1460 relations: A Just Russia, Abaza language, Academy Awards, Adolf Hitler, Adyghe language, Age of Enlightenment, Agnosticism, Agriculture, Ahmed Shaheed, Airliner, AK-47, AK-74, Al-Nusra Front, Alaska, Aleksandr Lyapunov, Aleksandr Petrov (animator), Aleksandr Ptushko, Alexander Andreyevich Ivanov, Alexander Belyaev, Alexander Blok, Alexander Butlerov, Alexander I of Russia, Alexander II of Russia, Alexander III of Russia, Alexander Lodygin, Alexander Nevsky, Alexander Ostrovsky, Alexander Popov (swimmer), Alexander Prokhorov, Alexander Pushkin, Alexander Rou, Alexander Scriabin, Alexander Tatarsky, Alexandrov Ensemble, Alexei Kudrin, Alexey Leonov, Alfred Nobel, Alfred Schnittke, Alisa (Russian band), All-Russian Central Executive Committee, Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, Allies of World War I, Allies of World War II, Altai language, Altai Mountains, Amazon rainforest, American pioneer, Amnesty International, Amur River, Ancient Greek, ..., Ancient Rome, Andrei 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A Just Russia (Справедливая Россия, СР, Spravedlivaya Rossiya, SR, esers (эсеры)) also translated as Fair Russia, or A Fair and Just Russia, is a social democratic political party in Russia currently holding 23 of the 450 seats in the State Duma.
The Abaza language (абаза бызшва, abaza byzšwa; абазэбзэ) is a Northwest Caucasian language in Russia and many of the exiled communities in Turkey.
The Academy Awards, also known as the Oscars, are a set of 24 awards for artistic and technical merit in the American film industry, given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), to recognize excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Adyghe (or; Adyghe: Адыгабзэ, Adygabzæ), also known as West Circassian (КӀахыбзэ, K’axybzæ), is one of the two official languages of the Republic of Adygea in the Russian Federation, the other being Russian. It is spoken by various tribes of the Adyghe people: Abzekh, Adamey, Bzhedug, Hatuqwai, Temirgoy, Mamkhegh, Natekuay, Shapsug, Zhaney and Yegerikuay, each with its own dialect. The language is referred to by its speakers as Adygebze or Adəgăbză, and alternatively transliterated in English as Adygean, Adygeyan or Adygei. The literary language is based on the Temirgoy dialect. There are apparently around 128,000 speakers of Adyghe in Russia, almost all of them native speakers. In total, some 300,000 speak it worldwide. The largest Adyghe-speaking community is in Turkey, spoken by the post Russian–Circassian War (circa 1763–1864) diaspora; in addition to that, the Adyghe language is spoken by the Cherkesogai in Krasnodar Krai. Adyghe belongs to the family of Northwest Caucasian languages. Kabardian (also known as East Circassian) is a very close relative, treated by some as a dialect of Adyghe or of an overarching Circassian language. Ubykh, Abkhaz and Abaza are somewhat more distantly related to Adyghe. The language was standardised after the October Revolution in 1917. Since 1936, the Cyrillic script has been used to write Adyghe. Before that, an Arabic-based alphabet was used together with the Latin.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
Ahmed Shaheed ޝަހީދު (born 27 January 1964) is a Maldivian diplomat and politician.
An airliner is a type of aircraft for transporting passengers and air cargo.
The AK-47, or AK as it is officially known, also known as the Kalashnikov, is a gas-operated, 7.62×39mm assault rifle, developed in the Soviet Union by Mikhail Kalashnikov.
The AK-74 (Russian: Автомат Калашникова образца 1974 года or "Kalashnikov automatic rifle model 1974") is an assault rifle developed in the early 1970s by Russian designer Mikhail Kalashnikov as the replacement for the earlier AKM (itself a refined version of the AK-47). It uses a smaller 5.45×39mm cartridge, replacing the 7.62×39mm chambering of earlier Kalashnikov-pattern weapons. The rifle first saw service with Soviet forces engaged in the 1979 Afghanistan conflict.Woźniak, Ryszard: Encyklopedia najnowszej broni palnej—tom 1 A-F, page 25. Bellona, 2001. The head of the Afghan bureau of the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence claimed that the CIA paid $5,000 for the first AK-74 captured by the Mujahideen during the Soviet–Afghan War. Presently, the rifle continues to be used by the majority of countries of the former Soviet Union. Additionally, licensed copies were produced in Bulgaria (AK-74, AKS-74 and AKS-74U), and the former East Germany (MPi-AK-74N, MPi-AKS-74N, MPi-AKS-74NK).Cutshaw, Charlie: The New World of Russian Small Arms & Ammo, page 92. Paladin Press, 1998.McNab, Chris: The AK47 (Weapons of War), page 25. Spellmount Publishers, 2001. Besides former Soviet republics and eastern European countries, Mongolia, North Korean Special Forces, and Vietnamese People's Naval infantry use AK-74s.
Al-Nusra Front or Jabhat al-Nusra (جبهة النصرة.), known as Jabhat Fateh al-Sham (جبهة فتح الشام, transliteration: Jabhat Fataḥ al-Šām) after July 2016, and also described as al-Qaeda in Syria or al-Qaeda in the Levant, was a Salafist jihadist organization fighting against Syrian government forces in the Syrian Civil War.
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
Aleksandr Mikhailovich Lyapunov (Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Ляпуно́в,; – November 3, 1918) was a Russian mathematician, mechanician and physicist.
Aleksandr Konstantinovich Petrov (also Alexander or Alexandre) (Александр Константинович Петров) (born 17 July 1957 in Prechistoye, Yaroslavl Oblast) is a Russian animator and animation director.
Aleksandr Lukich Ptushko (Алекса́ндр Луки́ч Птушко́, Олександр Лукич Птушко; – 6 March 1973) was a Soviet animation and fantasy film director, and Meritorious Artist of the RSFSR.
Alexander Andreyevich Ivanov (Алекса́ндр Андре́евич Ива́нов; July 28 (July 16 OS), 1806 – July 15 (July 3), 1858) was a Russian painter who adhered to the waning tradition of Neoclassicism but found little sympathy with his contemporaries.
Alexander Romanovich Belyaev (Алекса́ндр Рома́нович Беля́ев,; 16 March 1884 – 6 January 1942) was a Soviet Russian writer of science fiction.
Alexander Alexandrovich Blok (a; 7 August 1921) was a Russian lyrical poet.
Alexander Mikhaylovich Butlerov (Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Бу́тлеров; 15 September 1828 – 17 August 1886) was a Russian chemist, one of the principal creators of the theory of chemical structure (1857–1861), the first to incorporate double bonds into structural formulas, the discoverer of hexamine (1859), the discoverer of formaldehyde (1859) and the discoverer of the formose reaction (1861).
Alexander I (Александр Павлович, Aleksandr Pavlovich; –) reigned as Emperor of Russia between 1801 and 1825.
Alexander II (p; 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881) was the Emperor of Russia from the 2nd March 1855 until his assassination on 13 March 1881.
Alexander III (r; 1845 1894) was the Emperor of Russia, King of Poland, and Grand Duke of Finland from until his death on.
Alexander Nikolayevich Lodygin (Александр Николаевич Лодыгин; 18 October 1847 – 16 March 1923) was a Russian electrical engineer and inventor, one of inventors of the incandescent light bulb.
Alexander Nikolayevich Ostrovsky (Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Остро́вский;, Moscow, Russian Empire, Shchelykovo, Kostroma Governorate, Russian Empire) was a Russian playwright, generally considered the greatest representative of the Russian realistic period.
Aleksandr Vladimirovich Popov (Russian: Александр Владимирович Попов, born 16 November 1971), better known as Alexander Popov, is a Russian former swimmer.
Alexander Mikhailovich Prokhorov (born Alexander Michael Prochoroff, Алекса́ндр Миха́йлович Про́хоров; 11 July 1916 – 8 January 2002) was an Australian born Russian physicist known for his pioneering research on lasers and masers for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1964 with Charles Hard Townes and Nikolay Basov.
Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (a) was a Russian poet, playwright, and novelist of the Romantic eraBasker, Michael.
Alexander Arturovich Rou (also, Rowe, from his Irish father's name) (Александр Артурович Роу, – 28 December 1973) was a Soviet film director, and People's Artist of the RSFSR (1968).
Alexander Nikolayevich Scriabin (Алекса́ндр Никола́евич Скря́бин; –) was a Russian composer and pianist.
Aleksander Mihailovich Tatarskiy (Александр Михайлович Татарский; December 11, 1950 – July 22, 2007) was a Soviet and Russian animation director, screenwriter, animator, producer and artist, co-founder and artistic director of the Pilot studio.
The Alexandrov Ensemble (commonly known as the Red Army Choir in the West) is an official army choir of the Russian armed forces.
Alexei Leonidovich Kudrin (p; born 12 October 1960) is a Russian liberal politician serving as the 4th and current Chairman of the Accounts Chamber since 2018.
Alexey Arkhipovich Leonov (p; born 30 May 1934 in Listvyanka, West Siberian Krai, Soviet Union) is a retired Soviet/Russian cosmonaut, Air Force Major general, writer and artist.
Alfred Bernhard Nobel (21 October 1833 – 10 December 1896) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, inventor, businessman, and philanthropist.
Alfred Garrievich Schnittke (Альфре́д Га́рриевич Шни́тке, Alfred Garrievich Shnitke; November 24, 1934 – August 3, 1998) was a Soviet and German composer.
Alisa (Алиса) is a Russian hard rock band, who are credited as one of the most influential bands in the Russian rock movement.
The All-Russian Central Executive Committee (Vserossiysky Centralny Ispolnitelny Komitet (VTsIK)), was the highest legislative, administrative, and revising body of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR) from 1917 until 1937.
The Allied intervention was a multi-national military expedition launched during the Russian Civil War in 1918.
The Allies of World War I, or Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers in the First World War.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Gorno-Altai (also Gorno-Altay) is a Turkic language, spoken officially in the Altai Republic, Russia.
The Altai Mountains (also spelled Altay Mountains; Altai: Алтай туулар, Altay tuular; Mongolian:, Altai-yin niruɣu (Chakhar) / Алтайн нуруу, Altain nuruu (Khalkha); Kazakh: Алтай таулары, Altai’ tay’lary, التاي تاۋلارى Алтайские горы, Altajskije gory; Chinese; 阿尔泰山脉, Ā'ěrtài Shānmài, Xiao'erjing: اَعَرتَىْ شًامَىْ; Dungan: Артэ Шанмэ) are a mountain range in Central and East Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia, and Kazakhstan come together, and are where the rivers Irtysh and Ob have their headwaters.
The Amazon rainforest (Portuguese: Floresta Amazônica or Amazônia; Selva Amazónica, Amazonía or usually Amazonia; Forêt amazonienne; Amazoneregenwoud), also known in English as Amazonia or the Amazon Jungle, is a moist broadleaf forest in the Amazon biome that covers most of the Amazon basin of South America.
American pioneers are any of the people in American history who migrated west to join in settling and developing new areas.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
The Amur River (Even: Тамур, Tamur; река́ Аму́р) or Heilong Jiang ("Black Dragon River";, "Black Water") is the world's tenth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Northeastern China (Inner Manchuria).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Andrei Rublev (p, also transliterated as Andrey Rublyov; born in the 1360s, died 29 January 1427 or 1430, or 17 October 1428 in Moscow) is considered to be one of the greatest medieval Russian painters of Orthodox icons and frescos.
Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov (p; 21 May 192114 December 1989) was a Russian nuclear physicist, dissident, and activist for disarmament, peace and human rights.
Andrei Andreyevich Voznesensky (Андре́й Андре́евич Вознесе́нский, May 12, 1933 – June 1, 2010) was a Soviet and Russian poet and writer who had been referred to by Robert Lowell as "one of the greatest living poets in any language." He was one of the "Children of the '60s," a new wave of iconic Russian intellectuals led by the Khrushchev Thaw.
Andrew the Apostle (Ἀνδρέας; ⲁⲛⲇⲣⲉⲁⲥ, Andreas; from the early 1st century BC – mid to late 1st century AD), also known as Saint Andrew and referred to in the Orthodox tradition as the First-Called (Πρωτόκλητος, Prōtoklētos), was a Christian Apostle and the brother of Saint Peter.
Andrey Nikolaevich Kolmogorov (a, 25 April 1903 – 20 October 1987) was a 20th-century Soviet mathematician who made significant contributions to the mathematics of probability theory, topology, intuitionistic logic, turbulence, classical mechanics, algorithmic information theory and computational complexity.
Andrey (Andrei) Andreyevich Markov (Андре́й Андре́евич Ма́рков, in older works also spelled Markoff) (14 June 1856 N.S. – 20 July 1922) was a Russian mathematician.
Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products.
Anna Andreyevna Gorenkoa; Анна Андріївна Горенко, Anna Andriyivna Horenko (– 5 March 1966), better known by the pen name Anna Akhmatova (Анна Ахматова), was one of the most significant Russian poets of the 20th century.
Anna Yuryevna Netrebko (Анна Юрьевна Нетребко, born 18 September 1971) is a Russian operatic soprano.
Anna Pavlovna (Matveyevna) Pavlova (Анна Павловна (Матвеевна) Павлова; – January 23, 1931) was a Russian prima ballerina of the late 19th and the early 20th centuries.
The Crimean peninsula was annexed from Ukraine by the Russian Federation in February–March 2014.
Anschluss ('joining') refers to the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany on 12 March 1938.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
Anti-communism is opposition to communism.
Anti-fascism is opposition to fascist ideologies, groups and individuals.
Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (ɐnˈton ˈpavɫəvʲɪtɕ ˈtɕɛxəf; 29 January 1860 – 15 July 1904) was a Russian playwright and short-story writer, who is considered to be among the greatest writers of short fiction in history.
Anton Grigorevich Rubinstein (r) was a Russian pianist, composer and conductor who became a pivotal figure in Russian culture when he founded the Saint Petersburg Conservatory.
In Christian theology and ecclesiology, the apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity.
Appeasement in an international context is a diplomatic policy of making political or material concessions to an aggressive power in order to avoid conflict.
Aquarium or Akvarium (Аква́риум; often stylized as Åквариум) is a Russian rock group formed in Leningrad (now Saint Petersburg, Russia) in 1972.
Arable land (from Latin arabilis, "able to be plowed") is, according to one definition, land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops.
Arbat Street (Russian), mainly referred to in English as the Arbat, is a pedestrian street about one kilometer long in the historical centre of Moscow, Russia.
Arc welding is a process that is used to join metal to metal by using electricity to create enough heat to melt metal, and the melted metals when cool result in a binding of the metals.
Aria (Ария) is a Russian heavy metal band that was formed in 1985 in Moscow.
Ridolfo "Aristotele" Fioravanti (born c. 1415 or 1420 in Bologna; died c. 1486) was an Italian Renaissance architect and engineer, active in Muscovy from 1475, where he designed the Dormition Cathedral, Moscow during 1475–1479.
The brothers Arkady (Аркадий; 28 August 1925 – 12 October 1991) and Boris (Бори́с; 14 April 1933 – 19 November 2012) Strugatsky (Струга́цкий; alternate spellings: Strugatskiy, Strugatski, Strugatskii) were Soviet-Russian science fiction authors who collaborated through most of their careers.
Arkhangelsk (p), also known in English as Archangel and Archangelsk, is a city and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, in the north of European Russia.
Arkhip Ivanovich Kuindzhi (or Kuinji; Архи́п Ива́нович Куи́нджи; 27 January 1842(?) – 24 July 1910) was a Russian landscape painter of Greek descent.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
The Armenian Apostolic Church (translit) is the national church of the Armenian people.
Armenians in Russia or Russian Armenians are one of the country's largest ethnic minorities and the largest Armenian diaspora community outside Armenia.
The Army of Conquest (جيش الفتح) or Jaish al-Fatah, abbreviated JaF, was a joint command center of Sunni Islamist Syrian rebel factions participating in the Syrian Civil War.
Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between 1890 and 1910.
Arto Pekka Luukkanen (born 28 November 1964) is a Finnish historian and social scientist, specialising in Russian and Eastern European research at the University of Helsinki Renvall Institute.
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a forum for 21 Pacific Rim member economies.
An assault rifle is a selective-fire rifle that uses an intermediate cartridge and a detachable magazine.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional intergovernmental organization comprising ten Southeast Asian countries that promotes intergovernmental cooperation and facilitates economic, political, security, military, educational, and sociocultural integration amongst its members, other Asian countries, and globally.
Astrakhan (p) is a city in southern Russia and the administrative center of Astrakhan Oblast.
The Khanate of Astrakhan (Xacitarxan Khanate) was a Tatar Turkic state that arose during the break-up of the Golden Horde.
An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.
Astronautics (or cosmonautics) is the theory and practice of navigation beyond Earth's atmosphere.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy in English-language sources, was a constitutional union of the Austrian Empire (the Kingdoms and Lands Represented in the Imperial Council, or Cisleithania) and the Kingdom of Hungary (Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen or Transleithania) that existed from 1867 to 1918, when it collapsed as a result of defeat in World War I. The union was a result of the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867 and came into existence on 30 March 1867.
An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).
The Russian Federation is divided into 83 federal subjects.
Autonomous okrug (t), occasionally also referred to as "autonomous district", "autonomous area", and "autonomous region", is a type of federal subject of Russia and simultaneously an administrative division type of some federal subjects.
The avant-garde (from French, "advance guard" or "vanguard", literally "fore-guard") are people or works that are experimental, radical, or unorthodox with respect to art, culture, or society.
Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov (Илья́ Ильи́ч Ме́чников, also written as Élie Metchnikoff; 15 July 1916) was a Russian zoologist best known for his pioneering research in immunology.
The balalaika (балала́йка) is a Russian stringed musical instrument with a characteristic triangular wooden, hollow body and three strings.
Ballad of a Soldier (Баллада о солдате, Ballada o soldate), is a 1959 Soviet film directed by Grigori Chukhrai and starring Vladimir Ivashov and Zhanna Prokhorenko.
The Ballets Russes was an itinerant ballet company based in Paris that performed between 1909 and 1929 throughout Europe and on tours to North and South America.
A ballistic missile submarine is a submarine capable of deploying submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) with nuclear warheads.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
Bandy is a team winter sport played on ice, in which skaters use sticks to direct a ball into the opposing team's goal.
The Bandy World Championship is a competition between bandy-playing nations' men's teams.
A banya or banja (баня) is a small room or building designed as a place to experience dry or wet heat sessions or an establishment with one or more of these facilities.
The term bard (bard) came to be used in the Soviet Union in the early 1960s, and continues to be used in Russia today, to refer to singer-songwriters who wrote songs outside the Soviet establishment, similarly to folk singers of the American folk music revival.
The Barents Sea (Barentshavet; Баренцево море, Barentsevo More) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, located off the northern coasts of Norway and Russia divided between Norwegian and Russian territorial waters.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.
The Bashkir language (Башҡорт теле) is a Turkic language belonging to the Kipchak branch.
The Bashkirs (Башҡорттар, Başqorttar,; Башкиры, Baškiry) are a Turkic ethnic group, indigenous to Bashkortostan and to the historical region of Badzhgard, extending on both sides of the Ural Mountains, in the area where Eastern Europe meets North Asia.
Bast shoes are shoes made primarily from bast — fiber taken from the bark of trees such as linden or birch.
The Battle of Berlin, designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, and also known as the Fall of Berlin, was the final major offensive of the European theatre of World War II.
The Battle of Kulikovo (Мамаево побоище, Донское побоище, Куликовская битва, битва на Куликовом поле) was fought between the armies of the Golden Horde under the command of Mamai, and various Russian principalities under the united command of Prince Dmitry of Moscow.
The Battle of Kursk was a Second World War engagement between German and Soviet forces on the Eastern Front near Kursk (south-west of Moscow) in the Soviet Union, during July and August 1943.
The Battle of Molodi (Russian: Молодинская битва) was one of the key battles of Ivan the Terrible's reign.
The Battle of Moscow (translit) was a military campaign that consisted of two periods of strategically significant fighting on a sector of the Eastern Front during World War II.
The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was the largest confrontation of World War II, in which Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia.
The Battle of the Neva (Невская битва, Nevskaya bitva, slaget vid Neva, Finnish: Nevan taistelu) was fought between the Novgorod Republic and Karelians against Swedish, Norwegian, Finnish and Tavastian armies on the Neva River, near the settlement of Ust-Izhora, on 15 July 1240.
The Battle on the Ice (Ледовое побоище, Ledovoye poboish'ye); Schlacht auf dem Eise; Jäälahing; Schlacht auf dem Peipussee) was fought between the Republic of Novgorod led by prince Alexander Nevsky and the crusader army led by the Livonian branch of the Teutonic Knights on April 5, 1242, at Lake Peipus. The battle is notable for having been fought largely on the frozen lake, and this gave the battle its name. The battle was a significant defeat sustained by the crusaders during the Northern Crusades, which were directed against pagans and Eastern Orthodox Christians rather than Muslims in the Holy Land. The Crusaders' defeat in the battle marked the end of their campaigns against the Orthodox Novgorod Republic and other Slavic territories for the next century. The event was glorified in Sergei Eisenstein's historical drama film Alexander Nevsky, released in 1938, which created a popular image of the battle often mistaken for the real events. Sergei Prokofiev turned his score for the film into a concert cantata of the same title, with "The Battle on the Ice" being its longest movement.
Battleship Potemkin (Бронено́сец «Потёмкин», Bronenosets Potyomkin), sometimes rendered as Battleship Potyomkin, is a 1925 Soviet silent film directed by Sergei Eisenstein and produced by Mosfilm.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Belarusian (беларуская мова) is an official language of Belarus, along with Russian, and is spoken abroad, mainly in Ukraine and Russia.
The Belavezha Accords (Беловежские соглашения, Белавежскае пагадненне, Біловезькі угоди) is the agreement that declared the Soviet Union effectively dissolved and established the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in its place.
Belgorod Oblast (Белгоро́дская о́бласть, Belgorodskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
Belukha Mountain (Белуха, lit "whitey"; Altai: Muztau or Üç Sümer), located in the Katun Mountains, is the highest peak of the Altai Mountains in Russia.
The Bering Sea (r) is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean.
The Bering Strait (Берингов пролив, Beringov proliv, Yupik: Imakpik) is a strait of the Pacific, which borders with the Arctic to north.
The Beslan school siege (also referred to as the Beslan school hostage crisis or Beslan massacre) started on 1 September 2004, lasted three days, involved the illegal imprisonment of over 1,100 people as hostages (including 777 children), and ended with the deaths of at least 334 people.
Bessarabia (Basarabia; Бессарабия, Bessarabiya; Besarabya; Бессара́бія, Bessarabiya; Бесарабия, Besarabiya) is a historical region in Eastern Europe, bounded by the Dniester river on the east and the Prut river on the west.
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.
Big Diomede Island (о́стров Ратма́нова, ostrov Ratmanova (Russian for Ratmanov Island); Inupiat: Imaqłiq) or "Tomorrow Island" (due to the International Date Line) is the western island of the two Diomede Islands in the middle of the Bering Strait.
A bill is proposed legislation under consideration by a legislature.
A birch is a thin-leaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus Betula, in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams.
The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 in a population in a year or period.
A bishop (English derivation from the New Testament of the Christian Bible Greek επίσκοπος, epískopos, "overseer", "guardian") is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
A blini (sometimes spelled bliny) (Russian: блины pl., diminutive: блинчики, blinchiki) or, sometimes, blin (more accurate as a single form of the noun), is a Russian pancake traditionally made from wheat or (more rarely) buckwheat flour and served with sour cream, quark, butter, caviar and other garnishes.
Bloody Sunday or Red Sunday (p) is the name given to the events of Sunday, in St Petersburg, Russia, when unarmed demonstrators led by Father Georgy Gapon were fired upon by soldiers of the Imperial Guard as they marched towards the Winter Palace to present a petition to Tsar Nicholas II of Russia.
Bloomberg L.P. is a privately held financial, software, data, and media company headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.
Bloomberg News is an international news agency headquartered in New York, United States and a division of Bloomberg L.P. Content produced by Bloomberg News is disseminated through Bloomberg Terminals, Bloomberg Television, Bloomberg Radio, Bloomberg Businessweek, Bloomberg Markets, Bloomberg.com and Bloomberg's mobile platforms.
Zynoviy Bohdan Khmelnytsky (Ruthenian language: Ѕѣнові Богдан Хмелнiцкiи; modern Bohdan Zynoviy Mykhailovych Khmelnytsky; Bohdan Zenobi Chmielnicki; 6 August 1657) was a Polish–Lithuanian-born Hetman of the Zaporozhian Host of the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (now part of Ukraine).
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
The Bolshoi Ballet is an internationally renowned classical ballet company, based at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow, Russian Federation.
The Bolshoi Theatre (p) is a historic theatre in Moscow, Russia, originally designed by architect Joseph Bové, which holds ballet and opera performances.
Russia has international borders with 16 sovereign states, including two with maritime boundaries (US, Japan), as well as with the partially recognized states of South Ossetia and Abkhazia.
Boris Mikhaylovich Kustodiev (Бори́с Миха́йлович Кусто́диев; – 28 May 1927) was a Russian painter and stage designer.
Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (p; 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Soviet and Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.
Borscht is a sour soup popular in several Eastern European cuisines, including Ukrainian, Russian, Polish, Lithuanian, Belarusian, Romanian, Ashkenazi Jewish and Armenian cuisines.
The Bosporan Kingdom, also known as the Kingdom of the Cimmerian Bosporus (Basileion tou Kimmerikou Bosporou), was an ancient state located in eastern Crimea and the Taman Peninsula on the shores of the Cimmerian Bosporus, the present-day Strait of Kerch (it was not named after the more famous Bosphorus beside Istanbul at the other end of the Black Sea).
Brian Glyn Williams is a professor of Islamic History at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth.
In economics, BRIC is a grouping acronym that refers to the countries of '''B'''razil, '''R'''ussia, '''I'''ndia and '''C'''hina, which are all deemed to be at a similar stage of newly advanced economic development.
A broad-gauge railway is a railway with a track gauge broader than the standard-gauge railways.
The Brusilov Offensive (Брусиловский прорыв Brusilovskiĭ proryv, literally: "Brusilov's breakthrough"), also known as the "June Advance", of June to September 1916 was the Russian Empire’s greatest feat of arms during World War I, and among the most lethal offensives in world history.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Historically, Buddhism was incorporated into Russian lands in the early 17th century.
Bukovina (Bucovina; Bukowina/Buchenland; Bukowina; Bukovina, Буковина Bukovyna; see also other languages) is a historical region in Central Europe,Klaus Peter Berger,, Kluwer Law International, 2010, p. 132 divided between Romania and Ukraine, located on the northern slopes of the central Eastern Carpathians and the adjoining plains.
Bulat Shalvovich Okudzhava (Була́т Ша́лвович Окуджа́ва; ბულატ ოკუჯავა) (May 9, 1924 – June 12, 1997) was a Soviet and Russian poet, writer, musician, novelist, and singer-songwriter of Georgian-Armenian ancestry.
The Buran programme (Бура́н,, "Snowstorm" or "Blizzard"), also known as the "VKK Space Orbiter programme" ("VKK" is for Воздушно Космический Корабль, "Air Space Ship"), was a Soviet and later Russian reusable spacecraft project that began in 1974 at the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute in Moscow and was formally suspended in 1993.
A burka (ნაბადი, Svan: ღა̈რთ, ауапа, кӏакӏо, щӏакӏуэ, нымӕг, ферта, верта, буртина) is a coat made from felt or karakul (the short curly fur of young lambs of the breed of that name).
Buryat or Buriat (Buryat Cyrillic: буряад хэлэн, buryaad xelen) is a variety of Mongolic spoken by the Buryats that is classified either as a language or as a major dialect group of Mongolian.
The Republic of Buryatia (p; Buryaad Ulas) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic), located in Asia in Siberia.
The Buryats (Buryaad; 1, Buriad), numbering approximately 500,000, are the largest indigenous group in Siberia, mainly concentrated in their homeland, the Buryat Republic, a federal subject of Russia.
Business Insider is an American financial and business news website that also operates international editions in the UK, Australia, China, Germany, France, South Africa, India, Italy, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Netherlands, Nordics, Poland, Spanish and Singapore.
The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR, or Byelorussian SSR; Bielaruskaja Savieckaja Sacyjalistyčnaja Respublika; Belorusskaya SSR.), also commonly referred to in English as Byelorussia, was a federal unit of the Soviet Union (USSR).
Bylina or starina (были́на; pl. были́ны byliny; also ста́рина; pl. ста́рины stariny) is a traditional East Slavic oral epic narrative poem.
Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire, also known as the Later Roman or Eastern Roman Empire.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Byzantium or Byzantion (Ancient Greek: Βυζάντιον, Byzántion) was an ancient Greek colony in early antiquity that later became Constantinople, and later Istanbul.
A cabbage roll is a dish consisting of cooked cabbage leaves wrapped around a variety of fillings.
Caesar (English Caesars; Latin Caesares) is a title of imperial character.
Capital flight, in economics, occurs when assets or money rapidly flow out of a country, due to an event of economic consequence.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
The Caspian expeditions of the Rus' were military raids undertaken by the Rus' between 864 and 1041 on the Caspian Sea shores,Logan (1992), p. 201 of what are nowadays Iran, Dagestan, and Azerbaijan.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour (Храм Христа Спасителя, Khram Khrista Spasitelya) is a Russian Orthodox cathedral in Moscow, Russia, on the northern bank of the Moskva River, a few hundred metres southwest of the Kremlin.
Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; –), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader.
The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system in West Asia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea in the Caucasus region.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri / Bağlaşma Devletleri; translit), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).
The Chairman of the Federation Council of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation (Председатель Совета Федерации Федерального собрания Российской Федерации), also called Speaker (спикер), is the presiding officer of the Upper house of the Russian parliament.
The Chairman of the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation (Председатель Государственной Думы Федерального собрания Российской Федерации), also called Speaker (спикер), is the presiding officer of the lower house of the Russian parliament.
The Chalcolithic (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998), p. 301: "Chalcolithic /,kælkəl'lɪθɪk/ adjective Archaeology of, relating to, or denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millennium BCE, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. Also called Eneolithic... Also called Copper Age - Origin early 20th cent.: from Greek khalkos 'copper' + lithos 'stone' + -ic". χαλκός khalkós, "copper" and λίθος líthos, "stone") period or Copper Age, in particular for eastern Europe often named Eneolithic or Æneolithic (from Latin aeneus "of copper"), was a period in the development of human technology, before it was discovered that adding tin to copper formed the harder bronze, leading to the Bronze Age.
Chamomile (American English) or camomile (British English; see spelling differences) is the common name for several daisy-like plants of the family Asteraceae.
Chapaev (Чапаев) is a 1934 Soviet war film, directed by the Vasilyev brothers for Lenfilm.
Cheburashka (p), also known as Topple in earlier English translations, is a character in children's literature, from a 1966 story by Soviet writer Eduard Uspensky.
Chechen (нохчийн мотт / noxçiyn mott / نَاخچیین موٓتت / ნახჩიე მუოთთ, Nokhchiin mott) is a Northeast Caucasian language spoken by more than 1.4 million people, mostly in the Chechen Republic and by members of the Chechen diaspora throughout Russia, Jordan, Central Asia (mainly Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan), and Georgia.
Chechens (Нохчий; Old Chechen: Нахчой Naxçoy) are a Northeast Caucasian ethnic group of the Nakh peoples originating in the North Caucasus region of Eastern Europe.
The Chechen Republic (tɕɪˈtɕɛnskəjə rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə; Нохчийн Республика, Noxçiyn Respublika), commonly referred to as Chechnya (p; Нохчийчоь, Noxçiyçö), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia.
Chelyabinsk (a) is a city and the administrative center of Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, located in the northeast of the oblast, south of Yekaterinburg, just to the east of the Ural Mountains, on the Miass River, on the border of Europe and Asia.
A chemical structure determination includes a chemist's specifying the molecular geometry and, when feasible and necessary, the electronic structure of the target molecule or other solid.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Cherenkov radiation (sometimes spelled "Cerenkov") is electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle (such as an electron) passes through a dielectric medium at a speed greater than the phase velocity of light in that medium.
Chersonesus (Khersónēsos; Chersonesus; modern Russian and Ukrainian: Херсонес, Khersones; also rendered as Chersonese, Chersonesos), in medieval Greek contracted to Cherson (Χερσών; Old East Slavic: Корсунь, Korsun) is an ancient Greek colony founded approximately 2,500 years ago in the southwestern part of the Crimean Peninsula.
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid.
Chicken Kiev (котлета по-київськи, kotleta po-kyivsky, котлета по-киевски, kotleta po-kiyevski; literally "cutlet Kiev-style") is a dish of chicken fillet pounded and rolled around cold butter, then coated with eggs and bread crumbs, and either fried or baked.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Christian Today is a non-denominational Christian news company, with its international headquarters in London, England.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christianity in Russia is by some estimates the largest religion in the country, with nearly 50% of the population identifying as Christian.
Christianization (or Christianisation) is the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire groups at once.
The Christianization of Kievan Rus' took place in several stages.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
The Chukchi Peninsula (or Chukotka Peninsula or Chukotski Peninsula) (Чуко́тский полуо́стров, Чуко́тка), at about 66° N 172° W, is the eastmost peninsula of Asia.
Chukchi Sea (p) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean.
Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (p; Chukchi: Чукоткакэн автономныкэн округ, Chukotkaken avtonomnyken okrug) or Chukotka (Чуко́тка) is a federal subject (an autonomous okrug) of Russia.
The Church of the Savior on Spilled Blood (Церковь Спаса на Крови, Tserkovʹ Spasa na Krovi) is one of the main sights of Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Chuvash (Чӑвашла, Čăvašla) is a Turkic language spoken in European Russia, primarily in the Chuvash Republic and adjacent areas.
The Chuvash people (чăваш,; чуваши) are a Turkic ethnic group, native to an area stretching from the Volga Region to Siberia.
The cinema of the Soviet Union, not to be confused with "cinema of Russia" despite films in the Russian language being predominant in the body of work so described, includes films produced by the constituent republics of the Soviet Union reflecting elements of their pre-Soviet culture, language and history, albeit they were all regulated by the central government in Moscow.
Circassian, also known as Cherkess, is a subdivision of the Northwest Caucasian language family.
The Circassians (Черкесы Čerkesy), also known by their endonym Adyghe (Circassian: Адыгэхэр Adygekher, Ады́ги Adýgi), are a Northwest Caucasian nation native to Circassia, many of whom were displaced in the course of the Russian conquest of the Caucasus in the 19th century, especially after the Russian–Circassian War in 1864.
Citizenship of Russia is regulated by the federal act regarding citizenship of the Russian Federation (of 2002, with the amendments of 2003, 2004, 2006), Constitution of the Russian Federation (of 1993), and the international treaties that cover citizenship questions to which the Russian Federation is a party.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Classical conditioning (also known as Pavlovian or respondent conditioning) refers to a learning procedure in which a biologically potent stimulus (e.g. food) is paired with a previously neutral stimulus (e.g. a bell).
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
The coat of arms of Moscow depicts a horseman with a spear in his hand slaying a basilisk and is identified with Saint George and the Dragon.
The coat of arms of the Russian Federation derives from the earlier coat of arms of the Russian Empire which was abolished with the Russian Revolution in 1917 and restored in 1993 after the constitutional crisis.
A code of law, also called a law code or legal code, is a type of legislation that purports to exhaustively cover a complete system of laws or a particular area of law as it existed at the time the code was enacted, by a process of codification.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Collective leadership is a distribution of power within an organisational structure.
Collective leadership (коллективное руководство) or Collectivity of leadership (коллективность руководства), was considered an ideal form of governance in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) and other socialist states espousing communism.
The Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO; Организация Договора о Коллективной Безопасности, Organizacija Dogovora o Kollektivnoj Bezopasnosti, ODKB) is an intergovernmental military alliance that was signed on 15 May 1992.
The Soviet Union enforced the collectivization (Коллективизация) of its agricultural sector between 1928 and 1940 (in West - between 1948 and 1952) during the ascendancy of Joseph Stalin.
The Commissioner for Human Rights is an independent and impartial non-judicial institution established in 1999 by the Strasbourg-based Council of Europe, to promote awareness of and respect for human rights in the 47 member states.
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r), also nicknamed the Russian Commonwealth (in order to distinguish it from the Commonwealth of Nations), is a political and economic intergovernmental organization of nine member states and one associate member, all of which are former Soviet Republics located in Eurasia (primarily in Central to North Asia), formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
A communist party is a political party that advocates the application of the social and economic principles of communism through state policy.
The Communist Party of the Russian Federation (CPRF; Коммунистическая Партия Российской Федерации; КПРФ; Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii, KPRF) is a communist and Marxist–Leninist political party in Russia.
A complex system is a system composed of many components which may interact with each other.
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
The Kingdom of Poland, informally known as Congress Poland or Russian Poland, was created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna as a sovereign state of the Russian part of Poland connected by personal union with the Russian Empire under the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland until 1832.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
In physics, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant, it is said to be ''conserved'' over time.
The current Constitution of the Russian Federation (Конституция Российской Федерации, Konstitutsiya Rossiyskoy Federatsii) was adopted by national referendum on.
The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation (Конституционный Суд Российской Федерации) is a high court within the judiciary of Russia which is empowered to rule on whether certain laws or presidential decrees are in fact contrary to the Constitution of Russia.
Constitutionality is the condition of acting in accordance with an applicable constitution; the status of a law, a procedure, or an act's accordance with the laws or guidelines set forth in the applicable constitution.
Constructivism was an artistic and architectural philosophy that originated in Russia beginning in 1913 by Vladimir Tatlin.
Constructivist architecture was a form of modern architecture that flourished in the Soviet Union in the 1920s and early 1930s.
The continental shelf of Russia (also called the Russian continental shelf or the Arctic shelf in the Arctic region) is a continental shelf adjacent to Russia.
Political corruption is perceived to be a significant problem in Russia, impacting all aspects of administration, law enforcement, healthcare and education.
Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".
Cosmonautics Day (День Космона́втики, Den Kosmonavtiki) is an anniversary celebrated in Russia and some other former USSR countries on 12 April.
Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
The Crimean Khanate (Mongolian: Крымын ханлиг; Crimean Tatar / Ottoman Turkish: Къырым Ханлыгъы, Qırım Hanlığı, rtl or Къырым Юрту, Qırım Yurtu, rtl; Крымское ханство, Krymskoje hanstvo; Кримське ханство, Krymśke chanstvo; Chanat Krymski) was a Turkic vassal state of the Ottoman Empire from 1478 to 1774, the longest-lived of the Turkic khanates that succeeded the empire of the Golden Horde.
A controversial referendum on the status of Crimea was held on March 16, 2014, by the legislature of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and by the local government of Sevastopol (both subdivisions of Ukraine).
Crimean Tatar (Къырымтатарджа, Qırımtatarca; Къырымтатар тили, Qırımtatar tili), also called Crimean Turkish or simply Crimean, is a Kipchak Turkic language spoken in Crimea and the Crimean Tatar diasporas of Uzbekistan, Turkey, Romania and Bulgaria, as well as small communities in the United States and Canada.
The Crimean War (or translation) was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia.
The Crimean-Nogai raids were slave raids carried out by the Khanate of Crimea and by the Nogai Horde into the region of Rus' then controlled by the Grand Duchy of Moscow (until 1547), by the Tsardom of Russia (1547-1721), by the Russian Empire (1721 onwards) and by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569).
Critical realism, a philosophical approach associated with Roy Bhaskar (1944–2014), combines a general philosophy of science (transcendental realism) with a philosophy of social science (critical naturalism) to describe an interface between the natural and social worlds.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis of 1962 (Crisis de Octubre), the Caribbean Crisis, or the Missile Scare, was a 13-day (October 16–28, 1962) confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning American ballistic missile deployment in Italy and Turkey with consequent Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba.
A cult of personality arises when a country's regime – or, more rarely, an individual politician – uses the techniques of mass media, propaganda, the big lie, spectacle, the arts, patriotism, and government-organized demonstrations and rallies to create an idealized, heroic, and worshipful image of a leader, often through unquestioning flattery and praise.
The name Cumania originated as the Latin exonym for the Cuman-Kipchak confederation, which was a Turkic confederation in the western part of the Eurasian Steppe, between the 10th and 13th centuries.
The Republic of Dagestan (Респу́блика Дагеста́н), or simply Dagestan (or; Дагеста́н), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia, located in the North Caucasus region.
Daniil Vyacheslavovich Kvyat (p, born 26 April 1994), is a Russian auto racing driver currently working as a development driver for Scuderia Ferrari.
Datsan (Дацан, Дацан) is the term used for Buddhist university monasteries in the Tibetan tradition of Gelukpa located throughout Mongolia, Tibet and Siberia.
David Kaye is the current United Nations special rapporteur on the Promotion and Protection of the Right to Freedom of Opinion and Expression, a post he has held since August 2014.
David Fyodorovich Oistrakh (– 24 October 1974), PAU, was a renowned Soviet classical violinist and violist.
DDT (or ДДТ in Cyrillic) is a popular Russian rock band founded by its lead singer and the only remaining original member, Yuri Shevchuk (Юрий Шевчук), in Ufa (Bashkir ASSR, RSFSR) in 1980.
De-Stalinization (Russian: десталинизация, destalinizatsiya) consisted of a series of political reforms in the Soviet Union after the death of long-time leader Joseph Stalin in 1953, and the ascension of Nikita Khrushchev to power.
The Decembrist revolt or the Decembrist uprising (r) took place in Imperial Russia on.
Decentralization is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding planning and decision-making, are distributed or delegated away from a central, authoritative location or group.
The Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Russian SFSR (r) was a political act of the Russian SFSR (Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic), then part of the Soviet Union, which marked the beginning of constitutional reform in Russia.
A declaration of war is a formal act by which one state goes to war against another.
Ded Moroz (Дед Мороз, Ded Moroz; Дзед Мароз, Dzyed Maróz; Дід Мороз, Did Moróz; Russian diminutive Дедушка Мороз, Dédushka Moróz; Montenegrin: Đed Mraz (Ђед Мраз)) is a Slavic fictional character similar to that of Father Christmas.
Defender of the Fatherland Day (День защитника Отечества Den' zashchitnika Otechestva); Отан қорғаушы күні; Рӯзи артиши миллӣ; Мекенди коргоочулардын күнү; Дзень абаронцы Айчыны) is a holiday observed in Russia, Turkmenistan, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Tajikistan. It is celebrated on 23 February, except in Kazakhstan, where it is celebrated on 7 May.
The defense industry of Russia is a strategically important sector and a large employer in Russia.
The Democracy Index is an index compiled by the UK-based company the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) that intends to measure the state of democracy in 167 countries, of which 166 are sovereign states and 165 are UN member states.
Accurate demographics of atheism are difficult to obtain since conceptions of atheism vary across different cultures and languages from being an active concept to being unimportant or not developed.
Denis Ivanovich Fonvizin (Дени́с Ива́нович Фонви́зин, from von Wiesen) was a playwright of the Russian Enlightenment, whose plays are still staged today.
Der Spiegel (lit. "The Mirror") is a German weekly news magazine published in Hamburg.
The Diomede Islands (острова́ Диоми́да, ostrová Diomída), also known in Russia as Gvozdev Islands (острова́ Гво́здева, ostrová Gvozdjeva), consist of two rocky, mesa-like islands.
Dionisius (Диони́сий, variously transliterated as Dionisy, Dionysiy, etc., also Dionisius the Wise) (ca. 1440 – 1502) was acknowledged as a head of the Moscow school of icon painters at the turn of the 15th and 16th centuries.
A dissipative system is a thermodynamically open system which is operating out of, and often far from, thermodynamic equilibrium in an environment with which it exchanges energy and matter.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
Dmitri Aleksandrovich Hvorostovsky (Дми́трий Алекса́ндрович Хворосто́вский, 16 October 1962 – 22 November 2017) was a Russian operatic baritone.
Dmitri Iosifovich Ivanovsky (alternative spelling Dmitrii or Dmitry Iwanowski; Дми́трий Ио́сифович Ивано́вский; 28 October 1864 – 20 June 1920) was a Russian botanist, the discoverer of viruses (1892) and one of the founders of virology.
Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (a; 8 February 18342 February 1907 O.S. 27 January 183420 January 1907) was a Russian chemist and inventor.
Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich (Дми́трий Дми́триевич Шостако́вич|Dmitriy Dmitrievich Shostakovich,; 9 August 1975) was a Russian composer and pianist.
Saint Dmitry Ivanovich Donskoy (Дми́трий Ива́нович Донско́й, also known as Dimitrii or Demetrius), or Dmitry of the Don, sometimes referred to simply as Dmitry (12 October 1350 in Moscow – 19 May 1389 in Moscow), son of Ivan II the Fair of Moscow (1326–1359), reigned as the Prince of Moscow from 1359 and Grand Prince of Vladimir from 1363 to his death.
Dmytro Levytsky (Dmitry Grigoryevich Levitsky) (Дмитро Григорович Левицький; Дмитрий Григорьевич Левицкий; May 1735 – 17 April 1822) was a Russian-Ukrainian portrait painter.
Dmitry Anatolyevich Medvedev (p; born 14 September 1965) is a Russian politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Russia since 2012.
Dmitry Mikhaylovich Pozharsky (p; October 17, 1577 - April 30, 1642), a Rurikid prince, led Russian forces against Polish-Lithuanian invaders in 1611-1612 towards the end of the Time of Troubles.
The Dnieper River, known in Russian as: Dnepr, and in Ukrainian as Dnipro is one of the major rivers of Europe, rising near Smolensk, Russia and flowing through Russia, Belarus and Ukraine to the Black Sea.
Dombay (Домба́й; Доммай) is an urban locality (a resort settlement) under the administrative jurisdiction of the town of republic significance of Karachayevsk in the Karachay-Cherkess Republic, Russia.
Interior view upward to the Byzantine domes and semi-domes of Hagia Sophia. See Commons file for annotations. A dome (from Latin: domus) is an architectural element that resembles the hollow upper half of a sphere.
Don Cossacks (Донские казаки) are Cossacks who settled along the middle and lower Don.
This article is about the history of competitors at the Olympic Games using banned athletic performance-enhancing drugs.
Doping in Russian sports has a systemic nature.
In heraldry and vexillology, the double-headed eagle is a charge associated with the concept of Empire.
Dressed herring, colloquially known as herring under a fur coat (selyodka pod shuboy or just shuba) is a layered salad composed of diced pickled herring covered with layers of grated boiled vegetables (potatoes, carrots, beet roots), chopped onions, and mayonnaise.
Dymkovo toys, also known as the Vyatka toys or Kirov toys (Дымковская игрушка, вятская игрушка, кировская игрушка in Russian) are moulded painted clay figures of people and animals (sometimes in the form of a pennywhistle).
Dziga Vertov (Дзига Вертов; born David Abelevich Kaufman, Дави́д А́белевич Ка́уфман., and also known as Denis Kaufman; 2 January 1896 – 12 February 1954) was a Soviet pioneer documentary film and newsreel director, as well as a cinema theorist.
The East European Plain (also called the Russian Plain, "Extending from eastern Poland to the Urals, the East European Plain encompasses all of the Baltic states and Belarus, nearly all of Ukraine, and much of the European portion of Russia and reaches north into Finland." — Britannica. predominantly by Russian scientists, or historically the Sarmatic Plain) is a vast interior plain extending east of the North/Central European Plain, and comprising several plateaus stretching roughly from 25 degrees longitude eastward.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
East Prussia (Ostpreußen,; Prusy Wschodnie; Rytų Prūsija; Borussia orientalis; Восточная Пруссия) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire from 1871); following World War I it formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia, until 1945.
The East Siberian Sea (r) is a marginal sea in the Arctic Ocean.
The East Slavic languages constitute one of three regional subgroups of Slavic languages, currently spoken throughout Eastern Europe, Northern Asia, and the Caucasus.
The East Slavs are Slavic peoples speaking the East Slavic languages.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
The Eastern Orthodox Church, also known as the Orthodox Church, or officially as the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the second-largest Christian Church, with over 250 million members.
Eastern Orthodox church architecture constitutes a distinct, recognizable family of styles among church architectures.
The Eastern Siberia–Pacific Ocean oil pipeline (ESPO pipeline or ESPOOP, Нефтепровод "Восточная Сибирь - Тихий океан" (ВСТО)) is a pipeline system for exporting Russian crude oil to the Asia-Pacific markets (Japan, China and Korea).
Russia has an upper-middle income, World Bank mixed economy with state ownership in strategic areas of the economy.
The economy of the Soviet Union (экономика Советского Союза) was based on a system of state ownership of the means of production, collective farming, industrial manufacturing and centralized administrative planning.
In Russia the state provides most education services, regulating education through the Ministry of Education and Science.
Efficient energy use, sometimes simply called energy efficiency, is the goal to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services.
Eid al-Adha (lit), also called the "Festival of Sacrifice", is the second of two Islamic holidays celebrated worldwide each year (the other being Eid al-Fitr), and considered the holier of the two.
Eid al-Fitr (عيد الفطر) is an important religious holiday celebrated by Muslims worldwide that marks the end of Ramadan, the Islamic holy month of fasting (sawm).
Lazar Markovich Lissitzky (Ла́зарь Ма́ркович Лиси́цкий,; – December 30, 1941), known as El Lissitzky (Эль Лиси́цкий, על ליסיצקי), was a Russian artist, designer, photographer, typographer, polemicist and architect.
Eldar Alexandrovich Ryazanov (Эльда́р Алекса́ндрович Ряза́нов; 18 November 1927 – 30 November 2015) was a Soviet and Russian film director and screenwriter whose popular comedies, satirizing the daily life of the Soviet Union and Russia, are celebrated throughout the former Soviet Union.
An electric arc, or arc discharge, is an electrical breakdown of a gas that produces an ongoing electrical discharge.
An electric light is a device that produces visible light from electric current.
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) or electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is a method for studying materials with unpaired electrons.
Elena Vasiliyevna Obraztsova (Елена Васильевна Образцова; 7 July 1939 – 12 January 2015) was a Russian mezzo-soprano.
Elista (p or;"Большой энциклопедический словарь", под ред. А. М. Прохорова. Москва и Санкт-Петербург, 1997, стр. 1402, Elst)The approximate pronunciation of the Cyrillic Kalmyk name in IPA is.
Elizabeth Petrovna (Елизаве́та (Елисаве́та) Петро́вна) (–), also known as Yelisaveta or Elizaveta, was the Empress of Russia from 1741 until her death.
The Emancipation Reform of 1861 in Russia (translit, literally: "the peasants Reform of 1861") was the first and most important of liberal reforms passed during the reign (1855-1881) of Emperor Alexander II of Russia.
Emil Grigoryevich Gilels (sometimes transliterated Hilels; Емі́ль Григо́рович Гі́лельс, Эми́ль Григо́рьевич Ги́лельс, Emiľ Grigorievič Gileľs; 19 October 1916 – 14 October 1985), HSL, PAU, was a Soviet pianist, widely regarded as one of the greatest pianists of the twentieth century.
Eminent domain (United States, Philippines), land acquisition (Singapore), compulsory purchase (United Kingdom, New Zealand, Ireland), resumption (Hong Kong, Uganda), resumption/compulsory acquisition (Australia), or expropriation (France, Italy, Mexico, South Africa, Canada, Brazil, Portugal, Spain, Chile, Denmark, Sweden) is the power of a state, provincial, or national government to take private property for public use.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Energy conservation is the effort made to reduce the consumption of energy by using less of an energy service.
The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System responsible for collecting, analyzing, and disseminating energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, and public understanding of energy and its interaction with the economy and the environment.
An energy superpower is a country that supplies large amounts of energy resources (crude oil, natural gas, coal, uranium, etc.) to a significant number of other countries, and therefore has the potential to influence world markets to gain a political or economic advantage.
The environment of Russia.
The Era of Stagnation (Период застоя, Stagnation Period, also called the Brezhnevian Stagnation) was the period in the history of the Soviet Union which began during the rule of Leonid Brezhnev (1964–1982) and continued under Yuri Andropov (1982–1984) and Konstantin Chernenko (1984–1985).
Ernst Iosifovich Neizvestny (Эрнст Ио́сифович Неизве́стный; April 9, 1925 – August 9, 2016) was a Russian-American sculptor, painter, graphic artist, and art philosopher.
The Erzya language (erzänj kelj) is spoken by about 37,000 people in the northern, eastern and north-western parts of the Republic of Mordovia and adjacent regions of Nizhny Novgorod, Chuvashia, Penza, Samara, Saratov, Orenburg, Ulyanovsk, Tatarstan and Bashkortostan in Russia.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
In religious studies, an ethnic religion (or indigenous religion) is a religion associated with a particular ethnic group.
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
The Eurasian Economic Community (EAEC or EurAsEC) was a regional organisation between 2000 and 2014 which aimed for the economic integration of its member states.
The Eurasian Economic Union (officially EAEU, but sometimes called EEU or EAU)The acronym is used in the.
Eurasianism (Евразийство, Yevraziystvo) is a political movement in Russia, formerly within the primarily Russian émigré community, that posits that Russian civilisation does not belong in the "European" or "Asian" categories but instead to the geopolitical concept of Eurasia.
The 2007 FIBA European Championship, commonly called FIBA EuroBasket 2007, was the 35th FIBA EuroBasket regional basketball championship held by FIBA Europe, which also served as Europe qualifier for the 2008 Summer Olympics, giving a berth to the champion and runner-up teams (or to the third-placed team in case Spain should reach the final).
The EuroLeague, also known as the Turkish Airlines EuroLeague for name sponsorship reasons, is the European-wide top-tier level professional basketball club competition that is organized by Euroleague Basketball, since 2000, for eligible European basketball clubs.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) (formally the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms) is an international treaty to protect human rights and political freedoms in Europe.
European Russia is the western part of Russia that is a part of Eastern Europe.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Evgeny Igorevitch Kissin (Евге́ний И́горевич Ки́син, Yevgeniy Igorevich Kisin; born 10 October 1971) is a Russian classical pianist.
The Russian Imperial Romanov family (Tsar Nicholas II, his wife Tsarina Alexandra and their five children Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, and Alexei) and all those who chose to accompany them into imprisonment—notably Eugene Botkin, Anna Demidova, Alexei Trupp and Ivan Kharitonov—were shot, bayoneted and clubbed to death in Yekaterinburg on the night of 16-17 July 1918.
Extravehicular activity (EVA) is any activity done by an astronaut or cosmonaut outside a spacecraft beyond the Earth's appreciable atmosphere.
The Fall of Constantinople (Ἅλωσις τῆς Κωνσταντινουπόλεως, Halōsis tēs Kōnstantinoupoleōs; İstanbul'un Fethi Conquest of Istanbul) was the capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading Ottoman army on 29 May 1453.
Far Eastern Federal University (Дальневосто́чный федера́льный университе́т, Dalnevostochny federalny universitet) is a university located in Vladivostok, Primorsky Krai, Russia.
The Extreme North or Far North (Крайний Север, Дальний Север) is a large part of Russia located mainly north of the Arctic Circle and boasting enormous mineral and natural resources.
Football Club Zenit (Футбо́льный клуб «Зени́т», Zenith), also known as Zenit Saint Petersburg or simply Zenit, is a Russian football club from the city of Saint Petersburg.
The February Revolution (p), known in Soviet historiography as the February Bourgeois Democratic Revolution, was the first of two revolutions which took place in Russia in 1917.
The Federal Assembly (p) is the national legislature of the Russian Federation, according to the Constitution of Russian Federation (1993).
A city of federal importance (r) or federal city in Russia is a city that has a status of both an inhabited locality and a constituent federal subject.
The term federal city (Bundesstadt in German) is a title for certain cities in Germany, Switzerland, the Russian Federation, India, and the United States.
The federal districts (федера́льные округа́, federalnyye okruga) are groupings of the federal subjects of Russia.
Federal law is the body of law created by the federal government of a country.
The Federal Service for State Registration, Cadastre and Cartography (Rosreestr) (Федеральная служба государственной регистрации, кадастра и картографии) (prior to December 30, 2008, Federal Registration Service) is a federal agency in Russia, responsible for the organization of the Unified State Register of Rights on Real Estate and Transactions (Единый государственный реестр прав на недвижимое имущество и сделок с ним), as well as the spatial data infrastructure of the Russian Federation.
The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (субъекты Российской Федерации subyekty Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or simply as the subjects of the federation (субъекты федерации subyekty federatsii), are the constituent entities of Russia, its top-level political divisions according to the Constitution of Russia.
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.
A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.
The Federation Council (Сове́т Федера́ции; Sovet Federatsii, common abbreviation: Совфед (Sovfed) or Senate) is the upper house of the Federal Assembly of Russia (the parliament of the Russian Federation), according to the 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation.
Fedor Vladimirovich Emelianenko (r,; born 28 September 1976) is a Ukrainian-born Russian heavyweight mixed martial artist (MMA), sambist, and judoka, currently competing for Rizin Fighting Federation and Bellator MMA.
Fedot Alekseyevich Popov (Федот Алексеевич Попов, also Fedot Alekseyev, Федот Алексеев; nickname Kholmogorian, Холмогорец, for his place of birth (Kholmogory), date of birth unknown, died between 1648 and 1654) was a Russian explorer who organized the first European expedition through the Bering Strait.
Feodor Ivanovich Chaliapin (ˈfʲɵdər ɪˈvanəvʲɪtɕ ʂɐˈlʲapʲɪn; April 12, 1938) was a Russian opera singer.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
The Fields Medal is a prize awarded to two, three, or four mathematicians under 40 years of age at the International Congress of the International Mathematical Union (IMU), a meeting that takes place every four years.
The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.
The FIFA World Cup Dream Team is an all-time FIFA World Cup all-star team published by FIFA in 2002 after conducting an internet poll of fans to select a World Cup dream team.
Figure skating is a sport in which individuals, duos, or groups perform on figure skates on ice.
Figure skating at the 2010 Winter Olympics was held at the Pacific Coliseum in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
In economics, any commodity which is produced and subsequently consumed by the consumer, to satisfy his current wants or needs, is a consumer good or final good.
A financial crisis is any of a broad variety of situations in which some financial assets suddenly lose a large part of their nominal value.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
The Finno-Ugric peoples are any of several peoples of North-West Eurasia who speak languages of the Finno-Ugric group of the Uralic language family, such as the Khanty, Mansi, Hungarians, Maris, Mordvins, Sámi, Estonians, Karelians, Finns, Udmurts and Komis.
The Fire of Moscow (1571) occurred in May of that year when the 120,000-strong Crimean and Turkish army (80,000 Tatars, 33,000 irregular Turks and 7,000 janissaries) led by the khan of Crimea Devlet I Giray, raided the city Moscow during the Russo–Crimean Wars.
The First Chechen War (Пе́рвая чече́нская война́), also known as the First Chechen Сampaign (Пе́рвая чече́нская кампа́ния) or First Russian-Chechen war, was a rebellion by the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria against the Russian Federation, fought from December 1994 to August 1996.
The first Russian circumnavigation of the Earth took place from August 1803 to August 1806.
This page lists the world fisheries production for 2005.
The flag of Russia (Флаг России) is a tricolor flag consisting of three equal horizontal fields: white on the top, blue in the middle and red on the bottom.
A flat tax (short for flat tax rate) is a tax system with a constant marginal rate, usually applied to individual or corporate income.
In a number of countries, plants have been chosen as symbols to represent specific geographic areas.
Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.
Folklore is the expressive body of culture shared by a particular group of people; it encompasses the traditions common to that culture, subculture or group.
Folklore of Russia is folklore of Russians and other ethnic groups of Russia.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
Formula One (also Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) and owned by the Formula One Group.
Fort Ross (Форт-Росс), originally Fortress Ross (Крѣпость Россъ, tr. Krepostʹ Ross), is a former Russian establishment on the west coast of North America in what is now Sonoma County, California, in the United States.
The term "Four Policemen" refers to a post-war council consisting of the Big Four that U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt proposed as a guarantor of world peace.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francesco Bartolomeo Rastrelli (Russian: Франче́ско Бартоломе́о (Варфоломе́й Варфоломеевич) Растрелли) (1700 in Paris, Kingdom of France — 29 April 1771 in Saint Petersburg, Russian Empire) was a Russian architect of Italian origin.
Franz Josef Land, Franz Joseph Land or Francis Joseph's Land (r) is a Russian archipelago, inhabited only by military personnel, located in the Arctic Ocean, Barents Sea and Kara Sea, constituting the northernmost part of Arkhangelsk Oblast.
Free education is education funded through taxation or charitable organizations rather than tuition funding.
Free trade is a free market policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.
Freedom House is a U.S.-based 501(c)(3) U.S. government-funded non-governmental organization (NGO) that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom, and human rights.
Freedom in the World is a yearly survey and report by the U.S.-based non-governmental organization Freedom House that measures the degree of civil liberties and political rights in every nation and significant related and disputed territories around the world.
Freedom of assembly, sometimes used interchangeably with the freedom of association, is the individual right or ability of people to come together and collectively express, promote, pursue, and defend their collective or shared ideas.
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.
The French invasion of Russia, known in Russia as the Patriotic War of 1812 (Отечественная война 1812 года Otechestvennaya Voyna 1812 Goda) and in France as the Russian Campaign (Campagne de Russie), began on 24 June 1812 when Napoleon's Grande Armée crossed the Neman River in an attempt to engage and defeat the Russian army.
Fresco (plural frescos or frescoes) is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly laid, or wet lime plaster.
Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.
In architecture, functionalism is the principle that buildings should be designed based solely on the purpose and function of the building.
The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur.
Fyodor Mikhailovich DostoevskyHis name has been variously transcribed into English, his first name sometimes being rendered as Theodore or Fedor.
Fyodor Savelyevich Khitruk (Фёдор Саве́льевич Хитру́к; 1 May 1917 – 3 December 2012) was a Russian animator and animation director.
The G20 (or Group of Twenty) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union.
Galína Sergéyevna Ulánova (Гали́на Серге́евна Ула́нова, 21 March 1998) was a Russian ballet dancer.
Galina Pavlovna Vishnevskaya (née Ivanova, Гали́на Па́вловна Вишне́вская; 25 October 192611 December 2012) was a Russian soprano opera singer and recitalist who was named a People's Artist of the USSR in 1966.
The garmon (p, from garmonika (p), which means "harmonicа") is a kind of Russian button accordion, a free-reed wind instrument.
The Great Gatchina Palace (Большой Гатчинский дворец) is a palace in Gatchina, Leningrad Oblast, Russia.
Gdansk Bay or the Bay of Gdansk Zatoka Gdańska; Gduńskô Hôwinga; Гданьская бухта, Gdan'skaja bukhta, and Danziger Bucht) is a southeastern bay of the Baltic Sea. It is named after the adjacent port city of Gdańsk in Poland and is sometimes referred to as the Gulf of Gdańsk.
General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was an office of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) that by the late 1920s had evolved into the most powerful of the Central Committee's various secretaries.
In differential geometry, a geodesic is a generalization of the notion of a "straight line" to "curved spaces".
Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.
George Gamow (March 4, 1904- August 19, 1968), born Georgiy Antonovich Gamov, was a Russian-American theoretical physicist and cosmologist.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (– 18 June 1974) was a Soviet Red Army General who became Chief of General Staff, Deputy Commander-in-Chief, Minister of Defence and a member of the Politburo.
The Gerasimov Institute of Cinematography (Всероссийский государственный университет кинематографии имени С.А.Герасимова, meaning All-Russian State University of Cinematography named after S. A. Gerasimov), a.k.a. VGIK, is a film school in Moscow, Russia.
The German occupation of Czechoslovakia (1938–1945) began with the German annexation of Czechoslovakia's northern and western border regions, formerly being part of German-Austria known collectively as the Sudetenland, under terms outlined by the Munich Agreement.
Gidon Kremer (Gidons Krēmers; born 27 February 1947) is a Latvian classical violinist, artistic director, and founder of Kremerata Baltica.
In the Russian language the word glasnost (гла́сность) has several general and specific meanings.
Gleb Yevgeniyevich Kotelnikov (Котельников, Глеб Евгеньевич in Russian, – November 22, 1944), was the Russian-Soviet inventor of the knapsack parachute (first in the hard casing and then in the soft pack), and braking parachute.
A global city, also called world city or sometimes alpha city or world center, is a city which is a primary node in the global economic network.
GLONASS (ГЛОНАСС,; Глобальная навигационная спутниковая система; transliteration), or "Global Navigation Satellite System", is a space-based satellite navigation system operating in the radionavigation-satellite service.
The term Golden Age comes from Greek mythology, particularly the Works and Days of Hesiod, and is part of the description of temporal decline of the state of peoples through five Ages, Gold being the first and the one during which the Golden Race of humanity (chrýseon génos) lived.
Golden Age of Russian Poetry is the name traditionally applied by philologists to the first half of the 19th century.
The Golden Horde (Алтан Орд, Altan Ord; Золотая Орда, Zolotaya Orda; Алтын Урда, Altın Urda) was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.
The Golden Ring (Золото́е кольцо́) is a ring of cities northeast of Moscow, the capital of Russia.
The Government of Russia exercises executive power in the Russian Federation.
The Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Правительство СССР, Pravitel'stvo SSSR) was the main body of the executive branch of government in the Soviet Union.
The government reforms of Peter I aimed to modernize the Tsardom of Russia (later the Russian Empire) based on Western and Central European models.
The Governorate of Est(h)onia (Eestimaa kubermang) or Duchy of Estonia, also known as the Government of Estonia, was a governorate of the Russian Empire in what is now northern Estonia.
The Grand Duchy or Grand Principality of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское, Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye), also known in English simply as Muscovy from the Moscovia, was a late medieval Russian principality centered on Moscow and the predecessor state of the early modern Tsardom of Russia.
The Grande Armée (French for Great Army) was the army commanded by Napoleon during the Napoleonic Wars.
Granite is a common type of felsic intrusive igneous rock that is granular and phaneritic in texture.
Grazhdanskaya Oborona (Russian: Гражданская Оборона), Russian for Civil Defense, or ГО, often referred to as ГрОб, Russian for coffin) were one of the earliest Soviet and Russian psychedelic/punk rock bands. They influenced many Soviet and, subsequently, Russian bands. From the early 1990s, the band's music began to evolve in the direction of psychedelic rock and shoegaze, and band leader Yegor Letov's lyrics became more metaphysical than political.
Great Lent, or the Great Fast, (Greek: Μεγάλη Τεσσαρακοστή or Μεγάλη Νηστεία, meaning "Great 40 Days," and "Great Fast," respectively) is the most important fasting season in the church year in the Byzantine Rite of the Eastern Orthodox Church (including Western Rite Orthodoxy) and the Eastern Catholic Churches, which prepares Christians for the greatest feast of the church year, Pascha (Easter).
The Great Northern War (1700–1721) was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in Northern, Central and Eastern Europe.
The Great Patriotic War (translit) is a term used in Russia and other former republics of the Soviet Union (except for some Baltic States) to describe the conflict fought during the period from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945 along the many fronts of the Eastern Front of World War II between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany and its allies.
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
The Great Purge or the Great Terror (Большо́й терро́р) was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union which occurred from 1936 to 1938.
The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets during the late 2000s and early 2010s.
Grigori Yakovlevich Perelman (a; born 13 June 1966) is a Russian mathematician.
Grigori Yakovlevich Sokolnikov (born Girsh Yankelevich Brilliant; 1888–1939) was a Russian old Bolshevik revolutionary, economist, and Soviet politician.
Grigory Yevseevich Zinoviev (– August 25, 1936), born Hirsch Apfelbaum, known also under the name Ovsei-Gershon Aronovich Radomyslsky, was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet Communist politician.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
The G8, reformatted as G7 from 2014 due to the suspension of Russia's participation, was an inter-governmental political forum from 1997 until 2014, with the participation of some major industrialized countries in the world, that viewed themselves as democracies.
The Gulag (ГУЛАГ, acronym of Главное управление лагерей и мест заключения, "Main Camps' Administration" or "Chief Administration of Camps") was the government agency in charge of the Soviet forced labor camp system that was created under Vladimir Lenin and reached its peak during Joseph Stalin's rule from the 1930s to the 1950s.
Gusli (p) is the oldest East Slavic multi-string plucked instrument.
Gzhel is a Russian style of ceramics which takes its name from the village of Gzhel and surrounding area, where it has been produced since 1802.
The hammer and sickle (☭) or sickle and hammer (translit) is a communist symbol that was adopted during the Russian Revolution.
A handicraft, sometimes more precisely expressed as artisanal handicraft or handmade, is any of a wide variety of types of work where useful and decorative objects are made completely by hand or by using only simple tools.
The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.
He Is Not Dimon to You or Don't call him "Dimon" (Он вам не Димон, On vam ne Dimon) is a 2017 Russian documentary film about Dmitry Medvedev's corruption.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Healthcare in Russia is provided by the state through the Federal Compulsory Medical Insurance Fund, and regulated through the Ministry of Health.
Heavy industry is industry that involves one or more characteristics such as large and heavy products; large and heavy equipment and facilities (such as heavy equipment, large machine tools, and huge buildings); or complex or numerous processes.
Heavy metal (or simply metal) is a genre of rock music that developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, largely in the United Kingdom.
The State Hermitage Museum (p) is a museum of art and culture in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Hero City is a Soviet honorary title awarded for outstanding heroism during World War II (the Eastern Front is known in most countries of the former Soviet Union as The Great Patriotic War).
Hertza region (Край Герца, Kraj Herca; Ținutul Herța) is a border region within an administrative district (raion) of Hertsa (Herța) in the southern part of Chernivtsi Oblast in southwestern Ukraine, near Romania.
A heterojunction is the interface that occurs between two layers or regions of dissimilar crystalline semiconductors.
Hill Mari or Western Mari (Мары йӹлмӹ) is a Uralic language closely related to Meadow Mari.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
hare krishno Hinduism has been spread in Russia primarily due to the work of missionaries from the Vaishnava Hindu organization International Society for Krishna Consciousness and by itinerant Swamis from India and small communities of Indian immigrants.
The History of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs.
The history of Russian animation is the film art produced by Russian animation makers.
The Russo–Turkish wars (or Ottoman–Russian wars) were a series of wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 20th centuries.
(), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is the second largest island of Japan, and the largest and northernmost prefecture.
Holography is the science and practice of making holograms.
The House of Romanov (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. also Romanoff; Рома́новы, Románovy) was the second dynasty to rule Russia, after the House of Rurik, reigning from 1613 until the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II on March 15, 1917, as a result of the February Revolution.
Household plot is a legally defined farm type in all former socialist countries in CIS and CEE.
HuffPost (formerly The Huffington Post and sometimes abbreviated HuffPo) is a liberal American news and opinion website and blog that has both localized and international editions.
Human capital flight refers to the emigration of individuals who have received advanced training at home.
As a successor to the Soviet Union the Russian Federation remains bound by such human rights instruments, adopted by the USSR, as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (fully).
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.
A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and mild to cool winters.
The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe, between the 4th and 6th century AD.
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.
Ice dancing is a discipline of figure skating that draws from ballroom dancing.
Ice hockey is a contact team sport played on ice, usually in a rink, in which two teams of skaters use their sticks to shoot a vulcanized rubber puck into their opponent's net to score points.
Ice hockey tournaments have been staged at the Olympic Games since 1920.
The Ice Hockey World Championships are an annual international men's ice hockey tournament organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF).
Igor I (Old East Slavic: Игорь, Igor; Old Norse: Ingvar Røriksen; Ihor; Igor'; Ihar) was a Varangian ruler of Kievan Rus' from 912 to 945.
Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky (a, tr. Ígor' Ivánovič Sikórskij; May 25, 1889 – October 26, 1972),Fortier, Rénald.
Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (ˈiɡərʲ ˈfʲɵdərəvʲɪtɕ strɐˈvʲinskʲɪj; 6 April 1971) was a Russian-born composer, pianist, and conductor.
Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm (a; 8 July 1895 – 12 April 1971) was a Soviet physicist who received the 1958 Nobel Prize in Physics, jointly with Pavel Alekseyevich Cherenkov and Ilya Mikhailovich Frank, for their 1934 discovery of Cherenkov radiation.
Ilya Ilf (Ilya Arnoldovich Feinsilberg) (Илья Арнольдович Файнзильберг, 1897–1937) and Evgeny or Yevgeni Petrov (Yevgeniy Petrovich Kataev/Katayev or Евгений Петрович Катаев, 1903–1942) were two Soviet prose authors of the 1920s and 1930s.
Illegal immigration to Russia/Soviet Union has been ongoing since the Great Depression.
Ilya Muromets (Илья Муромец), known in the US as The Sword and the Dragon and in the UK as The Epic Hero and the Beast (significantly altered versions), is a Soviet fantasy film directed by the noted fantasy director Aleksandr Ptushko, made at Mosfilm and released in 1956.
Viscount Ilya Romanovich Prigogine (Илья́ Рома́нович Приго́жин; 28 May 2003) was a physical chemist and Nobel laureate noted for his work on dissipative structures, complex systems, and irreversibility.
Ilya Yefimovich Repin (p; Ilja Jefimovitš Repin; r; – 29 September 1930) was a Russian realist painter.
Immigration is the international movement of people into a destination country of which they are not natives or where they do not possess citizenship in order to settle or reside there, especially as permanent residents or naturalized citizens, or to take up employment as a migrant worker or temporarily as a foreign worker.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Impeachment is the process by which a legislative body formally levels charges against a high official of government.
Articles related to the former nation known as the Soviet Union include.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indo-Russian relations (Российско-индийские отношения भारत-रूस सम्बन्ध) refer to the bilateral relations between the Republic of India and the Russian Federation.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Historical Ingria (Inkeri or Inkerinmaa; Ингрия, Ingriya, Ижорская земля, Izhorskaya zemlya, or Ингерманландия, Ingermanlandiya; Ingermanland; Ingeri or Ingerimaa) is the geographical area located along the southern shore of the Gulf of Finland, bordered by Lake Ladoga on the Karelian Isthmus in the north and by the River Narva on the border with Estonia in the west.
Ingush (ГӀалгӀай,, pronounced) is a Northeast Caucasian language spoken by about 500,000 people, known as the Ingush, across a region covering the Russian republics of Ingushetia and Chechnya.
The Ingush (ГIалгIай,, pronounced) are a Caucasian native ethnic group of the North Caucasus, mostly inhabiting their native Ingushetia, a federal republic of Russian Federation.
Innovation can be defined simply as a "new idea, device or method".
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF; Fédération internationale de hockey sur glace; Internationale Eishockey-Föderation) is a worldwide governing body for ice hockey and in-line hockey.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The International Olympic Committee (IOC; French: Comité International Olympique, CIO) is a Swiss private non-governmental organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, which is the authority responsible for the modern Olympic Games.
The "Council for Mutual Economic Assistance" (Comecon) was an economic organization of communist states, created in 1949, and dissolved in 1991, with the collapse of the Soviet Union.
International sanctions were imposed during the Ukrainian crisis by a large number of countries against Russia and Crimea following the Russian military intervention in Ukraine, which began in late February 2014.
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
International Studies Quarterly is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal of international studies and the official journal of the International Studies Association.
International Women's Day (IWD) is celebrated on March 8 every year.
International Workers' Day, also known as Labour Day or Workers' Day in some countries and often referred to as May Day, is a celebration of labourers and the working classes that is promoted by the international labour movement which occurs every year on May Day (1 May), an ancient European spring festival.
The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.
The Inuit (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, "the people") are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska.
Ipsos MORI is a market research organisation in the United Kingdom.
Irkutsk (p) is a city and the administrative center of Irkutsk Oblast, Russia, and one of the largest cities in Siberia.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
Isaac Ilyich Levitan (Исаа́к Ильи́ч Левита́н; &ndash) was a classical Russian landscape painter who advanced the genre of the "mood landscape".
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islam is the second most widely professed religion in Russia, encompassing somewhere between 7% and 15% of all Russians.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
Israel Moiseevich Gelfand, also written Israïl Moyseyovich Gel'fand, or Izrail M. Gelfand (ישראל געלפֿאַנד, Изра́иль Моисе́евич Гельфа́нд; – 5 October 2009) was a prominent Soviet mathematician.
ITER (Latin for "the way") is an international nuclear fusion research and engineering megaproject, which will be the world's largest magnetic confinement plasma physics experiment.
Ivan Petrovich Argunov (Иван Петрович Аргунов) (1729–1802) was a Russian painter, one of the founders of the Russian school of portrait painting.
Ivan Alekseyevich Bunin (or; a; – 8 November 1953) was the first Russian writer awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature.
Ivan Petrovich Ivanov-Vano (Ива́н Петро́вич Ивано́в-Вано́;, Moscow – 25 March 1987, Moscow), born Ivanov, was a Soviet animation director, animator, screenwriter, educator, professor at VGIK.
Ivan Nikolaevich Kramskoi (June 8 (O.S. May 27), 1837, Ostrogozhsk – April 6 (O.S. March 24), 1887, Saint Petersburg; Ива́н Никола́евич Крамско́й) was a Russian painter and art critic.
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (a; 27 February 1936) was a Russian physiologist known primarily for his work in classical conditioning.
Ivan Ivanovich Shishkin (Ива́н Ива́нович Ши́шкин; 25 January 1832 – 20 March 1898) was a Russian landscape painter closely associated with the Peredvizhniki movement.
Ivan IV Vasilyevich (pron; 25 August 1530 –), commonly known as Ivan the Terrible or Ivan the Fearsome (Ivan Grozny; a better translation into modern English would be Ivan the Formidable), was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547, then Tsar of All Rus' until his death in 1584.
Ivan Sergeyevich Turgenev (ɪˈvan sʲɪrˈɡʲeɪvʲɪtɕ tʊrˈɡʲenʲɪf; September 3, 1883) was a Russian novelist, short story writer, poet, playwright, translator and popularizer of Russian literature in the West.
Ivan Antonovich (real patronymic Antipovich) Yefremov (Ива́н Анто́нович (Анти́пович) Ефре́мов; April 22, 1908 – October 5, 1972), last name sometimes spelled Efremov, was a Soviet paleontologist, science fiction author and social thinker.
Jack Frost (Морозко, Morózko) is a Soviet film made by Gorky Film Studio, originally released in 1964.
The Jamestown Foundation is a Washington, D.C.-based institute for research and analysis, founded in 1984 as a platform to support Soviet defectors.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jascha Heifetz (10 December 1987) was a Russian-American violinist.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
The Jewish Autonomous Oblast (Евре́йская автоно́мная о́бласть, Yevreyskaya avtonomnaya oblast; ייִדישע אװטאָנאָמע געגנט, yidishe avtonome GegntIn standard Yiddish: ייִדישע אױטאָנאָמע געגנט, Yidishe Oytonome Gegnt) is a federal subject of Russia in the Russian Far East, bordering Khabarovsk Krai and Amur Oblast in Russia and Heilongjiang province in China.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
The Judiciary of Russia interprets and applies the law of Russia.
The Julian calendar, proposed by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.
Kabardian (адыгэбзэ, къэбэрдей адыгэбзэ, къэбэрдейбзэ; Adyghe: адыгэбзэ, къэбэртай адыгабзэ, къэбэртайбзэ), also known as Kabardino-Cherkess (къэбэрдей-черкесыбзэ) or, is a Northwest Caucasian language closely related to the Adyghe language.
The Kabardians (Highland Adyghe: Къэбэрдей адыгэхэр; Lowland Adyghe: Къэбэртай адыгэхэр; Кабардинцы), or Kabardinians, are the largest one of the twelve Adyghe (Circassian) tribes (sub-ethnic groups).
Kachkanar (Качкана́р) is a town in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia, located between the Isa and Vyya Rivers in the Tura River's basin, north of Yekaterinburg, the administrative center of the oblast.
A kaftan or caftan (قفطان qafṭān) is a variant of the robe or tunic and has been worn by several cultures around the world for thousands of years.
Kaliningrad (p; former German name: Königsberg; Yiddish: קעניגסבערג, Kenigsberg; r; Old Prussian: Twangste, Kunnegsgarbs, Knigsberg; Polish: Królewiec) is a city in the administrative centre of Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea.
Kaliningrad Oblast (Калинингра́дская о́бласть, Kaliningradskaya oblast), often referred to as the Kaliningrad Region in English, or simply Kaliningrad, is a federal subject of the Russian Federation that is located on the coast of the Baltic Sea.
Kalmyk Oirat (Хальмг Өөрдин келн, Xaľmg Öördin keln), commonly known as the Kalmyk language (Хальмг келн, Xaľmg keln), is a register of the Oirat language, natively spoken by the Kalmyk people of Kalmykia, a federal subject of Russia.
The Republic of Kalmykia (p; Хальмг Таңһч, Xaľmg Tañhç) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).
The Kalmyks (Kalmyk: Хальмгуд, Xaľmgud, Mongolian: Халимаг, Halimag) are the Oirats in Russia, whose ancestors migrated from Dzungaria in 1607.
The Kamchatka Peninsula (полуо́стров Камча́тка, Poluostrov Kamchatka) is a 1,250-kilometre-long (780 mi) peninsula in the Russian Far East, with an area of about 270,000 km2 (100,000 sq mi).
Kamov JSC (Камов) is a Russian rotorcraft manufacturing company based in Lyubertsy, Russia.
The Kara Sea (Ка́рское мо́ре, Karskoye more) is part of the Arctic Ocean north of Siberia.
The Karachay-Balkar language (Къарачай-Малкъар тил, Qaraçay-Malqar til or Таулу тил, Tawlu til) is a Turkic language spoken by the Karachays and Balkars in Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay–Cherkessia, European Russia, as well as by an immigrant population in Afyonkarahisar Province, Turkey.
Karelia (Karelian, Finnish and Estonian: Karjala; Карелия, Kareliya; Karelen), the land of the Karelian peoples, is an area in Northern Europe of historical significance for Finland, Russia, and Sweden.
Karl Pavlovich Bryullov (Карл Па́влович Брюлло́в; 12 December 1799 – 11 June 1852), original name Charles Bruleau, also transliterated Briullov or Briuloff and referred to by his friends as "The Great Karl", was a Russian painter.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Kazan (p; Казан) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia.
Kazan (Volga region) Federal University (Казанский (Приволжский) федеральный университет, Kazanskiy (Privolzhskiy) federalnyy universitet; Казан (Идел Буе) федераль университеты) is located in Kazan, Russia.
Kazan Metro (Каза́нское метро́; Казан метросы Tatar Latin: Qazan metrosı) is a rapid-transit system that serves the city of Kazan, Republic of Tatarstan, Russia. The metro system was the seventh opened in Russia, and the fifteenth in the former Soviet Union region. Opened on August 27, 2005, it is the newest system in Russia.
Kazimir Severinovich Malevich (// ЦГИАК Украины, ф. 1268, оп. 1, д. 26, л. 13об—14.–May 15, 1935) was a Russian avant-garde artist and art theorist, whose pioneering work and writing had a profound influence on the development of non-objective, or abstract art, in the 20th century.
Khabarovsk (p;; ᠪᠣᡥᠣᡵᡳ|v.
Khakas (endonym: Хакас тілі, Xakas tili) is a Turkic language spoken by the Khakas people, who mainly live in the southwestern Siberian Khakas Republic, or Khakassia, in Russia.
The Khanate of Kazan (Казан ханлыгы; Russian: Казанское ханство, Romanization: Kazanskoye khanstvo) was a medieval Tatar Turkic state that occupied the territory of former Volga Bulgaria between 1438 and 1552.
The Khanate of Sibir, also historically called the Khanate of Turan, was a Tatar Khanate located in southwestern Siberia with a Turco-Mongol ruling class.
The Khazars (خزر, Xəzərlər; Hazarlar; Хазарлар; Хәзәрләр, Xäzärlär; כוזרים, Kuzarim;, Xazar; Хоза́ри, Chozáry; Хаза́ры, Hazáry; Kazárok; Xazar; Χάζαροι, Cházaroi; p./Gasani) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people, who created what for its duration was the most powerful polity to emerge from the break-up of the Western Turkic Khaganate.
The Khmelnytsky Uprising (Powstanie Chmielnickiego; Chmelnickio sukilimas; повстання Богдана Хмельницького; восстание Богдана Хмельницкого; also known as the Cossack-Polish War, Chmielnicki Uprising, or the Khmelnytsky insurrection) was a Cossack rebellion within the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1648–1657, which led to the creation of a Cossack Hetmanate in Ukrainian lands.
Khokhloma or Khokhloma painting (хохлома or хохломская роспись in Russian, or Khokhlomskaya rospis') is the name of a Russian wood painting handicraft style and national ornament, known for its vivid flower patterns, red, green, and gold colors over a black background, and the effect it has when applied to wooden tableware or furniture, making it look heavier and metal-like.
The Khrushchev Thaw (or Khrushchev's Thaw; p or simply ottepel)William Taubman, Khrushchev: The Man and His Era, London: Free Press, 2004 refers to the period from the early 1950s to the early 1960s when repression and censorship in the Soviet Union were relaxed, and millions of Soviet political prisoners were released from Gulag labor camps due to Nikita Khrushchev's policies of de-Stalinization and peaceful coexistence with other nations.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.
The Kingdom or Principality of Galicia–Volhynia (Old East Slavic: Галицко-Волинскоє князство, Галицько-Волинське князівство, Regnum Galiciae et Lodomeriae), also known as the Kingdom of Ruthenia (Old East Slavic: Королѣвство Русь, Королівство Русі, Regnum Russiae) since 1253, was a state in the regions of Galicia and Volhynia, of present-day western Ukraine, which was formed after the conquest of Galicia by the Prince of Volhynia Roman the Great, with the help of Leszek the White of Poland.
The Kingdom of Poland (Polish: Królestwo Polskie; Latin: Regnum Poloniae) was the Polish state from the coronation of the first King Bolesław I the Brave in 1025 to the union with Lithuania and the rule of the Jagiellon dynasty in 1385.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
Kino (lit) was a Soviet rock band formed in Leningrad in 1982.
The Kipchaks were a Turkic nomadic people and confederation that existed in the Middle Ages, inhabiting parts of the Eurasian Steppe.
Kipelov (Кипе́лов) is a Russian heavy metal band formed and led by former Aria vocalist Valery Kipelov.
Kir Bulychov (Кир Булычёв) (18 October 1934 – 5 September 2003) was a pen name of Igor Vsevolodovich Mozheiko (И́горь Все́володович Може́йко), a Soviet Russian science fiction writer and historian.
Klyuchevskaya Sopka (Ключевская сопка; also known as Klyuchevskoi, Ключевской) is a stratovolcano, the highest mountain on the Kamchatka Peninsula of Russia and the highest active volcano of Eurasia.
The kokoshnik (p) is a traditional Russian headdress worn by women and girls to accompany the sarafan, primarily worn in the northern regions of Russia in the 16th to 19th centuries.
A kolkhoz (p) was a form of collective farm in the Soviet Union.
Kolomenskoye (Коло́менское) is a former royal estate situated several kilometers to the southeast of the city center of Moscow, Russia, on the ancient road leading to the town of Kolomna (hence the name).
The Komi language (endonym: Коми кыв, tr. Komi kyv) is a Uralic macrolanguage spoken by the Komi peoples in the northeastern European part of Russia.
The Komi are a Uralic ethnic group whose homeland is in the north-east of European Russia around the basins of the Vychegda, Pechora and Kama rivers.
Konstantin Konstantinovich Khrenov (Константин Константинович Хренов; 13 February 1894 – 12 October 1984) was a Soviet engineer and inventor who in 1932 introduced underwater welding and cutting of metals.
Konstantin Nikolayevich Leontiev (Константи́н Никола́евич Лео́нтьев; January 25, 1831 in Kudinovo, Kaluga Governorate – November 24, 1891 in Sergiyev Posad) was a conservative tsarist and imperial monarchist Russian philosopher who advocated closer cultural ties between Russia and the East against what he believed to be the West's catastrophic egalitarian, utilitarian and revolutionary influences.
Konstantin Konstantinovich (Xaverevich) Rokossovsky (December 21, 1896 – August 3, 1968) was a Soviet officer of Polish origin who became Marshal of the Soviet Union, Marshal of Poland and served as Poland's Defence Minister from 1949 until his removal in 1956 during the Polish October.
Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky (a; Konstanty Ciołkowski; 19 September 1935) was a Russian and Soviet rocket scientist and pioneer of the astronautic theory of ethnic Polish descent.
The Kontinental Hockey League (KHL) (Континентальная хоккейная лига (КХЛ), Kontinental'naya hokkeynaya liga) is an international professional ice hockey league founded in 2008.
Korol' i Shut (The King and the Jester, Король и Шут) were a Russian horror punk band from Saint Petersburg that took inspiration and costumes from tales and fables.
A kosovorotka (p) is a Russian, skewed-collared shirt.
A krai (p) is a type of federal subject of Russia.
Krasnodar Krai (p) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai), located in the North Caucasus region in Southern Russia and administratively a part of the Southern Federal District.
Krasnoyarsk (p) is a city and the administrative center of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, located on the Yenisei River.
Kuchum Khan (Kuchum Khan of Sibir - Tatar: Küçüm, Күчүм, Russian: Кучум; in Siberian Tatar Köçöm is pronounced approximately as /kœtsœm/ - Көцөм; the name in English comes from the Tatar pronunciation) (died ca. 1605) was the last khan (ruled 1563–1598) of the Khanate of Sibir.
Kunashir Island (Кунаши́р; 国後島, Kunashiri-tō; クナシㇼ or クナシㇽ, Kunasir), possibly meaning Black Island or Grass Island in Ainu, is the southernmost island of the Kuril Islands, an archipelago currently under Russian control, among which four (including Kunashiri Island) are claimed by Japan (see Kuril Islands dispute).
Kupala Night, (Іван Купала; Купалле; Иван-Купала; Noc Kupały), is celebrated in Ukraine, Poland, Belarus and Russia, currently on the night of 6/7 July in the Gregorian calendar, which is 24/25 June in the Julian calendar.
The Kuril Islands or Kurile Islands (or; p or r; Japanese: or), in Russia's Sakhalin Oblast region, form a volcanic archipelago that stretches approximately northeast from Hokkaido, Japan, to Kamchatka, Russia, separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the north Pacific Ocean.
The Kuril Islands dispute, also known as the Northern Territories dispute, is a disagreement between Japan and Russia and also some individuals of the Ainu people over sovereignty of the South Kuril Islands.
Kuzma (Kozma) Minin (Кузьма́ (Козьма́) Ми́нин; full name Kuzma Minich Zakhariev-Sukhoruky, Кузьма́ Ми́нич Заха́рьев Сухору́кий; died 1616) was a Russian merchant from Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, who, together with Prince Dmitry Pozharsky, became a national hero for his role in defending the country against the Polish invasion in the early 17th century.
Kuzma Sergeevich Petrov-Vodkin, (November 5, 1878 – February 15, 1939) was an important Russian and Soviet painter and writer.
Kvass is a traditional Slavic and Baltic beverage commonly made from rye bread, known in many Eastern European countries and especially in Ukraine and Russia as black bread.
The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.
Kyzyl (p; Кызыл, Kьzьl/Kızıl) is the capital city of the Tuva Republic, Russia.
Lake Baikal (p; Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur; Байгал нуур, Baigal nuur, etymologically meaning, in Mongolian, "the Nature Lake") is a rift lake in Russia, located in southern Siberia, between Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and the Buryat Republic to the southeast.
Lake Ladoga (p or p; Laatokka;; Ladog, Ladoganjärv) is a freshwater lake located in the Republic of Karelia and Leningrad Oblast in northwestern Russia, in the vicinity of Saint Petersburg.
Lake Onega (also known as Onego, p; Ääninen or Äänisjärvi; Oniegu or Oniegu-järve; Änine or Änižjärv) is a lake in the north-west European part of Russia, located on the territory of Republic of Karelia, Leningrad Oblast and Vologda Oblast.
This article includes the table with land use statistics by country.
Of all the languages of Russia, Russian is the only official language at the national level.
The Laptev Sea (r; Лаптевтар байҕаллара) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean.
Larisa Semyonovna Latynina (Лариса Семенівна Латиніна, Лари́са Семёновна Латы́нина; née Diriy; born 27 December 1934) is a former Soviet artistic gymnast from southern Ukraine.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
Law enforcement in the Russian Federation is the responsibility of a variety of different agencies.
The Law on the languages of the peoples of the Republic of Bashkortostan is a law aimed at protecting and preserving the languages of the peoples of Bashkortostan.
The League of Militant AtheistsBurleigh, Michael.
Left-bank Ukraine (translit; translit; Lewobrzeżna Ukraina) is a historic name of the part of Ukraine on the left (East) bank of the Dnieper River, comprising the modern-day oblasts of Chernihiv, Poltava and Sumy as well as the eastern parts of Kiev and Cherkasy.
The Lena (Ле́на,; Зүлхэ; Елюенэ; Өлүөнэ) is the easternmost of the three great Siberian rivers that flow into the Arctic Ocean (the other two being the Ob' and the Yenisey).
Lenz's law (pronounced), named after the physicist Heinrich Friedrich Emil Lenz who formulated it in 1834, states that the direction of current induced in a conductor by a changing magnetic field due to induction is such that it creates a magnetic field that opposes the change that produced it.
Count Lyov (also Lev) Nikolayevich Tolstoy (also Лев) Николаевич ТолстойIn Tolstoy's day, his name was written Левъ Николаевичъ Толстой.
Leon Trotsky (born Lev Davidovich Bronstein; – 21 August 1940) was a Russian revolutionary, theorist, and Soviet politician.
Leonhard Euler (Swiss Standard German:; German Standard German:; 15 April 170718 September 1783) was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, logician and engineer, who made important and influential discoveries in many branches of mathematics, such as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory, while also making pioneering contributions to several branches such as topology and analytic number theory.
Leonid Nikolaievich Andreyev (Леони́д Никола́евич Андре́ев, – 12 September 1919) was a Russian playwright, novelist and short-story writer, who is considered to be a father of Expressionism in Russian literature.
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (a; Леоні́д Іллі́ч Бре́жнєв, 19 December 1906 (O.S. 6 December) – 10 November 1982) was a Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982 as the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), presiding over the country until his death and funeral in 1982.
Leonid Alekseyevich Filatov (a; 24 December 1946 – 26 October 2003) was a Soviet and Russian actor, director, poet, pamphleteer, who shot to fame while a member of the troupe of the Taganka Theatre under director Yury Lyubimov.
Leonid Iovich Gaidai (Леони́д И́ович Гайда́й; 30 January 1923, Svobodny, Amur Oblast – 19 November 1993, Moscow) was one of the most popular Soviet comedy directors, enjoying immense popularity and broad public recognition in the former USSR and modern Russia.
Leonid Borisovich Kogan (Леони́д Бори́сович Ко́ган; Леонід Борисович Коган; November 14, 1924 – December 17, 1982) was a preeminent Soviet violinist during the 20th century.
Lev Andreevich Artsimovich (Арцимович, Лев Андреевич in Russian; also transliterated Arzimowitsch) (February 25, 1909 (NS) – March 1, 1973) was a Soviet physicist, academician of the Soviet Academy of Sciences (1953), member of the Presidium of the Soviet Academy of Sciences (since 1957), and Hero of Socialist Labor (1969).
Lev Borisovich Kamenev (born Rozenfeld; – 25 August 1936) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a prominent Soviet politician.
Lev Vladimirovich Kuleshov (Лев Влади́мирович Кулешо́в; – 29 March 1970) was a Russian and Soviet filmmaker and film theorist, one of the founders of the world's first film school, the Moscow Film School.
Lev Ivanovich Yashin (Лев Ива́нович Я́шин, 22 October 1929 – 20 March 1990), nicknamed the "Black Spider" or the "Black Panther", was a Soviet professional footballer, widely regarded as the greatest goalkeeper in the history of the sport.
Levada-Center is a Russian independent, non-governmental polling and sociological research organization.
Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) people in Russia face legal and social challenges not experienced by non-LGBT persons.
The LDPR — Liberal Democratic Party of Russia (ЛДПР — Либерально-Демократическая Партия России), briefly, the LDPR or Liberal Democratic Party, is a socially conservative and economically interventionist political party in Russia led by Vladimir Zhirinovsky since its founding in 1989.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.
Light industry is industries that usually are less capital-intensive than heavy industry and is more consumer-oriented than business-oriented, as it typically produces smaller consumer goods.
This is a list of Slavic tribes reported in the Middle Ages, that is, before the year AD 1500.
The following is a list of the casualties count in battles in world history.
There are 342 bridges in the city limits of Saint Petersburg, Russia.
This is a list of the Byzantine emperors from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 AD, which marks the conventional start of the Byzantine Empire (or the Eastern Roman Empire), to its fall to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 AD.
This is a list of cities and towns in Russia with a population of over 50,000 as of the 2010 Census. These numbers are the population within the limits of the city/town proper, not the urban area or metropolitan area figures. The list excludes the city of Sevastopol and the cities/towns of the Republic of Crimea, as those were not a part of the 2010 Census, are a subject of an unresolved dispute between Russia and Ukraine, and are considered to be a part of Ukraine by the majority of the international community. The city of Zelenograd (a part of the federal city of Moscow) and the municipal cities/towns of the federal city of St. Petersburg are also excluded, as they are not enumerated in the 2010 Census as stand-alone localities.
This is a list of cosmonauts who have taken part in the missions of the Soviet space program and the Russian Federal Space Agency, including ethnic Russians and people of other ethnicities.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population.
This is a list of countries and dependent territories ranked by population density, measured by the number of human inhabitants per square kilometer.
The list of countries by electricity generation per year based on multiple sources.
This article is a list of countries by electricity generation from renewable sources every year.
This is a list of countries by external debt, which is the total public and private debt owed to nonresidents repayable in internationally accepted currencies, goods or services, where the public debt is the money or credit owed by any level of government, from central to local, and the private debt the money or credit owed by private households or private corporations based in the country under consideration.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.
This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP (PPP).
This is a list of countries by level of military equipment, including naval ships, fighter aircraft and nuclear weapons.
This article is a list of countries by military expenditure in a given year.
This is a list of countries by natural gas exports mostly based on The World Factbook.
This is a list of countries by natural gas production based on statistics from the International Energy Agency.
This is a list of countries by natural gas proven reserves based on The World Factbook (when no citation is given).
This is a list of oil-producing countries by oil exports based on The World Factbook and other Sources.
This is a list of countries by oil production, as compiled from the U.S. Energy Information Administration database for calendar year 2016, tabulating all countries on a comparable best-estimate basis.
Countries by percentage of population living in poverty, as recorded by World bank and other sources.
This is a list of countries by total road network size, both paved and unpaved.
This is a sortable list of countries and their total length of pipelines, mostly based on the CIA World Factbook, accessed in November 2015.
This is a list of countries by total renewable water resources mostly based on The World Factbook.
This is a list of countries by total waterways length mostly based on The World Factbook accessed in May 2009.
This is a list of diplomatic missions of Russia.
Russian Federation is a dual-national state with over 185 ethnic groups designated as nationalities, population of these groups varying enormously, from millions in case of e.g. Russians and Tatars to under ten thousand in the case of Samis and Kets.
The article is a list of Russia Federal subjects by Gross Regional Product (GRP) in main years.
The following is a list of universities and other higher educational institutions in Russia, based primarily on the National Information Centre on Academic Recognition and Mobility webpage of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation.
The dangers to journalists in Russia have been well known since the early 1990s but concern over the number of unsolved killings soared after Anna Politkovskaya's murder in Moscow on 7 October 2006.
Determining the world's largest cities depends on which definitions of city are used.
This is a list of the largest empires in world history, but the list is not and cannot be definitive since the decision about which entities to consider as "empires" is difficult and fraught with controversy.
This is a list of lakes of Europe with an average area greater than 100 km².
List of merchant navy capacity by flag is a list of the world foremost fleets of registered trading vessels ranked in both gross register tonnage (GRT) and deadweight tonnage (DWT) sorted by flag state.
This list of metro systems includes electrified rapid transit train systems worldwide.
The following is a list of Mongol and Tatar raids against Rus' principalities following the Mongol invasion.
Due to the secretive nature of Hollywood accounting it is not clear which film is the most expensive film ever made.
This is a list of the most-produced aircraft types whose numbers exceed or exceeded 5,000.
This is a list of national trees, most official, but some unofficial.
This is a list of the longest rivers on Earth.
This page lists the principal rivers of Europe with their main attributes.
Russia can be divided into a European and an Asian part.
This list of Russian aerospace engineers includes the designers of aircraft, rocketry and spacecraft, and developers of auxiliary aerospace technologies from the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation.
This list of Russian biologists includes the famous biologists from the Russian Federation, the Soviet Union, the Russian Empire and other predecessor states of Russia.
This list of Russian chemists includes the famous chemists and material scientists of the Russian Federation, the Soviet Union, the Russian Empire and other predecessor states of Russia.
The history of exploration by citizens or subjects of the Russian Federation, the Soviet Union, the Russian Empire, the Tsardom of Russia and other Russian predecessor states forms a significant part of the history of Russia as well as the history of the world.
This list of Russian mathematicians includes the famous mathematicians from the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation.
Russian philosophy includes a variety of philosophical movements.
This list of Russian physicists includes the famous physicists from the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union and the Russian Federation.
This is a list of radio stations in Russian language.
There are eight sovereign states that have successfully detonated nuclear weapons.
The following is a list of stripped Olympic medals.
This is a list of countries located on more than one continent, known as transcontinental states or intercontinental states.
This a list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Russia.
Literary realism is part of the realist art movement beginning with mid nineteenth-century French literature (Stendhal), and Russian literature (Alexander Pushkin) and extending to the late nineteenth and early twentieth century.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling that occurred after the Medieval Warm Period.
Livonia (Līvõmō, Liivimaa, German and Scandinavian languages: Livland, Latvian and Livonija, Inflanty, archaic English Livland, Liwlandia; Liflyandiya) is a historical region on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea.
The Livonian War (1558–1583) was fought for control of Old Livonia (in the territory of present-day Estonia and Latvia), when the Tsardom of Russia faced a varying coalition of Denmark–Norway, the Kingdom of Sweden, and the Union (later Commonwealth) of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Kingdom of Poland.
Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Lunokhod (Луноход, "Moonwalker") was a series of Soviet robotic lunar rovers designed to land on the Moon between 1969 and 1977.
Magadan (p) is a port town and the administrative center of Magadan Oblast, Russia, located on the Sea of Okhotsk in Nagayev Bay (within Taui Bay) and serving as a gateway to the Kolyma region.
Maina Kiai is a Kenyan lawyer and human rights activist who formerly served as the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the rights to freedom of peaceful assembly and of association.
Makhachkala (p; Анжи-кала; Lak: Гьанжи; Avar: МахӀачхъала; Lezgian: Магьачкъала; Rutul: МахаӀчкала) is the capital city of the Republic of Dagestan, Russia.
Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) is an intergovernmental scientific programme, launched in 1971 by UNESCO, that aims to establish a scientific basis for the improvement of relationships between people and their environments.
Manchukuo was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945.
Marc Zakharovich Chagall (born Moishe Zakharovich Shagal; 28 March 1985) was a Russian-French artist of Belarusian Jewish origin.
Maria Yuryevna Sharapova (a; born April 19, 1987) is a Russian professional tennis player.
The Mariinsky Ballet is the resident classical ballet company of the Mariinsky Theatre in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
The Mariinsky Theatre (Мариинский театр, Mariinskiy Teatr, also spelled Maryinsky or Mariyinsky) is a historic theatre of opera and ballet in Saint Petersburg, Russia.
A maritime boundary is a conceptual division of the Earth's water surface areas using physiographic or geopolitical criteria.
Mark Osipovich Reizen, also Reisen or Reyzen (Марк Осипович Рейзен, – November 25, 1992), PAU, was a leading Soviet opera singer with a beautiful and expansive bass voice.
A Markov chain is "a stochastic model describing a sequence of possible events in which the probability of each event depends only on the state attained in the previous event".
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
In political science, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, of the Communist International and of Stalinist political parties.
In the philosophy of Marxism, Marxist–Leninist atheism (also known as Marxist–Leninist scientific atheism) is the irreligious and anti-clerical element of Marxism–Leninism, the official state ideology of the Soviet Union.
Mary was a 1st-century BC Galilean Jewish woman of Nazareth, and the mother of Jesus, according to the New Testament and the Quran.
A maser (an acronym for "microwave amplification by stimulated emission of radiation") is a device that produces coherent electromagnetic waves through amplification by stimulated emission.
Mashina Vremeni ("Time Machine") is a Russian rock band founded in 1969.
Maslenitsa (Мaсленица, Масниця, Масленіца; also known as Butter Week, Crepe week, or Cheesefare Week) is an Eastern Slavic religious and folk holiday, celebrated during the last week before Great Lent, that is, the eighth week before Eastern Orthodox Pascha (Easter).
A matryoshka doll (a), also known as a Russian nesting doll, stacking dolls, or Russian doll, is a set of wooden dolls of decreasing size placed one inside another.
Alexei Maximovich Peshkov (Алексе́й Макси́мович Пешко́в or Пе́шков; – 18 June 1936), primarily known as Maxim (Maksim) Gorky (Макси́м Го́рький), was a Russian and Soviet writer, a founder of the socialist realism literary method and a political activist.
Maxim Alexandrovich Vengerov (Максим Александрович Венгеров) (born 20 August 1974 in Novosibirsk) is a Russian-born Israeli violinist, violist, and conductor.
Maya Mikhailovna Plisetskaya (Ма́йя Миха́йловна Плисе́цкая; 20 November 1925 – 2 May 2015) was a Soviet ballet dancer, choreographer, ballet director, and actress, who held in post-Soviet times Spanish and Lithuanian citizenship.
The McLaren Report (Доклад Макларена) is the name given to an independent report released in two parts by professor Richard McLaren into allegations and evidence of state-sponsored doping in Russia.
Meadow Mari or Eastern Mari is a standardized dialect of the Mari language used by about half a million people mostly in the European part of the Russian Federation.
Media freedom in Russia concerns both the ability of directors of mass media outlets to carry out independent policies and the ability of journalists to access sources of information and to work without outside pressure.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Medieval Greek, also known as Byzantine Greek, is the stage of the Greek language between the end of Classical antiquity in the 5th–6th centuries and the end of the Middle Ages, conventionally dated to the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople in 1453.
The Medvedev modernisation programme is an initiative launched by President of Russia Dmitry Medvedev in 2009, which aims at modernising Russia's economy and society, decreasing the country's dependency on oil and gas revenues and creating a diversified economy based on high technology and innovation.
Melnitsa Animation Studio (Студия анимационного кино «Мельница», "melnitsa" meaning "windmill") is one of the largest animation studios in Russia.
Prince Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly (–) was a Russian Field Marshal and Minister of War during Napoleon's invasion in 1812 and War of the Sixth Coalition.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Mikhail Nikolayevich Baryshnikov (p; Mihails Barišņikovs; born January 27, 1948), nicknamed "Misha" (Russian diminutive of the name "Mikhail"), is a Latvian and American dancer, choreographer, and actor.
Mikhail Afanasyevich Bulgakov (p; – 10 March 1940) was a Russian writer, medical doctor and playwright active in the first half of the 20th century.
Mikhail Osipovich Dolivo-Dobrovolsky (Михаи́л О́сипович Доли́во-Доброво́льский; Michail von Dolivo-Dobrowolsky or Michail Ossipowitsch Doliwo-Dobrowolski; Michał Doliwo-Dobrowolski; &ndash) was a Polish-Russian engineer, electrician, and inventor.
Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (Mikhaíl Ivánovich Glínka) was the first Russian composer to gain wide recognition within his own country, and is often regarded as the fountainhead of Russian classical music.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
Lieutenant-General Mikhail Timofeyevich Kalashnikov (p; 10 November 1919 – 23 December 2013) was a Russian general, inventor, military engineer and small arms designer.
Prince Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov (князь Михаи́л Илларио́нович Голени́щев-Куту́зов) was a Field Marshal of the Russian Empire.
Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov (p; –) was a Russian Romantic writer, poet and painter, sometimes called "the poet of the Caucasus", the most important Russian poet after Alexander Pushkin's death in 1837 and the greatest figure in Russian Romanticism.
Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov (ləmɐˈnosəf|a.
Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov (p; – February 21, 1984) was a Soviet/Russian novelist and winner of the 1965 Nobel Prize in Literature.
Mikhail Aleksandrovich Vrubel (Михаи́л Алекса́ндрович Вру́бель; March 17, 1856 – April 14, 1910, all n.s.) is usually regarded amongst the Russian painters of the Symbolist movement and of Art Nouveau.
Russian Aircraft Corporation MiG (Rossiyskaya samoletostroitel'naya korporatsiya "MiG") is a Russian aerospace joint stock company.
Mil Moscow Helicopter Plant (Московский вертолётный завод им.) is a Russian designer and producer of helicopters headquartered in Tomilino.
A military parade is a formation of soldiers whose movement is restricted by close-order manouvering known as drilling or marching.
The Millennium Prize Problems are seven problems in mathematics that were stated by the Clay Mathematics Institute in 2000.
Millets (/ˈmɪlɪts/) are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation (MFA Russia; Министерство иностранных дел Российской Федерации, МИД РФ) is the central government institution charged with leading the foreign policy and foreign relations of Russia.
Mir (Мир,; lit. peace or world) was a space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, operated by the Soviet Union and later by Russia.
A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system blending elements of market economies with elements of planned economies, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise.
Modern art includes artistic work produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the styles and philosophy of the art produced during that era.
Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική Γλώσσα "Neo-Hellenic", historically and colloquially also known as Ρωμαίικα "Romaic" or "Roman", and Γραικικά "Greek") refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era.
The Moksha language (mokšenj kälj) is a member of the Mordvinic branch of the Uralic languages, with around 2,000 native speakers (2010 Russian census).
Moldova (or sometimes), officially the Republic of Moldova (Republica Moldova), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north, east, and south (by way of the disputed territory of Transnistria).
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
As part of the Mongol invasion of Europe, the Mongol Empire invaded Kievan Rus' in the 13th century, destroying numerous cities, including Ryazan, Kolomna, Moscow, Vladimir and Kiev.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
The Mongolic languages are a group of languages spoken in East-Central Asia, mostly in Mongolia and surrounding areas plus in Kalmykia.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
Moscow Cathedral Mosque (Московская соборная мечеть., Moskovskaya sobornaya mechet) is the main mosque of Moscow, Russia.
Moscow Domodedovo Airport (p) is an international airport located on the territory of Domodedovo, Moscow Oblast, Russia, south-southeast from the centre of Moscow.
The Moscow International Business Centre (MIBC) (r), also known as “Moscow City” (r), is a commercial district in central Moscow, Russia.
The Moscow Kremlin (p), usually referred to as the Kremlin, is a fortified complex at the heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River to the south, Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square to the east, and the Alexander Garden to the west.
The Moscow Metro (p) is a rapid transit system serving Moscow, Russia and the neighbouring Moscow Oblast cities of Krasnogorsk, Reutov, Lyubertsy and Kotelniki.
Moscow Oblast (p), or Podmoskovye (p, literally "around/near Moscow"), is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast).
Lomonosov Moscow State University (MSU; Московский государственный университет имени М. В. Ломоносова, often abbreviated МГУ) is a coeducational and public research university located in Moscow, Russia.
The Moscow theater hostage crisis (also known as the 2002 Nord-Ost siege) was the seizure of a crowded Dubrovka Theater by 40 to 50 armed Chechens on 23 October 2002 that involved 850 hostages and ended with the death of at least 170 people.
Mother's Day is a celebration honoring the mother of the family, as well as motherhood, maternal bonds, and the influence of mothers in society.
A motto (derived from the Latin muttum, 'mutter', by way of Italian motto, 'word', 'sentence') is a maxim; a phrase meant to formally summarize the general motivation or intention of an individual, family, social group or organization.
Mount Elbrus (ɪlʲˈbrus; Минги тау, Miñi taw,; Ӏуащхьэмахуэ, ’Wāśhamāxwa) is the highest mountain in Europe, and the tenth most prominent peak in the world.
Mstislav Leopoldovich "Slava" Rostropovich (Мстисла́в Леопо́льдович Ростропо́вич, Mstislav Leopol'dovič Rostropovič,; 27 March 192727 April 2007) was a Soviet and Russian cellist and conductor.
A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition.
A multinational state is a sovereign state that comprises two or more nations.
Murmansk (p; Мурман ланнҍ; Murmánska; Muurman) is a port city and the administrative center of Murmansk Oblast in the far northwest part of Russia.
Murom (p; Old Norse: Moramar) is a historical city in Vladimir Oblast, Russia, which sprawls along the left bank of the Oka River.
Music of the Soviet Union varied in many genres and epochs.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Originally, the name Rus' (Русь) referred to the people, regions, and medieval states (9th to 12th centuries) of the Kievan Rus'.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
Naryshkin Baroque, also called Moscow Baroque, or Muscovite Baroque, is the name given to a particular style of Baroque architecture and decoration which was fashionable in Moscow from the turn of the 17th into the early 18th centuries.
Natalia Grigoryevna Gutman (Наталья Григорьевна Гутман) (born 14 November 1942 in Kazan), PAU, is a Russian cellist.
The "State Anthem of the Russian Federation" (p) is the name of the official national anthem of Russia.
A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy.
There are currently 48 national parks in Russia, a list of which is given below.
A national personification is an anthropomorphism of a nation or its people.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
A nature reserve (also called a natural reserve, bioreserve, (natural/nature) preserve, or (national/nature) conserve) is a protected area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research.
Nautilus Pompilius (Наутилус Помпилиус), sometimes nicknamed Nau (Нау), was an influential Soviet, and later Russian, rock band founded in 1983 by Vyacheslav Butusov and Dmitry Umetsky, the band's lead singer and bassist respectively.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
Neo-Byzantine architecture in the Russian Empire emerged in the 1850s and became an officially endorsed preferred architectural style for church construction during the reign of Alexander II of Russia (1855–1881), replacing the Russo-Byzantine style of Konstantin Thon.
Neo-primitivism was a Russian art movement which took its name from the 31-page pamphlet Neo-primitivizm, by Aleksandr.
Neoclassical architecture is an architectural style produced by the neoclassical movement that began in the mid-18th century.
Neoclassicism (from Greek νέος nèos, "new" and Latin classicus, "of the highest rank") is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of classical antiquity.
Nevsky Prospect (p) is the main street in the city of St. Petersburg, Russia, named after the 13th-century Russian prince Alexander Nevsky.
The New Siberian Islands (r; translit) are an archipelago in the Extreme North of Russia, to the North of the East Siberian coast between the Laptev Sea and the East Siberian Sea north of the Sakha (Yakutia) Republic.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year trees are decorated trees similar to Christmas trees that are displayed to specifically celebrate the New Year.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Nicholas II or Nikolai II (r; 1868 – 17 July 1918), known as Saint Nicholas II of Russia in the Russian Orthodox Church, was the last Emperor of Russia, ruling from 1 November 1894 until his forced abdication on 15 March 1917.
Nicholas Roerich (October 9, 1874 – December 13, 1947) – known also as Nikolai Konstantinovich Rerikh (Никола́й Константи́нович Ре́рих) – was a Russian painter, writer, archaeologist, theosophist, perceived by some in Russia as an enlightener, philosopher, and public figure, who in his youth was influenced by a movement in Russian society around the spiritual.
Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
Nikolai Alexandrovich Berdyaev (Никола́й Алекса́ндрович Бердя́ев; – March 24, 1948) was a Russian political and also Christian religious philosopher who emphasized the existential spiritual significance of human freedom and the human person.
Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol (31 March 1809 – 4 March 1852) was a Russian speaking dramatist of Ukrainian origin.
Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky (a; –) was a Russian mathematician and geometer, known primarily for his work on hyperbolic geometry, otherwise known as Lobachevskian geometry and also his fundamental study on Dirichlet integrals known as Lobachevsky integral formula.
Nikolai Grigoryevich Rubinstein (Никола́й Григо́рьевич Рубинште́йн; &ndash) was a Russian pianist, conductor and composer.
Nikolay Gennadiyevich Basov (Никола́й Генна́диевич Ба́сов; 14 December 1922 – 1 July 2001) was a Soviet physicist and educator.
Nikolay Nikolayevich Benardos (Никола́й Никола́евич Бенардо́с) (1842–1905) was a Russian inventor of Greek origin who in 1881 introduced carbon arc welding, which was the first practical arc welding method.
Nikolay Petrovich Brusentsov (Никола́й Петро́вич Брусенцо́в; 7 February 1925 in Kamenskoe, Ukrainian SSR – 4 December 2014) was a computer scientist, most famous for having built a (balanced) ternary computer, Setun, together with Sergei Sobolev in 1958.
Nikolay Yakovlevich Danilevsky (Никола́й Я́ковлевич Даниле́вский; 28 November 1822 – 7 November 1885) was a Russian Empire naturalist, economist, ethnologist, philosopher, historian and ideologue of Pan-Slavism and the Slavophile movement.
Nikolay Stepanovich Gumilyov (a; April 15 NS 1886 – August 26, 1921) was an influential Russian poet, literary critic, traveler, and military officer.
Nikolay Alexeyevich Nekrasov (a, –) was a Russian poet, writer, critic and publisher, whose deeply compassionate poems about peasant Russia made him the hero of liberal and radical circles of Russian intelligentsia, as represented by Vissarion Belinsky, Nikolay Chernyshevsky and Fyodor Dostoyevsky.
Nikolay Gavrilovich Slavyanov (Никола́й Гаври́лович Славя́нов; –) was a Russian inventor who in 1888 introduced arc welding with consumable metal electrodes, or shielded metal arc welding, the second historical arc welding method after carbon arc welding invented earlier by Nikolay Benardos.
Nikolay Yegorovich Zhukovsky (p; – March 17, 1921) was a Russian scientist, mathematician and engineer, and a founding father of modern aero- and hydrodynamics.
Nizhny Novgorod (p), colloquially shortened to Nizhny, is a city in Russia and the administrative center (capital) of Volga Federal District and Nizhny Novgorod Oblast.
The Nizhny Novgorod Metro (Нижегородское метро), formerly known as Gorky Metro (Горьковское метро) is a rapid-transit system that serves the city of Nizhny Novgorod, Russia.
Nogai (also Nogay or Nogai Tatar) is a Turkic language spoken in southwestern European Russia.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
Nomadic pastoralism is a form of pastoralism when livestock are herded in order to find fresh pastures on which to graze.
A non-aggression pact or neutrality pact is a national treaty between two or more states/countries where the signatories promise not to engage in military action against each other.
In mathematics, non-Euclidean geometry consists of two geometries based on axioms closely related to those specifying Euclidean geometry.
Nord Stream (former names: North Transgas and North European Gas Pipeline; Северный поток, Severny potok) is an offshore natural gas pipeline from Vyborg in the Russian Federation to Greifswald in Germany that is owned and operated by Nord Stream AG.
North Asia or Northern Asia, sometimes known as Siberia, is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the Russian regions of Siberia, Ural and the Russian Far East – an area east of the Ural Mountains.
The North Caucasus (p) or Ciscaucasia is the northern part of the Caucasus region between the Sea of Azov and Black Sea on the west and the Caspian Sea on the east, within European Russia.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
The, NEFU, (in Russian: Северо-Восточный федеральный университет имени Максима Кировича Аммосова) previously known as Yakutsk State University (Якутский государственный университет имени Максима Кировича Аммосова), is the largest higher education institution in the Russian northeast and it is one of the ten federal universities of the nation.
The Northeast Caucasian languages, or Nakh-Daghestanian languages, are a language family spoken in the Russian republics of Dagestan, Chechnya and Ingushetia and in northern Azerbaijan as well as in diaspora populations in Western Europe, Turkey and the Middle East.
The Northern Crusades or Baltic Crusades were religious wars undertaken by Catholic Christian military orders and kingdoms, primarily against the pagan Baltic, Finnic and West Slavic peoples around the southern and eastern shores of the Baltic Sea, and to a lesser extent also against Orthodox Christian Slavs (East Slavs).
The Northern Sea Route (Се́верный морско́й путь, Severnyy morskoy put, shortened to Севморпуть, Sevmorput) is a shipping route officially defined by Russian legislation as lying east of Novaya Zemlya and specifically running along the Russian Arctic coast from the Kara Sea, along Siberia, to the Bering Strait.
The Northwest Caucasian languages, also called West Caucasian, Abkhazo-Adyghean, Circassic, or sometimes Pontic (as opposed to Caspian for the Northeast Caucasian languages), are a group of languages spoken in the northwestern Caucasus region,Hoiberg, Dale H. (2010) chiefly in three Russian republics (Adygea, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay–Cherkessia), the disputed territory of Abkhazia (whose sovereignty is claimed by Georgia), and Turkey, with smaller communities scattered throughout the Middle East.
Northwestern Federal District (Се́веро-За́падный федера́льный о́круг, Severo-Zapadny federalny okrug) is one of the eight federal districts of Russia.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Novaya Zemlya (p, lit. the new land), also known as Nova Zembla (especially in Dutch), is an archipelago in the Arctic Ocean in northern Russia and the extreme northeast of Europe, the easternmost point of Europe lying at Cape Flissingsky on the Northern island.
The Novgorod Republic (p; Новгородскаѧ землѧ / Novgorodskaję zemlę) was a medieval East Slavic state from the 12th to 15th centuries, stretching from the Baltic Sea to the northern Ural Mountains, including the city of Novgorod and the Lake Ladoga regions of modern Russia.
Novorossiysk (p) is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia.
Novosibirsk (p) is the third-most populous city in Russia after Moscow and St. Petersburg.
Novosibirsk Metro is a rapid transit system that serves Novosibirsk, Russia.
Nu Virgos (ВІА Гра) was the name used to promote the musical group VIA Gra (ВИА Гра) outside of Ukraine and other nearby countries.
In nuclear physics, nuclear fusion is a reaction in which two or more atomic nuclei come close enough to form one or more different atomic nuclei and subatomic particles (neutrons or protons).
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.
Nuclear power plants currently operate in 31 countries.
In 2012 total electricity generated in nuclear power plants in Russia was 177.3 TWh, 17.78% of all power generation.
A nuclear-powered icebreaker is a nuclear-powered ship purpose-built for use in waters covered with ice.
The Ob River (p), also Obi, is a major river in western Siberia, Russia, and is the world's seventh-longest river.
An Oblast (область) is a type of federal subject of the Russian Federation.
Obninsk Nuclear Power Plant (Обнинская АЭС, Obninskaja AES) was built in the "Science City" of Obninsk,, who was there at the time.
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (commonly known as the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)) is a United Nations agency that works to promote and protect the human rights that are guaranteed under international law and stipulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
The official languages of the United Nations are the six languages that are used in UN meetings, and in which all official UN documents are written.
Oil reserves denote the amount of crude oil that can be technically recovered at a cost that is financially feasible at the present price of oil.
Oium or Aujum (𐌰𐌿𐌾𐌼) was a name for an area in Scythia (modern Ukraine), where the Goths, under King Filimer, arguably settled after leaving Gothiscandza, according to the Getica by Jordanes, written around 551.
Okróshka (окрошка) is a cold soup of Russian origin.
Old Bolshevik (ста́рый большеви́к, stary bolshevik), also Old Bolshevik Guard or Old Party Guard, became an unofficial designation for those who were members of the Bolshevik party before the Russian Revolution of 1917.
Old East Slavic or Old Russian was a language used during the 10th–15th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus' and states which evolved after the collapse of Kievan Rus'.
The Old New Year or the Orthodox New Year is an informal traditional holiday, celebrated as the start of the New Year by the Julian calendar.
Oleg of Novgorod (Old East Slavic: Олег, Old Norse: Helgi) was a Varangian prince (or konung) who ruled all or part of the Rus' people during the late 9th and early 10th centuries.
Olivier salad (салат Оливье Salat Olivye)It is called "Olivier salad" in Belarus, Russia, Ukraine, as well as in Iran and the United States.
Omsk (p) is a city and the administrative center of Omsk Oblast, Russia, located in southwestern Siberia from Moscow.
An onion dome (луковичная глава, lúkovichnaya glavá; compare лук, luk, "onion") is a dome whose shape resembles an onion.
Oranienbaum (Ораниенба́ум) is a Russian royal residence, located on the Gulf of Finland west of St. Petersburg.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.
Orthodoxy (from Greek ὀρθοδοξία orthodoxía "right opinion") is adherence to correct or accepted creeds, especially in religion.
Ossetian, also known as Ossete and Ossetic, is an Eastern Iranian language spoken in Ossetia, a region on the northern slopes of the Caucasus Mountains.
The Ossetians or Ossetes (ир, ирæттæ,; дигорæ, дигорæнттæ) are an Iranian ethnic group of the Caucasus Mountains, indigenous to the region known as Ossetia.
The Ostern (Eastern) or Red Western (also known as "Borscht Western") was a genre film created in the Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc as a version of the Western films that originated in the United States.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Russia.
Space technology is technology developed by space science or the aerospace industry for use in spaceflight, satellites, or space exploration.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pafnuty Lvovich Chebyshev (p) (–) was a Russian mathematician.
Pair skating is a figure skating discipline.
Palace Square (p), connecting Nevsky Prospekt with Palace Bridge leading to Vasilievsky Island, is the central city square of St Petersburg and of the former Russian Empire.
Palekh miniature (Палехская миниатюра) is a Russian folk handicraft of a miniature painting, which is done with tempera paints on varnished articles made of papier-mâché (small boxes, cigarette and powder cases etc.). Palekh Russian lacquer art on papier-mâché first appeared in 1923 in the village of Palekh, located in the Palekhsky District (Ivanovo Oblast), and is based on a long local history of icon painting.
A pancake (or hotcake, griddlecake, or flapjack) is a flat cake, often thin and round, prepared from a starch-based batter that may contain eggs, milk and butter and cooked on a hot surface such as a griddle or frying pan, often frying with oil or butter.
The Pannonian Avars (also known as the Obri in chronicles of Rus, the Abaroi or Varchonitai at the Encyclopedia of Ukraine (Varchonites) or Pseudo-Avars in Byzantine sources) were a group of Eurasian nomads of unknown origin: "...
Papakha (холхазан куй, xolxazan kuy), also known as astrakhan hat in English, is a wool hat worn by men throughout the Caucasus.
The Paphlagonian expedition of the Rus' was an attack by the Rus' on cities on the Propontis (Sea of Marmara) and on the coast of the Paphlagonia, marking the first known contact between the Rus' and the Byzantine Empire.
A parachute is a device used to slow the motion of an object through an atmosphere by creating drag (or in the case of ram-air parachutes, aerodynamic lift).
The Partitions of Poland were three partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth that took place toward the end of the 18th century and ended the existence of the state, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland and Lithuania for 123 years.
Paskha (also spelled pascha, or pasha; па́сха;; "Easter") is a festive dish made in Eastern Orthodox countries which consists of food that is forbidden during the fast of Great Lent.
Kirill or Cyril (Кирилл, Ст҃ѣ́йшїй патрїа́рхъ кѷрі́ллъ, secular name Vladimir Mikhailovich Gundyayev, Владимир Михайлович Гундяев; born 20 November 1946) is a Russian Orthodox bishop.
A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism, Eastern Orthodoxy, or particular branches of Islam, is regarded as the heavenly advocate of a nation, place, craft, activity, class, clan, family or person.
Pavel Nikolayevich Yablochkov (also transliterated as Jablochkoff) (Павел Николаевич Яблочков in Russian) (&ndash) was a Russian electrical engineer, businessman and the inventor of the Yablochkov candle (a type of electric carbon arc lamp) and the transformer.
Pavlovsk Palace (Павловский дворец) is an 18th-century Russian Imperial residence built by the order of Catherine the Great for her son, Grand Duke Paul, in Pavlovsk, within Saint Petersburg.
PBC CSKA Moscow (ПБК ЦСКА Москва) is a Russian professional basketball team based in Moscow, Russia.
The Pechenegs or Patzinaks were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Oghuz branch of Turkic language family.
Pelmeni (пельме́ни — plural, пельмень — singular) are dumplings of Russian cuisine which consist of a filling wrapped in thin, unleavened dough.
This article deals with the various ethnic groups inhabiting the Caucasus region.
Peredvizhniki (pʲɪrʲɪˈdvʲiʐnʲɪkʲɪ), often called The Wanderers or The Itinerants in English, were a group of Russian realist artists who formed an artists' cooperative in protest of academic restrictions; it evolved into the Society for Travelling Art Exhibitions in 1870.
Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s until 1991 and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
Perm (p;Gramota.ru.) is a city and the administrative center of Perm Krai, Russia, located on the banks of the Kama River in the European part of Russia near the Ural Mountains.
The permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (also known as the Permanent Five, Big Five, or P5) are the five states which the UN Charter of 1945 grants a permanent seat on the UN Security Council.
Since medieval times personifications of Russia are traditionally feminine, and most commonly are maternal.
The Day of Saint Peter and Saint Fevronia (День Святых Петра и Февроньи / Den' Svyatyh Petra i Phevronii) also known as the Day of Family, Love and Faithfulness (Де́нь семьи́, любви́ и ве́рности / Den' sem'i lyubvi i vernosti), the Orthodox patrons of marriage, was officially introduced in Russia in 2008.
The Peter and Paul Fortress is the original citadel of St. Petersburg, Russia, founded by Peter the Great in 1703 and built to Domenico Trezzini's designs from 1706 to 1740 as a star fortress.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
The Peterhof Palace (p, Dutch for Peter's Court) is a series of palaces and gardens located in Petergof, Saint Petersburg, Russia, laid out on the orders of Peter the Great.
The Petrograd Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies (Петроградский Совет рабочих и солдатских депутатов, Petrogradskiy soviet rabochikh i soldatskikh deputatov) was a city council of Petrograd (Saint Petersburg), the capital of the Russian Empire.
The petroleum industry in Russia is one of the largest in the world.
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (Петропа́вловск-Камча́тский) is a city and the administrative, industrial, scientific, and cultural center of Kamchatka Krai, Russia.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
PFC Central Sport Club of the Army Moscow (Профессиональный футбольный клуб – ЦСКА) is a Russian professional football club.
The PGM-19 Jupiter was the first nuclear tipped, medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) of the United States Air Force (USAF).
Phanagoria (Phanagóreia) was the largest ancient Greek city on the Taman peninsula, spread over two plateaus along the eastern shore of the Cimmerian Bosporus.
The Pinsk Marshes (Пінскія балоты, Pinskiya baloty), also known as the Pripet Marshes (Прыпяцкія балоты, Prypiackija baloty) and the Rokitno Marshes, are a vast natural region of wetlands along the forested basin of the Pripyat River and its tributaries from Brest to the west to Mogilev to the northeast and Kiev to the southeast.
Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.
Pirozhki (пирожки, plural form of pirozhok, literally a "small pie"), also transliterated as piroshki (singular piroshok) or pyrizhky (пиріжки), are a Russian puff pastry which consists of individual-sized baked or fried buns stuffed with a variety of fillings with origins in Russia and Ukraine.
Pitirim Alexandrovich Sorokin (Питири́м Алекса́ндрович Соро́кин, – 10 February 1968) was a Russian-born American sociologist and political activist, best known for his contributions to the social cycle theory.
Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.
A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.
Podolsky District (Подо́льский райо́н) is an administrativeLaw #11/2013-OZ and municipalLaw #65/2005-OZ district (raion), one of the thirty-six in Moscow Oblast, Russia.
In mathematics, the Poincaré conjecture is a theorem about the characterization of the 3-sphere, which is the hypersphere that bounds the unit ball in four-dimensional space.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The polar climate regions are characterized by a lack of warm summers.
Polarity in international relations is any of the various ways in which power is distributed within the international system.
The Poles of Cold are the places in the southern and northern hemispheres where the lowest air temperatures have been recorded.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
The political status of Crimea is the subject of a territorial dispute between Ukraine and Russia.
Polack (official transliteration), Polotsk or Polatsk (translit, translit, Połock, Polockas, Polotsk) is a historical city in Belarus, situated on the Dvina River.
A polymath (πολυμαθής,, "having learned much,"The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century Latin: uomo universalis, "universal man") is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.
The Pontic–Caspian steppe, Pontic steppe or Ukrainian steppe is the vast steppeland stretching from the northern shores of the Black Sea (called Euxeinos Pontos in antiquity) as far east as the Caspian Sea, from Moldova and eastern Ukraine across the Southern Federal District and the Volga Federal District of Russia to western Kazakhstan, forming part of the larger Eurasian steppe, adjacent to the Kazakh steppe to the east.
Population transfer in the Soviet Union refers to forced transfer of various groups from the 1930s up to the 1950s ordered by Joseph Stalin and may be classified into the following broad categories: deportations of "anti-Soviet" categories of population (often classified as "enemies of workers"), deportations of entire nationalities, labor force transfer, and organized migrations in opposite directions to fill the ethnically cleansed territories.
Portrait painting is a genre in painting, where the intent is to depict a human subject.
The post-Soviet states, also collectively known as the former Soviet Union (FSU) or former Soviet Republics, are the states that emerged and re-emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in 1991, with Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union after the Cold War.
A potential superpower is a state or a political and economic entity that is speculated to be – or to have the potential to soon become – a superpower.
The Potsdam Conference (Potsdamer Konferenz) was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm, in Potsdam, occupied Germany, from 17 July to 2 August 1945.
The Power of Siberia (Сила Сибири) pipeline (formerly known as Yakutia–Khabarovsk–Vladivostok pipeline) is a natural gas pipeline under construction in Eastern Siberia to transport Yakutia's gas to Primorsky Krai and Far East countries.
The power of the purse is the ability of one group to manipulate and control the actions of another group by withholding funding, or putting stipulations on the use of funds.
The President of the Russian Federation (Prezident Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the elected head of state of the Russian Federation, as well as holder of the highest office in Russia and commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces.
A pressure suit is a protective suit worn by high-altitude pilots who may fly at altitudes where the air pressure is too low for an unprotected person to survive, even breathing pure oxygen at positive pressure.
A priest or priestess (feminine) is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion, especially as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities.
The Tale of Past Years (Повѣсть времѧньныхъ лѣтъ, Pověstĭ Vremęnĭnyhŭ Lětŭ) or Primary Chronicle is a history of Kievan Rus' from about 850 to 1110, originally compiled in Kiev about 1113.
The Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation (translit), colloquially referred to as the Prime Minister (translit) is the head of the Russian government and the second most powerful figure of the Russian Federation.
Principality of Tver (Тверское княжество) was a Russian principality or duchy, which existed between the 13th and the 15th centuries.
Privatization in Russia describes the series of post-Soviet reforms that resulted in large-scale privatization of Russia's state-owned assets, particularly in the industrial, energy, and financial sectors.
Probiotics are microorganisms that are claimed to provide health benefits when consumed.
Promulgation is the formal proclamation or declaration that a new statutory or administrative law is enacted after its final approval.
Pskov (p; see also names in other languages) is a city and the administrative center of Pskov Oblast, Russia, located about east from the Estonian border, on the Velikaya River.
The following is the list of official public holidays recognized by the Government of Russia.
Pulkovo Airport (p) is an international airport serving Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
Pyatigorsk (Пятиго́рск) is a city in Stavropol Krai located on the Podkumok River, about from the town of Mineralnye Vody where there is an international airport and about from Kislovodsk.
Pyongyang, or P'yŏngyang, is the capital and largest city of North Korea.
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Often "Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky" in English.
Pyotr Pavlovich Yershov (Пётр Павлович Ершов; –) was a Russian poet and author of the famous fairy-tale poem The Little Humpbacked Horse (Konyok-Gorbunok).
The Qajar dynasty (سلسله قاجار; also Romanised as Ghajar, Kadjar, Qachar etc.; script Qacarlar) was an IranianAbbas Amanat, The Pivot of the Universe: Nasir Al-Din Shah Qajar and the Iranian Monarchy, 1831–1896, I. B. Tauris, pp 2–3 royal dynasty of Turkic origin,Cyrus Ghani.
The Quartet on the Middle East or Middle East Quartet, sometimes called the Diplomatic Quartet or Madrid Quartet or simply the Quartet, is a foursome of nations and international and supranational entities involved in mediating the Israeli–Palestinian peace process.
A railway electrification system supplies electric power to railway trains and trams without an on-board prime mover or local fuel supply.
Ratha Yatra, also referred to as Rathayatra, Rathjatra or Chariot festival is any public procession in a chariot.
Rayonism (or Rayism or Rayonnism) is a style of abstract art that developed in Russia in 1911.
Realism, sometimes called naturalism, in the arts is generally the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, or implausible, exotic, and supernatural elements.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Red Banner (Красное знамя) was a symbol of the USSR associated with the Soviet state flag.
Red Data Book of the Russian Federation (RDBRF), also known as Red Book (Красная книга) or Russian Red Data Book is a state document established for documenting rare and endangered species of animals, plants and fungi, as well as some local subspecies (such as the Ladoga seal) that exist within the territory of the Russian Federation and its continental shelf and marine economic zone.
Red Square (ˈkrasnəjə ˈploɕːətʲ) is a city square (plaza) in Moscow, Russia.
A red star, five-pointed and filled (★), is an important symbol often associated with communist ideology, particularly in combination with hammer and sickle.
The Red Terror was a period of political repression and mass killings carried out by Bolsheviks after the beginning of the Russian Civil War in 1918.
In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region.
Religion in Russia is very diversified.
A religious denomination is a subgroup within a religion that operates under a common name, tradition, and identity.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
The Republic of Crimea (or; Республика Крым, Respublika Krym, Республіка Крим, Respublika Krym, Къырым Джумхуриети, Qirim Cumhuriyeti) is a federal subject of Russia that is located on the Crimean Peninsula.
According to the Constitution, the Russian Federation is divided into 85 federal subjects (constituent units), 22 of which are "republics".
The Republics of the Soviet Union or the Union Republics (r) of the Soviet Union were ethnically based proto-states that were subordinated directly to the Government of the Soviet Union.
Registration in the Russian Federation is the system that records the residence and internal migration of Russian citizens.
Rhythmic gymnastics is a sport in which individuals or groups of five manipulate one or two pieces of apparatus: rope, hoop, ball, clubs, ribbon and freehand (no apparatus).
Right-bank Ukraine (Правобережна Україна, Pravoberezhna Ukrayina; Правобережная Украина, Pravoberezhnaya Ukraina; Prawobrzeżna Ukraina, Pravo breh Ukrajiny, Jobb folyópart Ukrajna) is a historical and territorial name for a part of modern Ukraine on the right (west) bank of the Dnieper River, corresponding to the modern-day oblasts of Vinnytsia, Zhytomyr, Kirovohrad, as well as the western parts of Kiev and Cherkasy.
The Ringing Cedars (Russian: Звенящие Кедры) or Anastasianism (Анастасианство, Анастасиизм) is a new spiritual and religious movement that started in central Russia in 1997, based on the series of ten books entitled The Ringing Cedars of Russia written by Vladimir Megre.
Rock and roll (often written as rock & roll or rock 'n' roll) is a genre of popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950sJim Dawson and Steve Propes, What Was the First Rock'n'Roll Record (1992),.
Rock and roll became known in the Soviet Union in the 1960s and quickly broke free from its western roots.
Rococo, less commonly roccoco, or "Late Baroque", was an exuberantly decorative 18th-century European style which was the final expression of the baroque movement.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Romanization of Russian is the process of transliterating the Russian language from the Cyrillic script into the Latin script.
Romantic music is a period of Western classical music that began in the late 18th or early 19th century.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
Ronald Lewis Steel (born March 25, 1931) is an American writer, historian, and professor.
Rosatom, (r) stylized as ROSATOM and also known as the Rosatom State Nuclear Energy Corporation, the State Atomic Energy Corporation Rosatom, or the Rosatom State Corporation, is a Russian state corporation headquartered in Moscow that specializes in nuclear energy.
Rostov (p) is a town in Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia, one of the oldest in the country and a tourist center of the Golden Ring.
Rostov-on-Don (p) is a port city and the administrative center of Rostov Oblast and the Southern Federal District of Russia.
A rover (or sometimes planetary rover) is a space exploration vehicle designed to move across the surface of a planet or other celestial body.
RT (formerly Russia Today) is a Russian international television network funded by the Russian government.
RT Arabic, formerly known as Rusiya Al-Yaum (Arabic: روسيا اليوم, meaning Russia Today, called Россия сегодня Rossiya segodnya (read: Rasíya sivódnya) or Русия аль-Яум (Rusiya Al-Yaum) in Russian) is a Russian TV news channel broadcasting in Arabic and headquartered in Moscow, Russia.
The ruble or rouble (p) is or was a currency unit of a number of countries in Eastern Europe closely associated with the economy of Russia.
The ruble sign (₽) is the currency sign used for the Russian ruble, the official currency of Russia.
Rudolf Khametovich Nureyev (Рудольф Хәмит улы Нуриев Rudolf Xämid ulı Nuriyev, p; 17 March 1938 – 6 January 1993) was a Soviet ballet and contemporary dancer and choreographer.
The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".
Rurik (also Riurik; Old Church Slavonic Рюрикъ Rjurikŭ, from Old Norse Hrøríkʀ; 830 – 879), according to the 12th-century Primary Chronicle, was a Varangian chieftain of the Rus' who in the year 862 gained control of Ladoga, and built the Holmgard settlement near Novgorod.
The Rurik dynasty, or Rurikids (Рю́риковичи, Ryúrikovichi; Рю́риковичі, Ryúrykovychi; Ру́рыкавічы, Rúrykavichi, literally "sons of Rurik"), was a dynasty founded by the Varangian prince Rurik, who established himself in Novgorod around the year AD 862.
The Rus (Русь, Ῥῶς) were an early medieval group, who lived in a large area of what is now Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and other countries, and are the ancestors of modern East Slavic peoples.
According to the Federation of American Scientists, an organization that assesses nuclear weapon stockpiles, as of 2017, the Russian Federation possesses 7,300 total nuclear warheads, of which 4,500 are strategically operational.
Russia, also known as the Russian Federation, has competed at the modern Olympic Games on many occasions, but as different nations in its history.
Russia Day (День России, Den' Rossii), previously, before 2002, Day of adoption of the declaration of state sovereignty of RSFSR (День принятия Декларации о государственном суверенитете РСФСР, Den' prinyatia Declaratsii o gosudarstvennom suvernitete RSFSR) is the national holiday of the Russian Federation.
The Russian national basketball team (Мужская сборная России по баскетболу) is organized and run by the Russian Basketball Federation (RBF).
The Russia national football team (национа́льная сбо́рная Росси́и по футбо́лу, natsionálnaya sbórnaya Rossii po futbólu) represents Russia in association football and is controlled by the Russian Football Union (Российский Футбольный Союз, Rossiyskiy Futboľnyy Soyuz), the governing body for football in Russia.
Russian–European relations are the international relations between the European Union (EU) and its largest bordering state, Russia, to the east.
NATO–Russian relations, relations between the NATO Military Alliance and the Russian Federation were established in 1991 within the framework of the North Atlantic Cooperation Council.
Russia–United States relations refers to the bilateral relationship between the United States and Russia.
Russian Academy of Arts (RAKh / rus. РАХ, Росси́йская акаде́мия худо́жеств) is the State scientific Institution of Russian Federation, eligible heir to the USSR Academy of Arts.
The Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS; Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к (РАН) Rossíiskaya akadémiya naúk) consists of the national academy of Russia; a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation; and additional scientific and social units such as libraries, publishing units, and hospitals.
The Aerospace Defence Forces Branch, short: ASDFB (Voyska vozdushno-kosmicheskoy oborony (VVKO) was a branch of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation responsible for aerospace defence, and the operation of Russian military satellites and the Plesetsk Cosmodrome. It was established on the 1 December 2011 and replaced the Russian Space Forces. The ASDFB was first commanded by former Space Forces commander Colonel General Oleg Ostapenko, who was promoted to Deputy Minister of Defence in November 2012. On 24 December 2012, Aleksandr Golovko was appointed the new commander. Although it is officially translated as aerospace in English, it covers both attacks from the air and from (outer) space, and some Russian writers translate it as "air and space" instead. On the 1 August 2015, the Russian Air Force and the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces were merged to form the Russian Aerospace Forces. The Russian Aerospace Defence Forces duties for space defense are now with the Russian Space Forces under the umbrella of the new Russian Aerospace Forces. The RADF today only provides air defense responsibilities.
The Russian Air Force (r, literally "military air forces of Russia") is a branch of the Russian Aerospace Forces, the latter being formed on 1 August 2015 with the merger of the Russian Air Force and the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces.
The Russian Airborne Troops or VDV (from "Vozdushno-desantnye voyska Rossii", Russian: Воздушно-десантные войска России, ВДВ; Air-landing Forces) is a military branch of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.
Russian America (Русская Америка, Russkaya Amerika) was the name of the Russian colonial possessions in North America from 1733 to 1867.
The Russian Arctic islands are a number of islands groups and sole islands scattered around the Arctic Ocean.
Russian Ark (Русский ковчег, Russkij Kovcheg) is a 2002 experimental historical drama film directed by Alexander Sokurov.
The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (r) are the military service of the Russian Federation, established after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Russian avant-garde was a large, influential wave of avant-garde modern art that flourished in the Russian Empire and Soviet Union, approximately from 1890 to 1930—although some have placed its beginning as early as 1850 and its end as late as 1960.
The Russian Bear is a widespread symbol (generally of a Eurasian brown bear) for Russia, used in cartoons, articles and dramatic plays since as early as the 16th century, and relating alike to the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union and the present-day Russian Federation.
The Russian Census of 2010 (Всеросси́йская пе́репись населе́ния 2010 го́да) is the first census of the Russian Federation population since 2002 and the second after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
The All Russian Constituent Assembly (Всероссийское Учредительное собрание, Vserossiyskoye Uchreditelnoye sobraniye) was a constitutional body convened in Russia after the October Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Constitution of 1906 refers to a major revision of the 1832 Fundamental Laws of the Russian Empire, which transformed the formerly absolutist state into one in which the Emperor agreed for the first time to share his autocratic power with a parliament.
Russian cosmism is a philosophical and cultural movement that emerged in Russia in the early 20th century.
Russian cuisine is a collection of the different cooking traditions of the Russian people.
Russian culture has a long history.
The Russian diaspora is the global community of ethnic Russians.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Russian Age of Enlightenment was a period in the 18th century in which the government began to actively encourage the proliferation of arts and sciences, which had a profound impact on Russian culture.
Russian Fairy Tales (Народные Русские Сказки, variously translated; English titles include also Russian Folk Tales), is a collection of nearly 600 fairy and folktales, collected and published by Alexander Afanasyev between 1855 and 1863.
The Russian famine of 1601–1603 was Russia's worst famine in terms of proportional effect on the population, killing perhaps two million people, a third of the Russian people.
The Russian famine of 1921–22, also known as Povolzhye famine, was a severe famine in Russia which began in early spring of 1921 and lasted through 1922.
The Russian Far East (p) comprises the Russian part of the Far East - the extreme eastern territory of Russia, between Lake Baikal in Eastern Siberia and the Pacific Ocean.
Russian federal highways (r; lit. Highways of federal importance of the Russian Federation) are the most important highways in Russia that are federal property.
Russian Federal State Statistics Service (Федеральная служба государственной статистики, Federal'naya sluzhba gosudarstvennoi statistiki) (also known as Rosstat) is the governmental statistics agency in Russia.
The financial crisis in Russia in 2014–2017 was the result of the collapse of the Russian ruble beginning in the second half of 2014.
Floating nuclear power stations (Russian: плавучая атомная теплоэлектростанция малой мощности, ПАТЭС ММ - lit. floating combined heat and power (CHP) low-power nuclear station) are vessels designed by Rosatom.
Russian Futurism was a movement of Russian poets and artists who adopted the principles of Filippo Marinetti's "Manifesto of Futurism," which espoused the rejection of the past, and a celebration of speed, machinery, violence, youth and industry; it also advocated the modernization and cultural rejuvenation.
The Russian Grand Prix (Gran-Pri Rossii) is an annual auto race held at Sochi Autodrom—a street circuit built around Olympic Park in Sochi, Russia, as part of the Formula One World Championship.
The Ground Forces of the Russian Federation (r) are the land forces of the Russian Armed Forces, formed from parts of the collapsing Soviet Army in 1992.
The use and making of icons entered Kievan Rus' following its conversion to Orthodox Christianity in AD 988.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Russian literature refers to the literature of Russia and its émigrés and to the Russian-language literature of several independent nations once a part of what was historically Rus', the Russian Empire or the Soviet Union.
The Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War began in September 2015, after an official request by the Syrian government for military aid against rebel and jihadist groups.
In February 2014, Russia made several military incursions into Ukrainian territory.
The Russian Musical Society (RMS) (Русское музыкальное общество) was an organization founded in 1859 by the Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna (a German-born aunt of Tsar Alexander II) and her protégé, pianist and composer Anton Rubinstein, with the intent of raising the standard of music in the country and disseminating musical education.
The Russian Navy (r, lit. Military-Maritime Fleet of the Russian Federation) is the naval arm of the Russian Armed Forces.
The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.
Russian pop music is Russian language pop music produced either in Russia, CIS countries, Baltic states and other foreign countries in which the songs are performed primarily in Russian language, languages of the countries of the CIS, and in the other languages of the world.
Presidential elections were held in Russia on 26 March 2000.
Presidential elections were held in Russia on 4 March 2012.
The Russian Provisional Government (Vremennoye pravitel'stvo Rossii) was a provisional government of Russia established immediately following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II of the Russian Empire on 2 March 1917.
Russian Public Opinion Research Center (VTsIOM) (Vsyerossiǐskiǐ tsentr izučenija obščestvennogo mnenija – VTsIOM), established in 1987, known as the "All-Union Center for the Study of Public Opinion" until 1992, is the oldest polling institution in post-Soviet Russia.
JSC Russian Railways (JSC RZhD; ОАО «Российские железные дороги» (ОАО «РЖД») tr. OAO Rossiyskie zheleznye dorogi (OAO RZhD)) is a Russian fully state-owned vertically integrated company, both managing infrastructure and operating freight and passenger train services.
The Russian Republic (p) was a short-lived state that controlled, de jure, the territory of the former Russian Empire between its proclamation by the Russian Provisional Government on 1 September (14 September) in a decree signed by Alexander Kerensky as Minister-President and Alexander Zarudny as Minister of Justice.
The Russian Revival style is the generic term for a number of different movements within Russian architecture (pseudo-Russian style, neo-Russian style, Russian-Byzantine style/Byzantine style (псевдорусский стиль, неорусский стиль, русско-византийский стиль)) that arose in second quarter of the 19th century and was an eclectic melding of pre-Peterine Russian architecture and elements of Byzantine architecture.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
The Russian ruble or rouble (рубль rublʹ, plural: рубли́ rubli; sign: ₽, руб; code: RUB) is the currency of the Russian Federation, the two partially recognized republics of Abkhazia and South Ossetia and the two unrecognized republics of Donetsk and Luhansk.
Science fiction and fantasy have been part of mainstream Russian literature since the 19th century.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
The Russian Superleague (Чемпионат России Суперлига, Russian Championship Superleague), commonly abbreviated as RSL, was the highest division of the main professional ice hockey league in Russia.
Russian traditional music specifically deals with the folk music traditions of the ethnic Russian people.
Russian traditions, superstitions and beliefs include superstitions and customs of Russians.
Russian Winter, General Winter, General Frost, or General Snow refers to the winter climate of Russia as a contributing factor to the military failures of several invasions of Russia.
Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern Europe. The majority of Russians inhabit the nation state of Russia, while notable minorities exist in other former Soviet states such as Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Ukraine and the Baltic states. A large Russian diaspora also exists all over the world, with notable numbers in the United States, Germany, Israel, and Canada. Russians are the most numerous ethnic group in Europe. The Russians share many cultural traits with their fellow East Slavic counterparts, specifically Belarusians and Ukrainians. They are predominantly Orthodox Christians by religion. The Russian language is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan, and also spoken as a secondary language in many former Soviet states.
Russkaya Pravda (Rus' Justice or Rus’ Law; Правда роусьскаꙗ, Pravda Rusĭskaya (13th century, 1280), Правда Руськая, Pravda Rus'kaya (second half of the 15th century); Русская правда, Russkaya Pravda; Руська Правда, Rus'ka Pravda) was the legal code of Kievan Rus' and the subsequent Rus' principalities during the times of feudal division.
The Russo-Crimean Wars were fought between the forces of Muscovy and the Tatars of the Crimean Khanate during the 16th century over the region around Volga River.
The Russo–Japanese War (Russko-yaponskaya voina; Nichirosensō; 1904–05) was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.
The Russo-Persian Wars or Russo-Iranian Wars were a series of wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Persian Empire between the 17th and 19th centuries.
The Russo-Polish War of 1654–1667, also called Thirteen Years' War, First Northern War, War for Ukraine or Russian Deluge (Potop rosyjski, Российский потоп), was a major conflict between Tsardom of Russia and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 (lit, named for the year 1293 in the Islamic calendar; Руско-турска Освободителна война, Russian-Turkish Liberation war) was a conflict between the Ottoman Empire and the Eastern Orthodox coalition led by the Russian Empire and composed of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro.
Rusyn (Carpathian Rusyn), по нашому (po našomu); Pannonian Rusyn)), also known in English as Ruthene (sometimes Ruthenian), is a Slavic language spoken by the Rusyns of Eastern Europe.
Ruthenia (Рѹ́сь (Rus) and Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ (Rus'kaya zemlya), Ῥωσία, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia, Roxolania, Garðaríki) is a proper geographical exonym for Kievan Rus' and other, more local, historical states.
Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop.
Rye bread is a type of bread made with various proportions of flour from rye grain.
Sadko (Садко) is a 1952 Russian fantasy film directed by Aleksandr Ptushko.
The Cathedral of Vasily the Blessed (Собор Василия Блаженного, Sobor Vasiliya Blazhennogo), commonly known as Saint Basil's Cathedral, is a church in Red Square in Moscow, Russia.
Saint George (Γεώργιος, Geṓrgios; Georgius;; to 23 April 303), according to legend, was a Roman soldier of Greek origin and a member of the Praetorian Guard for Roman emperor Diocletian, who was sentenced to death for refusing to recant his Christian faith.
Saint Isaac's Cathedral or Isaakievskiy Sobor (Исаа́киевский Собо́р) in Saint Petersburg, Russia, is the largest Russian Orthodox cathedral (sobor) in the city.
Saint Nicholas (Ἅγιος Νικόλαος,, Sanctus Nicolaus; 15 March 270 – 6 December 343), also called Nikolaos of Myra or Nicholas of Bari, was Bishop of Myra, in Asia Minor (modern-day Demre, Turkey), and is a historic Christian saint.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
The Saint Petersburg Metro (Петербу́ргский метрополитен) is the underground railway system in Saint Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast, Russia.
Saint Petersburg State University (SPbU, Санкт-Петербургский государственный университет, СПбГУ) is a Russian federal state-owned higher education institution based in Saint Petersburg.
The Sakha (Yakutia) Republic (p; Sakha Öröspüübülükete), simply Sakha (Yakutia) (Саха (Якутия); Sakha Sire), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).
Sakhalin (Сахалин), previously also known as Kuye Dao (Traditional Chinese:庫頁島, Simplified Chinese:库页岛) in Chinese and in Japanese, is a large Russian island in the North Pacific Ocean, lying between 45°50' and 54°24' N.
Samara (p), known from 1935 to 1991 as Kuybyshev (Ќуйбышев), is the sixth largest city in Russia and the administrative center of Samara Oblast.
Samara Metro (Самарское Метро), formerly known as the Kuybyshev Metro (Куйбышевское Метро), is a rapid transit system which serves the city of Samara, Russia.
Sambo (p; САМозащита Без Оружия) is a Russian-Soviet martial art and combat sport.
The Sami people (also known as the Sámi or the Saami) are a Finno-Ugric people inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses large parts of Norway and Sweden, northern parts of Finland, and the Murmansk Oblast of Russia.
Santa Claus, also known as Saint Nicholas, Kris Kringle, Father Christmas, or simply Santa, is a legendary figure originating in Western Christian culture who is said to bring gifts to the homes of well-behaved ("good" or "nice") children on Christmas Eve (24 December) and the early morning hours of Christmas Day (25 December).
A sarafan (p, from Persian sarāрā) is a long, trapezoidal traditional Russian jumper dress (pinafore) worn as Russian folk costume by women and girls.
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
A satellite navigation or satnav system is a system that uses satellites to provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning.
A sauna, or sudatory, is a small room or building designed as a place to experience dry or wet heat sessions, or an establishment with one or more of these facilities.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Scythia (Ancient Greek: Σκυθική, Skythikē) was a region of Central Eurasia in classical antiquity, occupied by the Eastern Iranian Scythians, encompassing Central Asia and parts of Eastern Europe east of the Vistula River, with the eastern edges of the region vaguely defined by the Greeks.
The Sea of Azov (Азо́вское мо́ре, Azóvskoje móre; Азо́вське мо́ре, Azóvśke móre; Azaq deñizi, Азакъ денъизи, ازاق دﻩﯕىزى) is a sea in Eastern Europe.
The Sea of Japan (see below for other names) is a marginal sea between the Japanese archipelago, Sakhalin, the Korean Peninsula and Russia.
The Sea of Okhotsk (Ohōtsuku-kai) is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean, between the Kamchatka Peninsula on the east, the Kuril Islands on the southeast, the island of Hokkaido to the south, the island of Sakhalin along the west, and a long stretch of eastern Siberian coast along the west and north.
Second Chechen War (Втора́я чече́нская война́), also known as the Second Chechen Сampaign (Втора́я чече́нская кампа́ния), was an armed conflict on the territory of Chechnya and the border regions of the North Caucasus between the Russian Federation and the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, also with militants of various Islamist groups, fought from August 1999 to April 2009.
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.
A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible for the legislature of a state.
Semyon Ivanovich Dezhnev (p; sometimes spelled Dezhnyov; c. 1605 – 1673) was a Russian explorer of Siberia and the first European to sail through the Bering Strait, 80 years before Vitus Bering did.
Saint Seraphim of Sarov (Серафим Саровский) (–), born Prokhor Moshnin (Прохор Мошнин), is one of the most renowned Russian saints in the Eastern Orthodox Church.
Sergei Fedorovich Bondarchuk (Серге́й Фё́дорович Бондарчу́к; Ukrainian: Сергі́й Фе́дорович Бондарчу́к, Serhiy Fedorovych Bondarchuk; 25 September 192020 October 1994) was a Soviet film director, screenwriter and actor.
Sergei Nikolaevich Bulgakov (Серге́й Никола́евич Булга́ков; – 13 July 1944) was a Russian Orthodox Christian theologian, philosopher, and economist.
Sergei Pavlovich Diaghilev (sʲɪˈrɡʲej ˈpavɫovʲɪtɕ ˈdʲæɡʲɪlʲɪf; 19 August 1929), usually referred to outside Russia as Serge Diaghilev, was a Russian art critic, patron, ballet impresario and founder of the Ballets Russes, from which many famous dancers and choreographers would arise.
Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein (p; 11 February 1948) was a Soviet film director and film theorist, a pioneer in the theory and practice of montage.
Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (a,, also transliterated as Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov, Сергій Павлович Корольов Serhiy Pavlovych Korolyov; – 14 January 1966) worked as the lead Soviet rocket engineer and spacecraft designer during the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union in the 1950s and 1960s.
Sergei Mikhailovich Makarov (Серге́й Михайлович Макаров; born 19 June 1958 in Chelyabinsk, Soviet Union) is a Russian former ice hockey right wing and two-time Olympic gold medalist.
Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (r; 27 April 1891 – 5 March 1953) was a Russian Soviet composer, pianist and conductor.
Sergei Vasilyevich Rachmaninoff (28 March 1943) was a Russian pianist, composer, and conductor of the late Romantic period, some of whose works are among the most popular in the Romantic repertoire.
Sergei Lvovich Sobolev (Серге́й Льво́вич Со́болев; 6 October 1908 – 3 January 1989) was a Soviet mathematician working in mathematical analysis and partial differential equations.
Sergey Alexeyevich Chaplygin (Серге́й Алексе́евич Чаплы́гин; April 5, 1869, Ranenburg – October 8, 1942, Novosibirsk) was a Russian and Soviet physicist, mathematician, and mechanical engineer.
Sergei Vasiljevich Lebedev (Серге́й Васи́льевич Ле́бедев; July 25, 1874 – May 1, 1934) was a Russian/Soviet chemist and the inventor of polybutadiene synthetic rubber, the first commercially viable and mass-produced type of synthetic rubber.
Sergey Zagraevsky (Сергей Вольфгангович Заграевский, סרגיי זגרייבסקי; born August 20, 1964, Moscow) is a Russian-Jewish painter, architectural historian, writer and theologian.
Venerable Sergius of Radonezh (Се́ргий Ра́донежский, Sergii Radonezhsky; 14 May 1314 – 25 September 1392), also transliterated as Sergey Radonezhsky or Serge of Radonezh, was a spiritual leader and monastic reformer of medieval Russia.
Setun (Сетунь) was a computer developed in 1958 at Moscow State University.
Sevastopol (Севастополь; Севасто́поль; Акъяр, Aqyar), traditionally Sebastopol, is the largest city on the Crimean Peninsula and a major Black Sea port.
The Seven Years' War was a global conflict fought between 1756 and 1763.
Severnaya Zemlya (Се́верная Земля́ (Northern Land)) is a archipelago in the Russian high Arctic.
The sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a population.
Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.
A large minority of people in North Asia, particularly in Siberia, follow the religio-cultural practices of shamanism.
The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), or Shanghai Pact, is a Eurasian political, economic, and security organisation, the creation of which was announced on 15 June 2001 in Shanghai, China by the leaders of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan; the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Charter, formally establishing the organisation, was signed in June 2002 and entered into force on 19 September 2003.
Shashlik or shashlyk (شیشلیک – Šišlik, խորոված khorovats, şişlik or tikə kabab, მწვადი mtsvadi, шашлы́к šašlýk, шашли́к šašlýk, szaszłyk, šašliks, šašlykas, şaşlık, שישליק šíšliq, Urdu: شاشلِک śāślik, শাশলিক śāślik), is a name given to a dish of skewered and grilled cubes of meat popular in Eastern Europe, eastern Central Europe, the Baltics, Caucasus, Central Asia and some parts of the Middle East, including Iran, Israel, and Turkey.
Shchi (a) is a Russian style cabbage soup.
Sheremetyevo International Airport (p) is an international airport located in Molzhaninovsky District, Northern Administrative Okrug, Moscow, Russia, northwest of central Moscow.
Shock therapy is a term used by some non-economists to refer to the sudden release of price and currency controls (economic liberalization), withdrawal of state subsidies, and immediate trade liberalization within a country, usually also including large-scale privatization of previously public-owned assets.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Siberian Federal University (Сибирский федеральный университет, Sibirskiĭ federalʹnyĭ universitet, often shortened to SibFU, СФУ) is a modern multidisciplinary university located in the eastern part of Russia, Krasnoyarsk, that combines fundamental and applied research and teaching.
Siberian River Routes were the main ways of communication in the Russian Siberia before the 1730s, when roads began to be built.
The Siege of Leningrad (also known as the Leningrad Blockade (Блокада Ленинграда, transliteration: Blokada Leningrada) and the 900-Day Siege) was a prolonged military blockade undertaken from the south by the Army Group North of Nazi Germany and the Finnish Army in the north, against Leningrad, historically and currently known as Saint Petersburg, in the Eastern Front theatre of World War II.
Silver Age is a term traditionally applied by Russian philologists to the last decade of the 19th century and first two or three decades of the 20th century.
Simon Smith Kuznets (p; April 30, 1901 – July 8, 1985) was a Russo-American economist and statistician who received the 1971 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences "for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development." Kuznets made a decisive contribution to the transformation of economics into an empirical science and to the formation of quantitative economic history.
The six-party talks aimed to find a peaceful resolution to the security concerns as a result of the North Korean nuclear weapons program.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
The Slavic Native Faith, also known as Rodnovery, is a modern Pagan religion.
Slavic paganism or Slavic religion define the religious beliefs, godlores and ritual practices of the Slavs before the formal Christianisation of their ruling elites.
Slavophilia was an intellectual movement originating from 19th century that wanted the Russian Empire to be developed upon values and institutions derived from its early history.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
Smetana is one of the names for a range of sour creams from Central and Eastern Europe.
Sochi (a) is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the Black Sea coast near the border between Georgia/Abkhazia and Russia.
The term social criticism often refers to a mode of criticism that locates the reasons for malicious conditions in a society considered to be in a flawed social structure.
Socialism in one country (sotsializm v odnoi strane) was a theory put forth by Joseph Stalin and Nikolai Bukharin in 1924 which was eventually adopted by the Soviet Union as state policy.
Socialist realism is a style of idealized realistic art that was developed in the Soviet Union and was imposed as the official style in that country between 1932 and 1988, as well as in other socialist countries after World War II.
A socialist state, socialist republic or socialist country (sometimes workers' state or workers' republic) is a sovereign state constitutionally dedicated to the establishment of socialism.
A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon.
Solyanka (Russian: соля́нка; is a thick, spicy and sour Russian soup that is common in Russia and other states of the former Soviet Union and certain parts of the former Eastern Bloc.
Zoe Palaiologina (Ζωή Παλαιολογίνα), who later changed her name to Sophia Palaiologina (София Фоминична Палеолог; ca. 1440/49. – 7 April 1503), was a Byzantine princess, member of the Imperial Palaiologos family by marriage, Grand Princess of Moscow as the second wife of Grand Prince Ivan III.
Sour cream is a dairy product obtained by fermenting regular cream with certain kinds of lactic acid bacteria.
South Stream (Южный Поток, Южен поток, Јужни ток/Južni tok, Južni tok, Déli Áramlat, Flusso Meridionale) is an abandoned pipeline project to transport natural gas of the Russian Federation through the Black Sea to Bulgaria and through Serbia, Hungary and Slovenia further to Austria.
Southern Federal University, abbreviated as SFedU and formerly known as Rostov State University (1957–2006), is a public university in Rostov Oblast, Russia with campuses in Rostov-on-Don and Taganrog.
The SOVA Center for Information and Analysis is a Moscow-based nongovernmental organization and think tank conducting sociological research primarily on nationalism and racism in post-Soviet Russia.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
Soviets (singular: soviet; sovét,, literally "council" in English) were political organizations and governmental bodies, primarily associated with the Russian Revolutions and the history of the Soviet Union, and which gave the name to the latter state.
The government of the Soviet Union followed an unofficial policy of state atheism, aiming to gradually eliminate '''religious belief''' within its borders.
The Soviet Army (SA; Советская Армия, Sovetskaya Armiya) is the name given to the main land-based branch of the Soviet Armed Forces between February 1946 and December 1991, when it was replaced with the Russian Ground Forces, although it was not taken fully out of service until 25 December 1993.
The Soviet famine of 1932–33 was a major famine that killed millions of people in the major grain-producing areas of the Soviet Union, including Ukraine, Northern Caucasus, Volga Region and Kazakhstan, the South Urals, and West Siberia.
The last major famine to hit the USSR began in July 1946, reached its peak in February–August 1947 and then quickly diminished in intensity, although there were still some famine deaths in 1948.
The Soviet invasion of Poland was a Soviet Union military operation that started without a formal declaration of war on 17 September 1939.
Soviet montage theory is an approach to understanding and creating cinema that relies heavily upon editing (montage is French for "assembly" or "editing").
The Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina was the military occupation, by the Soviet Red Army, during June 28 – July 4, 1940, of the Romanian regions of Northern Bukovina and Hertza, and of Bessarabia, a region under Romanian administration since Russian Civil War times.
The Soviet occupation of the Baltic states covers the period from the Soviet–Baltic mutual assistance pacts in 1939, to their invasion and annexation in 1940, to the mass deportations of 1941.
The Soviet space program (Russian: Космическая программа СССР, Kosmicheskaya programma SSSR) comprised several of the rocket and space exploration programs conducted by the Soviet Union (USSR) from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Soviet national ice hockey team (Сборная СССР по хоккею с шайбой) was the national ice hockey team of the Soviet Union.
A referendum on the future of the Soviet Union was held on 17 March 1991.
The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.
The Soviet–Japanese border conflicts (also known as the Soviet-Japanese Border War) was a series of battles and skirmishes between the forces of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Empire of Japan, as well as their respective client states of Mongolia and Manchukuo.
The Soviet–Japanese War (Советско-японская война; ソ連対日参戦, "Soviet Union entry into war against Japan") was a military conflict within the Second World War beginning soon after midnight on August 9, 1945, with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo.
Soyuz (Союз, meaning "union", GRAU index 11A511) is a family of expendable launch systems developed by OKB-1 and manufactured by Progress Rocket Space Centre in Samara, Russia.
Soyuzmultfilm (p, Union Cartoon) is a Russian animation studio based in Moscow.
The Space Age is a time period encompassing the activities related to the Space Race, space exploration, space technology, and the cultural developments influenced by these events.
Space exploration is the discovery and exploration of celestial structures in outer space by means of evolving and growing space technology.
In mathematics, physics and chemistry, a space group is the symmetry group of a configuration in space, usually in three dimensions.
The Space Race refers to the 20th-century competition between two Cold War rivals, the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States (US), for dominance in spaceflight capability.
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.
A space station, also known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a spacecraft capable of supporting crewmembers, which is designed to remain in space (most commonly as an artificial satellite in low Earth orbit) for an extended period of time and for other spacecraft to dock.
"Spiritual but not religious" (SBNR) also known as "Spiritual but not affiliated" (SBNA) is a popular phrase and initialism used to self-identify a life stance of spirituality that takes issue with organized religion as the sole or most valuable means of furthering spiritual growth.
Splean (Сплин) is a popular Russian rock band.
Sputnik 1 (or; "Satellite-1", or "PS-1", Простейший Спутник-1 or Prosteyshiy Sputnik-1, "Elementary Satellite 1") was the first artificial Earth satellite.
In mathematics, stability theory addresses the stability of solutions of differential equations and of trajectories of dynamical systems under small perturbations of initial conditions.
The Stabilization fund of the Russian Federation (Стабилизационный фонд Российской Федерации) was established based on a resolution of the Government of Russia on 1 January 2004, as a part of the federal budget to balance the federal budget at the time of when oil price falls below a cut-off price, currently set at US$27 per barrel.
Stalinist architecture, also referred to as Stalinist Empire style or Socialist Classicism, is a term given to architecture of the Soviet Union under the leadership of Joseph Stalin, between 1933, when Boris Iofan's draft for Palace of the Soviets was officially approved, and 1955, when Nikita Khrushchev condemned "excesses" of the past decades and disbanded the Soviet Academy of Architecture.
The "State Anthem of the Soviet Union" (italic), also unofficially known as "Slav’sya, Otechestvo nashe svobodnoye" was the official national anthem of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the state anthem of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1944 to 1991, replacing "The Internationale".
State atheism, according to Oxford University Press's A Dictionary of Atheism, "is the name given to the incorporation of positive atheism or non-theism into political regimes, particularly associated with Soviet systems." In contrast, a secular state purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion nor irreligion.
The State Duma (r), commonly abbreviated in Russian as Госду́ма (Gosduma), is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia, while the upper house is the Council of the Federation.
The State Duma or Imperial Duma was the Lower House, part of the legislative assembly in the late Russian Empire, which held its meetings in the Taurida Palace in St. Petersburg.
The State Emblem of the Soviet Union was adopted in 1923 and was used until the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.
Stepan Timofeyevich Razin (Степа́н Тимофе́евич Ра́зин,; 1630 –), known as Stenka Razin (Стенька), was a Cossack leader who led a major uprising against the nobility and tsarist bureaucracy in southern Russia in 1670-1671.
In physical geography, a steppe (p) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.
Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) is an international institute based in Sweden, dedicated to research into conflict, armaments, arms control and disarmament.
The Stolypin agrarian reforms were a series of changes to Imperial Russia's agricultural sector instituted during the tenure of Pyotr Stolypin, Chairman of the Council of Ministers (Prime Minister).
A strategic bomber is a medium to long range penetration bomber aircraft designed to drop large amounts of air-to-ground weaponry onto a distant target for the purposes of debilitating the enemy's capacity to wage war.
The Strategic Missile Troops or Strategic Rocket Forces of the Russian Federation or RVSN RF are a military branch of the Russian Armed Forces that controls Russia's land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs).
Strelna (p) is a municipal settlement in Petrodvortsovy District of the federal city of Saint Petersburg, Russia, located about halfway between Saint Petersburg proper and Petergof, and overlooking the shore of the Gulf of Finland.
A stupa (Sanskrit: "heap") is a mound-like or hemispherical structure containing relics (śarīra - typically the remains of Buddhist monks or nuns) that is used as a place of meditation.
The subarctic climate (also called subpolar climate, subalpine climate, or boreal climate) is a climate characterised by long, usually very cold winters, and short, cool to mild summers.
Succession of states is a theory and practice in international relations regarding successor states.
Sudebnik of Tsar Ivan IV (Судебник) was an expansion and revision of the Sudebnik of 1497, a code of laws instituted by Ivan the Great, his grandfather.
The JSC Sukhoi Company (ПАО «Компания „Сухой“») is a major Russian aircraft manufacturer, headquartered in Begovoy District, Northern Administrative Okrug, Moscow, and designs both civilian and military aircraft.
The Sukhoi Su-57 (Сухой Су-57) is the designation for a stealth, single-seat, twin-engine multirole fifth-generation jet fighter being developed for air superiority and attack operations.
Superfluidity is the characteristic property of a fluid with zero viscosity which therefore flows without loss of kinetic energy.
Superpower is a term used to describe a state with a dominant position, which is characterised by its extensive ability to exert influence or project power on a global scale.
Suprematism (Супремати́зм) is an art movement, focused on basic geometric forms, such as circles, squares, lines, and rectangles, painted in a limited range of colors.
The Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Armed Forces (Верховный главнокомандующий Вооружёнными силами Российской Федерации) is the overall commanding authority of the Russian Armed Forces, a position vested in the President of the Russian Federation in accordance with Article 87 of the Russian Constitution.
The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation (Russian: Верховный Суд Российской Федерации) is a court within the judiciary of Russia and the court of last resort in Russian administrative law, civil law and criminal law cases.
The Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR (Верховный Совет РСФСР, Verkhovnıy Sovet RSFSR), later Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation (Верховный Совет Российской Федерации, Verkhovnıy Sovet Rossiyskoi Federatsii) was the supreme government institution of the Russian SFSR in 1938–1990; in 1990–1993 it was a permanent parliament, elected by the Congress of People's Deputies of the Russian Federation). The Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR was established as similar structure as the Supreme Soviet of the USSR in 1938, instead of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee (VTsIK) as the highest organ of power of Russia. In the 1940s, the Supreme Soviet Presidium and the Council of Ministers of the Russian SFSR were located in the former mansion of counts Osterman (str Delegatskaya, 3), which was later in 1991 given to a museum. The sessions were held in Grand Kremlin Palace. In 1981 the Supreme Soviet was moved to a specially constructed building on Krasnopresnenskaya embankment, The House of Soviets. The Supreme Soviet was abolished in October 1993 (after the events of Russia's 1993 constitutional crisis) and replaced by the Federal Assembly of Russia (consists of the Federation Council of Russia and State Duma), whose powers are weaker than Supreme Council ones.
The Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union was the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments.
Suzdal (p) is a town and the administrative center of Suzdalsky District in Vladimir Oblast, Russia, located on the Kamenka River, north of the city of Vladimir, the administrative center of the oblast.
Sverdlovsk Oblast (Свердло́вская о́бласть, Sverdlovskaya oblast) is a federal subject (an oblast) of Russia located in the Ural Federal District.
Sviatoslav I Igorevich (Old East Slavic: С~тославъ / Свѧтославъ Игорєвичь, Sventoslavŭ / Svantoslavŭ Igorevičǐ; Old Norse: Sveinald Ingvarsson) (c. 942 – 26 March 972), also spelled Svyatoslav was a Grand prince of Kiev famous for his persistent campaigns in the east and south, which precipitated the collapse of two great powers of Eastern Europe, Khazaria and the First Bulgarian Empire.
Sviatoslav Teofilovich Richter (svʲjətɐsˈlaf tʲɪɐˈfʲiləvʲɪtɕ ˈrʲixtər; – August 1, 1997) was a Soviet pianist of Russian-German origin, who is generally regarded as one of the greatest pianists of the 20th century.
The Swedes (svear; Old Norse: svíar / suar (probably from the PIE reflexive pronominal root *s(w)e, "one's own ";Bandle, Oskar. 2002. The Nordic languages: an international handbook of the history of the North Germanic languages. 2002. P.391 Old English: Sweonas) were a North Germanic tribe who inhabited Svealand ("land of the Swedes") in central Sweden and one of the progenitor groups of modern Swedes, along with Geats and Gutes. The first author who wrote about the tribe is Tacitus, who in his Germania, from 98 CE mentions the Suiones. Jordanes, in the sixth century, mentions Suehans and Suetidi. According to early sources such as the sagas, especially Heimskringla, the Swedes were a powerful tribe whose kings claimed descendence from the god Freyr. During the Viking Age they constituted the basis of the Varangian subset, the Vikings that travelled eastwards (see Rus' people).
Symbolism was a late nineteenth-century art movement of French, Russian and Belgian origin in poetry and other arts.
Synchronised swimming (renamed as artistic swimming since July 2017 by the global governing body FINA), is a hybrid form of swimming, dance, and gymnastics, consisting of swimmers performing a synchronised routine (either solo, duet, mixed duet, free team, free combination, and highlight) of elaborate moves in the water, accompanied by music.
Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
A synthetic rubber is any artificial elastomer.
In Ukrainian, Russian, Belarusian, Latvian, Lithuanian and Serbian cuisine, syrnyky (Ukrainian: сирник; сырники; сырнікі) are fried quark pancakes, garnished with sour cream, varenye, jam, honey or apple sauce.
The T-34 is a Soviet medium tank that had a profound and lasting effect on the field of tank design.
The T-54 and T-55 tanks are a series of Soviet main battle tanks introduced in the years following the Second World War.
t.A.T.u. (Тату) were a Russian music duo that consisted of Lena Katina and Julia Volkova.
Taiga (p; from Turkic), also known as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces and larches.
Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.
Tamara Ilyinichna Sinyavskaya (Тамара Ильинична Синявская; born 6 July 1943 in Moscow) is a Russian mezzo-soprano from the Bolshoi Theatre.
Tanais (Τάναϊς Tánaïs; Танаис) was an ancient Greek city in the Don river delta, called the Maeotian marshes in classical antiquity.
A tank is an armoured fighting vehicle designed for front-line combat, with heavy firepower, strong armour, tracks and a powerful engine providing good battlefield maneuverability.
The Tatar language (татар теле, tatar tele; татарча, tatarça) is a Turkic language spoken by Tatars mainly located in modern Tatarstan, Bashkortostan (European Russia), as well as Siberia.
The Tatars (татарлар, татары) are a Turkic-speaking peoples living mainly in Russia and other Post-Soviet countries.
The Republic of Tatarstan (p; Татарстан Республикасы), or simply Tatarstan, is a federal subject (a republic) of the Russian Federation, located in the Volga Federal District.
Tatiana Day (Татьянин день, Tatyanin den) is a Russian religious holiday observed on 25 January according to the Gregorian calendar, January 12 according to the Julian.
Telephone numbers in Russia are under a unified numbering plan with Kazakhstan, both of which share the international code +7.
Television is the most popular medium in Russia, with 74% of the population watching national television channels routinely and 59% routinely watching regional channels.
Temperate broadleaf and mixed forest is a temperate climate terrestrial biome, with broadleaf tree ecoregions, and with conifer and broadleaf tree mixed coniferous forest ecoregions.
The Temple of All Religions (Храм всех религий, Барлык диннәр гыйбәдәтханәсе) or the Universal Temple (Вселенский храм) is a unique architectural complex in the Staroye Arakchino Microdistrict of Kazan, Tatarstan, Russia.
Tengrism, also known as Tengriism or Tengrianism, is a Central Asian religion characterized by shamanism, animism, totemism, poly- and monotheismMichael Fergus, Janar Jandosova,, Stacey International, 2003, p.91.
A tented roof is a type of polygonal hipped roof with steeply pitched slopes rising to a peak.
A ternary computer (also called trinary computer) is a computer that uses ternary logic (three possible values) and trits instead of the more common binary logic (two possible values) and bits in its calculations.
Terrorism in Russia has a long history starting from the time of the Russian Empire.
The Cranes Are Flying (Летят журавли, translit. Letyat zhuravli) is a 1957 Soviet film about World War II.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Five, also known as the Mighty Handful and the New Russian School, were five prominent 19th-century Russian composers who worked together to create distinct Russian classical music.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
Theophanes the Greek (sometimes "Feofan Grek" from the Феофан Грек, Greek: Θεοφάνης; c. 1340 – c. 1410) was a Byzantine Greek artist and one of the greatest icon painters of Muscovite Russia, and was noted as the teacher and mentor of the great Andrei Rublev.
Third Rome is the hypothetical successor to the legacy of ancient Rome (the "first Rome").
Three-phase electric power is a common method of alternating current electric power generation, transmission, and distribution.
Tibetan Buddhism is the form of Buddhist doctrine and institutions named after the lands of Tibet, but also found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas and much of Central Asia.
There are eleven time zones in Russia, which currently observe times ranging from UTC+02:00 to UTC+12:00.
The Time of Troubles (Смутное время, Smutnoe vremya) was a period of Russian history comprising the years of interregnum between the death of the last Russian Tsar of the Rurik Dynasty, Feodor Ivanovich, in 1598, and the establishment of the Romanov Dynasty in 1613.
A time zone is a region of the globe that observes a uniform standard time for legal, commercial, and social purposes.
Timeline of Russian Innovation encompasses key events in the history of technology in Russia, starting from the Early East Slavs and up to the Russian Federation.
This is for a timeline of space exploration including notable achievements and first accomplishments or major events in humanity's exploration of outer space.
A tokamak (Токамáк) is a device that uses a powerful magnetic field to confine a hot plasma in the shape of a torus.
Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.
The trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks (Vägen från varjagerna till grekerna, Shlyakh' z varahaw u hreki, Shlyakh iz varyahiv u hreky, Put' iz varjag v greki, Εμπορική οδός Βαράγγων–Ελλήνων) was a medieval trade route that connected Scandinavia, Kievan Rus' and the Eastern Roman Empire.
The Trans-Siberian Railway (TSR, p) is a network of railways connecting Moscow with the Russian Far East.
Transcaucasia (Закавказье), or the South Caucasus, is a geographical region in the vicinity of the southern Caucasus Mountains on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia.
The Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (Transcaucasian SFSR or TSFSR), also known as the Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, was a constituent republic of the Soviet Union that existed from 1922 to 1936.
Transparency International e.V. (TI) is an international non-governmental organization which is based in Berlin, Germany, and was founded in 1993.
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on 3 March 1918 between the new Bolshevik government of Soviet Russia and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire), that ended Russia's participation in World War I. The treaty was signed at Brest-Litovsk (Brześć Litewski; since 1945 Brest), after two months of negotiations.
The Treaty on the Creation of the USSR officially created the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), commonly known as the Soviet Union.
The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, commonly known as the Non-Proliferation Treaty or NPT, is an international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy, and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament.
The State Tretyakov Gallery (Государственная Третьяковская Галерея, Gosudarstvennaya Tretyâkovskaya Galereya; abbreviated ГТГ, GTG) is an art gallery in Moscow, Russia, the foremost depository of Russian fine art in the world.
Trinity Sunday is the first Sunday after Pentecost in the Western Christian liturgical calendar, and the Sunday of Pentecost in Eastern Christianity. Trinity Sunday celebrates the Christian doctrine of the Trinity, the three Persons of God: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit.
The Triple Entente (from French entente "friendship, understanding, agreement") refers to the understanding linking the Russian Empire, the French Third Republic, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente on 31 August 1907.
A trolleybus (also known as trolley bus, trolley coach, trackless trolley, trackless tram Joyce, J.; King, J. S.; and Newman, A. G. (1986). British Trolleybus Systems, pp. 9, 12. London: Ian Allan Publishing.. or trolleyDunbar, Charles S. (1967). Buses, Trolleys & Trams. Paul Hamlyn Ltd. (UK). Republished 2004 with or 9780753709702.) is an electric bus that draws power from overhead wires (generally suspended from roadside posts) using spring-loaded trolley poles.
The Tsardom of Russia (Русское царство, Russkoye tsarstvo or Российское царство, Rossiyskoye tsarstvo), also known as the Tsardom of Muscovy, was the name of the centralized Russian state from assumption of the title of Tsar by Ivan IV in 1547 until the foundation of the Russian Empire by Peter the Great in 1721.
Tsaritsyno (p) is a palace museum and park reserve in the south of Moscow.
Tsarskoye Selo (a, "Tsar's Village") was the town containing a former Russian residence of the imperial family and visiting nobility, located south from the center of Saint Petersburg.
In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.
Tupolev (Ту́полев) is a Russian aerospace and defence company, headquartered in Basmanny District, Central Administrative Okrug, Moscow.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern, Northern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa.
Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
Tuva (Тува́) or Tyva (Тыва), officially the Tyva Republic (p; Тыва Республика, Tyva Respublika), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic, also defined in the Constitution of the Russian Federation as a state).
Tuvan (Tuvan: Тыва дыл, Tıwa dıl; tʰɯˈʋa tɯl), also known as Tuvinian, Tyvan or Tuvin, is a Turkic language spoken in the Republic of Tuva in south-central Siberia in Russia.
The Tuvans or Tuvinians (Тывалар, Tıvalar; Тува, Tuva) are an indigenous people of Siberia/Central Asia.
Tverskaya Street (p), known between 1935 and 1990 as Gorky Street (улица Горького), is the main radial street in Moscow.
Udmurt (удмурт кыл, udmurt kyl) is a Uralic language, part of the Permic subgroup, spoken by the Udmurt natives of the Russian constituent republic of Udmurtia, where it is co-official with Russian.
The 1988 UEFA European Football Championship final tournament was held in West Germany between 10 and 25 June 1988.
The 2008 UEFA European Football Championship, commonly referred to as UEFA Euro 2008 or simply Euro 2008, was the 13th UEFA European Football Championship, a quadrennial football tournament contested by European nations.
The 2020 UEFA European Football Championship, commonly referred to as UEFA Euro 2020 or simply Euro 2020, is scheduled to be the 16th UEFA European Championship, the quadrennial international men's football championship of Europe organised by UEFA.
The UEFA Europa League is an annual football club competition organised by UEFA since 1971 for eligible European football clubs.
Ufa (p; Өфө) is the capital city of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia, and the industrial, economic, scientific and cultural center of the republic.
The Ugric peoples are ethnic groups that speak a Ugric language.
Ukha (Уха) is a clear Russian soup, made from various types of fish such as bream, wels catfish, northern pike, or even ruffe.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR or UkrSSR or UkSSR; Украї́нська Радя́нська Соціалісти́чна Респу́бліка, Украї́нська РСР, УРСР; Украи́нская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика, Украи́нская ССР, УССР; see "Name" section below), also known as the Soviet Ukraine, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union from the Union's inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991. The republic was governed by the Communist Party of Ukraine as a unitary one-party socialist soviet republic. The Ukrainian SSR was a founding member of the United Nations, although it was legally represented by the All-Union state in its affairs with countries outside of the Soviet Union. Upon the Soviet Union's dissolution and perestroika, the Ukrainian SSR was transformed into the modern nation-state and renamed itself to Ukraine. Throughout its 72-year history, the republic's borders changed many times, with a significant portion of what is now Western Ukraine being annexed by Soviet forces in 1939 from the Republic of Poland, and the addition of Zakarpattia in 1946. From the start, the eastern city of Kharkiv served as the republic's capital. However, in 1934, the seat of government was subsequently moved to the city of Kiev, Ukraine's historic capital. Kiev remained the capital for the rest of the Ukrainian SSR's existence, and remained the capital of independent Ukraine after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Geographically, the Ukrainian SSR was situated in Eastern Europe to the north of the Black Sea, bordered by the Soviet republics of Moldavia, Byelorussia, and the Russian SFSR. The Ukrainian SSR's border with Czechoslovakia formed the Soviet Union's western-most border point. According to the Soviet Census of 1989 the republic had a population of 51,706,746 inhabitants, which fell sharply after the breakup of the Soviet Union. For most of its existence, it ranked second only to the Russian SFSR in population, economic and political power.
Ukrainians in Russia make up the largest single diaspora group of the Ukrainian people.
The Unified Team was the name used for the sports team of the former Soviet Union (except the Baltic states) at the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville and the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona.
The Union of Sovereign States (Soyuz Suverennykh Gosudarstv (SSG)) was the proposed name of a reorganization of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics into a new confederal entity.
The PJSC United Aircraft Corporation (UAC) is a Russian aerospace and defense corporation.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
United Nations General Assembly Resolution 68/262 was adopted on March 27, 2014 by the sixty-eighth session of the United Nations General Assembly in response to the Russian annexation of Crimea and entitled "Territorial integrity of Ukraine".
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The titles Special Rapporteur, Independent Expert, and Working Group Member are given to individuals working on behalf of the United Nations (UN) within the scope of "special procedure" mechanisms who have a specific country or thematic mandate from the United Nations Human Rights Council.
United Russia ((j)ɪˈdʲinəjə rɐˈsʲijə) is the ruling political party of the Russian Federation.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Commission on International Religious Freedom (USCIRF) is a U.S. federal government commission created by the International Religious Freedom Act of 1998.
Unity Day (also called Day of People’s Unity or National Unity Day; День народного единства, Denʹ narodnogo yedinstva) is a national holiday in Russia held on November 4 (October 22, Old Style).
Universal health care (also called universal health coverage, universal coverage, universal care, or socialized health care) is a health care system that provides health care and financial protection to all citizens of a particular country.
The Ural Mountains (p), or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan.
The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia.
An ushanka (p, literally "ear flap hat"), also called a ushanka-hat (p), is a Russian fur cap with ear flaps that can be tied up to the crown of the cap, or fastened at the chin to protect the ears, jaw and lower chin from the cold.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
Valenki (p; sg valenok (p)) are traditional Russian winter footwear, essentially felt boots: the name valenok literally means "made by felting".
Valentin Petrovich Glushko (Валенти́н Петро́вич Глушко́, Valentin Petrovich Glushko; Валентин Петрович Глушко, Valentyn Petrovych Hlushko; born 2 September 1908 – 10 January 1989), was a Soviet engineer, and designer of rocket engines during the Soviet/American Space Race.
Valentina Ivanovna Matviyenko (p, Валентина Іванівна Матвієнко, (née Tyutina (Тю́тина;, Тютіна); born 7 April 1949), is a Russian politician serving as the Senator from Saint Petersburg and Chairwoman of the Federation Council since 2011. As Chairwoman Matviyenko attained the highest rank of any female politician in Russia and became the most powerful woman in Russia since Catherine the Great. Previously she was Governor of Saint Petersburg from 2003 to 2011. Born in Ukraine, Matviyenko started her political career in the 1980s in Leningrad (now called Saint Petersburg), and was the First Secretary of the Krasnogvardeysky District Communist Party of the City from 1984 to 1986. at petersburgcity.com In the 1990s, Matviyenko served as the Russian Ambassador to Malta (1991–1995), and to Greece (1997–1998). From 1998 to 2003, Matviyenko was Deputy Prime Minister for Welfare, and briefly the Presidential Envoy to the Northwestern Federal District in 2003. By that time, Matviyenko was firmly allied with Russian President Vladimir Putin, an alliance which secured her a victory in the gubernatorial elections in Saint Petersburg, Putin's native city. Matviyenko became the first female leader of Saint Petersburg. RIAN Since the start of Matviyenko's service as governor, a significant share of taxation money was transferred from the federal budget to the local budget, and along with the booming economy and improving investment climate the standard of living significantly increased in the City, making income levels much closer to Moscow, and far above most other Russian federal subjects. The profile of Saint Petersburg in Russian politics has risen, marked by the transfer of the Constitutional Court of Russia from Moscow in 2008. Matviyenko developed a large number of megaprojects in housing and infrastructure, such as the construction of the Saint Petersburg Ring Road, including the Big Obukhovsky Bridge (the only non-draw bridge over the Neva River in the city), completion of the Saint Petersburg Dam aimed to put an end to the infamous Saint Petersburg floods, launching Line 5 of Saint Petersburg Metro, and starting land reclamation in the Neva Bay for the new Marine Facade of the city (the largest European waterfront development project) Official website containing the Passenger Port of St. Petersburg. Several major auto-producing companies were drawn to Saint Petersburg or its vicinity, including Toyota, General Motors, Nissan, Hyundai Motor, Suzuki, Magna International, Scania, and MAN SE (all having plants in the Shushary industrial zone), thus turning the city into an important center of automotive industry in Russia, specializing in foreign brands. Another development of Matviyenko's governorship was tourism; by 2010 the number of tourists in Saint Petersburg doubled and reached 5.2 million, which placed the city among the top five tourist centers in Europe. RIAN Some actions and practices of Governor Matviyenko have drawn significant criticisms from the Saint Petersburg public, the media, and opposition groups. In particular, new construction in already heavily built-up areas and several building projects were deemed to conflict with the classical architecture of the city, where the entire centre is a UNESCO World Heritage site. Some projects eventually were cancelled or modified, such as the controversial design of a 400-metre-tall Okhta Center skyscraper, planned to be built adjacent to the historical center of the city; however, after a public campaign and the personal involvement of Russian President Dmitry Medvedev, it was relocated from Okhta to the Lakhta suburb. Another major point of criticism was Matviyenko's handling of the city's snow removal problems during the unusually cold and snowy winters of 2009–10 and 2010–11. On 22 August 2011, soon after completion of the Saint Petersburg Dam, Matviyenko resigned from office. As a member of the ruling United Russia Party, on 21 September 2011, Matviyenko was elected as Chairwoman of the Federation Council, RIAN the country's third-highest elected office.
Valentine's Day, also called Saint Valentine's Day or the Feast of Saint Valentine, is celebrated annually on February 14.
Valeri Borisovich Kharlamov (Валерий Борисович Харламов,; 14 January 1948 – 27 August 1981) was an ice hockey forward who played for CSKA Moscow in the Soviet League from 1967 until his death in 1981.
Valery Yakovlevich Bryusov (a; – 9 October 1924) was a Russian poet, prose writer, dramatist, translator, critic and historian.
The Varangians (Væringjar; Greek: Βάραγγοι, Várangoi, Βαριάγοι, Variágoi) was the name given by Greeks, Rus' people and Ruthenians to Vikings,"," Online Etymology Dictionary who between the 9th and 11th centuries, ruled the medieval state of Kievan Rus', settled among many territories of modern Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, and formed the Byzantine Varangian Guard.
Vasilisa the Beautiful (Vasilisa prekrasnaya) is a 1939 Soviet film produced by Soyuzdetfilm and directed by Alexander Rou.
Vasily Dmitrievich Polenov (Russian: Васи́лий Дми́триевич Поле́нов; 1 June 1844 – 18 July 1927) was a Russian landscape painter associated with the Peredvizhniki movement of realist artists.
Vasily Ivanovich Surikov (Russian: Василий Иванович Суриков; 24 January 1848, Krasnoyarsk - 19 March 1916, Moscow) was a Russian Realist history painter.
Vaslav Nijinsky (also Vatslav; Ва́цлав Фоми́ч Нижи́нский;; Wacław Niżyński; 12 March 1889/18908 April 1950) was a ballet dancer and choreographer cited as the greatest male dancer of the early 20th century.
Veliky Novgorod (p), also known as Novgorod the Great, or Novgorod Veliky, or just Novgorod, is one of the most important historic cities in Russia, which serves as the administrative center of Novgorod Oblast.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
Vera Ignatyevna Mukhina (Ве́ра Игна́тьевна Му́хина; Vera Muhina; – 6 October 1953) was a prominent Soviet sculptor.
The Verkhoyansk Range (Верхоянский хребет, Verchojanskij chrebet; Үөһээ Дьааҥы сис хайата, Üöhee Caañı sis xayata) is a mountain range of eastern Siberia spanning roughly 1000 km (600 mi.) across the Sakha Republic.
Viacheslav Alexandrovich "Slava" Fetisov (Russian: Вячеслав Александрович Фетисов, Vjačeslav Aleksandrovič Fetisov; born 20 April 1958) is a retired Russian professional ice hockey defenseman.
The Soviet Banner of Victory (translit) is the banner raised by the Red Army soldiers on the Reichstag building in Berlin, on May 1, 1945, the day after Adolf Hitler committed suicide.
Victory DayДень Победы, Den' Pobedy День Перемоги, Den' Peremohy Дзень Перамогі, Dzień Pieramohi Gʻalaba kuni, Ғалаба куни Жеңіс Күні, Jeñis Küni გამარჯვების დღე, gamarjvebis dghe Qələbə Günü Ziua Victoriei, Зиуа Викторией Uzvaras diena Жеңиш майрамы, Jengish Mayramy Рӯзи Ғалаба, Rūzi Ghalaba Հաղթանակի օրը, Haght’anaki ory Ýeňişlar Harçlaarsiň, Йеңишлар Харчлаарсиң Võidupüha ("Victory Holiday") Ciñü köne Dan pobjede/pobede, Дан победе/побједе יום הניצחון, Yóm HaNicaħón عيد النصر, ʿīd al-Naṣir is a holiday that commemorates the surrender of Nazi Germany in 1945.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
Viktor Mikhaylovich Vasnetsov (Ви́ктор Миха́йлович Васнецо́в; May 15 (N.S.), 1848 – July 23, 1926) was a Russian artist who specialized in mythological and historical subjects.
Viktor Fedorovych Yanukovych (Ві́ктор Фе́дорович Януко́вич,; born 9 July 1950) is a Ukrainian politician who was elected as the fourth President of Ukraine on 7 February 2010.
Vinegret (винегрет) or Russian vinaigrette is a salad in Russian cuisine which is also popular in other post-Soviet states.
The Vistula Lagoon (Zalew Wiślany; Калининградский залив or Kaliningradskiy Zaliv; Frisches Haff; Aistmarės) is a brackish water lagoon on the Baltic Sea roughly 56 miles (90 km) long, 6 to 15 miles (10 to 19 km) wide, and up to 17 feet (5 m) deep, separated from Gdańsk Bay by the Vistula Spit.
The Vistula Spit (Mierzeja Wiślana; Балтийская коса; Frische Nehrung) is an aeolian sand spit, or peninsular stretch of land, which separates Vistula Lagoon from Gdańsk Bay in the Baltic Sea, with its tip separated from the mainland by the Strait of Baltiysk.
Vitaly Aleksandrovich Petrov (p, born 8 September 1984) is a Russian racing driver who drove in Formula One for Renault F1 Team in 2010, Lotus Renault GP in 2011 and Caterham F1 Team in 2012.
Vitaliy Vladasovich Grachov (Vitaly Vladasovich Grachyov; born 19 February 1979), known professionally as Vitas (ˈvʲitəs), is a Russian singer.
Vladimir Lukich Borovikovsky (Влади́мир Луки́ч Боровико́вский, Володи́мир Лýкич Боровикóвський, Volodýmyr Lúkyč Borovykóvs’kyj) July 24 O.S. (August 4, N.S.) 1757 – April 6 O.S. (April 18, N.S.) 1825) was a Russian painter of Ukrainian origin who dominated portraiture in Russia at the turn of the 19th century.
Vladimir Samoylovich Horowitz (r; r; November 5, 1989)Schonberg, 1992 was a Russian-born American classical pianist and composer.
Vladimir Kosmich Zworykin (Влади́мир Козьми́ч Зворы́кин, Vladimir Koz'mich Zvorykin; July 29, 1982) was a Russian-born American inventor, engineer, and pioneer of television technology.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Mayakovsky (Владимир Владимирович Маяковский; – 14 April 1930) was a Russian Soviet poet, playwright, artist, and actor.
Vladimir Yakovlevich Motyl (Влади́мир Я́ковлевич Моты́ль) (26 June 1927 – 21 February 2010) was a Soviet and Russian film director and screenwriter.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov (Влади́мир Влади́мирович Набо́ков, also known by the pen name Vladimir Sirin; 2 July 1977) was a Russian-American novelist, poet, translator and entomologist.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Sofronitsky (or Sofronitzky; Влади́мир Влади́мирович Софрони́цкий, Vladimir Sofronitskij; – August 26, 1961) was a Soviet-Russian classical pianist, best known as an interpreter of the Russian composer Alexander Scriabin and Frederic Chopin.
Vladimir Sergeyevich Solovyov (Влади́мир Серге́евич Соловьёв; –) was a Russian philosopher, theologian, poet, pamphleteer, and literary critic.
Vladimir the Great (also (Saint) Vladimir of Kiev; Володимѣръ Свѧтославичь, Volodiměrъ Svętoslavičь, Old Norse Valdamarr gamli; c. 958 – 15 July 1015, Berestove) was a prince of Novgorod, grand prince of Kiev, and ruler of Kievan Rus' from 980 to 1015.
Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky (Влади́мир Ива́нович Верна́дский; Володи́мир Іва́нович Верна́дський; – 6 January 1945) was a Russian, Ukrainian, and Soviet mineralogist and geochemist who is considered one of the founders of geochemistry, biogeochemistry, and radiogeology, and was a founder of the Ukrainian Academy of Sciences (now National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine).
Vladimir Semyonovich Vysotsky (p; 25 January 1938 – 25 July 1980) was a Russian singer-songwriter, poet, and actor whose career had an immense and enduring effect on Soviet and Russian culture.
Vladimir-Suzdal (Владимирско-Су́здальская, Vladimirsko-Suzdal'skaya), formally known as the Grand Duchy of Vladimir (1157–1331) (Владимиро-Су́здальское кня́жество, Vladimiro-Suzdal'skoye knyazhestvo), was one of the major principalities that succeeded Kievan Rus' in the late 12th century, centered in Vladimir-on-Klyazma.
Vladislav Aleksandrovich Tretiak, MSM (p; born 25 April 1952) is a Russian former goaltender for the Soviet Union national ice hockey team.
Vladivostok (p, literally ruler of the east) is a city and the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, located around the Golden Horn Bay, not far from Russia's borders with China and North Korea.
Vnukovo International Airport (p), is a dual-runway international airport located southwest of the centre of Moscow, Russia.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
Volga Bulgaria (Идел буе Болгар дәүләте, Атӑлҫи Пӑлхар), or Volga–Kama Bulghar, was a historic Bulgar state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers, in what is now European Russia.
The Volga Finns (sometimes referred to as Eastern Finns) are a historical group of indigenous peoples of Russia living in the vicinity of the Volga, who speak Uralic languages.
The Volga Region (Поволжье, Povolzhye, literally: "along the Volga") is an historical region in Russia that encompasses the drainage basin of the Volga River, the longest river in Europe, in central and southern European Russia.
The Volga (p) is the longest river in Europe.
In the Middle Ages, the Volga trade route connected Northern Europe and Northwestern Russia with the Caspian Sea, via the Volga River.
Volgograd (p), formerly Tsaritsyn, 1589–1925, and Stalingrad, 1925–1961, is an important industrial city and the administrative centre of Volgograd Oblast, Russia, on the western bank of the Volga River.
| The Volgograd Metrotram (Skorostnoy Tramvay, ST) is a light rail system operating in Volgograd, Russia.
Voronezh (p) is a city and the administrative center of Voronezh Oblast, Russia, straddling the Voronezh River and located from where it flows into the Don.
Vyacheslav Ivanovich Ivanov (Вячесла́в Ива́нович Ива́нов; – 16 July 1949) was a Russian poet and playwright associated with the Russian Symbolist movement.
Vyacheslav Viktorovich Volodin (Вячесла́в Ви́кторович Воло́дин, born February 4, 1964 in Alekseevka, Khvalynsky District, Saratov Oblast, Soviet Union) is a Russian politician who is the 10th and current Chairman of the State Duma since 5 October 2016.
Vyborg (p; Viipuri,; Viborg; Wiborg; Viiburi) is a town in, and the administrative center of, Vyborgsky District in Leningrad Oblast, Russia.
War and Peace (pre-reform Russian: Война и миръ; post-reform translit) is a novel by the Russian author Leo Tolstoy.
War and Peace (Война и мир, trans. Voyna i mir) is a 1966–67 Soviet war drama film written and directed by Sergei Bondarchuk and a film adaptation of Leo Tolstoy's 1869 novel War and Peace.
The War in Donbass is an armed conflict in the Donbass region of Ukraine.
In the War of the Sixth Coalition (March 1813 – May 1814), sometimes known in Germany as the War of Liberation, a coalition of Austria, Prussia, Russia, the United Kingdom, Portugal, Sweden, Spain and a number of German states finally defeated France and drove Napoleon into exile on Elba.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
Wassily Wassilyevich Kandinsky (Vasily Vasilyevich Kandinsky) (– 13 December 1944) was a Russian painter and art theorist.
Wassily Wassilyevich Leontief (Василий Васильевич Леонтьев; August 5, 1905 – February 5, 1999), was a Russian-American economist known for his research on input-output analysis and how changes in one economic sector may affect other sectors.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
Well, Just You Wait! (p) is a Soviet/Russian animated series produced by Soyuzmultfilm.
Westernizers (За́падник, zapadnik) were a group of 19th-century intellectuals who believed that Russia's development depended upon the adoption of Western European technology and liberal government.
A white émigré was a Russian subject who emigrated from Imperial Russia in the wake of the Russian Revolution and Russian Civil War, and who was in opposition to the contemporary Russian political climate.
The White movement (p) and its military arm the White Army (Бѣлая Армія/Белая Армия, Belaya Armiya), also known as the White Guard (Бѣлая Гвардія/Белая Гвардия, Belaya Gvardiya), the White Guardsmen (Белогвардейцы, Belogvardeytsi) or simply the Whites (Белые, Beliye), was a loose confederation of Anti-Communist forces that fought the Bolsheviks, also known as the Reds, in the Russian Civil War (1917–1922/3) and, to a lesser extent, continued operating as militarized associations both outside and within Russian borders until roughly the Second World War.
The White Sea (Белое море, Béloye móre; Karelian and Vienanmeri, lit. Dvina Sea; Сэрако ямʼ, Serako yam) is a southern inlet of the Barents Sea located on the northwest coast of Russia.
White Sun of the Desert (Beloye solntse pustyni) is a 1970 classic 'Eastern' or Ostern film of the Soviet Union.
The White Terror in Russia refers to the organized violence and mass killings carried out by the White Army during the Russian Civil War (1917–23).
Winnie-the-Pooh, also called Pooh Bear, is a fictional anthropomorphic teddy bear created by English author A. A. Milne.
The Winter War was a military conflict between the Soviet Union (USSR) and Finland.
A workers' council is a form of political and economic organization in which a single local administrative division, such as a municipality or a county, is governed by a council made up of temporary and instantly revocable delegates elected in the region's workplaces.
Working-class culture is a range of cultures created by or popular among working-class people.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Chess Championship (sometimes abbreviated as WCC) is played to determine the World Champion in chess.
The World Justice Project (WJP) is an American independent, multidisciplinary organization with the stated mission of "working to advance the rule of law around the world".
From the mid-1980s to September 2003, the inflation adjusted price of a barrel of crude oil on NYMEX was generally under $25/barrel.
World revolution is the far-left Marxist concept of overthrowing capitalism in all countries through the conscious revolutionary action of the organized working class.
The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
The total number of military and civilian casualties in World War I was more than 41 million: there were over 18 million deaths and 23 million wounded, ranking it among the deadliest conflicts in human history.
Wrangel Island (p) is an island in the Arctic Ocean, between the Chukchi Sea and East Siberian Sea.
Yakut, also known as Sakha, is a Turkic language with around 450,000 native speakers spoken in the Sakha Republic in the Russian Federation by the Yakuts.
Yakuts (Саха, Sakha) are a Turkic people who mainly inhabit the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) in North East Asia.
Yakutsk (p; Дьокуускай, D'okuuskay) is the capital city of the Sakha Republic, Russia, located about south of the Arctic Circle.
Yaroslav I, Grand Prince of Rus, known as Yaroslav the Wise or Iaroslav the Wise (tr; Jaroslav Mudryj; Jaroslav Mudryj; Jarizleifr Valdamarsson;; Iaroslaus Sapiens; c. 978 – 20 February 1054) was thrice grand prince of Veliky Novgorod and Kiev, uniting the two principalities for a time under his rule.
Yaroslavl (p) is a city and the administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia, located northeast of Moscow.
Yekaterinburg (p), alternatively romanized Ekaterinburg, is the fourth-largest city in Russia and the administrative centre of Sverdlovsk Oblast, located on the Iset River east of the Ural Mountains, in the middle of the Eurasian continent, at the boundary between Asia and Europe.
The Yekaterinburg Metro (Екатеринбу́ргский Метрополите́н) is a rapid transit system that serves the city of Yekaterinburg, Russia.
The Yenisei (Енисе́й, Jeniséj; Енисей мөрөн, Yenisei mörön; Buryat: Горлог мүрэн, Gorlog müren; Tyvan: Улуг-Хем, Uluğ-Hem; Khakas: Ким суг, Kim sug) also Romanised Yenisey, Enisei, Jenisej, is the largest river system flowing to the Arctic Ocean.
Yermak Timofeyevich (p; born between 1532 and 1542 – August 5 or 6, 1585) was a Cossack ataman who started the Russian conquest of Siberia, in the reign of Tsar Ivan the Terrible.
Yevgenia Olegovna Kanayeva OMF (Евгения Олеговна Канаева; born 2 April 1990) is a Russian retired individual rhythmic gymnast, known for her consistency, elegant routines and high level of technical difficulty.
Yevgeny Yefimovich Chertovsky (Евгений Ефимович Чертовский; born February 15, 1902, date of death unknown) was a Soviet Russian inventor who designed the first full pressure suit in Leningrad in 1931.
Yevgeny Viktorovich Vuchetich (–12 April 1974) (Євген Вікторович Вучетич, Evhen Viktorovich Vuchetich; Евгений Викторович Вучетич) was a prominent Soviet sculptor and artist.
Yevgeny Aleksandrovich Yevtushenko (Евгений Александрович Евтушенко; 18 July 1933 – 1 April 2017) was a Soviet and Russian poet.
Yevgeny Ivanovich Zamyatin (p; 20 January (Julian) / 1 February (Gregorian), 1884 – 10 March 1937), sometimes anglicized as Eugene Zamyatin, was a Russian author of science fiction and political satire.
Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (p; 9 March 1934 – 27 March 1968) was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut.
Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk (Ю́жно-Сахали́нск, literally "Southern Sakhalin") is a city in Sakhalin island, and the administrative center of Sakhalin Oblast, Russia.
Zalesye (p, area beyond the forest) or Opolye (p, area in the fields) is a historical region of Russia, comprising the north and west parts of Vladimir Oblast, the north-east of Moscow Oblast and the south of Yaroslavl Oblast.
The Zaporozhian Cossacks, Zaporozhian Cossack Army, Zaporozhian Host (Військо Запорізьке, Войско Запорожское) or simply Zaporozhians (translit) were Cossacks who lived beyond the rapids of the Dnieper River, the land also known under the historical term Wild Fields in today's Central Ukraine.
Zapovednik (заповедник, plural заповедники, from the Russian заповедный, "sacred, prohibited from disturbance, committed, committed ") is an established term on the territory of the former Soviet Union for a protected area which is kept "forever wild".
Zasechnaya cherta (Большая засечная черта, loosely translated as Great Abatis Line or Great Abatis Border) was a chain of fortification lines, created by Grand Duchy of Moscow and later the Tsardom of Russia to protect it from the raids of the Crimean Tatars who, rapidly moving along the Muravsky Trail, ravaged the southern provinces of the country during a series of the Russo-Crimean Wars.
The zemsky sobor (t) was a Russian parliament of the feudal Estates type, active in the 16th and 17th centuries.
The zhaleika (Жалейка in Russian, also known as брёлка or bryolka) is the most commonly possessed and used Russian wind instrument, also known as a "folk clarinet" or hornpipe.
The domain name.рф (romanized as.rf; abbreviation of) is the Cyrillic country code top-level domain for the Russian Federation, in the Domain Name System of the Internet.
.ru is the Latin alphabet Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the Russian Federation introduced on April 7, 1994.
.su was assigned as the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the Soviet Union (USSR) on 19 September 1990.
The 14th Dalai Lama (religious name: Tenzin Gyatso, shortened from Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso; born Lhamo Thondup, 6 July 1935) is the current Dalai Lama.
The meridian 169° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole, crossing a smaller amount of land than any other line of longitude, and is thus generally used as the cut-off point on a lot of map projections.
The Russian Revolution of 1905 was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire, some of which was directed at the government.
The 1960 UEFA European Nations' Cup was the first European Football Championship, held every four years and endorsed by UEFA.
The 1965 Soviet economic reform, sometimes called the Kosygin reform or Liberman reform, were a set of planned changes in the economy of the Soviet Union (USSR).
The 1980 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXII Olympiad (r), was an international multi-sport event held in Moscow, Soviet Union, in present-day Russia.
The 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, also known as the August Coup (r "August Putsch"), was an attempt by members of the Soviet Union's government to take control of the country from Soviet President and General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev.
The 1993 Ice Hockey World Championships took place in Germany 18 April - 2 May.
The Russian financial crisis (also called Ruble crisis or the Russian Flu) hit Russia on 17 August 1998.
The meridian 19° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The Treaty of Good-Neighborliness and Friendly Cooperation Between the People's Republic of China and the Russian Federation (FCT) is a twenty-year strategic treaty that was signed by the leaders of the two international powers, Jiang Zemin and Vladimir Putin, on July 16, 2001.
The 2005–06 Euroleague was the 6th season of the professional basketball competition for elite clubs throughout Europe, organised by Euroleague Basketball Company, and it was the 49th season of the premier competition for European men's clubs overall.
The 2007–08 Euroleague was the 8th season of the professional basketball competition for elite clubs throughout Europe, organised by Euroleague Basketball Company, and it was the 51st season of the premier competition for European men's clubs overall.
The 2008 IIHF World Championship was played between May 2 and May 18, 2008 in the Canadian cities of Halifax (Nova Scotia) and Quebec City (Quebec).
The 2009 IIHF World Championship took place in Switzerland from 24 April to 10 May.
The 2012 IIHF World Championship was the 76th IIHF World Championship, an annual international ice hockey tournament.
The 2014 FIA Formula One World Championship was the 68th season of FIA Formula One motor racing.
The 2014 IIHF World Championship was hosted by Belarus in its capital, Minsk.
The Ukrainian revolution of 2014 (also known as the Euromaidan Revolution or Revolution of Dignity; Революція гідності, Revoliutsiia hidnosti) took place in Ukraine in February 2014, when a series of violent events involving protesters, riot police, and unknown shooters in the capital, Kiev, culminated in the ousting of the democratically elected Ukrainian President, Viktor Yanukovych, and the overthrow of the Ukrainian Government.
The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially called the XXII Olympic Winter Games (Les XXIIes Jeux olympiques d'hiver) (r) and commonly known as Sochi 2014, was an international winter multi-sport event that was held from 7 to 23 February 2014 in Sochi, Krasnodar Krai, Russia, with opening rounds in certain events held on the eve of the opening ceremony, 6 February 2014.
By March 2017, the setting in the country was already tense.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
The 2018 FIFA World Cup is the 21st FIFA World Cup, a quadrennial international football tournament contested by the men's national teams of the member associations of FIFA.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
The 41st parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 41 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 82nd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 82 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane, in the Arctic.
Etymology of Russia, Federation of Russia, ISO 3166-1:RU, North Russia, Novaya russia, POCCNR, Poccnr, RUSSIA, Resey, Rossijskaja Federatsija, Rossiyskaya Federatsiya, RusSia, RussiA, Russia (1991-1993), Russia (Federation), Russia (country), Russian (citizen), Russian Federation, Russian North, Russian federation, Russian-born, Russie, Russiya, Russland, Russsia, Ryssland, The Country Russia, The Russia, The Russian Federation, The Russian federation, The russia, Venäjä, Арассыыйа, Аьрасат, Ородой Холбооной Улас, Оросын Холбооны Улс, Орсин Ниицән, Оьрсийн Федераций, Раҫҫей, Ресей, Ресей Федерациясы, Росси́йская Федера́ци, Росси́йская Федера́ция, Росси́я, России, Российская Федерация, Россия, Росія, Рочму, Рузмастор, Русия, Русија, Рәсәй, Уæрæсе, Урысей, Урыстәыла.