental shelf adjacent to Russia.

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Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit."CPI 2010: Long methodological brief, p. 2 The CPI currently ranks 177 countries "on a scale from 100 (very clean) to 0 (highly corrupt).".

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Cosmonautics Day (День Космона́втики, Den Kosmonavtiki) is an anniversary celebrated in Russia and some other former USSR countries on April 12.

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Cossacks (козаки́, koza'ky; казаки́ or каза́ки), kazaki are a group of predominantly East Slavic people who became known as members of autonomous, semi-military communities, predominantly located in Ukraine, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia, Croatia, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Poland, the Czech Republic, and Slovakia.

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The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe), founded in 1949, is a regional intergovernmental organisation which promotes human rights, democracy and the rule of law in its 47 member states, covering 820 million citizens.

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The Crimean Peninsula (Кры́мский полуо́стров, Кри́мський піво́стрів, Къырым ярымадасы), also known simply as Crimea (Крым, Крим, Къырым), is a major land mass on the northern coast of the Black Sea that is almost completely surrounded by water.

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The Crimean Khanate (Crimean Tatar/Turkish: Qırım Hanlığı قرم خانلغى or Qırım Yurtu قرم يورتى; Крымское ханство Krymskoye khanstvo; Кримське ханство Kryms’ke khanstvo; Chanat Krymski), was a Turkic vassal state of the Ottoman Empire during 1478 to 1774, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde.

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Crimean status referendum, 2014 was a referendum on the status of Crimea held on March 16, 2014, by the legislature of Autonomous Republic of Crimea as well as by the local government of Sevastopol, both subdivisions of Ukraine at the time.

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The Crimean War (October 1853 – February 1856), also known in Russian historiography as the Eastern War of 1853–1856 (Восточная война, Vostochnaya Voina), was a conflict in which Russia lost to an alliance of France, the United Kingdom, the Ottoman Empire, and Sardinia.

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POV note: This article is a translation from the Russian Wikipedia as of April 2013 The Crimean-Nogai raids were attacks by the Khanate of Crimea and the Nogai Horde into the region of Rus' then controlled earlier by the Grand Duchy of Moscow and later Tsardom of Russia and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (later part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth).

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Critical realism is a philosophical approach associated with Roy Bhaskar that combines a general philosophy of science (transcendental realism) with a philosophy of social science (critical naturalism) to describe an interface between the natural and social worlds.

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Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a sovereign state at the crossroads of Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and the Mediterranean.

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A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents, such as atoms, molecules or ions, are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.

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Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country in the Caribbean comprising the main island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud and several archipelagos.

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The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis (Crisis de octubre), The Missile Scare, or the Caribbean Crisis (Карибский кризис, tr. Karibskiy krizis), was a 13-day (October 16–28, 1962) confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union over Soviet ballistic missiles deployed in Cuba.

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A cult of personality arises when an individual uses mass media, propaganda, or other methods, to create an idealized, heroic, and at times, worshipful image, often through unquestioning flattery and praise.

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The name Cumania originated as the Latin exonym for the Cuman-Kipchak confederation, which was a Turkic confederation in the western part of the Eurasian Steppe, between the 10th and 13th centuries.

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The Czech Republic (Česká republika) is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.

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The Republic of Dagestan (or; Респу́блика Дагеста́н, Respublika Dagestan), also spelled Daghestan, is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia, located in the North Caucasus region.

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David Fyodorovich Oistrakh (– 24 October 1974) was a renowned Soviet classical violinist and violist.

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DDT (or ДДТ in Cyrillic) is a popular Russian rock band founded by its lead singer and the only remaining original member, Yuri Shevchuk (Юрий Шевчук), in Ufa (Bashkir ASSR, RSFSR) in 1980.

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De-Stalinization (Russian: десталинизация, Destalinizatsiya) refers to a process of political reform in the Soviet Union that took place after the death of long-time leader Joseph Stalin in 1953.

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The Decembrist revolt or the Decembrist uprising (translit: Vosstanie dekabristov) took place in Imperial Russia on.

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Decentralization or decentralisation is the process of redistributing or dispersing functions, powers, people or things away from a central location or authority.

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A declaration of war is a formal act by which one nation goes to war against another.

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Ded Moroz (Дед Мороз, Дзед Мароз, Ukrainian Дід Мороз, diminutive Dedushka Moroz Дедушка Мороз) is a Slavic fictional character similar to that of Father Christmas.

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Defender of the Fatherland Day (День защитника Отечества / Den' zashchitnika Otechestva) is a holiday observed in Russia, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and several other former republics of the Soviet Union.

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The Defense industry of Russia is a strategically important sector and a large employer in Russia.

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The Democracy Index is an index compiled by the Economist Intelligence Unit, that measures the state of democracy in 167 countries, of which 166 are sovereign states and 165 are United Nations member states.

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Denis Ivanovich Fonvizin (Дени́с Ива́нович Фонви́зин, from von Wiesen) was a playwright of the Russian Enlightenment, whose plays are still staged today.

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Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.

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The Diomede Islands (острова́ Диоми́да, ostrová Diomída), also known in Russia as Gvozdev Islands (острова́ Гво́здева, ostrová Gvozdjeva), consist of two rocky, tuya-like islands.

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Dionisius (Диони́сий, variously transliterated as Dionisy, Dionysiy, etc., also Dionisius the Wise) (ca. 1440 – 1502) was acknowledged as a head of the Moscow school of icon painters at the turn of the 15th and 16th centuries.

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A dissipative system is a thermodynamically open system which is operating out of, and often far from, thermodynamic equilibrium in an environment with which it exchanges energy and matter.

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The dissolution of the Soviet Union was formally enacted on December 26, 1991, as a result of the declaration no.

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Dmitri Aleksandrovich Hvorostovsky PAR (Дмитрий Александрович Хворостовский, born 16 October 1962), is a Russian operatic baritone.

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Dmitri Iosifovich Ivanovsky (alternative spelling Dmitrii or Dmitry Iwanowski; Дми́трий Ио́сифович Ивано́вский; 1864–1920) was a Russian botanist, the first man to discover viruses (1892) and thus one of the founders of virology.

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Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (a; 8 February 1834 – 2 February 1907 O.S. 27 January 1834 – 20 January 1907) was a Russian chemist and inventor.

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Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich (Дми́трий Дми́триевич Шостако́вич|Dmitriy Dmitrievich Shostakovich,; 25 September 19069 August 1975) was a Russian composer and pianist, and a prominent figure of 20th-century music.

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Saint Dmitry Ivanovich Donskoy (Дми́трий Ива́нович Донско́й,also known as Dimitrii or Demetrius), or Dmitry of the Don, sometimes referred to simply as Dmitry (12 October 1350 in Moscow – 19 May 1389 in Moscow), son of Ivan II the Meek of Moscow (1326–1359), reigned as the Prince of Moscow from 1359 and Grand Prince of Vladimir from 1363 to his death.

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Dmytro Levytsky (Dmitry Grigoryevich Levitsky) (Дмитро Григорович Левицький; Дмитрий Григорьевич Левицкий; May 1735 – 17 April 1822) was a Russian-Ukrainian portrait painter.

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Dmitry Anatolyevich Medvedev (p; born 14 September 1965) is the tenth Prime Minister of Russia, incumbent since 2012.

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Dmitry Mikhaylovich Pozharsky (Дмитрий Михайлович Пожарский) (October 17, 1577 - April 30, 1642), a Rurikid prince, led Russian forces against Polish invaders in 1611-1612 towards the end of the Time of Troubles.

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The Dnieper River is one of the major rivers of Europe (fourth by length), rising near Smolensk, Russia and flowing through Russia, Belarus and Ukraine to the Black Sea.

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Dombay (Домба́й; Доммай) is an urban locality (a resort settlement) under the administrative jurisdiction of the town of republic significance of Karachayevsk in the Karachay-Cherkess Republic, Russia.

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A dome (from Latin: domus) is an architectural element that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere.

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Moscow Domodedovo Airport or Domodedovo International Airport (p) is an international airport located on the territory of Domodedovo, Moscow Oblast, Russia, south-southeast from the centre of Moscow.

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Don Cossacks (Донские казаки) are Cossacks who settled along the middle and lower Don.

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The double-headed eagle is a common symbol in heraldry and vexillology.

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Dressed herring, colloquially known as herring under a fur coat or just fur coat (Сельдь под шубой - Seld Pod Shuboi, Шуба - Shuba) is a layered salad composed of diced salted herring covered with layers of grated boiled vegetables (potatoes, carrots, beet roots), chopped onions, and mayonnaise.

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Dymkovo toys, also known as the Vyatka toys or Kirov toys (Дымковская игрушка, вятская игрушка, кировская игрушка in Russian) are moulded painted clay figures of people and animals (sometimes in the form of a pennywhistle).

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David Abelevich Kaufman (Дави́д А́белевич Ка́уфман.) (2 January 1896 – 12 February 1954) — also known as Denis Kaufman or his pseudonym Dziga Vertov or Vertof (Дзи́га Ве́ртов, "spinning top") — was a Soviet pioneer documentary film, newsreel director and cinema theorist.

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The East European Plain (also called the Russian Plain, "Extending from eastern Poland to the Urals, the East European Plain encompasses all of the Baltic states and Belarus, nearly all of Ukraine, and much of the European portion of Russia and reaches north into Finland." — Britannica. predominantly by Russian scientists, or historically the Sarmatic Plain) is a vast interior plain extending east of the Polish Plain (Middle European), and comprising several plateaus stretching roughly from 25 degrees longitude eastward.

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East Germany, formally the German Democratic Republic or GDR (Deutsche Demokratische Republik, or DDR), was a state in the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.

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East Prussia (Ostpreußen,; Borussia orientalis; Восточная Пруссия) was the main part of the region of Prussia along the southeastern Baltic Coast from the 13th century to the end of World War II in May 1945.

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The East Siberian Sea (Russian: r) is a marginal sea in the Arctic Ocean.

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The East Slavic languages constitute one of three regional subgroups of Slavic languages, currently spoken in Eastern Europe.

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The East Slavs are Slavic peoples speaking East Slavic languages.

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Eastern Bloc was the name used by NATO-affiliated countries for the former communist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.

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The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other allies, which encompassed Northern, Southern and Central and Eastern Europe from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.

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The Eastern Orthodox Church, officially the Orthodox Catholic Church, also referred to as the Orthodox Church, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Orthodoxy, is the second largest Christian Church in the world, with an estimated 225–300 million adherents.

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An Orthodox church as a church building of Eastern Orthodoxy has a distinct, recognizable family of styles among church architectures.

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The Eastern Siberia–Pacific Ocean oil pipeline (ESPO pipeline, Нефтепровод "Восточная Сибирь - Тихий океан" (ВСТО)) is a pipeline system for exporting Russian crude oil to the Asia-Pacific markets (Japan, China and Korea).

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Russia has a high-income mixed economy with state ownership in strategic areas of the economy.

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The economy of the Soviet Union was based on a system of state ownership of the means of production, collective farming, industrial manufacturing and centralized administrative planning.

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Efficient energy use, sometimes simply called energy efficiency, is the goal to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services.

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Eid al-Adha (عيد الأضحى,, "Festival of the Sacrifice"), also called the Feast of Sacrifice or Bakr-Eid, is the second of two religious holidays celebrated by Muslims worldwide each year.

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Eid al-Fitr (عيد الفطر,, "festival of breaking of the fast"), also called Feast of Breaking the Fast, the Sugar Feast, Bayram (Bajram), the Sweet Festival or Hari Raya Puasa and the Lesser Eid, is an important religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting (sawm).

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Lazar Markovich Lissitzky (Ла́зарь Ма́ркович Лиси́цкий) (– December 30, 1941), better known as El Lissitzky (Эль Лиси́цкий, על ליסיצקי), was a Russian artist, designer, photographer, typographer, polemicist and architect.

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Eldar Aleksandrovich Ryazanov (Эльда́р Алекса́ндрович Ряза́нов; b. 18 November 1927) is a Soviet/Russian film director whose comedies, satirizing the daily life of the country, are very famous throughout the former Soviet Union.

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An electric arc or arc discharge is an electrical breakdown of a gas that produces an ongoing plasma discharge, resulting from a current through normally nonconductive media such as air.

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An electric light is a device that produces visible light by the flow of electric current.

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Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) or electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is a technique for studying materials with unpaired electrons.

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Elena Vasiliyevna Obraztsova (Елена Васильевна Образцова; 7 July 1939 – 12 January 2015) was a Russian mezzo-soprano.

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Elizaveta Petrovna (Елизаве́та (Елисаве́т) Петро́вна) (–), also known as Yelisaveta and Elizabeth, was the Empress of Russia from 1741 until her death.

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The Emancipation Reform of 1861 in Russia (Крестьянская реформа 1861 год, Krestyanskaya reforma 1861 goda, literally: "the Peasant Reform of 1861") was the first and most important of liberal reforms effected during the reign (1855-1881) of Emperor Alexander II of Russia.

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Emil Grigoryevich Gilels (sometimes transliterated Hilels; Емі́ль Григо́рович Гі́лельс,, Эми́ль Григо́рьевич Ги́лельс, Emiľ Grigoriević Gileľs; October 19, 1916 – October 14, 1985) was a Soviet pianist, widely regarded as one of the greatest pianists of the 20th century.

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The was the historical Japanese nation-state that existed from the Meiji Restoration on January 3, 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.

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The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Energy conservation refers to reducing energy consumption through using less of an energy service.

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An energy superpower is a nation that supplies large amounts of energy resources (crude oil, natural gas, coal, uranium, etc.) to a significant number of other states, and therefore has the potential to influence world markets to gain a political or economic advantage.

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The environment of Russia.

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The Era of Stagnation (also called the Period of Stagnation, Stagnation Period, Stagnation Era, the Brezhnevian Stagnation, or the Brezhnev Stagnation) was a period of economic, political, and social stagnation in the Soviet Union, which began during the rule of Leonid Brezhnev (1964–1982) and continued under Yuri Andropov (1982–1984) and Konstantin Chernenko (1984–1985).

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Ernst Iosifovich Neizvestny (Эрнст Ио́сифович Неизве́стный) (born 1925) is a Russian-American sculptor, painter, graphic artist, and art philosopher.

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Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.

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Eurasia is the combined continental landmass of Asia and Europe.

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The Eurasian Economic Community (EAEC or EurAsEC) was a regional organisation between 2000 and 2014 which aimed for the economic integration of its member states.

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The Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU or EEU)Both acronyms are used as per the.

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Eurasianism (Евразийство, Yevraziystvo) is a political movement in Russia, formerly within the primarily Russian émigré community, that is focused on the geopolitical concept of Eurasia.

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The 2007 FIBA European Championship, commonly called FIBA EuroBasket 2007, was the 35th FIBA EuroBasket regional basketball championship held by FIBA Europe, which also served as Europe qualifier for the 2008 Summer Olympics, giving a berth to the champion and runner-up teams (or to the third-placed team in case Spain should reach the final).

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The Turkish Airlines Euroleague, commonly known as the Euroleague, is the highest level tier and most important professional club basketball competition in Europe, with teams from up to 18 different countries, members of FIBA Europe.

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The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) (formally the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms) is an international treaty to protect human rights and fundamental freedoms in Europe.

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The term "European Russia" was used in the Russian Empire to refer to traditional East Slavic territories under Russian control, including what is now Belarus and most of Ukraine (Dnieper Ukraine).

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The European Union (EU) is a politico-economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Evgeny Igorevitch Kissin (Евге́ний И́горевич Ки́син, Yevgeniy Igorevich Kisin; born 10 October 1971) is a Russian–British classical pianist.

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Extravehicular activity (EVA) is any activity done by an astronaut or cosmonaut outside a spacecraft beyond the Earth's appreciable atmosphere.

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The Extreme North or Far North (Крайний Север, Дальний Север) is a large part of Russia located mainly north of the Arctic Circle and boasting enormous mineral and natural resources.

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Fabian Gottlieb Thaddeus von Bellingshausen (–; Фаддей Фаддеевич Беллинсгаузен, Faddey Faddeyevich Bellinsgauzen), a Baltic-German officer in the Imperial Russian Navy, cartographer and explorer, ultimately rose to the rank of Admiral.

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The Fall of Constantinople (Άλωση της Κωνσταντινούπολης, Alōsē tēs Kōnstantinoupolēs; İstanbul'un Fethi Conquest of Istanbul) was the capture of the capital of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire by an invading army of the Ottoman Empire on Tuesday, 29 May 1453.

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Far Eastern Federal University (Дальневосто́чный федера́льный университе́т, Dalnevostochny federalny universitet) is an institution of higher education located in Vladivostok, Russia.

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Football Club Zenit (Футбо́льный клуб «Зени́т», Zenith), also known as Zenit Saint Petersburg, is a Russian football club from the city of Saint Petersburg.

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The February Revolution (p) of 1917 was the first of two revolutions in Russia in 1917.

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The Federal Assembly (p) is the national legislature of the Russian Federation, according to the Constitution of Russian Federation (1993).

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City of federal importance (Город федерального значения) or federal city in Russia is a city which has a status of both an inhabited locality and a constituent federal subject.

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The term Federal city (Bundesstadt in German) is a title for certain cities in Germany, Switzerland, the Russian Federation, and the United States.

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The federal districts (федера́льные округа́, federalnyye okruga) are groupings of the federal subjects of Russia.

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Federal law is the body of law created by the federal government of a country.

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The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (субъекты Российской Федерации subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (субъекты федерации subyekty federatsii), are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia.

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Federalism is a political concept in which a group of members are bound together by covenant (Latin: foedus, covenant) with a governing representative head.

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A federation (from Latin: foedus, gen.: foederis, "covenant"), also known as a federal state, is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing states or regions under a central (federal) government.

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Federation Council (Сове́т Федера́ции; Sovet Federatsii) is the upper house of the Federal Assembly of Russia (the parliament of the Russian Federation), according to the 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation.

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Federation Island (rus: Остров "Федерация") is an artificial island archipelago that was projected to be located off the coast of Sochi, Russia, in the Black Sea.

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Fedor Vladimirovich Emelianenko (r) (born 28 September 1976) is a Russian Heavyweight mixed martial artist (MMA), sambist, and judoka.

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Fedot Alekseyevich Popov (Федот Алексеевич Попов, also Fedot Alekseyev, Федот Алексеев; nickname Kholmogorian, Холмогорец, for his place of birth (Kholmogory), date of birth unknown, died between 1648 and 1654) was a Russian explorer who organized the first European expedition through the Bering Strait.

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Feodor Ivanovich Chaliapin (pron; April 12, 1938) was a Russian opera singer.

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Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.

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The Fields Medal is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematicians under 40 years of age at the International Congress of the International Mathematical Union (IMU), a meeting that takes place every four years.

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The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.

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The FIFA World Cup Dream Team is an all-time FIFA World Cup all-star team published by FIFA in 2002 after conducting an internet poll of fans to select a World Cup dream team.

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Figure skating is a sport and activity in which individuals, duos, or groups perform on figure skates on ice.

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Figure skating at the 2010 Winter Olympics was held at the Pacific Coliseum in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

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In economics, any commodity which is produced and subsequently consumed by the consumer, to satisfy its current wants or needs, is a consumer good or final good.

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The term financial crisis is applied broadly to a variety of situations in which some financial assets suddenly lose a large part of their nominal value.

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Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe bordered by Sweden to the west, Norway to the north, and Russia to the east; Estonia lies to the south across the Gulf of Finland.

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The Finno-Ugric peoples are any of several peoples of Eurasia who speak languages of the Finno-Ugric group of the Uralic language family, such as the Khanty, Mansi, Hungarians, Maris, Mordvins, Sámi, Estonians, Karelians, Finns, Udmurts and Komis.

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The Fire of Moscow (1571) occurred in May of that year when the forces of the Crimean khan Devlet I Giray raided the city Moscow during the Russo–Crimean Wars.

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The First Chechen War, also known as the War in Chechnya, was a conflict between the Russian Federation and the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, fought from December 1994 to August 1996.

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The first Russian circumnavigation of the Earth took place from August 1803 to August 1806.

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This page lists the world fisheries production for 2005.

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The flag of Russia is a tricolor flag consisting of three equal horizontal fields; white on the top, blue in the middle and red on the bottom.

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A flat tax (short for flat tax rate) is a tax system with a constant marginal rate, usually applied to individual or corporate income.

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In a number of countries, plants have been chosen as symbols to represent specific geographic areas.

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Folk culture refers to the unifying expressive components of everyday life as enacted by localized, tradition-bound groups.

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Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.

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Russian folklore takes its roots in the pagan beliefs of ancient Slavs and now is represented in the Russian fairy tales.

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The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; French: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Italian: Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is an agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.

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Formula One (also Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of single-seat auto racing that is sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA).

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Fort Ross (Форт-Росс), originally Fortress Ross (Крѣпость Россъ, r Krepostʹ Ross) is a former Russian establishment on the west coast of North America in what is now Sonoma County, California, in the United States.

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Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli (Russian: Франче́ско Бартоломе́о (Варфоломе́й Варфоломеевич) Растрелли; 1700 in Paris, France – 29 April 1771 in Saint Petersburg, Russia) was an Italian architect whose entire career was spent in Russia.

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Franz Josef Land, Franz Joseph Land or Francis Joseph's Land (Земля Франца-Иосифа, Zemlya Frantsa-Iosifa) is an uninhabited archipelago located in the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea and Kara Sea, constituting the northernmost part of Arkhangelsk Oblast in Russia.

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Free education refers to education that is funded through taxation or charitable organizations rather than tuition fees.

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Free trade is a policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.

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Freedom House is a U.S. based government fundedGiannonea, Diego (2010)."Political and ideological aspects in the measurement of democracy: the Freedom House case".

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Freedom in the World is a yearly survey and report by the U.S.-based non-governmental organization Freedom House that measures the degree of civil liberties and political rights in every nation and significant disputed territories around the world.

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Freedom of assembly, sometimes used interchangeably with the freedom of association, is the individual right or ability to come together and collectively express, promote, pursue, and defend their ideas.

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Freedom of speech is the right to communicate one's opinions and ideas without fear of government retaliation or censorship.

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The issue of freedom of the press in Russia involves both the ability of directors of mass media outlets to carry out independent policies and the ability of journalists to access sources of information and to work without outside pressure.

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The French Invasion of Russia, known in Russia as the Patriotic War of 1812 (Отечественная война 1812 года; Otechestvennaya Voyna 1812 Goda) and in France as the Russian Campaign (Campagne de Russie), began on 24 June 1812 when Napoleon's Grande Armée crossed the Neman River in an attempt to engage and defeat the Russian army.

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Fresco (plural frescos or frescoes) is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly-laid, or wet lime plaster.

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Fresh water is naturally occurring water on the Earth's surface in ice sheets, ice caps, glaciers, icebergs, bogs, ponds, lakes, rivers and streams, and underground as groundwater in aquifers and underground streams.

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Functionalism, in architecture, is the principle that architects should design a building based on the purpose of that building.

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The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur.

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Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoyevsky (a; 11 November 1821 – 9 February 1881), sometimes transliterated Dostoevsky, was a Russian novelist, short story writer, essayist, journalist and philosopher.

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Fyodor Savelyevich Khitruk (Фёдор Саве́льевич Хитру́к; 1 May 1917 – 3 December 2012) was a Russian animator and animation director.

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The Group of Twenty (also known as the G-20 or G20) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from 20 major economies.

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The Group of Eight is a governmental political forum.

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Galina Sergeyevna Ulánova (Галина Серге́евна Ула́нова, 21 March 1998) was a Russian ballet dancer.

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Galina Pavlovna Vishnevskaya (née Ivanova, Гали́на Па́вловна Вишне́вская; 25 October 192611 December 2012) was a Russian soprano opera singer and recitalist who was named a People's Artist of the USSR in 1966.

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The garmon (p, from garmonika (p), which means "harmonics") is a kind of Russian button accordion, a free-reed wind instrument.

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The Great Gatchina Palace (Большой Гатчинский дворец) was built in 1766–1781 in Gatchina town (near St. Pertersburg) by Antonio Rinaldi for Count Grigori Grigoryevich Orlov who was a favourite of Catherine II.

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Gdańsk Bay or the Bay of Gdańsk or Danzig Bay (Zatoka Gdańska; Gduńskô Hôwinga; Гданьская бухта, Gdan'skaja bukhta, and Danziger Bucht) is a southeastern bay of the Baltic Sea.

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Gender inequality refers to unequal treatment or perceptions of individuals based on their gender.

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General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Генеральный секретарь ЦК КПСС) was the title given to the leader of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

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In mathematics, particularly differential geometry, a geodesic is a generalization of the notion of a "straight line" to "curved spaces".

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The geology of Russia, the world's largest country, which extends over much of northern Eurasia, consists of several stable cratons and sedimentary platforms bounded by orogenic (mountain) belts.

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Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.

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George Gamow (August 19, 1968), born Georgiy Antonovich Gamov (Russian: Гео́ргий Анто́нович Га́мов), was a theoretical physicist and cosmologist – notably an early advocate and developer of Lemaître's Big Bang theory.

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Georgia (საქართველო, tr. Sakartvelo) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.

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Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (– 18 June 1974), was a Soviet career officer in the Red Army who, in the course of World War II, played the most pivotal role in leading the Red Army drive through much of Eastern Europe to liberate the Soviet Union and other nations from the occupation of the Axis Powers and, ultimately, to conquer Berlin.

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The Gerasimov Institute of Cinematography (Всероссийский государственный университет кинематографии имени С.А.Герасимова, meaning All-Russian State University of Cinematography named after S. A. Gerasimov), aka VGIK, is a film school in Moscow, Russia.

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The German occupation of Czechoslovakia (1938–1945) began with the Nazi annexation of Czechoslovakia's northern and western border regions, known collectively as the Sudetenland, under terms outlined by the Munich Agreement.

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Gidon Kremer (Gidons Krēmers; born 27 February 1947) is a Latvian classical violinist and conductor.

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Glasnost (гла́сность,, lit. "publicity") has several general and specific meanings.

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Gleb Yevgeniyevich Kotelnikov (Котельников, Глеб Евгеньевич in Russian, – November 22, 1944), was the Russian-Soviet inventor of the knapsack parachute (first in the hard casing and then in the soft pack), and braking parachute.

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A global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center, is a city generally considered to be an important node in the global economic system.

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The Global Peace Index (GPI) is an attempt to measure the relative position of nations' and regions' peacefulness.

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GLONASS (ГЛОНАСС,; Глобальная навигационная спутниковая система; transliteration), or "GLObal NAvigation Satellite System", is a space-based satellite navigation system operated by the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces.

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The term Golden Age (Chryson Genos) comes from Greek mythology and legend and refers to the first in a sequence of four or five (or more) Ages of Man, in which the Golden Age is first, followed in sequence, by the Silver, Bronze, Heroic, and then the present (Iron), which is a period of decline, sometimes followed by the Leaden Age.

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Golden Age of Russian Poetry is the name traditionally applied by Russian philologists to the first half of the 19th century.

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The Golden Horde (Алтан Орд, Altan Ordu, Зүчийн улс, Züchii-in Uls; r; Алтын Урда Altın Urda) was a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.

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The Golden Ring (Золото́е кольцо&#769) is a ring of cities northeast of Moscow, the capital of Russia.

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The Government of the Russian Federation (Прави́тельство Росси́йской Федера́ции) exercises executive power in the Russian Federation.

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The Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Правительство СССР) was the main body of the executive branch of government in the Soviet Union.

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The government reforms of Peter I were aimed at modernizing the Tsardom of Russia (later the Russian Empire) based on Western and Central European models.

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The Governorate of Est(h)onia (Eestimaa kubermang) or Province of Estonia, also known as the Government of Estonia, was a governorate of the Russian Empire in what is now northern Estonia.

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The Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское, Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye), or Grand Principality of Moscow (also known in English simply as Muscovy), was a late medieval Rus' principality centered on Moscow and the predecessor state of the early modern Tsardom of Russia.

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The Grande Armée (French for Great Army) was the army commanded by Napoleon during the Napoleonic Wars.

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Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.

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Grazhdanskaya Oborona (Russian: Гражданская Оборона), Russian for Civil Defense, or ГО, often referred to as ГрОб, Russian for coffin) were one of the earliest Soviet and Russian psychedelic/punk rock bands. They influenced many Soviet and, subsequently, Russian bands. From the early 1990s, the band's music began to evolve in the direction of psychedelic rock and shoegaze, and band leader Yegor Letov's lyrics became more metaphysical than political.

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Great Lent, or the Great Fast, (Greek: Μεγάλη Τεσσαρακοστή or Μεγάλη Νηστεία, meaning "Great 40 Days," and "Great Fast," respectively) is the most important fasting season in the church year in Orthodox Christianity including Western Rite Orthodoxy, which prepares Christians for the greatest feast of the church year, Pascha (Easter).

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The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Central, Northern, and Eastern Europe.

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The term Great Patriotic War (Вели́кая Оте́чественная война́, Velíkaya Otéchestvennaya voyná) is used in Russia and some other former republics of the Soviet Union to describe the conflict fought during the period from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945 along the many fronts of the Eastern Front of World War II between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany with its allies.

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A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.

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The Great Purge or the Great Terror (Большой террор) was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union which occurred from 1936 to 1938.

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The Global Recession was the general economic decline observed in world markets around the end of the first decade of the 21st century.

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Grigori Yakovlevich Perelman (a; Григо́рий Я́ковлевич Перельма́н; born 13 June 1966) is a Russian mathematician who made landmark contributions to Riemannian geometry and geometric topology before apparently withdrawing from mathematics.

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Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is a measure of the size of an economy.

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Groundwater (or ground water) is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.

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The Gulag (ru-Gulag.ogg) was the government agency that administered the main Soviet forced labor camp systems during the Stalin era, from the 1930s until the 1950s.

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The Gulf of Finland (Suomenlahti; Soome laht; p; Finska viken) is the easternmost arm of the Baltic Sea.

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Gusli (p) is the oldest Russian multi-string plucked instrument.

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Gzhel is a Russian style of ceramics which takes its name from the village of Gzhel and surrounding area, where it has been produced since 1802.

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The hammer and sickle (☭) or sickle and hammer (Серп и молот) is a Communist symbol that was conceived during the Russian Revolution.

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A handicraft, sometimes more precisely expressed as artisanal handicraft or handmade, is any of a wide variety of types of work where useful and decorative objects are made completely by hand or by using only simple tools.

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The Hanseatic League (also known as the Hanse or Hansa; Hanse, Dudesche Hanse, Hansa, Hansa Teutonica or Liga Hanseatica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and their market towns.

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Head of government is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony who often presides over a cabinet.

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A head of state is the highest-ranking constitutional position in a sovereign state and is vested with powers to act as the chief public representative of that state.

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Heavy industry is industry that involves one or more characteristics such as large and heavy products; large and heavy equipment and facilities (such as heavy equipment, large machine tools, and huge buildings); or complex or numerous processes.

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Heavy metal is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United Kingdom and the United States.

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The State Hermitage (p, Gosudarstvenny Ermitazh) is a museum of art and culture in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Hero City is a Soviet honorary title awarded for outstanding heroism during World War II (Eastern Front was known in the former Soviet Union as The Great Patriotic War).

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Hertza region (Край Герца, Kraj Herca; Ţinutul Herța) is a border region within an administrative district (raion) of Hertsa (Herţa) in the southern part of Chernivtsi Oblast in southwestern Ukraine, near Romania.

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A heterojunction is the interface that occurs between two layers or regions of dissimilar crystalline semiconductors.

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The history of Russia begins with that of the Eastern Slavs and the Finno-Ugric peoples.

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The History of Russian animation is the film art produced by Russian animation makers.

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The vast territories of the Russian Empire at one time hosted the largest population of Jews in the world.

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The Russo-Turkish wars were a series of wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 20th centuries.

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, formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is Japan's second largest island; it is also the largest and northernmost of Japan's 47 prefectures.

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Holography is the science and practice of making holograms.

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The first use of horses in warfare occurred over 5,000 years ago.

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The House of Romanov (Рома́нов) was the second imperial dynasty, after the Rurik dynasty, to rule over Russia, which reigned from 1613 until the abdication of Emperor Nicholas II on March 15, 1917, as a result of the February Revolution.

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Household plot is a legally defined farm type in all former socialist countries in CIS and CEE.

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Human capital flight, sometimes called brain drain, refers to the emigration of intelligent, well-educated individuals for better pay or conditions, causing their places of origin to lose skilled people, or "brains." Typically, such emigrating individuals have learned English and have moved to the United Kingdom, the United States or some other English-speaking country.

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Human rights instruments, including the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (fully) and the European Convention of Human Rights (with reservations).

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Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.

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A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russian German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold) winters.

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A humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa or Cwa) is a zone of subtropical climate characterised by hot, usually humid summers and mild to cool winters.

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The Huns were a nomadic group of people who are known to have lived in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Central Asia between the 1st century AD and the 7th century.

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Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water.

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Ice dancing is a discipline of figure skating that draws from ballroom dancing.

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Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points.

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Ice hockey tournaments have been staged at the Olympic Games since 1920.

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Igor I (Old East Slavic/Russian: Игорь; Ukrainian: Ігор; Old Norse: Ingvar) was a Varangian ruler of Kievan Rus' from 912 to 945.

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Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky (a, tr. Ígor' Ivánovič Sikórskij; May 25, 1889 – October 26, 1972),Fortier, Rénald.

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Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (sometimes spelled Strawinski, Strawinsky, or Stravinskii; ˈiɡərʲ ˈfʲɵdərəvʲɪtɕ strɐˈvʲinskʲɪj; 6 April 1971) was a Russian (and later, a naturalized French and American) composer, pianist and conductor.

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Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm (a; 8 July 1895 – 12 April 1971) was a Soviet physicist who received the 1958 Nobel Prize in Physics, jointly with Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov and Ilya Frank, for their 1934 discovery of Cherenkov radiation.

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Ilya Ilf (Ilya Arnoldovich Feinsilberg (Илья Арнольдович Файнзильберг, 1897–1937) and Evgeny or Yevgeni Petrov (Yevgeniy Petrovich Kataev or Katayev (Евгений Петрович Катаев, 1903–1942) were two Soviet prose authors of the 1920s and 1930s. They did much of their writing together, and are almost always referred to as "Ilf and Petrov". They were natives of Odessa.

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There are an estimated 4 million illegal immigrants from the ex-Soviet states in Russia.

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Ilya Muromets (Илья Муромец), known in the US as The Sword and the Dragon and in the UK as The Epic Hero and the Beast (significantly altered versions), is a Soviet fantasy film directed by the noted fantasy director Aleksandr Ptushko, made at Mosfilm and released in 1956.

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Viscount Ilya Romanovich Prigogine (Илья́ Рома́нович Приго́жин, Ilya Romanovich Prigozhin; 25 January 1917 – 28 May 2003) was a Belgian physical chemist and Nobel Laureate noted for his work on dissipative structures, complex systems, and irreversibility.

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Ilya Yefimovich Repin (Илья́ Ефи́мович Ре́пин, Ілля Юхимович Рєпін; – 29 September 1930) was a Russian realist painter.

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Immigration is the movement of people into a destination country to which they are not native or do not possess its citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take-up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.

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The immune system is a system of many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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Impeachment is a formal process in which an official is accused of unlawful activity, the outcome of which, depending on the country, may include the removal of that official from office as well as criminal or civil punishment.

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Articles related to the former nation known as the Soviet Union include.

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India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.

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Indo-Russian relations refer to the bilateral relations between the Republic of India and the Russian Federation.

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The Indo-European languages are a family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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Historical Ingria (Inkeri or Inkerinmaa; Ингрия, Ingriya, Ижорская земля, Izhorskaya zemlya, or Ингерманландия, Ingermanlandiya; Ingermanland; Ingeri or Ingerimaa) is the geographical area located along the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland - bordered by Lake Ladoga on the Karelian Isthmus in the north and by the River Narva on the border with Estonia in the west.

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The Ingush (ГIалгIай,, pronounced) are a Caucasian native ethnic group of the North Caucasus, mostly inhabiting the Russian republic of Ingushetia.

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The Republic of Ingushetia (rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə ɪnɡʊˈʂetʲɪjə; Гӏалгӏай Мохк), also referred to as simply Ingushetia, is a federal subject of Russia (a republic), located in the North Caucasus region.

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Innovation is a new idea, more effective device or process.

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The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.

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The International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF; French: Fédération internationale de hockey sur glace) is a worldwide governing body for ice hockey and in-line hockey.

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The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, DC, of "188 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world".

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The International Olympic Committee (IOC; Comité international olympique, CIO) is an international, non-profit, non-governmental organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre, Baron de Coubertin, on 23 June 1894 with Demetrios Vikelas as its first president.

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The following are international rankings of Russia.

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The "Council for Mutual Economic Assistance" (Comecon) was an economic organization of communist states, created in 1949, and dissolved in 1991, with the collapse of the Soviet Union.

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The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.

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International Studies Quarterly is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal of international studies and the official journal of the International Studies Association.

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International Women's Day (IWD), originally called International Working Women's Day, is celebrated on March 8 every year.

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International Workers' Day, also known as Labour Day in some places, is a celebration of laborers and the working classes that is promoted by the international labor movement, anarchists, socialists, and communists and occurs every year on May Day, 1 May, an ancient European spring holiday.

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The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link billions of devices worldwide.

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Ipatiev House (Russian: Дом Ипатьева) was a merchant's house in Yekaterinburg where the former Emperor Nicholas II of Russia, his family and members of his household were murdered following the Bolshevik Revolution.

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Ipatovo kurgan refers to kurgan 2 of the Ipatovo Barrow Cemetery 3, a cemetery of kurgan burial mounds, located near the town of Ipatovo in Stavropol Krai, Russia, some northeast of Stavropol.

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Ipsos MORI is the second largest market research organisation in the United Kingdom, formed by a merger of Ipsos UK and MORI, two of Britain's leading survey companies, in October 2005.

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Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence of religion, an indifference towards religion, a rejection of religion, or hostility towards religion.

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Isaac Ilyich Levitan (Исаа́к Ильи́ч Левита́н; August 30, 1860 &ndash) was a classical Russian landscape painter who advanced the genre of the "mood landscape.".

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Islam (There are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster). The most common are (Oxford English Dictionary, Random House) and (American Heritage Dictionary). الإسلام,: Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~. In Northwestern Africa, they do not have stress or lengthened vowels.) is a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a religious text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God, and, for the vast majority of adherents, by the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad (circa 570–8 June 632 CE), considered by most of them to be the last prophet of God.

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Islam is the second most widely professed religion in Russia.

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This article summarizes the different branches and various types of schools in Islam.

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Islamism (اسلام پرستی; إسلاموية), also known as Political Islam, is a set of ideologies holding that "Islam should guide social and political as well as personal life." Islamism is a controversial concept not just because it posits a political role for Islam but also because its most extreme advocates believe their Islamic views are superior to all others', and that the contrary idea that Islam is, or can be, apolitical is an error.

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Israel Moiseevich Gelfand, also written Israïl Moyseyovich Gel'fand, or Izrail M. Gelfand (ישראל געלפֿאַנד, Изра́иль Моисе́евич Гельфа́нд; – 5 October 2009) was a Soviet mathematician who is widely considered to be one of the greatest mathematicians of the 20th century.

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ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and Latin for "the way") is an international nuclear fusion research and engineering megaproject, which is currently building the world's largest experimental tokamak nuclear fusion reactor adjacent to the Cadarache facility in the south of France.

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Ivan Petrovich Argunov (Иван Петрович Аргунов) (1729–1802) was a Russian painter, one of the founders of the Russian school of portrait painting.

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Ivan Alekseyevich Bunin (or; a; – 8 November 1953) was the first Russian writer to win the Nobel Prize for Literature.

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Ivan Pyetrovich Ivanov-Vano (Ива́н Петро́вич Ивано́в-Вано́) (January 27, 1900, Moscow – March 25, 1987, Moscow) was a Soviet animator and Russian animation director, sometimes called the "Patriarch of Soviet animation".

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Ivan Nikolaevich Kramskoi (June 8 (O.S. May 27), 1837, Ostrogozhsk – April 6 (O.S. March 24), 1887, Saint Petersburg; Ива́н Никола́евич Крамско́й) was a Russian painter and art critic.

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Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (a; 27 February 1936) was a Russian physiologist known primarily for his work in classical conditioning.

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Ivan Ivanovich Shishkin (Ива́н Ива́нович Ши́шкин; 25 January 1832 – 20 March 1898) was a Russian landscape painter closely associated with the Peredvizhniki movement.

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Ivan IV Vasilyevich (pron; –), commonly known as Ivan the Terrible (Ivan Grozny), was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547 and Tsar of All the Russias from 1547 until his death.

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Ivan Sergeyevich Turgenev (p; September 3, 1883) was a Russian novelist, short story writer, and playwright.

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Ivan Antonovich (real patronymic Antipovich) Yefremov (Ива́н Анто́нович (Анти́пович) Ефре́мов; April 22, 1908 – October 5, 1972), last sometimes spelled Efremov, was a Soviet paleontologist, science fiction author and social thinker.

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Morozko (Морозко, Morózko) is a Soviet film (Gorky Film Studio) originally released in 1964.

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Japan (日本 Nippon or Nihon; formally or Nihon-koku, "State of Japan") is an island country in East Asia.

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Jascha Heifetz (– December 10, 1987) was a violinist, widely considered to be one of the finest violinists of modern times.

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The Jewish Autonomous Oblast (Евре́йская автоно́мная о́бласть, Yevreyskaya avtonomnaya oblast; ייִדישע אווטאָנאָמע געגנט, yidishe avtonome gegntIn standard Yiddish:, yidishe oytonome gegnt) is a federal subject of Russia (an autonomous oblast) in the Russian Far East, bordering with Khabarovsk Krai and Amur Oblast of Russia and with Heilongjiang province of China.

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Joseph Stalin (birth surname: Jughashvili; 18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953.

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The Judiciary of Russia interprets and applies the law of Russia.

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The Julian calendar, introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.

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The Kabardino-Balkar Republic (Кабарди́но-Балка́рская Респу́блика, Kabardino-Balkarskaya Respublika; Kabardian: Къэбэрдей-Балъкъэр Республикэ; Karachay-Balkar: Къабарты-Малкъар Республика), or Kabardino-Balkaria (Кабарди́но-Балка́рия, Kabardino-Balkariya), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic) located in the North Caucasus.

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A kaftan or caftan (Arabic: قفطان qaftân) is a variant of the robe or tunic, versions of which have been worn by several cultures around the world for thousands of years.

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Kaliningrad (p), formerly called Königsberg (Königsberg; r; Old Prussian: Twangste, Kunnegsgarbs, Knigsberg; Królewiec; Karaliaučius), is a seaport city and the administrative center of Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea.

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Kaliningrad Oblast (Калинингра́дская о́бласть, Kaliningradskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), on the Baltic coast.

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The Kalmyk people (Kalmyk: Хальмгуд, Hal'mgud, Mongolian: Халимаг, Khalimag) or Kalmyks are the Oirats in Russia, whose ancestors migrated from Dzungaria in 1607.

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The Republic of Kalmykia (p; Хальмг Таңһч, Hal'mg Tanghch) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).

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The Kamchatka Peninsula (полуо́стров Камча́тка, Poluostrov Kamchatka) is a 1,250-kilometre-long (780 mi) peninsula in the Russian Far East, with an area of about 270,000 km2 (100,000 sq mi).

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Kamov is a Russian rotorcraft manufacturing company, founded by Nikolai Ilyich Kamov, who started building his first rotary-winged aircraft in 1929, together with N. K. Skrzhinskii.

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The Kara Sea (Ка́рское мо́ре, Karskoe More) is part of the Arctic Ocean north of Siberia.

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The Karachay-Cherkess Republic (Карача́ево-Черке́сская Респу́блика, Karachayevo-Cherkesskaya Respublika; Karachay-Balkar: Къарачай-Черкес Республика; Kabardian: Къэрэшей-Шэрджэс Республикэ), also called Karachay-Cherkessia (Karachay-Circassia) (Карача́ево-Черке́сия, Karachayevo-Cherkesiya) and the Karachay-Circassian Republic, is a republic of Russia located in the North Caucasus area of southern European Russia.

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Karelia (Karelian, Finnish and Estonian: Karjala; Карелия, Kareliya; Karelen), the land of the Karelian peoples, is an area in Northern Europe of historical significance for Finland, Russia, and Sweden.

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Karl Pavlovich Bryullov (Карл Па́влович Брюлло́в; 12 December 1799 – 11 June 1852), also transliterated Briullov or Briuloff and referred to by his friends as "The Great Karl", was a Russian painter.

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Kazakhstan (Қазақстан.), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a country in Central Asia, with a minor part west of the Ural River and thus in Europe.

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Kazan (p; Qazan) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia.

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Kazan (Volga region) Federal University (Казанский (Приволжский) федеральный университет; Qazan federal universitetı) is located in Kazan, Tatarstan, Russia.

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Kazan Metro (Каза́нское метро́; Казан метросы Tatar Latin: Qazan metrosı) is a rapid-transit system that serves the city of Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, Russia.

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Kazimir Severinovich Malevich (February 23, 1878 – May 15, 1935) was a Polish-Russian painter and art theoretician.

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The Khanate of Kazan (قازان خانليغى; Russian: Казанское ханство, tr: Kazanskoye khanstvo) was a medieval Bulgarian-Tatar Turkic state which occupied the territory of former Volga Bulgaria between 1438 and 1552.

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The Khanate of Sibir, also historically called the Khanate of Turan, was a Uralo-Siberian Tatar Khanate located in southwestern Siberia.

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The Khazars (Hazarlar, Xäzärlär., כוזרים (Kuzarim), خزر (khazar), Хаза́ры, خزر, Χάζαροι, p./Cosri/Gasani) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people, who created what for its duration was the most powerful polity to emerge from the breakup of the western Turkish steppe empire, known as the Khazar Khanate or Khazaria.

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The Khmelnytsky Uprising (Повстання Хмельницького; also known as the Khmel'nyts'kyi/Chmielnicki Uprising or Ukrainian War of Liberation) was a Cossack rebellion in Ukraine between the years 1648–1657 which turned into a Ukrainian war of liberation from Poland.

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Khokhloma or Khokhloma painting (Хохлома or Хохломская роспись in Russian, or Khokhlomskaya rospis') is the name of a Russian wood painting handicraft style and national ornament, known for its vivid flower patterns, red and gold colors over a black background, and the effect it has when applied to wooden tableware or furniture, making it look heavier and metal-like.

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The Khrushchev Thaw (or Khrushchev's Thaw; p or simply Ottepel)William Taubman, Khrushchev: The Man and His Era, London: Free Press, 2004 refers to the period from the early 1950s to the early 1960s when repression and censorship in the Soviet Union were relaxed, and millions of Soviet political prisoners were released from Gulag labor camps due to Nikita Khrushchev's policies of de-Stalinization and peaceful coexistence with other nations.

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Kiev or Kyiv (Київ; Киев) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper River.

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Kievan Rus' (Old East Slavic Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Greek Ῥωσία, Latin Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia, Old Norse Garðaríki) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.

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The Principality of Galicia–Volhynia, or Kingdom of Ruthenia (Old Ruthenian Галицко-Волинскоє князство, Королѣвство Русь, Галицько-Волинське князівство, Королівство Русі, Regnum Galiciae et Lodomeriae, Regnum Russiae), was a state in the regions of Galicia and Volhynia of present-day Ukraine that was formed after the conquest of Galicia by the Prince of Volhynia Roman the Great with the help of Leszek the White of Poland.

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The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918 and included parts of present-day Germany, Poland, Russia, Lithuania, Denmark, Belgium and the Czech Republic.

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Kino (Кино́ "film", also "cinema", often written uppercase, КИНО; pronounced) was an iconic Soviet post-punk band headed by Viktor Tsoi.

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The Kipchak (also spelled Qipchaq, Kypchak, Kupchak or Kıpçak) were a Turkic nomadic people.

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Kipelov (Кипелов) is a Russian heavy metal band formed and led by former Aria vocalist Valery Kipelov.

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Kir Bulychov or Bulychev (Кир Булычёв) (18 October 1934 – 5 September 2003) was a pen name of Igor Vsevolodovich Mozheiko (И́горь Все́володович Може́йко), a Soviet Russian science fiction writer and historian.

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Klyuchevskaya Sopka (Ключевская сопка; also known as Kliuchevskoi, Ключевской) is a stratovolcano, the highest mountain on the Kamchatka Peninsula of Russia and the highest active volcano of Eurasia.

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The kokoshnik (p) is a traditional Russian head-dresses worn by women and girls to accompany the sarafan, primarily worn in the northern regions of Russia in the 16th to 19th centuries.

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A kolkhoz (p, колгосп,, plural kolkhozes) was a form of collective farm in the Soviet Union.

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Kolomenskoye (Коло́менское) is a former royal estate situated several kilometers to the southeast of the city center of Moscow, Russia, on the ancient road leading to the town of Kolomna (hence the name).

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Konstantin Konstantinovich Khrenov (Константин Константинович Хренов; 13 February 1894 – 12 October 1984) was a Soviet engineer and inventor who in 1932 introduced underwater welding and cutting of metals.

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Konstantin Nikolayevich Leontyev (Константи́н Никола́евич Лео́нтьев; born January 25, 1831 in Kudinovo, Kaluga Governorate; died November 24, 1891 in Sergiyev Posad) was a conservative, monarchist Russian philosopher who advocated closer cultural ties between Russia and the East in order to oppose the catastrophic egalitarian, utilitarian and revolutionary influences from the West.

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Konstantin Konstantinovich (Xaverevich) Rokossovsky (Konstanty Ksawerowicz Rokossowski, Константи́н Константи́нович (Ксаве́рьевич) Рокоссо́вский; – August 3, 1968) was a Soviet officer of Polish origin who became Marshal of the Soviet Union, Marshal of Poland and served as Poland's Defence Minister.

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Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky (a; Konstanty Ciołkowski; 19 September 1935) was a Russian and Soviet rocket scientist and pioneer of the astronautic theory, of Polish and Russian descent.

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The Kontinental Hockey League (KHL) (Континентальная хоккейная лига (КХЛ), Kontinental'naya hokkeynaya liga) is an international professional ice hockey league founded in 2008.

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Korol' i Shut (King and Jester, Король и Шут) were a Russian horror punk band from Saint Petersburg that took inspiration and costumes from tales and fables.

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A kosovorotka (p) is a Russian, skewed-collared shirt.

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The Russian Federation is divided into 85 subjects, of which nine are krais, or krays ("edges" or "frontiers", sing. krai or kray).

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Krasnodar Krai (p) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai), located in the Southern Federal District.

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A kremlin (ˈkrʲemlʲ, fortress; same root as in kremen (krʲɪˈmʲenʲ, flint)) is a major fortified central complex found in historic Russian cities.

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Kuchum Khan, Kuchum Khan of Sibir (Tatar: Küçüm, Күчүм, Russian: Кучум; in Siberian Tatar Köçöm is pronounced approximately as /kœtsœm/ - Көцөм, English name comes from Tatar pronunciation) (died ca. 1605) was the last khan of the Khanate of Sibir (1563–1598).

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Kunashir Island (Кунаши́р; 国後島, Kunashiri-tō; クナシㇼ or クナシㇽ, Kunasir), possibly meaning Black Island or Grass Island in Ainu, is the southernmost island of the Kuril Islands, which is under Russian jurisdiction.

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Kupala Night, also known as Ivan Kupala Day (Feast of St. John the Baptist; Иван-Купала; Купалле; Іван Купала; Noc Kupały), is celebrated in Ukraine, Belarus, Baltic countries and Russia currently on the night of 6/7 July in the Gregorian or New Style calendar, which is 23/24 June in the Julian or Old Style calendar still used by many Orthodox Churches.

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The Kuril Islands or Kurile Islands (or; p; Japanese), in Russia's Sakhalin Oblast region, form a volcanic archipelago that stretches approximately northeast from Hokkaido, Japan, to Kamchatka, Russia, separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the North Pacific Ocean.

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Kuzma (Kozma) Minin (Кузьма́ (Козьма́) Ми́нин; full name Kuzma Minich Zakhariev-Sukhoruky, Кузьма́ Ми́нич Заха́рьев Сухору́кий; died 1616) was a Russian merchant from Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, who, together with Prince Dmitry Pozharsky, became a national hero for his role in defending the country against the Polish invasion in the early-17th century.

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Kuzma Sergeevich Petrov-Vodkin, (1878 – February 15, 1939) was an important Russian and Soviet painter and writer.

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Kvass is a traditional Slavic and Baltic fermented beverage commonly made from black or regular rye bread.

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Kyrgyzstan (Кыргызстан Kyrgyzstan; Киргизия or Кыргызстан), officially the Kyrgyz Republic (Кыргыз Республикасы Kyrgyz Respublikasy; Кыргызская Республика Kyrgyzskaya Respublika), formerly known as Kirghizia, is a country located in Central Asia.

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Lake Baikal (p; Байгал нуур, Байгал нуур, Baygal nuur, etymologically meaning, in Turkic, "the rich lake") is a rift lake in Russia, located in southern Siberia, between Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and the Buryat Republic to the southeast.

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Lake Ladoga (p or p; Laatokka;; Ladog, Ladoganjärv) is a freshwater lake located in the Republic of Karelia and Leningrad Oblast in northwestern Russia just outside the outskirts of Saint Petersburg.

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Lake Onega (also known as Onego, p; Ääninen or Äänisjärvi; Oniegu or Oniegu-järve; Änine or Änižjärv) is a lake in the north-west European part of Russia, located on the territory of Republic of Karelia, Leningrad Oblast and Vologda Oblast.

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This article includes the table with land use statistics by country.

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Of all the languages of Russia, Russian is the only official language.

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The Laptev Sea (мо́ре Ла́птевых, more Laptevykh) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean.

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Larisa Semyonovna Latynina (Лариса Семенівна Латиніна, Лари́са Семёновна Латы́нина; born 27 December 1934) is a former Soviet gymnast.

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A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.

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Latvia (Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe, one of the three Baltic states.

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Left-bank Ukraine (Лівобережна Україна, Livoberezhna Ukrayina; Левобережная Украина, Levoberezhnaya Ukraina; Lewobrzeżna Ukraina) is a historic name of the part of Ukraine on the left (East) bank of the Dnieper River, comprising the modern-day oblasts of Chernihiv, Poltava and Sumy as well as the eastern parts of Kiev and Cherkasy.

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The Lena (Ле́на,; Зүлгэ, Zülge, Buryat: Зүлхэ, Zülhe; Өлүөнэ, Ölüöne) is the easternmost of the three great Siberian rivers that flow into the Arctic Ocean (the other two being the Ob River and the Yenisei River).

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Lenz's law is a common way of understanding how electromagnetic circuits obey Newton's third law and the conservation of energy.

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Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy (Лев Никола́евич Толсто́й,; –), usually referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian novelist regarded as one of the greatest of all time.

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Leon Trotsky (Лев Дави́дович Тро́цкий;; born Lev Davidovich Bronshtein; – 21 August 1940) was a Marxist revolutionary and theorist, Soviet politician, and the founder and first leader of the Red Army.

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Leonhard Euler (17071783) was a pioneering Swiss mathematician and physicist.

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Leonid Nikolaievich Andreyev (Леони́д Никола́евич Андре́ев, – September 12, 1919) was a Russian playwright, novelist and short-story writer.

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Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (a; Леоні́д Іллі́ч Бре́жнєв, 19 December 1906 (O.S. 6 December) – 10 November 1982) was the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), presiding over the country from 1964 until his death in 1982.

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Leonid Alekseyevich Filatov (a; 24 December 1946 – 26 October 2003) was a Soviet and Russian actor, director, poet, pamphleteer, who shot to fame while a member of troupe at Taganka Theatre under director Yury Lyubimov.

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Leonid Iovich Gaidai (Леони́д И́ович Гайда́й; 30 January 1923, Svobodny, Amur Oblast – 19 November 1993, Moscow) was one of the most popular Soviet comedy directors, enjoying immense popularity and broad public recognition in the former USSR & modern Russia.

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Leonid Borisovich Kogan (Леони́д Бори́сович Ко́ган; Леонід Борисович Коган; November 14, 1924 – December 17, 1982) was a preeminent Soviet violinist during the 20th century.

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Lev Andreevich Artsimovich (Арцимович, Лев Андреевич in Russian; also transliterated Arzimowitsch) (February 25, 1909 (NS) – March 1, 1973) was a Soviet physicist, academician of the Soviet Academy of Sciences (1953), member of the Presidium of the Soviet Academy of Sciences (since 1957), and Hero of Socialist Labor (1969).

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Lev Vladimirovich Kuleshov (Лев Влади́мирович Кулешо́в; – 29 March 1970) was a Soviet filmmaker and film theorist who taught at and helped establish the world's first film school, the Moscow Film School.

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Lev Ivanovich Yashin (Лев Ива́нович Я́шин, 22 October 1929 – 20 March 1990), nicknamed the "Black Spider" or the "Black Panther", was a Soviet-Russian football goalkeeper, considered by many to be the greatest goalkeeper in the history of the game.

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Levada-Center is a Russian independent, non-governmental polling and sociological research organisation.

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Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) persons in Russia face legal and social challenges not experienced by non-LGBT persons.

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The Political party LDPR (Политическая партия ЛДПР), http://ldpr.ru/events/The_Charter_LDPR_changes/ formerly the Liberal Democratic Party of Russia (Либерально-Демократическая Партия России – Liberal'no-Demokraticheskaya Partiya Rossii), is a far-right political party in the Russian Federation.

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The Library of Congress is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress, but which is the de facto national library of the United States.

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The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.

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Light industry is industry that is usually less capital-intensive than heavy industry, and is more consumer-oriented than business-oriented (i.e., most light industry products are produced for end users rather than as intermediates for use by other industries).

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The following is a list of the casualty count in battles in world history.

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There are 342 bridges in the city limits of Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire, to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD.

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This is a list of cosmonauts who have taken part in the missions of the Soviet space program and the Russian Federal Space Agency, including ethnic Russians and people of other ethnicities.

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This is a list of the world's sovereign states and their dependent territories by area, ranked by its total area.

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This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population with inclusion within the list being based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1.

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This is a list of countries by electricity generation per year based on multiple sources.

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This article is a list of countries by electricity generation from renewable sources every year.

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This is a list of countries by external debt, the total public and private debt owed to nonresidents repayable in internationally accepted currencies, goods, or services, where the public debt is the money or credit owed by any level of government, from central to local, and the private debt the money or credit owed by private households or private corporations based in the country under consideration.

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Foreign-exchange reserves (also called Forex reserves) are, in a strict sense, only the foreign-currency deposits held by national central banks and monetary authorities (See List of countries by foreign-exchange reserves (excluding gold)).

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Countries are sorted by nominal GDP estimates from financial and statistical institutions, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates.

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This article includes a list of countries in the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a state in a given year.

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This article is a list of countries by military expenditure, the amount spent by a nation on its military in a given year.

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This is a list of countries by natural gas exports mostly based on The World Factbook.

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This is a list of countries by natural gas production based on statistics from the International Energy Agency.

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This is a list of countries by natural gas proven reserves based on The World Factbook (when no citation is given).

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This is a list of oil-producing countries by oil exports based on The World Factbook and other Sources.

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This is a list of countries by oil production.

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These are the lists of countries of the world by percentage of population living in poverty.

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This is a list of countries by total road network size of both paved and unpaved.

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This is a list of countries by total length of pipelines mostly based on The World Factbook accessed in June 2008.

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This is a list of countries by total renewable water resources mostly based on The World Factbook.

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This is a list of countries by total waterways length mostly based on The World Factbook accessed in May 2009.

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This is a list of diplomatic missions of Russia.

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The article is a list of Russia Federal subjects by Gross Regional Product (GRP) in main years.

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The following is a list of universities and other higher educational institutions in Russia, based primarily on the National Information Centre on Academic Recognition and Mobility webpage of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation.

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The dangers to journalists in Russia have been well known since the early 1990s but concern at the number of unsolved killings soared after Anna Politkovskaya's murder in Moscow on 7 October 2006.

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An empire involves the extension of a state's sovereignty over external territories and variety of different ethnic groups.

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This is a list of lakes of Europe with an average area greater than 100 km².

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List of merchant navy capacity by flag is a list of the world foremost fleets of registered trading vessels ranked in both gross register tonnage (GRT) and deadweight tonnage (DWT) sorted by flag state.

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This list of metro systems includes electrified rapid transit train systems worldwide.

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The following is a list of Mongol and Tatar raids against Rus' principalities following the Mongol invasion.

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Due to the secretive nature of Hollywood accounting it is not clear which film is the most expensive film ever made.

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This is a list of the most-produced aircraft types whose numbers exceed or exceeded 5,000.

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This is a list of national trees, most official, but some unofficial.

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This is a list of the longest rivers on Earth.

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These are the main rivers in Europe (ecologically, the extreme west of the Palearctic ecozone - which includes Russia in the east).

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Russia can be divided into a European and an Asian part.

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This list of Russian aerospace engineers includes the designers of aircraft, rocketry and spacecraft, and developers of auxiliary aerospace technologies from the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation.

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This list of Russian biologists includes the famous biologists from the Russian Federation, the Soviet Union, the Russian Empire and other predecessor states of Russia.

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This list of Russian chemists includes the famous chemists and material scientists of the Russian Federation, the Soviet Union, the Russian Empire and other predecessor states of Russia.

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The history of exploration by citizens or subjects of the Russian Federation, the Soviet Union, the Russian Empire, the Tsardom of Russia and other Russian predecessor states forms a significant part of the history of Russia as well as the history of the world.

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This list of Russian mathematicians includes the famous mathematicians from the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation.

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Russian philosophy includes a variety of philosophical movements.

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This list of Russian physicists includes the famous physicists from the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation.

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This is a list of radio stations in Russian language.

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This is a list of countries and dependencies ranked by human population density and measured by the number of human inhabitants per square kilometer or square mile.

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There are eight sovereign states that have successfully detonated nuclear weapons.

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This is a list of countries spanning more than one continent, known as transcontinental states, or more properly as intercontinental states.

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This a list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Russia.

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Literary realism is part of the realist art movement beginning with mid nineteenth-century French literature (Stendhal), and Russian literature (Alexander Pushkin) and extending to the late nineteenth and early twentieth century.

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Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in Northern Europe.

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The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling that occurred after the Medieval Warm Period (Medieval Climate Optimum).

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Livonia (Līvõmō, Liivimaa, German and Scandinavian languages: Livland, Latvian and Livonija, Inflanty, archaic English Livland, Liwlandia; -ruЛифляндия / Liflyandiya) is a historic region along the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea.

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The Livonian War (1558–1583) was fought for control of Old Livonia in the territory of present-day Estonia and Latvia when the Tsardom of Russia faced a varying coalition of Denmark–Norway, the Kingdom of Sweden, the Union (later Commonwealth) of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland.

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Longitude (or, British also), is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.

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Lunokhod (Луноход, "Moonwalker") was a series of Soviet robotic lunar rovers designed to land on the Moon between 1969 and 1977.

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Makhachkala (p; Lak: Гьанжи; Avar: МахӀачхъала; Lezgian: Магьачкъала; Rutul: МахаӀчкала; Kumyk: Магьачкъала, Mahačqala), “Fort Maghach”, is the capital city of the Republic of Dagestan, Russia.

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Launched in 1971, UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) is an Intergovernmental Scientific Programme that aims to establish a scientific basis for the improvement of relationships between people and their environments.

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Manchukuo was a puppet state in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia, which was governed under a form of constitutional monarchy.

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Marc Zakharovich Chagall (28 March 1985) was a Russian-French artist.

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Maria Yuryevna Sharapova (a; born 19 April 1987) is a Russian professional tennis player, who is ranked world No.

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The Mariinsky Ballet is a classical ballet company based at the Mariinsky Theatre in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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The Mariinsky Theatre (Мариинский театр, Mariinskiy Teatr, also spelled Maryinsky, Mariyinsky) is a historic theatre of opera and ballet in Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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A maritime boundary is a conceptual division of the Earth's water surface areas using physiographic or geopolitical criteria.

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Mark Osipovich Reizen, also Reisen or Reyzen (Марк Осипович Рейзен, born in Zaitsevo village, Ekaterinoslav province, Russian Empire (now Ukraine) – died November 25, 1992 Moscow, Russia) was a leading Soviet opera singer with a beautiful and expansive bass voice.

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A market economy is an economy in which decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are based on supply and demand, and prices of goods and services are determined in a free price system.

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A Markov chain (discrete-time Markov chain or DTMC), named after Andrey Markov, is a random process that undergoes transitions from one state to another on a state space.

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Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second smallest planet in the Solar System, after Mercury.

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According to the New Testament, Mary (Miriam: מרים; BC – AD), also known as Saint Mary or the Virgin Mary, was a Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth and the mother of Jesus.

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A maser, an acronym for "microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation", is a device that produces coherent electromagnetic waves through amplification by stimulated emission.

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Mashina Vremeni (Russian for Time Machine) is a Russian rock band founded in 1969.

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Maslenitsa (Ма́сленица, Масниця, Масьленіца, also known as Butter Week, Crepe week, or Cheesefare Week), is an Eastern Slavic religious and folk holiday, celebrated during the last week before Great Lent, that is, the eighth week before Eastern Orthodox Pascha (Easter).

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A matryoshka doll (a, matrëška), also known as a Russian nesting doll, or Russian doll, refers to a set of wooden dolls of decreasing size placed one inside another.

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Alexei Maximovich Peshkov (Алексе́й Макси́мович Пешко́в or Пе́шков; 28 March 1868 – 18 June 1936), primarily known as Maxim (Maksim) Gorky (Макси́м Го́рькій or Го́рький), was a Russian and Soviet writer, a founder of the socialist realism literary method and a political activist.

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Maxim Alexandrovich Vengerov (Максим Александрович Венгеров,; born 1974) is an Israeli violinist, violist, and conductor who was born in the Soviet Union.

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Maya Mikhaylovna Plisetskaya (Ма́йя Миха́йловна Плисе́цкая; 20 November 1925 – 2 May 2015) was a Soviet-born ballet dancer, choreographer, ballet director, and actress, who held Spanish and Lithuanian citizenship.

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Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th-6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453. From the 7th century onwards, Greek was the only language of administration and government in the Byzantine Empire. This stage of language is thus described as Byzantine Greek. The study of the Medieval Greek language and literature is a branch of Byzantine Studies, or Byzantinology, the study of the history and culture of the Byzantine Empire. The beginning of Medieval Greek is occasionally dated back to as early as the 4th century, either to 330 AD, when the political centre of the Roman Empire was moved to Constantinople, or to 395 AD, the division of the Empire. However, this approach is rather arbitrary as it is more an assumption of political as opposed to cultural and linguistic developments. Indeed, by this time the spoken language, particularly pronunciation, had already shifted towards modern forms. The conquests of Alexander, and the ensuing Hellenistic period, had caused Greek to spread to peoples throughout Anatolia and the Eastern Mediterranean, altering the spoken language's pronunciation and structure. Medieval Greek is the link between this vernacular, known as Koine Greek, and the Modern Greek language. Though Byzantine Greek literature was still strongly influenced by Ancient Greek, it was also influenced by vernacular Koine Greek, which is the language of the New Testament and the liturgical language of the church.

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The Medvedev modernisation programme is an initiative launched by President of Russia Dmitry Medvedev in 2009, which aims at modernising Russia's economy and society, decreasing the country's dependency on oil and gas revenues and creating a diversified economy based on high technology and innovation.

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Melnitsa (Мельница, Russian for windmill) is a Russian folk rock band.

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Melnitsa Animation Studio (Студия анимационного кино «Мельница», "melnitsa" meaning "windmill") is one of the most prominent and successful companies in the Russian animation industry.

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Prince Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly (–) was a Russian Field Marshal and Minister of War during Napoleon's invasion in 1812 and War of the Sixth Coalition.

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Michael Fred Phelps II (born June 30, 1985) is an American competition swimmer and the most decorated Olympian of all time, with a total of 22 medals.

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Michael Prawdin was the pseudonym of Michael Charol (20 January 1894 – 23 December 1970), a Russian-German historical writer.

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In European history, the Middle Ages or Medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Mikhail Nikolayevich Baryshnikov (Михаи́л Никола́евич Бары́шников; born January 27, 1948), nicknamed "Misha" (Russian diminutive of the name "Mikhail"), is a Russian-American dancer, choreographer, and actor born in the Soviet Union, often cited alongside Vaslav Nijinsky and Rudolf Nureyev as one of the greatest ballet dancers in history.

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Mikhaíl Afanasyevich Bulgakov (Михаи́л Афана́сьевич Булга́ков,; – March 10, 1940) was a Russian writer and playwright active in the first half of the 20th century.

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Mikhail Osipovich Dolivo-Dobrovolsky (Михаи́л О́сипович Доли́во-Доброво́льский; Michail von Dolivo-Dobrowolsky or Michail Ossipowitsch Doliwo-Dobrowolski; Michał Doliwo-Dobrowolski; in Gatchina near Saint Petersburg — in Heidelberg, Germany), was a Polish-Russian engineer, electrician, and inventor.

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Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (Михаи́л Ива́нович Гли́нка) was the first Russian composer to gain wide recognition within his own country, and is often regarded as the fountainhead of Russian classical music.

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Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (a; born 2 March 1931) is a former Soviet statesman.

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Lieutenant-General Mikhail Timofeyevich Kalashnikov (Михаи́л Тимофе́евич Кала́шников; 10 November 1919 – 23 December 2013) was a Russian general, inventor, military engineer, writer and small arms designer.

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Duke Mikhail Illarionovich Golenischev-Kutuzov (Russian: князь Михаи́л Илларио́нович Голени́щев-Куту́зов) was a Field Marshal of the Russian Empire. He served as one of the finest military officers and diplomats of Russia under the reign of three Romanov Tsars: Catherine II, Paul I and Alexander I. His military career was closely associated with the rising period of Russia from the end of the 18th century to the beginning of the 19th century. Kutuzov contributed much to the military history of Russia and is considered to have been one of the best Russian generals under the reign of Catherine II. He took part in the suppression of the Bar Confederation's uprising, in three of the Russo-Turkish Wars and in the Napoleonic War, including two major battles at Austerlitz and the battle of Borodino.William T. Worthington, Great military leaders: a bibliography with vignettes, p. 131 However, Kutuzov is credited most with his leadership during the French invasion of Russia. Under Kutuzov's command, the Russian army faced the Grande Armée at the Battle of Borodino and later counter-attacked once Napoleon retreated from Moscow, pushing the French out of the Russian homeland.Christopher Duffy, Borodino and the War of 1812, Scribner, p. 165 In recognition of this, Kutuzov was awarded the title of Duke of Smolensk. A memorial was built at Moscow in 1973 to commemorate the 1812 war and Kutuzov's leadership. An order of the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation is also named after him. Kutuzov was highly regarded in the works of Russian and Soviet historians.

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Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov (p; –), a Russian Romantic writer, poet and painter, sometimes called "the poet of the Caucasus", the most important Russian poet after Alexander Pushkin's death in 1837 and the greatest figure in Russian Romanticism.

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Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov (a; –) was a Russian polymath, scientist and writer, who made important contributions to literature, education, and science.

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Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov (Михаи́л Алекса́ндрович Шо́лохов; – February 21, 1984) was a Soviet/Russian novelist and winner of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Literature.

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Mikhail Aleksandrovich Vrubel (Михаи́л Алекса́ндрович Вру́бель; March 17, 1856 – April 14, 1910, all n.s.) is usually regarded amongst the Russian painters of the Symbolist movement and of Art Nouveau.

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Russian Aircraft Corporation MiG (Российская самолетостроительная корпорация «МиГ»), or RSK MiG, is a Russian joint stock company.

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Mil Helicopters (Миль) is the short name of the Soviet Russian helicopter manufacturer Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant (Московский вертолётный завод им.) (design bureau prefix Mi), named after the constructor Mikhail Mil.

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A military parade (square bashing in British military slang) is a formation of soldiers whose movement is restricted by close-order manoeuvring known as drilling or marching.

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The Millennium of Russia (Russian Тысячелетие России) is a bronze monument in the Novgorod Kremlin.

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The Millennium Prize Problems are seven problems in mathematics that were stated by the Clay Mathematics Institute in 2000.

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Millets are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food.

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Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation (Russian MFA; Министерство иностранных дел Российской Федерации, МИД РФ) is the central government institution charged with leading the foreign affairs of Russia.

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Mir (Мир,; lit. Peace) was a space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, owned by the Soviet Union and later by Russia.

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Modern art includes artistic works produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the style and philosophy of the art produced during that era.

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Modern Greek (νέα ελληνικά or νεοελληνική γλώσσα "Neo-Hellenic", historically and colloquially also known as Ρωμαίικα "Romaic" or "Roman", and Γραικικά "Greek") refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era.

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The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, named after the Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov and the German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop, officially the Treaty of Non-aggression between Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a non-aggression pact signed between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in Moscow on 23 August 1939.

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The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles), existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.

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The Mongol Empire invaded Kievan Rus' in the 13th century, destroying numerous cities, including Ryazan, Kolomna, Moscow, Vladimir, and Kiev, part of the Mongol invasion of Europe.

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Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠮᠤᠩᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠤᠰ in Mongolian script; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked country in east-central Asia.

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The Mongols (Mongolian: Монголчууд, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

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The Moon (in Greek: Selene, in Latin: Luna) is Earth's only natural satellite.

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Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.

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Moscow (or; a) is the capital and the largest city of Russia with 12.2 million residents within the city limits and 16.8 million within the urban area.

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Moscow International Business Center (Московский Международный Деловой Центр; ММДЦ), also referred to as Moscow-City or Moskva-City (Москва-Сити) is a commercial district in central Moscow, Russia.

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The Moscow Kremlin (p), usually referred to as the Kremlin, is a fortified complex at the heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River to the south, Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square to the east, and the Alexander Garden to the west.

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The Moscow Metro (p) is a rapid transit system serving Moscow, Russia and the neighbouring Moscow Oblast towns of Krasnogorsk, Reutov and Kotelniki.

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Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU; Московский государственный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова) is a coeducational and public research university located in Moscow, Russia.

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The Moscow theater hostage crisis, also known as the 2002 Nord-Ost siege, was the seizure of the crowded Dubrovka Theater on 23 October 2002 by 40 to 50 armed Chechens who claimed allegiance to the Islamist militant separatist movement in Chechnya.

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Mother Russia (Россия-Матушка, transliterated as Rossiya-Matushka) is a national personification of Russia, appearing in patriotic posters, statues etc.

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Mother's Day is a modern celebration honoring one's own mother, as well as motherhood, maternal bonds, and the influence of mothers in society.

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A motto (derived from the Latin muttum, 'mutter', by way of Italian motto, 'word', 'sentence') is a maxim, a phrase meant to formally summarize the general motivation or intention of an individual, family, social group or organization.

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Mount Elbrus (ɪlʲˈbrus; Минги тау, Min̡i taw) is a dormant volcano located in the western Caucasus mountains, in Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay–Cherkessia of Russia, near the border with Georgia.

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Mstislav Leopoldovich "Slava" Rostropovich, KBE (Мстисла́в Леопо́льдович Ростропо́вич, Mstislav Leopol'dovič Rostropovič,; March 27, 1927 – April 27, 2007), was a Soviet and Russian cellist and conductor.

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A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have a similar or equal chance of gaining control of government offices, separately or in coalition government.

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A multinational state is a sovereign state which is viewed as comprising two or more nations.

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Murmansk (p; Мурман ланнҍ; Murmánska; Muurman) is a port city and the administrative center of Murmansk Oblast, Russia, located in the extreme northwest part of Russia, on the Kola Bay, an inlet of the Barents Sea on the northern shore of the Kola Peninsula, close to the Russia's borders with Norway and Finland.

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Murom (p; Old Norse: Moramar) is a historical city in Vladimir Oblast, Russia, which sprawls along the left bank of the Oka River.

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Music in the Soviet Union varied in many genres and epochs.

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Napoléon Bonaparte (born Napoleone di Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the Revolutionary Wars.

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The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire led by Emperor Napoleon I against an array of European powers formed into various coalitions.

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Naryshkin Baroque, also called Moscow Baroque, or Muscovite Baroque, is the name given to a particular style of Baroque architecture and decoration which was fashionable in Moscow from the turn of the 17th into the early 18th centuries.

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Natalia Grigoryevna Gutman (Наталья Григорьевна Гутман) (born 14 November 1942 in Kazan) is a Russian cellist.

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The State Anthem of the Russian Federation (p) is the name of the official national anthem of Russia.

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The National Hockey League (NHL; Ligue nationale de hockey—LNH) is a professional ice hockey league composed of 30 member clubs: 23 in the United States and 7 in Canada.

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There are currently forty-one national parks in Russia, a list of which is given below.

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A national personification is an anthropomorphism of a nation or its people; it can appear in both editorial cartoons and propaganda.

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The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949.

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NATO–Russian relations, relations between the NATO military alliance and the Russian Federation were established in 1991.

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A nature reserve (natural reserve, bioreserve, (natural/nature) preserve or (national/nature) conserve) is a protected area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research.

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Nautilus Pompilius (Наутилус Помпилиус), sometimes nicknamed Nau (Нау), was a prominent Soviet/Russian rock band formed by the lead singer Vyacheslav Butusov and bassist Dmitry Umetsky while the two studied in Sverdlovsk (now Ekaterinburg) Institute of Architecture (now called Urals Academy of Architecture).

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Nazi Germany or the Third Reich (Drittes Reich) are common English names for the period of history in Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practice associated with the 20th-century German Nazi Party and Nazi state as well as other far-right groups.

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Neo-Byzantine architecture in the Russian Empire emerged in the 1850s and became an officially endorsed preferred architectural style for church construction during the reign of Alexander II of Russia (1855–1881), replacing the Russo-Byzantine style of Konstantin Thon.

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Neo-primitivism was a Russian art movement which took its name from the 31-page pamphlet Neo-primitivizm, by Aleksandr.

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Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.

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Neoclassicism (from Greek νέος nèos and κλασσικός klassikòs classicus) is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome.

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Nevsky Prospect (p) is the main street in the city of St. Petersburg, Russia.

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The New Siberian Islands (Новосиби́рские острова, Novosibirskiye Ostrova) are an archipelago in the Extreme North of Russia, to the North of the East Siberian coast between the Laptev Sea and the East Siberian Sea north of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic.

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New Year trees are decorated trees similar to Christmas trees that are displayed to specifically celebrate the New Year.

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Nicholas Roerich (October 9, 1874 – December 13, 1947) – known also as Nikolai Konstantinovich Rerikh (Никола́й Константи́нович Ре́рих) – was a Russian painter, writer, archaeologist, theosophist, perceived by some in Russia as an enlightener, philosopher, and public figure, who in his youth was influenced by a movement in Russian society around the occult.

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Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe.

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Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (– September 11, 1971) was a Russian politician who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War.

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Nikolai Alexandrovich Berdyaev (Никола́й Алекса́ндрович Бердя́ев; – March 24, 1948) was a Russian religious and political philosopher.

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Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol (p; Мико́ла Васи́льович Го́голь, Mykola Vasyliovych Hohol; –) was a Russian dramatist, novelist and short story writer of Ukrainian ethnicity.

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Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky (a; &ndash) was a Russian mathematician and geometer, known primarily for his work on hyperbolic geometry, otherwise known as Lobachevskian geometry.

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Nikolai Grigoryevich Rubinstein (Никола́й Григо́рьевич Рубинште́йн; &ndash) was a Russian pianist, conductor and composer.

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Nikolay Gennadiyevich Basov (Никола́й Генна́диевич Ба́сов; 14 December 1922 – 1 July 2001) was a Soviet physicist and educator.

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Nikolay Nikolayevich Benardos (Никола́й Никола́евич Бенардо́с) (1842–1905) was a Russian inventor who in 1881 introduced carbon arc welding, which was the first practical arc welding method.

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Nikolay Petrovich Brusentsov (Никола́й Петро́вич Брусенцо́в; 7 February 1925 in Kamenskoe, Ukrainian SSR – 4 December 2014) was a Russian computer scientist, most famous for having built a (balanced) ternary computer, Setun, together with Sergei Sobolev in 1958.

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Nikolay Yakovlevich Danilevsky (Никола́й Я́ковлевич Даниле́вский; 28 November 1822 – 7 November 1885) was a Russian naturalist, economist, ethnologist, philosopher, historian, and ideologue of the pan-Slavism and Slavophile movement who expounded a view of world history as circular.

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Nikolay Stepanovich Gumilyov (a; April 15 NS 1886 – August 25, 1921) was an influential Russian poet, literary critic, traveler, and military officer.

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Nikolay Alexeyevich Nekrasov (a, –) was a Russian poet, writer, critic and publisher, whose deeply compassionate poems about peasant Russia won him Fyodor Dostoyevsky's admiration and made him the hero of liberal and radical circles of Russian intelligentsia, as represented by Vissarion Belinsky and Nikolay Chernyshevsky.

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Nikolay Gavrilovich Slavyanov (Никола́й Гаври́лович Славя́нов) (1854–1897) was a Russian inventor who in 1888 introduced arc welding with consumable metal electrodes, or shielded metal arc welding, the second historical arc welding method after carbon arc welding invented earlier by Nikolay Benardos.

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Nikolay Yegorovich Zhukovsky (Никола́й Его́рович Жуко́вский;, Orekhovo, Vladimir Governorate – March 17, 1921, Moscow) was a Russian scientist and a founding father of modern aero- and hydrodynamics.

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Nizhny Novgorod (p), colloquially shortened to Nizhny, is, with a population of 1,250,619, the fifth largest city in Russia and the administrative center of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast.

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The Nizhny Novgorod Metro (Нижегородское метро), formerly known as Gorky Metro (Горьковское Метро) is a rapid-transit system that serves the city of Nizhny Novgorod, Russia.

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A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural νομάδες, nomades; meaning one roaming about for pasture, pastoral tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another.

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Nomadic pastoralism is a form of pastoralism where livestock are herded in order to find fresh pastures on which to graze.

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A non-aggression pact or neutrality pact is a national treaty between two or more states/countries where the signatories promise not to engage in military action against each other.

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In mathematics, non-Euclidean geometry consists of two geometries based on axioms closely related to those specifying Euclidean geometry.

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Nord Stream (former names: North Transgas and North European Gas Pipeline; Северный поток, Severny potok) is an offshore natural gas pipeline from Vyborg in the Russian Federation to Greifswald in Germany that is owned and operated by Nord Stream AG.

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North Asia or Northern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of Siberia and Russian Far East in the Asian portion of Russia – the area east of the Ural Mountains.

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The North Caucasus (or Ciscaucasia; p) is the northern part of the Caucasus region between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and within European Russia.

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North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), is a country in East Asia, in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.

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North-Eastern Federal University (NEFU), previously known as Yakutsk State University, is a school for higher learning in Yakutsk, Siberia.

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The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were crusades undertaken by the Christian kings of Denmark, Poland and Sweden, the German Livonian and Teutonic military orders, and their allies against the pagan peoples of Northern Europe around the southern and eastern shores of the Baltic Sea.

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The Northern Sea Route (Се́верный морско́й путь, Severnyy morskoy put, shortened to Севморпуть, Sevmorput) is a shipping lane officially defined by Russian legislation from the Kara Sea to the Pacific Ocean specifically running along the Russian Arctic coast from Kara Gates strait between the Barents Sea and the Kara Sea, along Siberia, to the Bering Strait.

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Northwestern Federal District (Се́веро-За́падный федера́льный о́круг, Severo-Zapadny federalny okrug) is one of the nine federal districts of Russia.

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Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk)), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a sovereign and unitary monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus Jan Mayen and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard.

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Novaya Zemlya (p, lit. new land), also known, especially in Dutch, as Nova Zembla, is an archipelago in the Arctic Ocean in the North of Russia and the extreme Northeast of Europe, the easternmost point of Europe lying at Cape Flissingsky on the Northern island.

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The Novgorod Republic (p; Новгородскаѧ земьлѧ / Novgorodskaja zemľa) was a medieval Russian state which stretched from the Baltic Sea to the northern Ural Mountains between the 12th and 15th centuries, which included the city of Novgorod and the Lake Ladoga regions.

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Novorossiysk (p) is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia.

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Novosibirsk (p) is the third most populous city in Russia after Moscow and St. Petersburg and the most populous city in Asian Russia, with a population of 1,523,801 (2013 est.). It is the administrative center of Novosibirsk Oblast as well as of the Siberian Federal District.

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Novosibirsk Metro is a metro system in Novosibirsk, Russia.

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Nu Virgos (ВІА Гра) was the name used to promote the musical group VIA Gra (ВИА Гра) outside of Ukraine and other nearby countries.

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Nu, pogodi! (p, "Well, Just You Wait!") is a Soviet/Russian animated series produced by Soyuzmultfilm.

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In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a nuclear reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come very close and then collide at a very high speed and join to form a new nucleus.

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Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power station.

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Nuclear power stations operate in 31 countries.

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In 2012 total electricity generated in nuclear power plants in Russia was 177.3 TWh, 17.78% of all power generation.

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A nuclear-powered icebreaker is a nuclear-powered ship purpose-built for use in waters covered with ice.

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The Ob River (p), also Obi, is a major river in western Siberia, Russia and is the world's seventh longest river.

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The Russian Federation is divided into 83 subjects (subyekty), of which 46 are oblasts (Области; "provinces", sing. oblast).

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Obninsk Nuclear Power Station, (Обнинская АЭС, Obninskaja AES), was built in the "Science City" of Obninsk,, who was there at the time.

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The October Revolution (p), officially known as the Great October Socialist Revolution (r), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising or the Bolshevik Revolution, was a seizure of state power instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.

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The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) is a United Nations agency that works to promote and protect the human rights that are guaranteed under international law and stipulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948.

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The official languages of the United Nations are the six languages that are used in UN meetings, and in which all official UN documents are written when budget allows.

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Oil reserves are the amount of technically and economically recoverable oil.

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Oium or Aujum was a name for an area in Scythia, where arguably the Goths under their king Filimer settled after leaving Gothiscandza, according to the Getica by Jordanes, written around 551.

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Okróshka (окрошка) is a cold soup of Russian origin.

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Old Bolshevik (ста́рый большеви́к, stary bolshevik), also Old Bolshevik Guard or Old Party Guard, became an unofficial designation for those who were members of the Bolshevik party before the Russian Revolution of 1917.

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Old East Slavic (also referred to as RusianLunt, Horace G. Old Church Slavonic Grammar, Seventh Edition, 2001. (sic, with one ‘s’, from Rus’) and Old Russian, but not to be confused with the child dialects of the later post-Kievan Rus', Old Russian and Old Ruthenian) was a language used in the 10th–15th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus' and states which evolved after the collapse of Kievan Rus'.

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The Old New Year or the Orthodox New Year is an informal traditional holiday, celebrated as the start of the New Year by the Julian calendar.

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Oleg of Novgorod (Russian: Олег, Old Norse: Helgi) was a Varangian prince (or konung) who ruled all or part of the Rus' people during the early 10th century.

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Olivier salad (салат Оливье)It is called "Olivier salad" in Belarus, Russia, Ukraine, as well as in Iran and the United States.

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An onion dome (луковичная глава, lúkovichnaya glava; compare лук, luk, "onion") is a dome whose shape resembles an onion.

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Oranienbaum (Ораниенба́ум) is a Russian royal residence, located on the Gulf of Finland west of St. Petersburg.

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Orenburg Oblast (Оренбу́ргская о́бласть, Orenburgskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).

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Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.

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The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.

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The Ostern (Eastern) or Red Western (also known as "Borscht Western") was the Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc countries' take on the Western.

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The Ottoman Empire (دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه Devlet-i Aliyye-i Osmâniyye, Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti) which is also known as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was an empire founded in 1299 by Oghuz Turks under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia.

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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Russia.

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Space technology – technology developed by space science or the aerospace industry for use in spaceflight, satellites, or space exploration.

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Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second-oldest, after Cambridge University Press.

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Pafnuty Lvovich Chebyshev (p) (–) was a Russian mathematician.

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Paganism is a term that developed among the Christian community of southern Europe during late antiquity to describe religions other than their own or Judaism.

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Pair skating is a figure skating discipline.

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Palace Square (p), connecting Nevsky Prospekt with Palace Bridge leading to Vasilievsky Island, is the central city square of St Petersburg and of the former Russian Empire.

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Palekh miniature (Палехская миниатюра) is a Russian folk handicraft of miniature painting, which is done with tempera paints on varnished articles made of papier-mâché (small boxes, cigarette and powder cases etc.). Palekh Russian lacquer art on papier-mâché first appeared in 1923 in the village of Palekh, located in the district of (Ivanovo Oblast), and is based on a long local history of icon painting.

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A pancake is a flat cake, often thin, and round, prepared from a starch-based batter that may also contain eggs, milk and butter and cooked on a hot surface such as a griddle or frying pan, often with oil or butter.

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The Pannonian Avars were a group of Eurasian nomads of the early Middle Ages of uncertain origins,: "...

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Pantheism is the belief that the Universe (or Nature as the totality of everything) is identical with divinity, or that everything composes an all-encompassing, immanent God.

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Papakha, also known as astrakhan hat in English, is a wool hat worn by men throughout the Caucasus.

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The Paphlagonian expedition of the Rus' was an attack by the Rus' on cities on the Propontis (Sea of Marmara) and on the coast of the Paphlagonia, marking the first known contact between the Rus' and the Byzantine Empire.

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A parachute is a device used to slow the motion of an object through an atmosphere by creating drag, or in the case of ram-air parachutes, aerodynamic lift.

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The Partitions of Poland were a series of three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place towards the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of the sovereign Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.

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Paskha, Pascha, Pashka, or Pasha (Russian: Па́сха, "Easter") is a festive dish made in Eastern Orthodox countries which consists of food that is forbidden during the fast of Great Lent.

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A patron saint or a patron hallow is a saint who in Roman Catholicism is regarded as the tutelary spirit or heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family or person.

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Pavel Nikolayevich Yablochkov (also transliterated as Jablochkoff) (Павел Николаевич Яблочков in Russian) (&ndash) was a Russian electrical engineer, businessman and the inventor of the Yablochkov candle (a type of electric carbon arc lamp) and the transformer.

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Pavlovsk Palace is an 18th-century Russian Imperial residence built by Paul I of Russia in Pavlovsk, within Saint Petersburg.

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The Pazyryk (Пазырык) burials are a number of Scythian Iron Age tombs found in the Pazyryk Valley of the Ukok plateau in the Altai Mountains, Siberia, south of the modern city of Novosibirsk, Russia; the site is close to the borders with China, Kazakhstan and Mongolia.

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PBC CSKA Moscow is a Russian professional basketball team that is based in Moscow, Russia.

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The Pechenegs or Patzinaks were a semi-nomadic Turkic people of the Central Asian steppes speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Turkic language family.

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Pelmeni (пельме́ни — plural, пельмень pelʼmenʼ — singular) are dumplings consisting of a filling wrapped in thin, unleavened dough.

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This article deals with the various ethnic groups inhabiting the Caucasus region.

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Peredvizhniki (pʲɪrʲɪˈdvʲiʐnʲɪkʲɪ), often called The Wanderers or The Itinerants in English, were a group of Russian realist artists who in protest at academic restrictions formed an artists' cooperative; it evolved into the Society for Travelling Art Exhibitions in 1870.

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Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s (1986), widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.

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The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number (number of protons in the nucleus), electron configurations, and recurring chemical properties.

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The permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, also known as the Permanent Five, Big Five, or P5, include the following five governments: China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

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The Day of Saint Peter and Saint Fevronia (День Святых Петра и Февроньи / Den' Svyatyh Petra i Phevronii) also known as the Day of Family, Love and Faithfulness (День семьи, любви и верности / Den' sem'i lyubvi i vernosti), the Orthodox patrons of marriage, was officially introduced in Russia in 2008.

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The Peter and Paul Fortress (Петропа́вловская кре́пость, Petropavlovskaya Krepost) is the original citadel of St. Petersburg, Russia, founded by Peter the Great in 1703 and built to Domenico Trezzini's designs from 1706-1740.

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Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to the 1 January.

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The Peterhof Palace (p, Dutch for Peter's Court) is a series of palaces and gardens located in Petergof, Saint Petersburg, Russia, laid out on the orders of Peter the Great.

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The Petrograd Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies (Петроградский Совет рабочих и солдатских депутатов, Petrogradskiy sovet rabochikh i soldatskikh deputatov) was a city council of Petrograd (Saint Petersburg), the capital of the Russian Empire.

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The petroleum industry in Russia is one of the largest in the world.

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Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (Петропа́вловск-Камча́тский) is the city and the administrative, industrial, scientific, and cultural center of Kamchatka Krai, Russia.

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The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American think tank based in Washington, D.C., that provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.

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PFC Central Sport Club of the Army, Moscow (Профессиональный футбольный клуб – ЦСКА) is a Russian professional football club.

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The PGM-19 Jupiter was the first medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) of the United States Air Force (USAF).

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Phanagoria (Phanagóreia) was the largest ancient Greek city on the Taman peninsula, spread over two plateaus along the eastern shore of the Cimmerian Bosporus.

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A pharmaceutical drug (also referred to as a medicinal product, medicine, medication, or medicament) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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The Pinsk Marshes (Пінскія балоты, Pinskiya baloty), also known as the Prypiackija baloty or Pripet Marshes (Прыпяцкія балоты) and the Rokitno Marshes, are a vast natural region of wetlands along the forested basin of the Pripyat River and its tributaries from Brest to the west to Mogilev to the northeast and Kiev to the southeast.

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Piracy is typically an act of robbery or criminal violence at sea.

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Pirozhki (пирожки, plural form of pirozhok, literally a "small pie"), sometimes transliterated as pyrizhki or pyrizhky (пиріжки), is a generic word for individual-sized baked or fried buns stuffed with a variety of fillings.

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Pitirim Alexandrovich Sorokin (Russian: Питири́м Алекса́ндрович Соро́кин; January 21, 1889 – February 11, 1968) was a Russian American sociologist born in modern-day Komi (Finno-Ugric region of Russia).

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Plague is an infectious disease that is caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis.

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A planned economy is the economic system in which decisions regarding production and investment are embodied in a plan formulated by a central authority, usually by a public body such as a government agency.

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In mathematics, the Poincaré conjecture is a theorem about the characterization of the 3-sphere, which is the hypersphere that bounds the unit ball in four-dimensional space.

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Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country in Central Europe, bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine and Belarus to the east; and the Baltic Sea, Kaliningrad Oblast (a Russian exclave) and Lithuania to the north.

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Regions with a polar climate are characterized by a lack of warm summers.

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Polarity in international relations is any of the various ways in which power is distributed within the international system.

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The Poles of Cold are the places in the southern and northern hemispheres where the lowest air temperatures have been recorded.

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The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (also known as the Kingdom of Poland, or just Poland), was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation, of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the king of Poland and the grand duke of Lithuania.

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The political status of the Crimea is the subject of a political and territorial dispute between Ukraine and Russia.

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Polotsk (Polatsk, По́лацк, По́лоцк, Połock) is a historical city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina River.

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A polymath (πολυμαθής,, "having learned much")The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas; such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.

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The Pontic–Caspian steppe is the vast steppeland stretching from the northern shores of the Black Sea (called Euxeinos Pontos in antiquity) as far east as the Caspian Sea, from Moldova and western Ukraine across the Southern Federal District and the Volga Federal District of Russia to western Kazakhstan, forming part of the larger Eurasian steppe, adjacent to the Kazakh steppe to the east.

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Population transfer in the Soviet Union may be classified into the following broad categories: deportations of "anti-Soviet" categories of population, often classified as "enemies of workers," deportations of entire nationalities, labor force transfer, and organized migrations in opposite directions to fill the ethnically cleansed territories.

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Portrait painting is a genre in painting, where the intent is to depict a human subject.

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The post-Soviet states, also collectively known as the former Soviet Union (FSU) or former Soviet Republics, are the 15 independent states that emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its dissolution in December 1991, with Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union.

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A potential superpower is a state or a political and economic entity that is speculated to be, or is in the process of becoming, a superpower at some point during the 21st century.

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The Power of Siberia (Сила Сибири) pipeline (formerly known as Yakutia–Khabarovsk–Vladivostok pipeline) is a natural gas pipeline under construction in Eastern Siberia to transport Yakutia's gas to Primorsky Krai and Far East countries.

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The power of the purse is the ability of one group to manipulate and control the actions of another group by withholding funding, or putting stipulations on the use of funds.

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The President of the Russian Federation (Президент Российской Федерации, Romanized: President Rossiiskoi Federatsii) is the head of state, Supreme Commander-in-chief and holder of the highest office within the Russian Federation.

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A pressure suit is a protective suit worn by high-altitude pilots who may fly at altitudes where the air pressure is too low for an unprotected person to survive, even breathing pure oxygen at positive pressure.

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The Tale of Bygone Years (Повѣсть времѧньныхъ лѣтъ, Pověstĭ Vremęnĭnyhŭ Lětŭ) or Primary Chronicle is a history of Kievan Rus' from about 850 to 1110, originally compiled in Kiev about 1113.

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The Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation (Председатель Правительства Российской Федерации, Romanized: Predsedatel' Pravitel'stva Rossiyskoy Federatsii), colloquially referred to as the Prime Minister (Премьер-министр, Romanized: Prem'yer-ministr) is the second most powerful official of the Russian Federation, who, under Article 24 of the Federal Constitutional Law On the Government of the Russian Federation, "heads the Government of the Russian Federation".

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Principality of Tver (Тверское княжество) was a Russian principality or duchy, which existed between the 13th and the 15th centuries.

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Russian privatization describes the series of reforms that resulted in the large-scale privatization of state-owned assets immediately after the collapse of the Soviet Union, most importantly in the industrial, energy, and financial sectors.

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Probiotics are microorganisms that are believed to provide health benefits when consumed.

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Pskov (p, ancient Russian spelling "Плѣсковъ", Pleskov) is a city and the administrative center of Pskov Oblast, Russia, located about east from the Estonian border, on the Velikaya River.

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The following is the list of official public holidays recognized by the Government of Russia.

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Pulkovo Airport (Аэропорт Пулково, Aeroport Pulkovo) is an international airport serving Saint Petersburg, Russia.

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Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a component of some economic theories and is a technique used to determine the relative value of different currencies.

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Pyongyang (literally: "Flat Land" or "Peaceful Land", approved: P’yŏngyang; several variants) is the capital of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (commonly known as North Korea) and the largest city in the country.

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Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Пётр Ильи́ч Чайко́вский;r; often "Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky" in English. His names are also transliterated "Piotr" or "Petr"; "Ilitsch", "Il'ich" or "Illyich"; and "Tschaikowski", "Tschaikowsky", "Chajkovskij" and "Chaikovsky" (and other versions; the transliteration varies among languages). The Library of Congress standardized the usage Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky. tr. Pyotr Ilyich Chaykovsky; 25 April/7 May 1840 – 25 October/6 November 1893),Russia was still using old style dates in the 19th century, rendering his lifespan as 25 April 1840 – 25 October 1893.

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Pyotr Pavlovich Yershov (Пётр Павлович Ершов; March 6, 1815 – August 30, 1869) was a Russian poet and author of the famous fairy-tale poem The Little Humpbacked Horse (Konyok-Gorbunok).

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The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; Qacarlar) was a PersianizedAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I.B.Tauris, pp 2–3 royal family of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.

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The Quartet on the Middle East or Middle East Quartet, sometimes called the Diplomatic Quartet or Madrid Quartet or simply the Quartet, is a foursome of nations and international and supranational entities involved in mediating the peace process in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

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Radio Day (Russian: День радио Den' Radio), Communications Workers' Day (as it is officially known in Russia) or Radio and Television Day (Ден на радиото и телевизията, as it is known in Bulgaria) is a commemoration of the development of radio in Russia.

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A railway electrification system supplies electric power to railway trains and trams without an on-board prime mover or local fuel supply.

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Rayonism (or Rayonnism) is a style of abstract art that developed in Russia in 1911.

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Realism (or naturalism) in the arts is the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, implausible, exotic and supernatural elements.

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The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия; РККА, or Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya: RKKA, frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия; KA, in English: Red Army) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and after 1922 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

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Red Banner (Красное знамя) was a symbol of the USSR associated with the Soviet state flag.

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Red Data Book of the Russian Federation (RDBRF), also known as Red Book (Красная книга) or Russian Red Data Book is a state document established for documenting rare and endangered species of animals, plants and fungi, as well as some local subspecies (such as the Ladoga seal) that exist within the territory of the Russian Federation and its continental shelf and marine economic zone.

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Red Square (ˈkrasnəjə ˈploɕːətʲ) is a city square (plaza) in Moscow, Russia.

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A red star, five-pointed and filled (★), is an important symbol often associated with communist ideology.

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Red Terror was a campaign of mass killings, torture, and systematic oppression conducted by the Bolsheviks after they seized power in Petrograd and Moscow in 1917.

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Religion in Russia is diverse, with a 1997 law naming Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Judaism as important in Russian history.

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A religious denomination is a subgroup within a religion that operates under a common name, tradition, and identity.

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Representative democracy (also indirect democracy or psephocracy) is a variety of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.

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A republic (from res publica) is a form of government or country in which power resides in elected individuals representing the citizen body and government leaders exercise power according to the rule of law.

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The Republic of Crimea (or; p; Crimean Tatar: Къырым Джумхуриети, Qırım Cumhuriyeti; Республіка Крим, Respublika Krym) is a federal subject of Russia, located on the Crimean Peninsula.

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The Russian Federation is divided into 85 federal subjects (constituent units), 22 of which are republics.

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The Republics of the Soviet Union or the Union Republics (союзные республики, soyuznye respubliki) of the Soviet Union were ethnically based administrative units that were subordinated directly to the Government of the Soviet Union.

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Registration in the Russian Federation is the system that records the residence and internal migration of Russian citizens.

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The Revolution of 1905 was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire, some of which was directed at the government.

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Rhythmic gymnastics is a sport in which individuals or teams of 5 or more manipulate one or two pieces of apparatus: clubs, hoop, ball, ribbon, rope and freehand (no apparatus).

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Right-bank Ukraine (Правобережна Україна, Pravoberezhna Ukrayina; Правобережная Украина, Pravoberezhnaya Ukraina; Prawobrzeżna Ukraina) is a historical name for a part of Ukraine on the right (west) bank of the Dnieper River, corresponding to the modern-day oblasts of Volyn, Rivne, Vinnytsia, Zhytomyr, Kirovohrad and Kiev, as well as part of Cherkasy and Ternopil.

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Rock and roll (often written as rock & roll or rock 'n' roll) is a genre of popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s,Jim Dawson and Steve Propes, What Was the First Rock'n'Roll Record (1992), ISBN 0-571-12939-0.

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Rococo, less commonly roccoco, or "Late Baroque", is an 18th-century artistic movement and style, affecting many aspects of the arts including painting, sculpture, architecture, interior design, decoration, literature, music, and theatre.

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The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum; Ancient and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Romanization of the Russian alphabet is the process of transliterating the Russian language from the Cyrillic script into the Latin alphabet.

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Romantic music is a term denoting an era of Western classical music that began in the late 18th or early 19th century.

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Romanticism (also the Romantic era or the Romantic period) was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.

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Ronald Lewis Steel (born March 25, 1931) is an award-winning American writer, historian, and professor.

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