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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia. [1]

877 relations: Academic publishing in China, Afghanistan, Africa–China relations, Agence France-Presse, Ainslie Embree, Air supremacy, Aksai Chin, Alipay, Allies of World War II, Alluvium, Altaic languages, American Chinese cuisine, Amur River, An Lushan Rebellion, Ancestor veneration in China, Anhui cuisine, Anti-Qing sentiment, Argentina, ASEAN Free Trade Area, Asia Times Online, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Asian black bear, Asian Dust, Association football, Atheism, Australia, Austroasiatic languages, Austronesian languages, Autonomous regions of China, Ayding Lake, Bachelor of Science, Balance of trade, Ballistic missile submarine, Bamboo, Bangladesh–China–India–Myanmar Forum for Regional Cooperation, Bank of Canada, Banpo, Barry Sautman, BBC, BBC News, BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, Beijing, Beijing Capital International Airport, Beijing dialect, Beijing Subway, Beijing–Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong High-Speed Railway, Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway, Beiyang Army, Bhutan, Biodiversity action plan, ..., Bloomberg L.P., Board game, Boeing, Bohai Sea, Book of Documents, Borders of China, Bouyei people, Boxer Rebellion, Brahmaputra River, Brahmic scripts, Brazil, BRICS, Bronze Age, Buddhism, Buddhist cuisine, Caishen, Canada, Cantonese, Cantonese cuisine, Capital punishment in China, Carbon dioxide, Carol Gluck, Central Asia, Central Military Commission (China), Chairman of the Central Military Commission, Chairman of the Communist Party of China, Chairman of the National People's Congress, Chairperson of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, Chang'e 3, Channel NewsAsia, Charles K. 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Academic publishing in China

Today in China, there are more than 8,000 academic journals, of which more than 4,600 can be considered scientific.

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Afghanistan

Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Afġānistān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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Africa–China relations

Africa–China relations refers to the historical, political, economic, military, social and cultural connections between China and the African continent.

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Agence France-Presse

Agence France-Presse (AFP) is an international news agency headquartered in Paris.

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Ainslie Embree

Ainslie Thomas Embree (born January 1, 1921) is an American Indologist and historian.

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Air supremacy

Air supremacy is a position in war where a side holds complete control of air warfare and air power over opposing forces.

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Aksai Chin

Aksai Chin (अक्साई चिन, Aksā'ī cin; Urdu: اکسائی چن; ﺋﺎﻗﺴﺎﻱ ﭼﯩﻦ) is one of the two main disputed border areas between China and India, the other being a part of Arunachal Pradesh.

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Alipay

Alipay.com is a third-party online payment platform with no transaction fees.

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Allies of World War II

The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that opposed the Axis powers together during the Second World War (1939–1945).

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Alluvium

Alluvium (from the Latin, alluvius, from alluere, "to wash against") is loose, unconsolidated (not cemented together into a solid rock) soil or sediments, which has been eroded, reshaped by water in some form, and redeposited in a non-marine setting.

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Altaic languages

Altaic is a proposed, but widely discredited, language family of central Eurasia.

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American Chinese cuisine

American Chinese cuisine, known in the United States as simply Chinese cuisine, is a style of food developed by Americans of Chinese descent and served in many North American Chinese restaurants.

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Amur River

The Amur River (Even: Тамур, Tamur; река́ Аму́р) or Heilong Jiang ("Black Dragon River";, "Black Water") is the world's tenth longest river, forming the border between the Russian Far East and Northeastern China (Inner Manchuria). The largest fish species in the Amur is the kaluga, attaining a length as great as.

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An Lushan Rebellion

The An Lushan Rebellion was a devastating rebellion against the Tang dynasty of China.

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Ancestor veneration in China

Ancestor veneration in Chinese culture and ethnic religion is the practice of living family members and Chinese kins to pay honour and respect to their progenitors and ancestors.

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Anhui cuisine

Anhui cuisine, or Hui cuisine, is one of the Eight Culinary Traditions of Chinese cuisine.

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Anti-Qing sentiment

Anti-Qing sentiment refers to a sentiment principally held in China against the Manchu ruling during the Qing dynasty (1644–1912), which was accused by a number of opponents of being barbarian.

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Argentina

Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located in southeastern South America.

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ASEAN Free Trade Area

The ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA) is a trade bloc agreement by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations supporting local manufacturing in all ASEAN countries.

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Asia Times Online

Asia Times Online (abbreviated as ATol, chines. 亞洲時報在線) is a Hong Kong/Thailand-based bilingual English‒Chinese, Internet-based newspaper covering geopolitics, politics, economics, and business "from an Asian perspective".

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Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is a forum for 21 Pacific Rim member economies.

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Asian black bear

The Asian black bear (Ursus thibetanus, previously known as Selenarctos thibetanus) is also known as moon bear and white-chested bear.

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Asian Dust

Asian Dust (also yellow dust, yellow sand, yellow wind or China dust storms) is a seasonal meteorological phenomenon which affects much of East Asia sporadically during the months of spring.

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Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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Atheism

Atheism is, in a broad sense, the rejection of belief in the existence of deities.

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Australia

Australia (colloquially), officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is an Oceanian country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands.

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Austroasiatic languages

The Austroasiatic languages, in recent classifications synonymous with Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of continental Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China.

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Austronesian languages

The Austronesian languages is a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members on continental Asia.

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Autonomous regions of China

An autonomous region (AR) is a first-level administrative subdivision of China.

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Ayding Lake

Aydingkol, Aydingkul (Mongol) or Ayding is a lake in the Turpan Depression, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, PR China.

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Bachelor of Science

A Bachelor of Science (B.S., BS, B.Sc., BSc or Bc.; less commonly, S.B., SB, or Sc.B. from the Latin Scientiæ Baccalaureus) or a Science Degree is an undergraduate academic degree awarded for completed courses that generally last three to five years.

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Balance of trade

The commercial balance or net exports (sometimes symbolized as NX), is the difference between the monetary value of exports and imports of output in an economy over a certain period, measured in the currency of that economy.

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Ballistic missile submarine

A ballistic missile submarine is a submarine deploying submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) with nuclear warheads.

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Bamboo

The bamboos are a subfamily (Bambusoideae) of flowering perennial evergreen plants in the grass family Poaceae.

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Bangladesh–China–India–Myanmar Forum for Regional Cooperation

The Bangladesh–China–India–Myanmar Forum for Regional Cooperation (BCIM) is a sub-regional organisation of Asian nations aimed at greater integration of trade and investment between the four countries.

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Bank of Canada

The Bank of Canada, BoC (Banque du Canada) is Canada's central bank.

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Banpo

Banpo (Bànpō) is an archaeological site discovered in 1953 and located in the Yellow River Valley just east of Xi'an, China.

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Barry Sautman

Barry Sautman (or Barry Victor Sautman) (born in 1949) is a professor with the Division of Social Science at Hong Kong University of Science and Technology.

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BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is the public-service broadcaster of the United Kingdom, headquartered at Broadcasting House in London.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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BeiDou Navigation Satellite System

The BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) is a Chinese satellite navigation system.

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Beijing

Beijing, formerly Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China and one of the most populous cities in the world.

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Beijing Capital International Airport

Beijing Capital International Airport is the main international airport serving Beijing.

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Beijing dialect

The Beijing dialect, also known as Pekingese, is the dialect of Mandarin spoken in the urban area of Beijing, China.

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Beijing Subway

The Beijing Subway is a rapid transit rail network that serves the urban and suburban districts of Beijing municipality.

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Beijing–Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong High-Speed Railway

The Beijing–Guangzhou–Shenzhen–Hong Kong High-Speed Railway or Jingguangshengang High-Speed Railway from its Chinese name is a high-speed railway of the CRH passenger service, ultimately connecting Beijingxi Station in Beijing and Futian Station in Shenzhen.

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Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway

| The Beijing–Shanghai High-Speed Railway (or Jinghu High-Speed Railway from its Chinese name) is a long high-speed railway that connects two major economic zones in the People's Republic of China, the Bohai Economic Rim and the Yangtze River Delta.

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Beiyang Army

The Beiyang Army (Pei-yang Army) was a powerful, Western-style Imperial Chinese Army created by the Qing Dynasty government in the late 19th century.

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Bhutan

Bhutan (Dzongkha Dru Ü), officially the Kingdom of Bhutan, is a landlocked country in South Asia at the eastern end of the Himalayas.

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Biodiversity action plan

A biodiversity action plan (BAP) is an internationally recognized program addressing threatened species and habitats and is designed to protect and restore biological systems.

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Bloomberg L.P.

Bloomberg L.P. is a privately held financial software, data, and media company headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.

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Board game

A board game is a game that involves counters or pieces moved or placed on a pre-marked surface or "board", according to a set of rules.

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Boeing

The Boeing Company is an American multinational corporation that designs, manufactures, and sells airplanes, rotorcraft, rockets and satellites.

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Bohai Sea

Bohai Sea, also known as Bohai Gulf, Bohai, or Bo Hai (渤海, lit. Bo-Sea), is the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea on the coast of Northeastern and North China.

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Book of Documents

The Book of Documents (Shujing, earlier Shu-king) or Classic of History, also known as the Shangshu, is one of the Five Classics of ancient Chinese literature.

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Borders of China

The People's Republic of China has international borders with 14 sovereign states, more than any other, except Russia, which also has 14.

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Bouyei people

The Bouyei (also spelled Puyi, Buyei and Buyi; self called: Buxqyaix, or "Puzhong", "Burao", "Puman";; Pinyin: Bùyīzú; người Bố Y) are an ethnic group living in southern mainland China.

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Boxer Rebellion

The Boxer Rebellion, Boxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movement was an anti-imperialist uprising which took place in China towards the end of the Qing dynasty between 1899 and 1901.

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Brahmaputra River

The Brahmaputra, also called Tsangpo-Brahmaputra, is a trans-boundary river and one of the major rivers of Asia.

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Brahmic scripts

The Brahmic scripts are a family of abugida writing systems.

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Brazil

Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and the Latin American region.

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BRICS

BRICS is the acronym for an association of five major emerging national economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a time period characterized by the use of bronze, proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Buddhism

Buddhism is a nontheistic religion or philosophy (Sanskrit: dharma; Pali: धम्म dhamma) that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to Gautama Buddha, commonly known as the Buddha ("the awakened one").

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Buddhist cuisine

Buddhist cuisine is an East Asian cuisine which is followed by monks and many believers from areas historically influenced by Chinese Buddhism.

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Caishen

Caishen is the Chinese god of prosperity worshipped in the Chinese folk religion and Taoism.

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Canada

Canada is a country, consisting of ten provinces and three territories, in the northern part of the continent of North America.

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Cantonese

Cantonese, or Standard Cantonese (廣東話, 广东话; originally known as 廣州話, 广州话), is the dialect of Yue Chinese spoken in the vicinity of Canton (Guangzhou) in southern China.

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Cantonese cuisine

Cantonese cuisine comes from Guangdong provinceHsiung, Deh-Ta.

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Capital punishment in China

Capital punishment in the People's Republic of China is usually administered to offenders of serious and violent crimes, such as aggravated murder, but China retains in law a number of nonviolent capital offenses such as drug trafficking.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula CO2) is a colorless, odorless gas vital to life on Earth.

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Carol Gluck

Carol Gluck (born November 12, 1941 in Chicago, Illinois) is an American academic and Japanologist.

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Central Asia

Central Asia is the core region of the Asian continent and stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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Central Military Commission (China)

The Central Military Commission (CMC) refers to the parallel national defense organizations of the Communist Party of China and the People's Republic of China: the Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China (a state organ) and the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China (a party organ).

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Chairman of the Central Military Commission

The Chairman of the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China has overall responsibility for the Central Military Commission.

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Chairman of the Communist Party of China

The Chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China was the head of the Communist Party of China (CPC).

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Chairman of the National People's Congress

The Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress is the presiding officer of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China, which is considered China's top legislative body.

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Chairperson of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference

The Chairperson of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference is the leader of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (National CPPCC), which is a political advisory body in the People's Republic of China.

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Chang'e 3

Chang'e 3 is an unmanned lunar exploration mission operated by the China National Space Administration (CNSA), incorporating a robotic lander and China's first lunar rover.

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Channel NewsAsia

Channel NewsAsia Singapore (abbreviated CNA) Singapore was established in March 1999 by MediaCorp, and is a Singaporean English language Asian cable television news agency and news channel.

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Charles K. Kao

The Honourable Sir Charles Kuen Kao, GBM, KBE, FRS, FREng (born 4 November 1933) is a Chinese-born Hong Kong, American and British electrical engineer and physicist who pioneered in the development and use of fiber optics in telecommunications.

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Chen-Ning Yang

Chen-Ning Franklin Yang (born October 1, 1922), also known as Yang Jhenning, is a Chinese-born American physicist who works on statistical mechanics and particle physics.

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Chengdu J-10

The Chengdu J-10 (simplified Chinese: 歼-10; traditional Chinese: 殲-10, Known in the West as the "Vigorous Dragon") is a lightweight multirole fighter aircraft designed and produced by the People's Republic of China's Chengdu Aircraft Corporation (CAC) for the People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF).

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Chengdu J-20

The Chengdu J-20 (simplified Chinese: 歼-20; traditional Chinese: 殲-20) is a Stealth, twin-engine fifth-generation fighter aircraft prototype being developed by Chengdu Aircraft Industry Group for the Chinese People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF).

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Chess

Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an eight-by-eight grid.

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Chiang Kai-shek

Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was a Chinese political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975.

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China at the 1952 Summer Olympics

The People's Republic of China (PRC) sent a delegation to the Olympic Games for the first time at the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki, Finland.

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China at the Olympics

Originally having participated in Olympics as the delegation of the Republic of China (ROC) from 1932 to 1948, China competed at the Olympic Games under the name of the People's Republic of China (PRC) for the first time in 1952, at the Summer Games in Helsinki, Finland, although they only arrived in time to participate in one event.

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China National Highways

The China National Highways (Chinese: t 中華人民共和國國道, s 中华人民共和国国道, p Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Guódào) are a series of trunk roads across mainland China.

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China Railway

China Railway or CR is the national railway operator of the People's Republic of China, under the Ministry of Transport.

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China Telecom

China Telecom Corporation Limited is a Chinese state-owned telecommunication company.

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China Unicom

China United Network Communications Group Co., Ltd. or China Unicom, is a Chinese state-owned telecommunications operator in the People's Republic of China.

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China UnionPay

China UnionPay, also known as UnionPay or by its abbreviation, CUP, is the only domestic bank card organization in the People's Republic of China (PRC).

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Chinas

The Chinas or Chīnaḥ (Sanskrit चीन) are a people mentioned in ancient Indian literature from the first millennium BC, such as the Mahabharata, Laws of Manu, as well the Puranic literature.

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Chinese aircraft carrier Liaoning

Liaoning (16), is the first aircraft carrier commissioned into the People's Liberation Army Navy Surface Force.

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Chinese astrology

Chinese astrology is based on the traditional astronomy and calendars.

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Chinese Basketball Association

The Chinese Basketball Association, often abbreviated to the CBA, is the pre-eminent men's professional basketball league in Asia.

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Chinese calendar

The Chinese calendar is a lunisolar calendar which arranges the year, month and day number upon the astronomical date.

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Chinese calligraphy

Chinese Calligraphy is a form of calligraphy widely practiced in China and revered in the Chinese cultural sphere, which often includes Japan, Taiwan, Korea and Vietnam.

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Chinese Century

The Chinese Century is a neologism suggesting the possibility that the 21st century will be dominated by the People's Republic of China, similarly to how "the American Century" refers to the 20th century and "Pax Britannica" ("British Peace") refers to the 19th century.

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Chinese characters

Chinese characters are logograms used in the writing of Chinese and some other Asian languages.

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Chinese Civil War

The Chinese Civil War was a civil war in China fought between forces loyal to the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China, and forces loyal to the Communist Party of China (CPC).

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Chinese classics

Chinese classic texts or canonical texts (Chinese: t, s, p Zhōngguó gǔdiǎn diǎnjí) refers to the Chinese texts which originated before the imperial unification by the Qin dynasty in particularly the "Four Books and Five Classics" of the Neo-Confucian tradition, themselves a customary abridgment of the "Thirteen Classics".

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Chinese cooking techniques

Chinese cooking techniques are a set of methods and techniques traditionally used in Chinese cuisine.

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Chinese democracy movement

The Chinese democracy movement, abbreviated as Minyun refers to a series of loosely organized political movements in the People's Republic of China against the continued one-party rule by the Communist Party.

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Chinese economic reform

The Chinese economic reform refers to the program of economic reforms called "Socialism with Chinese characteristics" in the People's Republic of China (PRC) that was started in December 1978 by reformists within the Communist Party of China (CPC) led by Deng Xiaoping.

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Chinese emigration

Waves of Chinese emigration (also known as the Chinese diaspora) have happened throughout history.

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Chinese Family Panel Studies

Chinese Family Panel Studies (CFPS) is designed by representative experts from all social sciences departments, schools, and institutes in Peking University, PKU.

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Chinese folk religion

Chinese folk religion or Chinese popular religion is the religious tradition of the Han Chinese, in which government officials and common people of China share religious practices and beliefs, including veneration of forces of nature and ancestors, exorcism of harmful forces, and a belief in the rational order of nature which can be influenced by human beings and their rulers.

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Chinese folklore

Chinese folklore encompasses the folklore of China, and includes songs, poetry, dances, puppetry, and tales.

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Chinese food therapy

Chinese food therapy (also called nutrition therapy and dietary therapy) is a mode of dieting rooted in Chinese understandings of the effects of food on the human organism, and centred on concepts such as eating in moderation.

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Chinese geography

The study of geography in China begins in the Warring States period (5th century BC).

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Chinese herbology

Chinese herbology is the theory of traditional Chinese herbal therapy, which accounts for the majority of treatments in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).

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Chinese historiography

Chinese historiography refers to the study of methods and assumptions made in studying Chinese history.

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Chinese Islamic cuisine

Chinese Islamic cuisine is the cuisine of the Hui (ethnic Chinese Muslims) and other Muslims living in China.

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Chinese large modular space station

Artist's impression of the station with the Shenzhou (bottom) and cargo craft (top) docked. The Chinese large modular space station, "Tiangong Space Station", is a planned space station to be placed in Low Earth orbit.

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Chinese literature

Chinese literature extends thousands of years, from the earliest recorded dynastic court archives to the mature vernacular fiction novels that arose during the Ming Dynasty to entertain the masses of literate Chinese.

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Chinese martial arts

Chinese martial arts, which are called kung fu or wushu, are a number of fighting styles that have developed over the centuries in China.

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Chinese mythology

Chinese mythology refers to those myths found in the historical geographic area of China: these include myths in Chinese and other languages, as transmitted by Han Chinese as well as other ethnic groups (of which fifty-six are officially recognized by the current administration of China).

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Chinese nationalism

Chinese nationalism is the form of nationalism in China which asserts that the Chinese people are a nation and promotes the cultural and national unity of the Chinese.

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Chinese New Year

Chinese New Year is an important Chinese festival celebrated at the turn of the Chinese calendar.

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Chinese painting

Chinese painting is one of the oldest continuous artistic traditions in the world.

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Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference

The Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), also known as the People's PCC or just "The PCC", is a political advisory body in the People's Republic of China.

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Chinese salvationist religions

Chinese salvationist religions (救度宗教 jiùdù zōngjiào) is a sociological category that defines a centuries-old religious stream of China, distinguished by a concern for salvation (moral fulfillment) of the person and the society.

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Chinese skepticism of democracy

Starting in the mid-eighteenth century, Chinese scholars and politicians debated at length on the matter of how to deal with the ever-encroaching Western culture.

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Chinese space program

The space program of the People's Republic of China is directed by the China National Space Administration (CNSA).

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Chinese Super League

The Chinese Football Association Super League, commonly known as Chinese Super League (中超联赛) or CSL, currently known as the Ping An Chinese Football Association Super League for sponsorship reasons, is the highest tier of professional association football in China, operating under the auspices of the Chinese Football Association.

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Chinese yuan

The yuan (or; sign: ¥) is the base unit of a number of former and present-day Chinese currencies, and usually refers to the primary unit of account of the renminbi, the currency of the People's Republic of China.

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Cholera

Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.

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Chongqing

Chongqing (formerly Chungking) is a major city in Southwest China and one of the five national central cities in China.

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Chongzhen Emperor

The Chongzhen Emperor (6 February 1611 – 25 April 1644) was the 16th and last emperor of the Ming dynasty in China.

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Christianity

ChristianityFrom the Ancient Greek word Χριστός, Christos, a translation of the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", together with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Chunyun

Chunyun, also referred to as the Spring Festival travel season or the Chunyun period, is a period of travel in China with extremely high traffic load around the time of the Chinese New Year.

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Citigroup

Citigroup Inc. or Citi is an American multinational banking and financial services corporation headquartered in Manhattan, New York City.

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Civil and political rights

Civil and political rights are a class of rights that protect individuals' freedom from infringement by governments, social organizations and private individuals, and which ensure one's ability to participate in the civil and political life of the society and state without discrimination or repression.

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Civil aviation in China

In November 2012 as a result of the rapidly expanding civil aviation there were 182 commercial airports in China.

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Classic of Poetry

The Classic of Poetry, also Shijing or Shih-ching, translated variously as the Book of Songs, Book of Odes, or simply known as the Odes or Poetry is the oldest existing collection of Chinese poetry, comprising 305 works dating from the 11th to 7th centuries BC.

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Classical Chinese poetry

Attributed to Han Gan, ''Huiyebai (Night-Shining White Steed)'', about 750 CE (Tang Dynasty). Classical Chinese poetry is traditional Chinese poetry written in Classical Chinese: typified by certain traditional forms, or modes, and certain traditional genres, as well as being considered in terms associations with particular historical periods, such as the poetry of the Tang Dynasty.

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Collective farming

Collective farming and communal farming are various types of agricultural production in which several farmers run their holdings as a joint enterprise.

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Colombia

Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a country situated in the northwest of South America, bordered to the northwest by Panama; to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; and it shares maritime limits with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, Dominican Republic and Haiti.

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Columbia University

Columbia University (officially Columbia University in the City of New York) is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.

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Command and control

Older versions of U.S. Army FM 3-0 state: Command and control, or C2, in a military organization is the exercise of authority and direction by a properly designated commanding officer over assigned and attached forces in the accomplishment of the mission.

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Common Era

Common Era (also Current Era or Christian Era), abbreviated as CE, is an alternative naming of the calendar era Anno Domini ("in the year of the/our Lord", abbreviated AD).

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Communist Party of China

The Communist Party of China (CPC) is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China (PRC).

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Compass

A compass is an instrument used for navigation and orientation that shows direction relative to the geographic cardinal directions, or "points".

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Confucianism

Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is a system of philosophical and "ethical-sociopolitical teachings" sometimes described as a religion.

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Conquest Dynasties

Conquest dynasties in the history of imperial China refers to the dynasties established by non-Han people that ruled parts or all of China.

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Constitution of the People's Republic of China

The Constitution of the People's Republic of China is nominally the supreme law within the People's Republic of China.

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Constitution of the Republic of China

The Constitution of the Republic of China is the fundamental law of the Republic of China (ROC), which since 1949 only controls the free area of the Republic of China, which is the island of Taiwan and minor outlying islands, the territories not lost to the Chinese Communists.

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Constitutional monarchy

A constitutional monarchy, limited monarchy or parliamentary monarchy (also called a crowned republic) is a form of government in which governing powers of the monarch are restricted by a constitution.

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Control of fire by early humans

The control of fire by early humans was a turning point in the cultural aspect of human evolution that allowed humans to cook food and obtain warmth and protection.

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Convention on Biological Diversity

The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), known informally as the Biodiversity Convention, is a multilateral treaty.

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Corporatism

Corporatism, also known as corporativism, is the sociopolitical organization of a society by major interest groups, or corporate groups, such as agricultural, business, ethnic, labour, military, patronage, or scientific affiliations, on the basis of common interests.

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Counterfeit

To counterfeit means to imitate something.

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Counterfeit medications

A counterfeit medication or a counterfeit drug is a medication or pharmaceutical product which is produced and sold with the intent to deceptively represent its origin, authenticity or effectiveness.

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Cradle of civilization

The cradle of civilization is a term referring to locations where, according to current archaeological data, civilization is understood to have emerged.

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Credit Suisse

Credit Suisse Group is a Switzerland-based multinational financial services holding company, headquartered in Zürich, that operates the Credit Suisse Bank and other financial services investments.

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Cruise missile

A cruise missile is a guided missile used against terrestrial targets, so called because the major portion of its flight path is conducted at cruise speed (i.e., approximately constant velocity).

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Cuju

Cuju, or Tsu' Chu, is an ancient Chinese ball game, Cantonese "chuk-ko".

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Cult (religious practice)

Cult is literally the "care" (Latin cultus) owed to God or gods and to temples, shrines, or churches.

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Cultural Revolution

The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a social-political movement that took place in the People's Republic of China from 1966 until 1976.

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Cycling

Cycling, also called bicycling or biking, is the use of bicycles for transport, recreation, exercise or sport.

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Dadiwan culture

The Dadiwan culture (5800–5400 BC) was a Neolithic culture located primarily in modern eastern area of Gansu and Shaanxi provinces of China.

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Damaidi

Damaidi (literally: Big wheat field), is the location of 3,172 sets of early Chinese petroglyphs, carved into the cliffs which feature 8,453 individual figures.

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Daniel C. Tsui

Daniel Chee Tsui (born February 28, 1939, Henan Province, China) is a Chinese-born American physicist whose areas of research included electrical properties of thin films and microstructures of semiconductors and solid-state physics.

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Declaration by United Nations

The Declaration by the United Nations was a World War II document agreed on 1 January 1942 during the Arcadia Conference by 26 governments: the Allied "Big Four" (the US, the UK, the USSR, and China), nine other American countries in North and Central America and the Caribbean, the four British Dominions, British India, and eight Allied governments-in-exile, for a total of twenty-six nations.

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Deity

In religious belief, a deity is either a natural or supernatural being, who is thought of as holy, divine, or sacred.

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Democratic centralism

Democratic centralism is the name given to the deontological principles of internal organization used by Leninist political parties, and the term is sometimes used as a synonym for any Leninist policy inside a political party.

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Deng Xiaoping

Deng Xiaoping (Simplified Chinese 邓小平, Traditional Chinese 鄧小平, pinyin dèng xiǎopíng,; 22 August 1904 – 19 February 1997), transliterated as "Tong Shau-ping", was a Chinese revolutionary and statesman.

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Department of the Treasury (Australia)

The Department of the Treasury is an Australian Government department, formed at Federation.

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Desalination

Desalination, desalinization, or desalinisation is a process that removes minerals from saline water.

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Desert

A desert is a barren area of land where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.

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Desertification

Desertification is a type of land degradation in which a relatively dry land region becomes increasingly arid, typically losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife.

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Developing country

A developing country, also called a less developed country or underdeveloped country, is a nation with an underdeveloped industrial base, and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Dikarya

Dikarya is a subkingdom of Fungi that includes the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, both of which in general produce dikaryons, may be filamentous or unicellular, but are always without flagella.

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Direct election

Direct election is a term describing a system of choosing political officeholders in which the voters directly cast ballots for the person, persons, or political party that they desire to see elected.

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Direct-controlled municipalities of China

A municipality, also translated as direct-controlled municipality (formally), municipality directly under the central government, or province-level municipality is the highest level classification for cities used by the People's Republic of China.

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Domestic tourism

Domestic tourism is tourism involving residents of one country traveling only within that country.

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Dong Fang Hong I

Dongfanghong I (Red East 1), also known as China 1, was the People's Republic of China's first space satellite, launched successfully on 24 April 1970 (after one failed attempt on 16 November 1969) as part of the PRC's Dongfanghong space satellite program.

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Dragon boat

A dragon boat is a human-powered watercraft.

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Dream of the Red Chamber

Dream of the Red Chamber, also called The Story of the Stone, composed by Cao Xueqin, is one of China's Four Great Classical Novels.

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Dry season

The dry season is a yearly period of low rainfall, especially in the tropics.

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Du Fu

Du Fu (Wade–Giles: Tu Fu;; 712 – 770) was a prominent Chinese poet of the Tang dynasty.

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Duarte Barbosa

Duarte Barbosa (c. 1480, Lisbon, Portugal1 May 1521, Philippines) was a Portuguese writer and Portuguese India officer between 1500 and 1516–1517, with the post of scrivener in Cannanore factory and sometimes interpreter of the local language (Malayalam).

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Dungan Revolt (1862–77)

The Dungan Revolt (1862–77) or Hui Minorities War was a mainly ethnic war fought in 19th-century China.

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Dust storm

A dust storm or sand storm is a meteorological phenomenon common in arid and semi-arid regions.

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Dynasties in Chinese history

The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese history.

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E-commerce

E-commerce (also written as e-Commerce, eCommerce or similar variants), short for electronic commerce, is trading in products or services using computer networks, such as the Internet.

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East Asia

East Asia or Eastern Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.

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East Asia Summit

The East Asia Summit (EAS) is a forum held annually by leaders of, initially, 16 countries in the East Asian region.

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East Asian cultural sphere

The East Asian cultural sphere or Sinosphere refers to a grouping of countries and regions that were historically influenced by the culture of China.

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East China Sea

The East China Sea is a marginal sea east of China.

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Economic bubble

An economic bubble (sometimes referred to as a speculative bubble, a market bubble, a price bubble, a financial bubble, a speculative mania or a balloon) is trade in an asset at a price or price range that strongly deviates from the corresponding asset's intrinsic value.

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Economic development

Economic development is the sustained, concerted actions of policy makers and communities that promote the standard of living and economic health of a specific area.

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Economic growth

Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time.

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Ecozone

An ecozone is the broadest biogeographic division of the Earth's land surface, based on distributional patterns of terrestrial organisms.

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Elections in the People's Republic of China

Elections in the People's Republic of China are based on a hierarchical electoral system, whereby local People's Congresses (人民代表大会) are directly elected, and all higher levels of People's Congresses up to the National People's Congress, the national legislature, are indirectly elected by the People's Congress of the level immediately below.

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Emperor Huizong of Song

Emperor Huizong (7 June 1082 – 4 June 1135), formerly romanized as Emperor Hui-tsung of Sung, was the eighth and one of the most famous emperors of the Song dynasty of China, with a personal life spent amidst luxury, sophistication and art but ending in tragedy.

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Empire of China (1915–16)

The Empire of China was a short-lived attempt by statesman and general Yuan Shikai from late 1915 to early 1916 to reinstate monarchy in China, with himself as the Hongxian Emperor.

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Empire of Japan

The was the historical Japanese nation-state that existed from the Meiji Restoration on January 3, 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.

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Empress Dowager Cixi

Empress Dowager Cixi1 (also romanised as Empress Dowager Tzu-hsi;;; Manchu: Tsysi taiheo; 29 November 1835 – 15 November 1908), of the Manchu Yehenara clan, was a Chinese empress dowager and regent who effectively controlled the Chinese government in the late Qing dynasty for 47 years from 1861 until her death in 1908.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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End of the Han dynasty

The end of the Han dynasty refers to the period from 189 to 220, which roughly coincides with the reign of the Han dynasty's last ruler, Emperor Xian.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Environmental issues in China

China has many environmental issues, severely affecting its biophysical environment as well as human health.

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Erlitou culture

The Erlitou culture is an early Bronze Age urban society and archaeological culture that existed in China from approximately 1900 to 1500 BC.

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Erosion

In geomorphology and geology, erosion is the action of exogenicprocesses (such as water flow or wind) which remove soil and rock from one location on the Earth's crust, then transport it to another location where it is deposited.

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Ethnic minorities in China

Ethnic minorities in China are the non-Han Chinese population in the People's Republic of China.

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Eurasian Geography and Economics

Eurasian Geography and Economics is an academic journal in economic and political geography as well as in macro economics of the Eurasian continent, published in association with the Kennan Institute for Advanced Russian Studies.

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Expressways of China

The expressway network of China is an integrated system of national and provincial-level expressways in the People's Republic of China.

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Falun Gong

Falun Gong or Falun Dafa (literally, "Dharma Wheel Practice" or "Law Wheel Practice") is a Chinese spiritual practice that combines meditation and qigong exercises with a moral philosophy centered on the tenets of Truthfulness, Compassion, and Forbearance.

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Family planning

Family planning is the planning of when to have children, and the use of birth control and other techniques to implement such plans.

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Feudalism

Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.

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Figurehead

In politics, a figurehead is a person who holds de jure an important (often supremely powerful) title or office yet de facto executes little actual power, most commonly limited by convention rather than law.

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Financial Times

The Financial Times (FT) is an English-language international daily newspaper with a special emphasis on business and economic news.

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First Opium War

The First Opium War (1839–42), also known as the Opium War and as the Anglo-Chinese War, was fought between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Qing Empire over their conflicting viewpoints on diplomatic relations, trade, and the administration of justice for foreign nationals.

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First Sino-Japanese War

The First Sino-Japanese War (1 August 1894 – 17 April 1895) was fought between the Qing Empire of China and the Empire of Japan, primarily over control of Korea.

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Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence

The Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, known in India as the Panchsheel Treaty (from Sanskrit, panch:five, sheel:virtues), are a set of principles to govern relations between states.

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Floating population

Floating population is a terminology used to describe a group of people who reside in a given population for a certain amount of time and for various reasons, but are not generally considered part of the official census count.

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Forbes

Forbes is an American business magazine owned by Forbes, Inc.

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Forced abortion

A forced abortion may occur when the perpetrator causes abortion by force, threat or coercion, or by taking advantage of woman's incapability to give her consent.

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Foreign Affairs

Foreign Affairs is an American journal of international relations and U.S. foreign policy.

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Foreign direct investment

A Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) is a controlling ownership in a business enterprise in one country by an entity based in another country.

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Foreign exchange reserves of China

The Foreign exchange reserves of China are mainly composed of US dollar in the forms of US government bonds and institutional bonds, and excludes reserves held by Hong Kong and Macau.

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Fortune (magazine)

Fortune is an American business magazine, published globally by Time Inc. and founded by Henry Luce in 1929.

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Fortune Global 500

The Fortune Global 500, also known as Global 500, is an annual ranking of the top 500 corporations worldwide as measured by revenue.

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Four Books and Five Classics

The Four Books and Five Classics are the authoritative books of Confucianism in China written before 300 BC.

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Four Great Classical Novels

The Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature (Chinese: 四大名著, Sìdàmíngzhù, lit. "Four Great Masterpieces") are the four novels commonly regarded by Chinese literary criticism to be the greatest and most influential of pre-modern Chinese fiction.

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Four Great Inventions

The Four Great Inventions are inventions from ancient China that are celebrated in Chinese culture for their historical significance and as symbols of ancient China's advanced science and technology.

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Four Modernizations

The Four Modernizations were goals first set forth by Zhou Enlai in 1963, and enacted by Deng Xiaoping, starting in 1978, to strengthen the fields of agriculture, industry, national defense, and science and technology in China.

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Four Policemen

The members of the Big Four and Four Policemen were the four major Allies of World War II: the United States, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the Republic of China.

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Free area of the Republic of China

The Free area of the Republic of China is a legal and political description referring to the territories under the actual control by the government of the Republic of China (ROC), consisting of the island groups of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and some minor islands.

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Free trade area

A free-trade area is the region encompassing a trade bloc whose member countries have signed a free trade agreement (FTA).

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Freedom of assembly

Freedom of assembly, sometimes used interchangeably with the freedom of association, is the individual right or ability to come together and collectively express, promote, pursue, and defend their ideas.

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Freedom of religion

Freedom of religion or freedom of belief is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance; the concept is generally recognized also to include the freedom to change religion or not to follow any religion.

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Freedom of speech

Freedom of speech is the right to communicate one's opinions and ideas without fear of government retaliation or censorship.

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Freedom of the press

Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the freedom of communication and expression through mediums including various electronic media and published materials.

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Fujian

Fujian, formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, or Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China.

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Fujian cuisine

Fujian cuisine is one of the native Chinese cuisines derived from the native cooking style of Fujian province, China.

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Fungus

A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes unicellular microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as multicellular fungi that produce familiar fruiting forms known as mushrooms.

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G-20 major economies

The Group of Twenty (also known as the G-20 or G20) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from 20 major economies.

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Gan Chinese

Gan (Gan: Gon ua, alternatively, Jiāngxī huà; Gan: Kongsi ua) is a group of Chinese varieties spoken as the native language by many people in the Jiangxi province of China, as well as significant populations in surrounding regions such as Hunan, Hubei, Anhui, and Fujian.

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Gang of Four

The Gang of Four was a political faction composed of four Chinese Communist Party officials.

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General Secretary of the Communist Party of China

The General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, officially General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, is the highest-ranking official within the Communist Party of China, a standing member of the Politburo and head of the Secretariat.

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Geography of Taiwan

Taiwan (historically called Formosa, from Portuguese: Ilha Formosa, "Beautiful Island") is an island in East Asia; it is located some off the southeastern coast of China across the Taiwan Strait.

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Gini coefficient

The Gini coefficient (also known as the Gini index or Gini ratio) is a measure of statistical dispersion intended to represent the income distribution of a nation's residents, and is the most commonly used measure of inequality.

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Glacier

A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.

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Global Competitiveness Report

The Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) is a yearly report published by the World Economic Forum.

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Go (game)

* Go (囲碁,The full Japanese name igo is derived from its Chinese name weiqi, which roughly translates as "board game of surrounding"; see at Sensei's Library for more information. To differentiate the game Go from the common English verb to go, it is generally capitalized (Gao 2007) or, in events sponsored by the Ing Foundation, spelled goe. literal meaning: "encircling game", 바둑 The Korean word 'baduk' derives from the Middle Korean word 'Badok', the meaning of which is controversial; the more plausible etymologies include the suffix '-ok' added to 'Bad' creating the meaning 'flat and wide board', or the joining of 'Bad', meaning 'field', and 'Dok', meaning 'stone'. Less plausible etymologies include a derivation of 'Badukdok', referring to the playing pieces of the game, or a derivation from Chinese 排子, meaning 'to arrange pieces'.See) is a board game involving two players, that originated in ancient China more than 2,500 years ago.

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Gobi Desert

The Gobi (Говь,, "semidesert") is a large desert region in Asia.

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Gods and demons fiction

Gods and demons fiction is a subgenre of fantasy fiction that revolves around the deities, immortals, and monsters of Chinese mythology.

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Goguryeo–Sui War

The Goguryeo–Sui War were a series of campaigns launched by the Sui dynasty of China against Goguryeo, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, between AD 598 and AD 614.

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Grassland

Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses (Poaceae), however sedge (Cyperaceae) and rush (Juncaceae) families can also be found.

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Great Chinese Famine

The Three Years of Great Chinese Famine, referred to by the Communist Party of China as the Three Years of Natural Disasters or the Difficult Three Year Period, was the period in the People's Republic of China between the years 1958 and 1961 characterized by widespread famine.

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Great Divergence

The Great Divergence, a term coined by Samuel Huntington (also known as the European miracle, a term coined by Eric Jones in 1981), referring to the process by which the Western world (i.e. Western Europe and the parts of the New World where its people became the dominant populations) overcame pre-modern growth constraints and emerged during the 19th century as the most powerful and wealthy world civilization of the time, eclipsing Qing China, Mughal India, Tokugawa Japan, and the Ottoman Empire.

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Great Lakes

The Great Lakes (also called the Laurentian Great Lakes, or the Great Lakes of North America) are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes located in northeastern North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River.

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Great Leap Forward

The Great Leap Forward of the People's Republic of China (PRC) was an economic and social campaign by the Communist Party of China (CPC) from 1958 to 1961.

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Great power

A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.

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Great Recession

The Global Recession was the general economic decline observed in world markets around the end of the first decade of the 21st century.

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Guan Yu

Guan Yu (died 220), courtesy name Yunchang, was a general serving under the warlord Liu Bei in the late Eastern Han dynasty.

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Guangdong

Guangdong is a province on the South China Sea coast of the People's Republic of China.

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Guangxu Emperor

The Guangxu Emperor (14 August 187114 November 1908), personal name Zaitian (Manchu: Dzai-Tiyan), was the eleventh emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the ninth Qing emperor to rule over China.

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Guangzhou Metro

Guangzhou Metro is the metro system of the city of Guangzhou in Guangdong Province of China.

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Guizhou

Guizhou (Postal map spelling: Kweichow) is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the southwestern part of the country.

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Gulf of Tonkin

True color satellite image of the Gulf of Tonkin The Gulf of Tonkin (Vịnh Bắc Bộ) is a body of water located off the coast of northern Vietnam and southern China.

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Gunpowder

Gunpowder, also known as black powder, is a chemical explosive—the earliest known.

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Gym

A gym, short for gymnasium, is an open air or covered location for gymnastics and athletics and gymnastic services such as in schools and colleges, from the ancient Greek ''gymnasium''.

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Haijin

The Haijin order was a ban on maritime activities imposed during China's Ming dynasty and again at the time of the Qing dynasty.

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Hainan

Hainan is the smallest and southernmost province of the People's Republic of China (PRC).

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Hakka Chinese

Hakka, also rendered Kejia, is one of the major languages within the Sinitic branch of Sino-Tibetan and it is spoken natively by the Hakka people in southern China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and throughout the diaspora areas of East Asia, Southeast Asia, and around the world.

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Han Chinese

No description.

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Han dynasty

The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–207 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to itself as the "Han people" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC – 9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Latter Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty was an age of economic prosperity and saw a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To pay for its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han period. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including papermaking, the nautical steering rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu of Han (r. 141–87 BC) launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empress dowagers, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty ceased to exist.

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Hangzhou Bay

Hangzhou Bay, or the Bay of Hangzhou, is an inlet of the East China Sea, bordered by the province of Zhejiang and the municipality of Shanghai.

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Harvard University Press

Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.

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Head of government

Head of government is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony who often presides over a cabinet.

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Head of state

A head of state is the highest-ranking constitutional position in a sovereign state and is vested with powers to act as the chief public representative of that state.

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Heavy industry

Heavy industry is industry that involves one or more characteristics such as large and heavy products; large and heavy equipment and facilities (such as heavy equipment, large machine tools, and huge buildings); or complex or numerous processes.

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Henan

Henan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country.

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High-speed rail in China

High-speed rail (HSR) in China refers to any railway in China with commercial train service at the speed of or higher.

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Himalayas

The Himalayas or Himalaya (or; हिमालय, Nepali: हिमालय, Hindi: हिमालय, ہمالیہ; from Sanskrit hima (snow) + ālaya (dwelling), literally meaning "abode of snow") is a mountain range in South Asia and East Asia which separates the Indo-Gangetic Plain from the Tibetan Plateau.

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Hindu

Hindu has historically referred to geographical, religious or cultural identifier for people indigenous to the Indian subcontinent.

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Historical capitals of China

The Chinese phrase Four Great Ancient Capitals of China traditionally refers to Beijing (the current capital of the People's Republic), Nanjing, Luoyang, and Chang'an (Xi'an).

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History of China

Written records of the history of China can be found from as early as 1200 BC under the Shang dynasty (c. 1600–1046 BC).

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History of printing in East Asia

The history of printing in East Asia starts with the use of woodblock printing on cloth during the Han dynasty (206 BC–220 AD) and later paper (in Imperial Court as early as the 1st century, or around 80 AD), and continued with the invention of wooden movable type by East Asian artisans in Song China by the 11th century.

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History of the Han dynasty

The Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE), founded by the peasant rebel leader Liu Bang (known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu),From the Shang to the Sui dynasties, Chinese rulers were referred to in later records by their posthumous names, while emperors of the Tang to Yuan dynasties were referred to by their temple names, and emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties were referred to by single era names for their rule.

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Hmong–Mien languages

The Hmong–Mien (also known as Miao–Yao) languages are a language family of southern China and Southeast Asia.

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Hmongic languages

The Hmongic Miao languages include the various languages spoken by the Miao people (such as Hmong, Hmu, and Xong), Pa-Hng, and the "Bunu" languages used by non-Mien-speaking Yao people.

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Hokkien

Hokkien or or Quanzhang (Quanzhou–Zhangzhou / Chinchew–Changchew; BP) is a group of mutually intelligible Min Nan Chinese dialects spoken throughout Southeast Asia and by many overseas Chinese.

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Hominidae

The Hominidae, also known as great apes"Great ape" is a common name rather than a taxonomic label, and there are differences in usage.

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Homo erectus

Homo erectus (meaning "upright man", from the Latin ērigere, "to put up, set upright") is an extinct species of hominid that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch.

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Homo sapiens

Homo sapiens (Latin: "wise man") is the binomial nomenclature (also known as the scientific name) for the human species.

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Hong Kong

Hong Kong, traditionally Hongkong, officially known as Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) on the southern coast of China at the Pearl River Estuary and the South China Sea.

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Hong Kong dollar

The Hong Kong dollar (sign: $; code: HKD; also abbreviated HK$) is the currency of Hong Kong.

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Hong Kong International Airport

Hong Kong International Airport is the main airport in Hong Kong.

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Hongwu Emperor

The Hongwu Emperor (21 October 1328 – 24 June 1398), personal name Zhu Yuanzhang (朱元璋) and courtesy name Guorui (國瑞), was the founder and first emperor of the Ming dynasty of China.

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Horse racing

Horse racing is an equestrian sport, involving two or more jockeys riding horses over a set distance for competition.

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Hu Jintao

Hu Jintao (胡锦涛, pronounced; born 21 December 1942) was the paramount leader of China between 2002 and 2012.

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Hu Shih

Hu Shih (17 December 1891 – 24 February 1962), was a Chinese philosopher, essayist and diplomat.

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Huawei

Huawei Technologies Co.

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Huaxia

Huaxia (Hua-hsia; 華夏) is a historical concept representing the Chinese nation and civilization.

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Hui people

The Hui people (Xiao'erjing: خُوِذُو/حواري, Dungan: Хуэйзў/Huejzw) are a predominantly Muslim ethnic group in China.

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Hukou system

A hukou is a record in the system of household registration required by law in both the mainland communist People's Republic of China (PRC) and the democratic industrialized island nation Republic of China (Taiwan).

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Human rights in China

For the non-governmental organization, see Human Rights in China (organization) The extent to which human rights are recognized and protected in the People's Republic of China (PRC or Mainland China) is a matter of dispute between its government and external organizations and individuals.

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Human sex ratio

In anthropology and demography, the human sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a population.

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Hunan cuisine

Hunan cuisine, also known as Xiang cuisine, consists of the cuisines of the Xiang River region, Dongting Lake, and western Hunan province in China.

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Hundred Days' Reform

The Hundred Days' Reform was a failed 103-day national cultural, political and educational reform movement from 11 June to 21 September 1898 in late Qing dynasty China.

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Hundred Schools of Thought

The Hundred Schools of Thought were philosophers and schools that flourished from the 6th century to 221 BC, during the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period of ancient China.

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Hydroelectricity

Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water.

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I Ching

The I Ching, also known as the Classic of Changes or Book of Changes in English, is an ancient divination text and the oldest of the Chinese classics.

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Ideology of the Communist Party of China

The ideology of the Communist Party of China (CPC) has undergone dramatic changes throughout the years, especially during Deng Xiaoping's leadership.

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Imperial examination

The imperial examination was a civil service examination system in Imperial China to select candidates for the state bureaucracy.

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Index of China-related articles

The index of China-related topics has been split into two articles.

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Index of Economic Freedom

The Index of Economic Freedom is an annual index and ranking created by The Heritage Foundation and The Wall Street Journal in 1995 to measure the degree of economic freedom in the world's nations.

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India

India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia.

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Indirect election

Indirect election is a process in which voters in an election do not choose between candidates for an office but rather elect persons who will then make the choice.

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Individualism

Individualism is the moral stance, political philosophy, ideology, or social outlook that emphasizes the moral worth of the individual.

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Indo-European languages

The Indo-European languages are a family of several hundred related languages and dialects.

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Indomalaya ecozone

The Indomalaya ecozone is one of the eight ecozones.It extends across most of South and Southeast Asia and into the southern parts of East Asia.

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Industrial and Commercial Bank of China

Industrial and Commercial Bank of China Ltd. (ICBC;, more commonly just 工行 Gōngháng) is a Chinese multinational banking company, and the largest bank in the world by total assets and by market capitalization.

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Infant mortality

Infant mortality is the death of a child less than one year of age.

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Inner Asia

Inner Asia is a term referring to particular regions within Asia.

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Intercontinental ballistic missile

An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of more than primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more thermonuclear warheads).

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International Futures

International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.

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International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, DC, of "188 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world".

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International rankings of China

The following are international rankings of China.

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Internet censorship in China

Internet censorship in China is conducted under a wide variety of laws and administrative regulations.

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Iran

Iran (or; ایران), historically known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia.

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Islam

Islam (There are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster). The most common are (Oxford English Dictionary, Random House) and (American Heritage Dictionary). الإسلام,: Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~. In Northwestern Africa, they do not have stress or lengthened vowels.) is a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a religious text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God, and, for the vast majority of adherents, by the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad (circa 570–8 June 632 CE), considered by most of them to be the last prophet of God.

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Islam in China

Islam in China has existed through 1,400 years of continuous interaction with Chinese society.

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Japan

Japan (日本 Nippon or Nihon; formally or Nihon-koku, "State of Japan") is an island country in East Asia.

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Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98)

The Japanese invasions of Korea comprised two separate yet linked operations: an initial invasion in 1592, a brief truce in 1596, and a second invasion in 1597.

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Japanese war crimes

Japanese war crimes occurred in many Asian and Pacific countries during the period of Japanese imperialism, primarily during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II.

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Jerry Norman (sinologist)

Jerry Lee Norman (July 16, 1936July 7, 2012) was an American sinologist and linguist best known for his studies of Chinese dialects and Chinese historical phonology, especially the Min Chinese dialects and the Manchu language.

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Jiahu

Jiahu was the site of a Neolithic settlement based in the central plain of ancient China, near the Yellow River.

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Jiahu symbols

Jiahu symbols refer to the 16 distinct markings on prehistoric artifacts found in Jiahu, a neolithic Peiligang culture site found in Henan, China, and excavated in 1999.

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Jiang Zemin

Jiang Zemin (born 17 August 1926) is a retired Chinese politician who served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China from 1989 to 2002, as Chairman of the Central Military Commission from 1989 to 2004, and as President of the People's Republic of China from 1993 to 2003.

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Jiangsu cuisine

Jiangsu cuisine, abbreviated to Su cuisine, is one of the Eight Culinary Traditions of Chinese cuisine.

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Jin dynasty (1115–1234)

The Jin dynasty (Jurchen: Anchun Gurun); Manchu: Aisin Gurun; Khitan language: Nik, Niku; Altan Ulus; 1115–1234), officially the Great Jin, also known as the Jurchen dynasty, was founded by the Wanyan clan of the Jurchen people, the ancestors of the Manchu people who established the Qing dynasty some 500 years later. The name is sometimes written as Kin to differentiate it from an earlier Jìn dynasty of China whose name is identically spelled using the Latin alphabet. The Jurchen tribes were united by the chieftain and later first Jin emperor, Wanyan Aguda, who overthrew the Khitan Liao dynasty. During the reign of Aguda's successor, the Jin declared war against the Song dynasty and conquered much of northern China. The Song were forced to flee south of Yangtze River. The Jin dynasty fell after their defeat against the rising Mongol Empire, a steppe confederation that had formerly been a Jurchen vassal.

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Jin dynasty (265–420)

The Jin dynasty was a dynasty in Chinese history, lasting between the years 265 and 420 AD.

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Jin Yong

Louis Cha Leung-yung (Zha Liangyong), GBM, OBE (born 6 February 1924), better known by his pen name Jin Yong, is a modern Chinese-language novelist.

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Jin–Song Wars

The Jin–Song Wars were a series of conflicts between the Jurchen Jin dynasty (1115–1234) and Han Chinese Song dynasty (960–1279).

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Jiuzhaigou

Jiuzhaigou (pronounced) is a nature reserve and national park located in the north of Sichuan province, China.

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Journey to the West

Journey to the West is a Chinese novel published in the 16th century during the Ming dynasty and attributed to Wu Cheng'en.

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Juniper

Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae.

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Jurchen people

The Jurchens or Jurcheds (Jurchen language: jušen) were a Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until the 17th century, at which point they began referring to themselves as the Manchu people.

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Jurisdiction

Jurisdiction (from the Latin ius, iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak") is the practical authority to interpret and apply the law, or to govern and legislate.

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Kaifeng

Kaifeng, known previously by several names (see below), is a prefecture-level city in east-central Henan, China.

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Kam language

The Kam language, also known as Gam (autonym: lix Gaeml), or in Chinese, Dong or Tung-Chia, is the language of the Dong people.

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Karakoram

The Karakoram, or Karakorum (سلسلہ کوہ قراقرم; Balti: ཁརན ཨ ཀུརམ, Uyghur), is a large mountain range spanning the borders between Pakistan, India and China, located in the regions of Gilgit–Baltistan (Pakistan), Ladakh (India), and southern Xinjiang (China).

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Kashmir

Kashmir (Kashmiri:كشهير; کشمیر; کشمیر), archaically spelled Cashmere, is in the northwestern region of South Asia.

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Kazakh language

Kazakh (natively Қазақ тілі, Қазақша, Qazaq tili, Qazaqşa,; pronounced) is a Turkic language belonging to the Kipchak (or Northwestern Turkic) branch, closely related to Nogai, and especially Karakalpak.

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Kazakhstan

Kazakhstan (Қазақстан.), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a country in Central Asia, with a minor part west of the Ural River and thus in Europe.

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Kinmen

Kinmen or Quemoy (see also "Names" section below) is a small archipelago of several islands of Taiwan including Great Kinmen, Lesser Kinmen, and some islets.

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Korean language

Korean (조선말, see below) is the official language of both South Korea and North Korea, as well as one of the two official languages in China's Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture.

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Korean Peninsula

The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula in East Asia.

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Koreans in China

The population of Koreans in China include millions of descendants of Korean immigrants with citizenship of the People's Republic of China, as well as smaller groups of South and North Korean expatriates, with a total of roughly 2.3 million people, making it the largest ethnic Korean population living outside the Korean Peninsula.

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Kublai Khan

Kublai Khan (Хубилай хаан, Xubilaĭ xaan; Qubilai Qaγan, "King Qubilai"; September 23, 1215 – February 18, 1294), born Kublai (Хубилай, Xubilaĭ; Qubilai;, Kubilay Han; also spelled Khubilai) and also known by the temple name Shizu (Emperor Shizu of Yuan), was the fifth Khagan (Great Khan) of the Mongol Empire (Ikh Mongol Uls), reigning from 1260 to 1294, although it was only nominal due to the division of the empire.

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Kuomintang

The Kuomintang of China (or; KMT), or sometimes spelled as Guomindang (GMD) by its Pinyin transliteration, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC).

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Kuomintang Islamic insurgency

The Kuomintang Islamic insurgency refers to a continuation of the Chinese Civil War by Muslim Kuomintang National Revolutionary Army forces in Northwest China, in the provinces of Gansu, Qinghai, Ningxia, Xinjiang, and another insurgency in Yunnan.

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Kyrgyz language

Kyrgyz or Kirghiz (natively кыргызча/قىرعىزچا, or кыргыз тили/قىرعىز تىلى) is a Turkic language spoken by about four million people in Kyrgyzstan as well as China, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Uzbekistan, Pakistan and Russia.

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Kyrgyzstan

Kyrgyzstan (Кыргызстан Kyrgyzstan; Киргизия or Кыргызстан), officially the Kyrgyz Republic (Кыргыз Республикасы Kyrgyz Respublikasy; Кыргызская Республика Kyrgyzskaya Respublika), formerly known as Kirghizia, is a country located in Central Asia.

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Landing Operation on Hainan Island

The Landing Operation on Hainan Island, also known as the Hainan Island Campaign or the Hainan Campaign for short, was a series of battles fought between the Kuomintang (Nationalists) (National Revolutionary Army, NRA) and the People's Liberation Army (PLA) during the Chinese Civil War in the post-World War II period, and resulted in a PLA victory.

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Landlord

A landlord is the owner of a house, apartment, condominium, land or real estate which is rented or leased to an individual or business, who is called a tenant (also a lessee or renter).

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Landscape painting

Landscape painting, also known as landscape art, is the depiction in art of landscapes – natural scenery such as mountains, valleys, trees, rivers, and forests, especially where the main subject is a wide view – with its elements arranged into a coherent composition.

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Languages of China

The Languages of China are the languages that are spoken by China's 56 recognized ethnic groups.

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Laos

Laos ((or) ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (LPDR) (République démocratique populaire lao), is a landlocked country in Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and the People's Republic of China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the south, and Thailand to the west.

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Latin alphabet

The classical Latin alphabet, also known as the Roman alphabet, is a writing system that evolved from the visually similar Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet.

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Latitude

In geography, latitude (φ) is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north-south position of a point on the Earth's surface.

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Legalism (Chinese philosophy)

Dating back to early China, the Chinese term Legalism in its broad usage refers to the historical Realpolitik of the Chinese, also termed by scholars as Chinese Realism.

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Legitimacy (political)

In political science, legitimacy is the popular acceptance of an authority, usually a governing law or a régime.

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Lenovo

Lenovo Group Ltd. is a Chinese multinational computer technology company with headquarters in Beijing, China, and Morrisville, North Carolina, United States.

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Li Bai

Li Bai (701 – 762), also known as Li Po, was a Chinese poet acclaimed from his own day to the present as a genius and romantic figure who took traditional poetic forms to new heights. He and his friend Du Fu (712–770) were the two most prominent figures in the flourishing of Chinese poetry in the Tang Dynasty that is often called the "Golden Age of China". "Three Wonders of the Great Tang Empire" referred to Li Bai’s poetry, Pei Min’s swordplay, and Zhang Xu’s calligraphy. Around a thousand poems attributed to him are extant. His poems have been collected into four Tang dynasty poetry anthologies, and thirty-four of his poems are included in the anthology Three Hundred Tang Poems, which was first published in the 18th century. In the same century, translations of his poems began to appear in Europe. The poems were models for celebrating the pleasures of friendship, the depth of nature, solitude, and the joys of drinking wine. Among the most famous are "Waking from Drunkenness on a Spring Day", "The Hard Road to Shu", and "Quiet Night Thought", which still appear in school texts in China. In the West, translations of Li's poems continue to be made into many languages. His life has even taken on a legendary aspect, including tales of drunkenness, chivalry, and the well-known fable that Li drowned when he reached from his boat to grasp the moon’s reflection in the river. Much of Li's life is reflected in his poetry: places which he visited, friends whom he saw off on journeys to distant locations perhaps never to meet again, his own dream-like imaginations embroidered with shamanic overtones, current events of which he had news of, descriptions sliced from nature in a timeless moment of poetry, and so on. However, of particular general importance are the changes in the times through which he lived: his early poetry took place in the context of a "golden age" of internal peace and prosperity in the Chinese empire of the Tang dynasty, under the reign of an emperor who actively promoted and participated in the arts; but this all changed suddenly and shockingly, as, beginning with the rebellion of the general An Lushan, all of northern China was devastated by war and famine, in one of the greatest catastrophic losses of population in all history. Li's poetry as well takes on new tones and qualities. Unlike his younger friend Du Fu, Li was not to live to see the quelling of these disorders. However, much of Li's poetry has survived, with enduring popularity in China and a developing influence in the Western world.

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Li Keqiang

Li Keqiang (Mandarin:; born 1 July 1955) is the current Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China.

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Li Peng

Li Peng (born 20 October 1928) served as the fourth Premier of the People's Republic of China, between 1987 and 1998, and the Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, China's top legislative body, from 1998 to 2003.

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Li River (Guangxi)

The Li River or Lijiang is a river in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.

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Li Zicheng

Li Zicheng (22 September 1606 – 1645), born Li Hongji, nicknamed "Dashing King", was a Chinese rebel leader who overthrew the Ming dynasty in 1644 and ruled over China briefly as the emperor of the short-lived Shun dynasty before his death a year later.

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Life expectancy

Life expectancy is a statistical measure of how long a person or organism may live, based on the year of their birth, their current age and other demographic factors including gender.

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Lingua franca

A lingua franca (plural lingua francas), also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language or vehicular language, is a language or dialect systematically (as opposed to occasionally, or casually) used to make communication possible between persons not sharing a native language or dialect, in particular when it is a third language, distinct from both native languages.

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List of airlines of China

This is a list of airlines which have a current Air Operator Certificate issued by the Civil Aviation Administration of China.

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List of airports in China

This is a list of public airports in the People's Republic of China grouped by provincial level division and sorted by main city served.

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List of Chinese administrative divisions by GDP per capita

The article lists China's first-level administrative divisions by their gross domestic product per capita in main years.

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List of Chinese astronauts

This is a list of Chinese astronauts (or 'taikonauts'), people trained by the China National Space Administration (CNSA) to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.

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List of Chinese discoveries

Aside from many original inventions, the Chinese were also early original pioneers in the discovery of natural phenomena which can be found in the human body, the environment of the world, and the immediate solar system.

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List of Chinese inventions

China has been the source of many innovations, scientific discoveries and inventions.

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List of Chinese military texts

Chinese military texts have existed ever since Chinese civilization was founded.

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List of countries and dependencies by area

This is a list of the world's sovereign states and their dependent territories by area, ranked by its total area.

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List of countries and dependencies by population

This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population with inclusion within the list being based on the ISO standard ISO 3166-1.

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List of countries and territories by land and maritime borders

This is a list of countries and territories by land and maritime borders.

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List of countries and territories by land borders

This is a list of countries and territories by land borders.

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List of countries by GDP (nominal)

Countries are sorted by nominal GDP estimates from financial and statistical institutions, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates.

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List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita

This article includes four lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product per capita at nominal values.

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List of countries by GDP (PPP)

This article includes a list of countries in the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a state in a given year.

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List of countries by military expenditures

This article is a list of countries by military expenditure, the amount spent by a nation on its military in a given year.

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List of countries by motor vehicle production

This is a list of countries by motor vehicle production based on Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles (OICA) and other data from 2014 and earlier.

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List of countries by number of broadband Internet subscriptions

This article contains a sortable list of countries by number of broadband Internet subscriptions and penetration rates, using data compiled by the International Telecommunication Union.

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List of countries by number of Internet users

This is a sortable list of countries by number of Internet users as of 2013.

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List of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel

This is a list of countries by number of military and paramilitary personnel.

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List of countries by number of mobile phones in use

This list ranks the countries of the world by the number of mobile phones in use.

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List of countries by rail transport network size

This list of countries by rail transport network size based on International Union of Railways data ranks countries by length of rail lines worked at end of year updated with other reliable sources. These figures also include urban/suburban mass-transport systems; as well as lines which are not used for passenger services.

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List of countries by real GDP growth rate

This article includes a list of countries in the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate, the rate of growth of the value of all final goods and services produced within a state in a given year.

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List of countries by road network size

This is a list of countries by total road network size of both paved and unpaved.

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List of diplomatic missions of China

This is a list of diplomatic missions of the People's Republic of China.

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List of endangered and protected species of China

The endangered species of China may include any wildlife species designated for protection by the national government of China or listed as endangered by international organizations such as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) and the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN).

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List of ethnic groups in China

Multiple ethnic groups populate China, where "China" is taken to mean areas controlled by either of the two states using "China" in their formal names, the People's Republic of China (China) and the Republic of China (Taiwan).

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List of high-speed railway lines

This article provides a list of operated high-speed rail networks, listed by country or region. High-speed rail is public transport by rail at speeds of at least for upgraded track and or faster for new track.

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List of largest banks

These are lists of the largest, banks in the world, as measured by total assets and market capitalization.

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List of largest Chinese companies

This article lists the largest companies in China in terms of their revenue, net profit and total assets, according to the American business magazines Fortune and Forbes.

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List of longest bridges in the world

This is a list of the world's longest bridges more than two kilometres long sorted by their full length above land or water.

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List of mammals of China

This is a list of the mammal species recorded in China.

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List of metro systems

This list of metro systems includes electrified rapid transit train systems worldwide.

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List of political parties in the People's Republic of China

The People's Republic of China (PRC) is formally a multi-party state under the leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC) in a United Front similar to the popular fronts of former Communist-era Eastern European countries such as the National Front of Democratic Germany.

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List of ports in China

China's coastal ports enable the transportation of coal, containers, imported iron ore, and grain; roll-on-roll-off operations between mainland and islands; and deep-water access to the sea.

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List of protected areas of China

This is a list of the nationally protected areas of China.

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List of states with limited recognition

A number of geopolitical entities have declared statehood and have sought recognition as de jure sovereign states with varying degrees of success.

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List of states with nuclear weapons

There are eight sovereign states that have successfully detonated nuclear weapons.

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List of statues by height

The following is a list of statues by height, considering only the figure itself, without any pedestal or plinth included in the measurement.

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List of the busiest airports in China

China's busiest airports are a series of lists ranking the one hundred busiest airports in China according the number of total passengers, including statistics for total aircraft movements and total cargo movements, following the official register yearly since 2000.

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List of the world's busiest airports by cargo traffic

The world's thirty busiest airports by cargo traffic for various periods (data provided by Airports Council International).

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List of the world's busiest airports by passenger traffic

The world's busiest airports by passenger traffic are measured by total passengers (data from Airports Council International (ACI)), defined as passengers enplaned plus passengers deplaned plus direct-transit passengers.

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List of warlords and military cliques in the Warlord Era

The Warlord Era is the common term that refers to the time period of China beginning from 1916 to the mid-1930s, when the country was divided by various military cliques.

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List of world's busiest container ports

This is a list of the world's busiest container ports by total number of actual twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs) transported through the port.

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Literacy

Literacy is traditionally understood as the ability to read and write.

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Literary Inquisition

The literary inquisition or speech crime refers to official persecution of intellectuals for their writings in imperial China.

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Long March

The Long March (October 1934 – October 1935) was a military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Communist Party of China, the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the Kuomintang (KMT or Chinese Nationalist Party) army.

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Longitude

Longitude (or, British also), is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.

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Longsheng Rice Terrace

The Longsheng Rice Terraces, also called the Longji Rice Terraces, are located in Longsheng County, about from Guilin, Guangxi, China.

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Lu Xun

Lu Xun or Lu Hsün (Wade-Giles), was the pen name of Zhou Shuren (25 September 1881 – 19 October 1936), a leading figure of modern Chinese literature.

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Macanese pataca

The Macao pataca, Macau pataca, or Macanese pataca (Portuguese: Pataca de Macau;; ISO 4217 code: MOP) is the currency of Macau.

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Macau

Governor Nobre de Carvalho Bridge; A-Ma Temple; Guia Fortress; Macau Tower. Macau (Au4mun2), also spelled Macao, officially known as the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is one of the special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China.

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Magic realism

Magical realism, magic realism, or marvelous realism is literature, painting, and film that, while encompassing a range of subtly different concepts, share in common an acceptance of magic in the rational world.

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Mahabharata

The Mahabharata or Mahābhārata (US; UK; महाभारतम्) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Ramayana.

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Mahjong

Mahjong, also spelled majiang, mah jongg, and numerous other variants, is a game that originated in China.

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Main battle tank

A main battle tank (MBT), also known as a battle tank or universal tank, is a tank that fills the heavy direct fire role of many modern armies.

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Mainland China

Mainland China, Chinese mainland or simply the mainland, is a geographical and political term to describe the geopolitical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC).

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Malnutrition

Malnutrition or malnourishment is a condition that results from eating a diet in which nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.

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Manchu alphabet

The Manchu alphabet is the alphabet used to write the now nearly extinct Manchu language; a similar script is used today by the Xibe people, who speak a language variably considered as either a dialect of Manchu or a closely related, mutually intelligible, language.

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Manchu language

Manchu (Manchu: manju gisun) is a severly endangered Tungusic language spoken in Northeast China; it was the native language of the Manchus and one of the official languages of the Qing dynasty (1636-1911).

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Manchu people

The Manchu are a Chinese ethnic minority and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.

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Mandarin Chinese

Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.

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Manusmṛti

The Manusmṛti (Sanskrit: मनुस्मृति), also spelled as Manusmriti, is the most important and most studied ancient legal text among the many of Hinduism.

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Mao Zedong

Mao Zedong, also transliterated as Mao Tse-tung and commonly referred to as Chairman Mao (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), was a Chinese Communist revolutionary and the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he governed as Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.

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March of the Volunteers

The "March of the Volunteers", also formally known as the National Anthem of the People's Republic of China,.

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Martin Jacques

Martin Jacques (born 1945) is a British journalist and academic.

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Martino Martini

Martino Martini (20 September 1614 – 6 June 1661) was an Italian Jesuit missionary, cartographer and historian, mainly working on ancient Imperial China.

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Marxism

Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that analyzes class relations and societal conflict, that uses a materialist interpretation of historical development, and a dialectical view of social transformation.

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Matsu Islands

The Matsu Islands (Fuzhou dialect: Mā-cū liĕk-dō̤ or less frequently,; Fuzhou dialect: 馬祖島 Mā-cū-dō̤) are a minor archipelago of 36 islands and islets in the Taiwan Strait administered as Lienchiang County (連江縣; Lièng-gŏng-gâing) under streamlined Fujian Province of Taiwan.

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May Fourth Movement

The May Fourth Movement was an anti-imperialist, cultural, and political movement growing out of student demonstrations in Beijing on May 4, 1919, protesting against the Chinese government's weak response to the Treaty of Versailles, especially allowing Japan to receive territories in Shandong which had been surrendered by Germany after the Siege of Tsingtao.

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Mazu (goddess)

Mazu, also spelt Matsu and Ma-tsu, is the Chinese patron goddess who is said to protect seafarers, such as fishermen and sailors.

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McKinsey & Company

McKinsey & Company is an American multinational management consulting firm.

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Megacity

A megacity is usually defined as a metropolitan area with a total population in excess of ten million people.

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Megadiverse countries

The megadiverse countries are a group of countries that harbor the majority of the Earth's species and are therefore considered extremely biodiverse.

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Mekong

The Mekong is a trans-boundary river in Southeast Asia.

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Meritocracy

Meritocracy (merit, from Latin mereō "I earn" and -cracy, from Ancient Greek κράτος "strength, power") is a political philosophy which holds that power should be vested in individuals almost exclusively according to merit.

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Miao people

The Miao is an ethnic group recognized by the government of China as one of the 55 official minority groups.

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Miao Rebellion (1854–73)

The Miao Rebellion of 1854–1873 was an uprising of ethnic Miao in Guizhou province during the reign of the Qing dynasty.

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Middle school

A middle school or junior high school is a school for students older than elementary school, but not yet in high school.

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Mienic languages

The Mienic or Yao languages are spoken by the Yao people of China, Vietnam, Laos, and Thailand.

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Migrant worker

The term "migrant worker" has different official meanings and connotations in different parts of the world.

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Min Chinese

Min or Miin (BUC) is a broad group of Chinese varieties spoken by over 70 million people in the southeastern Chinese province of Fujian as well as by migrants from this province in Guangdong (around Chaozhou-Swatou, or Chaoshan area, Leizhou peninsula and Part of Zhongshan), Hainan, three counties in southern Zhejiang, Zhoushan archipelago off Ningbo, some towns in Liyang, Jiangyin City in Jiangsu province, and Taiwan.

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Ming dynasty

The Ming dynasty, or the Great Ming, also called the Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.

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Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People's Republic of China

The Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People's Republic of China (MEP), formerly State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA), is a cabinet-level ministry in the executive branch of the Government of China.

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Misty Poets

The Misty Poets are a group of 20th century Chinese poets who reacted against the restrictions on art during the Cultural Revolution.

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Mixed economy

A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system consisting of a mixture of either markets and economic planning, public ownership and private ownership, or free markets and economic interventionism.

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Mo Yan

Guan Moye (born 17 February 1955), better known by the pen name Mo Yan, is a Chinese novelist and short story writer.

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Modern language

A modern language is any human language that is currently in use.

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Monarchy of the United Kingdom

The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories.

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Monetary Authority of Singapore

The Monetary Authority of Singapore (Abbreviation: MAS;; Malay: Penguasa Kewangan Singapura) is Singapore's central bank and financial regulatory authority.

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Mongol invasion of China

The Mongol invasion of China was a major military effort by the Mongols to invade China. It spanned six decades in the 13th century and involved the defeat of the Jin dynasty, Western Xia, the Dali Kingdom and the Southern Song, which finally fell in 1279. The Mongol Empire under Genghis Khan started the conquest with small-scale raids into Western Xia in 1205 and 1207. By 1279, the Mongol leader Kublai Khan had established the Yuan dynasty in China and crushed the last Song resistance, which marked the onset of all of China under the Mongol Yuan rule. This was the first time in history that the whole of China was conquered and subsequently ruled by a foreign or non-native ruler, compared with the Manchus (who established the Qing dynasty) who did so a few centuries later.

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Mongolia

Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠮᠤᠩᠭᠤᠯᠤᠯᠤᠰ in Mongolian script; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked country in east-central Asia.

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Mongolian language

The Mongolian language (in Mongolian script:, Mongɣol kele; in Mongolian Cyrillic: Монгол хэл, Mongol khel) is the official language of Mongolia and largest-known member of the Mongolic language family.

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Mongolian script

The classical Mongolian script (in Mongolian script: Mongγol bičig; in Mongolian Cyrillic: Монгол бичиг Mongol bichig), also known as Hudum Mongol bichig, was the first writing system created specifically for the Mongolian language, and was the most successful until the introduction of Cyrillic in 1946.

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Mongolian wrestling

Mongolian wrestling, known as Bökh (Mongolian script:; Mongolian Cyrillic: Бөх or Үндэсний бөх), is the folk wrestling style of Mongols in Mongolia, Inner Mongolia and other regions where touching the ground with anything other than a foot loses the match.

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Mongolian-Manchurian grassland

The Mongolian-Manchurian grassland ecoregion, also known as the Mongolian-Manchurian steppe, in the temperate grassland Biome, is found in Mongolia, the Chinese Autonomous region of Inner Mongolia and northeastern China.

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Mongols

The Mongols (Mongolian: Монголчууд, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

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Mongols in China

Mongols in China (Chinese: 蒙古族 Ménggǔzú) are citizens of the People's Republic of China who are ethnic Mongols.

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Monsoon

Monsoon (UK:; US) is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.

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Moose

The moose (North America) or elk (Eurasia), Alces alces, is the largest extant species in the deer family.

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Mount Everest

Mount Everest, also known in Nepal as Sagarmāthā and in Tibet as Chomolungma, is Earth's highest mountain.

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MTR

The Mass Transit Railway (MTR) is the rapid transit railway system in Hong Kong. Opened in 1979, the system now includes of rail with 155 stations, including 87 railway stations and 68 light rail stops. The MTR system is operated by MTR Corporation Limited (MTRCL). It is one of the most profitable systems in the world, with a high farebox recovery ratio of 186%. Under the government's rail-led transport policy, the MTR system is a common mode of public transport in Hong Kong, with over five million trips made in an average weekday. It consistently achieves a 99.9% on-time rate on its train journeys. As of 2012, the MTR has a 46.4% market share of the franchised public transport market, making it the most popular transport option in Hong Kong. The integration of the Octopus smart card fare-payment technology into the MTR system in September 1997 has further enhanced the ease of commuting on the MTR. Construction of the MTR was prompted by a study, released in 1967, commissioned by the Hong Kong Government in order to find solutions to the growing road congestion problem caused by the expansion of the territory's economy. Construction started soon after the release of the study, and the first line opened in 1979. The MTR was immediately popular with residents of Hong Kong; as a result, subsequent lines have been built to cover more territory. There are continual debates regarding how and where to expand the MTR network. As a successful railway operation, the MTR has served as a model for other newly built systems in the world, particularly in mainland China.

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Myanmar

Myanmar (or (also with the stress on first syllable)), officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia bordered by Bangladesh, India, China, Laos and Thailand.

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Nanjing

Nanjing ("Southern Capital") is the capital of Jiangsu province and the second largest city in eastern China (after Shanghai), with a total population of 8.16 million and a urban population of 6.55 million in 2013.

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Nanking Massacre

The Nanking Massacre or Nanjing Massacre, also known as the Rape of Nanking or Rape of Nanjing, was an episode during the Second Sino-Japanese War of mass murder and mass rape by Japanese troops against the residents of Nanjing (then spelled Nanking), then capital of the Republic of China.

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National Basketball Association

The National Basketball Association (NBA) is the pre-eminent men's professional basketball league in North America, and is widely considered to be the premier men's professional basketball league in the world.

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National debt of the United States

The national debt of the United States is the amount owed by the federal government of the United States.

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National Gallery of Art

The National Gallery of Art, and its attached Sculpture Garden, is a national art museum in Washington, D.C., located on the National Mall, between 3rd and 9th Streets, at Constitution Avenue NW.

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National Health and Family Planning Commission

National Health and Family Planning Commission (NHFPC) of the People's Republic of China is the executive agency under the State Council which is responsible for providing information, raising health awareness and education, family planning, ensuring the accessibility of health services, monitoring the quality of health services provided to citizens and visitors in the mainland, population and family planning in the People's Republic of China.

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National Higher Education Entrance Examination

The National Higher Education Entrance Examination (also translated as National Matriculation Examination or National College Entrance Examination or "NCEE"), commonly known as Gaokao (高考, "Higher Education Exam"), is an academic examination held annually in People's Republic of China.

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National People's Congress

The National People's Congress (usually abbreviated NPC) is the national legislature of the People's Republic of China.

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Naxi language

Naxi (autonym), also known as Nakhi, Nasi, Lomi, Moso, Mo-su, is a Sino-Tibetan language or group of languages spoken by some 310,000 people most of whom live in or around Lijiang City Yulong Naxi Autonomous County (Yùlóng Nàxīzú Zìzhìxiàn 玉龍納西族自治縣) of the province of Yunnan, China.

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Neo-Confucianism

Neo-Confucianism (often shortened to 理學) is a moral, ethical, and metaphysical Chinese philosophy influenced by Confucianism, and originated with Han Yu and Li Ao (772-841) in the Tang Dynasty, and became prominent during the Song and Ming dynasties.

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Nepal

Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, is a landlocked country located in South Asia.

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Network-centric warfare

Network-centric warfare, also called network-centric operations or net-centric warfare, is a military doctrine or theory of war pioneered by the United States Department of Defense in the 1990s.

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New Culture Movement

The New Culture Movement of the mid 1910s and 1920s sprang from the disillusionment with traditional Chinese culture following the failure of the Chinese Republic, founded in 1912 to address China’s problems.

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New Straits Times

The New Straits Times is an English-language newspaper published in Malaysia.

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Nian Rebellion

The Nian Rebellion (was an armed uprising that took place in northern China from 1851 to 1868, contemporaneously with Taiping Rebellion (1851–1864) in South China. The rebellion failed to topple the Qing dynasty, but caused the immense economic devastation and loss of life that became one of the major long-term factors in the collapse of the Qing regime in the early 20th century.

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Nobel Prize in Chemistry

The Nobel Prize in Chemistry (Nobelpriset i kemi) is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry.

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Nobel Prize in Physics

The Nobel Prize in Physics (Nobelpriset i fysik) is a yearly award given by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for those who conferred the most outstanding contributions for mankind in the field of physics.

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Non-Aligned Movement

The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states which are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.

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Non-governmental organization

A non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization that is neither a part of a government nor a conventional for-profit business.

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North China Plain

The North China Plain is based on the deposits of the Yellow River and is the largest alluvial plain of eastern Asia.

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North Korea

North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), is a country in East Asia, in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.

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Northeast Asia

Northeast Asia and Northeastern Asia refers to the northeastern subregion of Asia.

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Northeast China

Northeast China, historically also known as Manchuria, is a geographical region of China.

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Northern and southern China

Northern China and southern China are two approximate regions within China. The exact boundary between these two regions has never been precisely defined. Nevertheless, the self-perception of Chinese people, especially regional stereotypes, has often been dominated by these two concepts, given that regional differences in culture and language have historically fostered strong regional identities (乡土, xiāngtǔ, 'localism') of the Chinese people.

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Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–79

The Northern Chinese Famine of 1876–1879 occurred in the late Qing dynasty in China.

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Northern Expedition

The Northern Expedition, was a Kuomintang (KMT) military campaign, led by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, from 1926-28.

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Northwest China

Northwestern China (西北, Xīběi) includes the autonomous regions of Xinjiang and Ningxia and the provinces of Shaanxi, Gansu, and Qinghai.

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Nuclear submarine

A nuclear submarine is a submarine powered by a nuclear reactor.

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Nuclear weapon

A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or a combination of fission and fusion (thermonuclear weapon).

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Nuosu language

Nuosu (or Nosu) (Nuosu: Pronunciation: Nuosuhxop), also known as Northern Yi, Liangshan Yi, and Sichuan Yi, is the prestige language of the Yi people; it has been chosen by the Chinese government as the standard Yi language (in Mandarin: Yí yǔ, 彝語/彝语) and, as such, is the only one taught in schools, both in its oral and written forms.

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Obesity

Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems.

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Office of the Secretary of Defense

The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) is a headquarters-level staff of the Department of Defense of the United States of America.

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Official script

An official script is a writing system that is specifically designated to be official in the constitutions or other applicable laws of countries, states, and other jurisdictions.

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Old Uyghur alphabet

The Old Uyghur alphabet was used for writing the Old Uyghur language, a variety of Old Turkic spoken in Turfan that is an ancestor of the modern Yugur language.

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One-child policy

The family planning policy, known as the one-child policy in the West, is a population control policy of the People's Republic of China.

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One-China policy

The One-China policy (simplified Chinese: 一个中国政策; traditional Chinese: 一個中國政策; pinyin: yī gè Zhōngguó zhèngcè) refers to the policy or view that there is only one state called "China", despite the existence of two governments that claim to be "China".

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Oracle bone script

Oracle bone script is the set of incised (or, rarely, brush-written) ancient Chinese characters found on oracle bones, which were animal bones or turtle shells used in divination in Bronze Age China.

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Outline of China

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to China: The People's Republic of China is the most extensive country in East Asia and the third or fourth most extensive country in the world.

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Pakistan

Pakistan (or; پاكستان ALA-LC), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اسلامی جمہوریۂ پاكستان ALA-LC), is a sovereign country in South Asia.

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Palearctic ecozone

The Palearctic or Palaearctic is one of the eight ecozones constituting the Earth's surface.

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Pamir Mountains

The Pamir Mountains are a mountain range in Central Asia at the junction of the Himalayas with the Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, and Hindu Kush ranges.

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Pangu

Pangu is the first living being and the creator of all in some versions of Chinese mythology.

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Panthay Rebellion

The Panthay Rebellion (1856–1873), known to Chinese as the Du Wenxiu Rebellion (Tu Wen-hsiu Rebellion), was a rebellion of the Muslim Hui people and other (non-Muslim) ethnic minorities against the Manchu rulers of the Qing Dynasty in southwestern Yunnan Province, as part of a wave of Hui-led multi-ethnic unrest.

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Papermaking

Papermaking is the process of making paper, a material which is used universally today for writing and packaging.

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Paramount leader

In modern Chinese political science, the paramount leader, literally "the highest leader" of the Party and the State, is an informal term that is sometimes used to refer to the most prominent political leader in the People's Republic of China at a given point in time.

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Patrick Olivelle

Patrick Olivelle is an Indologist.

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Patriotic Health Campaign

The Patriotic Health Campaign, first started in the 1950s, are campaigns aimed to improve sanitation, hygiene, as well as attack diseases in the People's Republic of China.

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Peking Man

Peking Man, Homo erectus pekinensis, is an example of Homo erectus.

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Peking opera

Peking opera or Beijing opera is a form of traditional Chinese theatre which combines music, vocal performance, mime, dance, and acrobatics.

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Penghu

The Penghu or Pescadores Islands are an archipelago of 64 islands and islets in the Taiwan Strait between China and Taiwan.

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People's commune

The people's commune was the highest of three administrative levels in rural areas of the People's Republic of China during the period from 1958 to 1983 when they were replaced by townships.

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People's Daily

The People's Daily is a daily newspaper in China.

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People's democratic dictatorship

"People's democratic dictatorship" is a phrase incorporated into the Constitution of the People's Republic of China by Mao Zedong, leader the Communist Party of China (CPC).

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People's Liberation Army

The People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces of China under the leadership of the Communist Party (CPC).

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People's Liberation Army Air Force

The People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) is the aerial warfare service branch of the People's Liberation Army, the armed forces of the People's Republic of China.

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People's Liberation Army at Tiananmen Square protests of 1989

During the 1989 student demonstrations in Beijing, the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) played a decisive role in enforcing martial law, suppressing the demonstrations by force and upholding the authority of the Chinese Communist Party.

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People's Liberation Army Ground Force

The People's Liberation Army Ground Force (PLAGF) is the land-based military service branch of the People's Liberation Army and it is the largest and oldest branch of the entire Chinese armed forces.

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People's Liberation Army Navy

The People's Liberation Army Navy (PLA Navy or PLAN) is the naval warfare branch of the People's Liberation Army, the national armed forces of the People's Republic of China.

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Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council

The permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, also known as the Permanent Five, Big Five, or P5, include the following five governments: China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

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Persecution of Falun Gong

The persecution of Falun Gong refers to the campaign initiated in 1999 by the Chinese Communist Party to eliminate the spiritual practice of Falun Gong in China.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi or Parsi (English:; Persian: فارسی), is the predominant modern descendant of Old Persian, a southwestern Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Pharmaceutical drug

A pharmaceutical drug (also referred to as a medicinal product, medicine, medication, or medicament) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.

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Philippines

The Philippines (Pilipinas), officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean.

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Physical fitness

Physical fitness is a general state of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports or occupations.

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Pinophyta

The conifers, division Pinophyta, also known as division Coniferophyta or Coniferae, are one of 12 extant division-level taxa within the Kingdom Plantae (Viridiplantae) and 10 within the extant land plants.

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Pinyin

Pinyin, or Hanyu Pinyin, is the official phonetic system for transcribing the Mandarin pronunciations of Chinese characters into the Latin alphabet in China, Taiwan, and Singapore. It is often used to teach Standard Chinese and a pinyin without diacritic markers is often used in foreign publications to spell Chinese names familiar to non-Chinese and may be used as an input method to enter Chinese characters into computers. The Hanyu Pinyin system was developed in the 1950s based on earlier forms of romanization. It was published by the Chinese government in 1958 and revised several times. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for romanization alone rather than for educational and computer input purposes. The word Hànyǔ means the spoken language of the Han people and pīnyīn literally means "spelled-out sounds".

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Planned economy

A planned economy is the economic system in which decisions regarding production and investment are embodied in a plan formulated by a central authority, usually by a public body such as a government agency.

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Plateau

In geology and earth science, a plateau (or; plural plateaus or plateaux), also called a high plain or tableland, is an area of highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain that is raised significantly above the surrounding area, often with one or more sides with steep slopes.

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Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China

The Standing Committee of the Central Political Bureau of the Communist Party of China, usually known as the Politburo Standing Committee (PSC), is a committee consisting of the top leadership of the Communist Party of China.

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Political freedom

Political freedom (also known as political autonomy or political agency) is a central concept in history and political thought and one of the most important (real or ideal) features of democratic societies.

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Political status of Taiwan

The political status of Taiwan (or the "Taiwan Issue" as referred to by the People's Republic of China, or Mainland Issue or Taiwan Strait Issue as referred to by the Taiwan side) hinges on whether Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu should remain effectively independent as territory of the Republic of China (ROC); become unified with the territories now governed by the People's Republic of China (PRC) under the government of the People's Republic of China; formally declare independence and become the Republic of Taiwan; as well as whether the existence and legal status as a state ("country") of both the Republic of China (ROC) and the People's Republic of China (PRC) is legitimate as a matter of international law, and how much diplomatic recognition either entity receives from the international community.

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Polity

A polity is a state or one of its subordinate civil authorities, such as a province, prefecture, county, municipality, city, or district.

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Pollution in China

Pollution is one aspect of the broader topic of environmental issues in China.

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Popular Science

Popular Science (also known as PopSci) is an American monthly magazine carrying popular science content, which refers to articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects.

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Porcelain

Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between.

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Port of Dalian

The Port of Dalian (38° 55' N 121° 41' E) founded in 1899 lies at the southern tip of Liaodong Peninsula in Liaoning province and is the most northern ice-free port in China.

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Port of Guangzhou

Port of Guangzhou is the main seaport of Guangzhou city, Guangdong province, China.

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Port of Hong Kong

The Port of Hong Kong, located by the South China Sea, is a deepwater seaport dominated by trade in containerised manufactured products, and to a lesser extent raw materials and passengers.

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Port of Ningbo-Zhoushan

The Port of Ningbo-Zhoushan is a Chinese port that is the busiest in the world in terms of cargo tonnage.

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Port of Shanghai

The Port of Shanghai, located in the vicinity of Shanghai, comprises a deep-sea port and a river port.

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Port of Shenzhen

The Port of Shenzhen is one of the busiest and fastest growing ports in the world.

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Port of Tianjin

The Port of Tianjin (Tianjin Gang), formerly known as the Port of Tanggu, is the largest port in Northern China and the main maritime gateway to Beijing.

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Portuguese language

Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Romance language and the sole official language of Portugal, Brazil, Mozambique, Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau and São Tomé and Príncipe.

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Potential superpowers

A potential superpower is a state or a political and economic entity that is speculated to be, or is in the process of becoming, a superpower at some point during the 21st century.

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Poverty in China

Poverty in China refers to the state of relative or absolute material deprivation that affects hundreds of millions of Chinese citizens, particularly those living in rural areas.

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Power projection

Power projection (or force projection) is a term used in military and political science to refer to the capacity of a state to apply all or some of its elements of national power - political, economic, informational, or military - to rapidly and effectively deploy and sustain forces in and from multiple dispersed locations to respond to crises, to contribute to deterrence, and to enhance regional stability.

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Premier of the People's Republic of China

The Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, sometimes also referred to informally as the "Prime Minister", is the Leader of the State Council of China (the "Central People's Government" after 1954), who is the head of government and holds the highest rank (Level 1) in the Civil Service.

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President of India

The President of India is the formal head of the executive and legislature of India and is the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces.

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President of the People's Republic of China

The President of the People's Republic of China (PRC) is the head of state of the People's Republic of China (PRC).

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President of the United States

The President of the United States of America (POTUS) is the elected head of state and head of government of the United States.

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Primary school

A primary school or elementary school is a school in which children receive primary or elementary education from the ages of about five to eleven, coming before secondary school and after preschool.

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Private healthcare

Private healthcare or private medicine is healthcare and medicine provided by entities other than the government.

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Programme for International Student Assessment

The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a worldwide study by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in member and non-member nations of 15-year-old school pupils' scholastic performance on mathematics, science, and reading.

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Property

In the abstract, property is that which belongs to or with something, whether as an attribute or as a component of said thing.

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Prosperity

Prosperity is the state of flourishing, thriving, good fortune and / or successful social status.

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Protest and dissent in China

In spite of restrictions on freedom of association and of speech, a wide variety of protests and dissident movements have proliferated in China, particularly in the decades since the death of Mao Zedong.

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Proto-writing

The early writing systems that emerged in Eurasia in the early 3rd millennium BC were not a sudden invention.

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Provinces of China

Provinces, formally provincial-level administrative divisions or first-level administrative divisions(), are the highest-level Chinese administrative divisions.

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Public company

A public, publicly traded, publicly held company or public corporation is a corporation whose ownership is dispersed among the general public in many shares of stock which are freely traded on a stock exchange or in over the counter markets.

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Punti-Hakka Clan Wars

Punti-Hakka Clan Wars or Hakka-Punti Clan Wars refer to the conflict between the Hakka and Punti in Guangdong, China between 1855 and 1867.

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Purchasing power parity

Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a component of some economic theories and is a technique used to determine the relative value of different currencies.

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Qiangic languages

Qiangic (Ch'iang, Kyang, Tsiang), formerly known as Dzorgaic, is a group of related languages within the Sino-Tibetan language family.

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Qigong

Qigong, qi gong, chi kung, or chi gung is a holistic system of coordinated body posture and movement, breathing, and meditation used for health, spirituality, and martial arts training.

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Qin (state)

Qin (Old Chinese: *; Wade-Giles: Ch'in) was an ancient Chinese state during the Zhou dynasty.

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Qin dynasty

The Qin dynasty was the first imperial dynasty of Ancient China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.

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Qin Shi Huang

Qin Shi Huang (260–210 BCWood, Frances. (2008). China's First Emperor and His Terracotta Warriors, pp. 2–33. Macmillan Publishing, 2008. ISBN 0-312-38112-3.), personal name Ying Zheng, was the King of the state of Qin (r. 246–221 BCDuiker, William J. & al. World History: Volume I: To 1800, 5th ed., p. 78. Thomson Higher Education Publishing, 2006. ISBN 0-495-05053-9.) who conquered all other Warring States and united China in 221 BC.

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Qing conquest of the Ming

The Qing conquest of the Ming, also known as the Ming–Qing transition and as the Manchu conquest of China, was a period of conflict between the Qing dynasty, established by Manchu clan Aisin Gioro in Manchuria (contemporary Northeastern China), and the Ming dynasty of China in the south (various other regional or temporary powers were also associated with events, such as the short-lived Shun dynasty).

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Qing dynasty

The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing, also called the Empire of the Great Qing, or the Manchu dynasty, was the last imperial dynasty of China, ruling from 1644 to 1912 with a brief, abortive restoration in 1917.

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Qingdao Port

The Port of Qingdao is a seaport on the Yellow Sea in the vicinity of Qingdao, Shandong Province, People's Republic of China.

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Qiu Xigui

Qiu Xigui (born 13July 1935) is a Chinese historian, palaeographer, and professor of Fudan University.

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Quartz (publication)

Quartz is the business news publication of Atlantic Media and was launched in 2012.

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Rail transport in China

Rail transport is an important mode of long-distance transportation in the People's Republic of China.

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Rail usage statistics by country

This article gives rail usage statistics by country according to figures provided by International Union of Railways (UIC).

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Rainforest

Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall between.

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Re-education through labor

Re-education through labor (RTL), abbreviated laojiao is a system of administrative detentions in the People's Republic of China which is generally used to detain persons for minor crimes such as petty theft, prostitution, and trafficking illegal drugs, as well as religious or political dissidents such as Falun Gong adherents.

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Records of the Grand Historian

The Records of the Grand Historian (Chinese: Tàishǐgōng shū 太史公書), now known as the Shǐjì 史記 – (Scribe's records), is a monumental history of ancient China and the world finished around 109 BC by the Han dynasty official Sima Qian after having been started by his father, Sima Tan, Grand Astrologer to the imperial court.

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Regional power

In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region.

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Religious persecution

Religious persecution is the systematic mistreatment of an individual or group of individuals as a response to their religious beliefs or affiliations or lack thereof.

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Renewable energy commercialization

Renewable energy commercialization involves the deployment of three generations of renewable energy technologies dating back more than 100 years.

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Renminbi

The renminbi is the official currency of the People's Republic of China.

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Reporters Without Borders

Reporters Without Borders (RWB), or Reporters Sans Frontières (RSF), is a France-based international non-profit, non-governmental organization that promotes and defends freedom of information and freedom of the press.

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Reproductive rights

Reproductive rights are legal rights and freedoms relating to reproduction and reproductive health.

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Republic of China (1912–49)

The Republic of China governed the present-day territories of China, Mongolia and Taiwan at differing times between 1912 and 1949.

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Republic of China Military Academy

The Republic of China Military Academy (ROCMA;; or abbreviated, is the military academy for the army of the Republic of China (Taiwan) and is located in Fengshan District, Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. Previously commonly known as the Whampoa Military Academy, the military academy produced many prestigious commanders who fought in many of China's conflicts in the 20th century, notably the Northern Expedition, the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War. The military academy was officially opened on May 1, 1924 under the Kuomintang (KMT), but the first lessons began on June 16, 1924. The inauguration was on Changzhou Island offshore from the Whampoa (Huangpu) dock in Guangzhou, thus earning its name. During the inaugural ceremonies, Sun Yat-sen delivered a speech that was later to become the lyrics of the national anthem of the Republic of China. It has been considered one of the most important institutions of the Republic of China with National Chengchi University, which is a prestigious incubator for senior civil service. After the Nationalists retreated from mainland China to Taiwan, the academy was re-established as the Republic of China Military Academy in Fongshan District, Kaohsiung City.

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Rhododendron

Rhododendron (from Ancient Greek ῥόδον rhódon "rose" and δένδρον déndron "tree") is a genus of 1,024 species of woody plants in the heath family (Ericaceae), either evergreen or deciduous, and found mainly in Asia, although it is also widespread throughout the Southern Highlands of the Appalachian Mountains of North America.

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Richard Eden

Richard Eden (c.1520–1576) was an alchemist and translator.

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Right to a fair trial

The right to fair trial is an essential right in all countries respecting the rule of law.

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Rio de Janeiro

Rio de Janeiro (January River), or simply Rio, is the second-largest city in Brazil, the sixth-largest city in the Americas, and the world's thirty-fifth-largest city by population.

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River delta

A river delta is a landform that forms at the mouth of a river, where the river flows into an ocean, sea, estuary, lake, or reservoir.

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Robot

A robot is a mechanical or virtual artificial agent, usually an electro-mechanical machine that is guided by a computer program or electronic circuitry.

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Rogue state

Rogue state is a controversial term applied by some international theorists to states they consider threatening to the world's peace.

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Romance of the Three Kingdoms

Romance of the Three Kingdoms, attributed to Luo Guanzhong, is a historical novel set in the turbulent years towards the end of the Han dynasty and the Three Kingdoms period in Chinese history, starting in 169 AD and ending with the reunification of the land in 280.

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Romanization

Romanization or latinization (or romanisation, latinisation: see spelling differences), in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so.

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Rubber stamp (politics)

A rubber stamp, as a political metaphor, refers to a person or institution with considerable de jure power but little de facto power; one that rarely disagrees with more powerful organs.

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Rupert Hoogewerf

Rupert Hoogewerf, also known by his Chinese name Hu Run, born in 1970 in Luxembourg, is the publisher of the Hurun Report, a monthly magazine best known for its "China Rich List", a ranking of the wealthiest individuals in China.

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Russia

Russia (Ru-Россия.ogg), also officially known as the Russian Federation (a), is a country in northern Eurasia.

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Salar language

Salar is a Turkic language spoken by the Salar people, who mainly live in the provinces of Qinghai and Gansu in China; some also live in Yining, Xinjiang.

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Sanskrit

Sanskrit (Sanskrit: or, originally, "refined speech") is the primary sacred language of Hinduism, a philosophical language in Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism, and a literary language that was in use as a lingua franca in Greater India.

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Sanya

Sanya is the southernmost city on Hainan Island, and one of the three prefecture-level cities of Hainan Province, in Southeast China.

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Sarikoli language

The Sarikoli language (also Sariqoli, Selekur, Sarikul, Sariqul, Sariköli) is a member of the Pamir subgroup of the Southeastern Iranian languages spoken by Tajiks in China.

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Satellite navigation

A satellite navigation or satnav system is a system of satellites that provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning with global coverage.

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Scar literature

Scar literature or literature of the wounded is a genre of Chinese literature which emerged in the late 1970s, soon after the death of Mao Zedong, portraying the sufferings of cadres and intellectuals during the tragic experiences of the Cultural Revolution and the rule of the Gang of Four.

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Scarborough Shoal standoff

The Scarborough Shoal standoff refers to tensions between China (PRC) and the Philippines which began on April 8, 2012 over the Philippine Navy apprehension of eight mainland Chinese fishing vessels in the disputed Scarborough Shoal.

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Scarlet fever

Scarlet fever (also called scarlatina in older literature) is an infectious disease which most commonly affects children.

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Scholar-official

Scholar-officials, also known as Scholar-gentlemen, Scholar-bureaucrats or Scholar-gentry were civil servants appointed by the emperor of China to perform day-to-day governance from the Han dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty in 1912, China's last imperial dynasty.

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Scientific American

Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.

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Sea denial

Sea denial is a military term describing attempts to deny the enemy's ability to use the sea without necessarily attempting to control the sea for its own use.

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Second Artillery Corps

The Second Artillery Corps (SAC) is the strategic missile forces of the People's Republic of China.

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Second Opium War

The Second Opium War, the Second Anglo-Chinese War, the Second China War, the Arrow War, or the Franco-British expedition to China, was a war pitting the British Empire and the Second French Empire against the Qing dynasty (present day China), lasting from 1856 to 1860.

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Second Sino-Japanese War

The Second Sino-Japanese War (July 7, 1937 – September 9, 1945), so named due to the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894–95, was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from 1937 to 1945.

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Second-class citizen

A second-class citizen is a person who is systematically discriminated against within a state or other political jurisdiction, despite their nominal status as a citizen or legal resident there.

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Security (finance)

A security is a tradable financial asset.

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Self-Strengthening Movement

The Self-Strengthening Movement, c. 1861–1895, was a period of institutional reforms initiated in China during the late Qing dynasty following a series of military defeats and concessions to foreign powers.

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Senkaku Islands dispute

The Senkaku Islands dispute, or Diaoyu Islands dispute, concerns a territorial dispute over a group of uninhabited islands known as the Senkaku Islands in Japan, the Diaoyu Islands in the People's Republic of China (PRC), and Tiaoyutai Islands in the Republic of China (ROC or Taiwan).

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Severe acute respiratory syndrome

Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a viral respiratory disease of zoonotic origin caused by the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV).

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Sexism

Sexism or gender discrimination is prejudice or discrimination based on a person's sex or gender.

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Shandong cuisine

Shandong cuisine, more commonly known in Chinese as Lu cuisine, is one of the Eight Culinary Traditions of Chinese cuisine and is also ranked among the Four Great Traditions.

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Shang dynasty

The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.

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Shanghai

Shanghai is the largest Chinese city by population, p. 395.

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Shanghai Cooperation Organisation

The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO;; Шанхайская организация сотрудничества (ШОС), Shankhayskaya organizatsiya sotrudnichestva), or Shanghai Pact, is a Eurasian political, economic and military organisation which was founded in 2001 in Shanghai by the leaders of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan.

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Shanghai Maglev Train

The Shanghai Maglev Train or Shanghai Transrapid is a magnetic levitation train, or maglev line that operates in Shanghai, China.

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Shanghai Metro

The Shanghai Metro is a rapid transit system in Shanghai, China, operating urban and suburban rail transit services to 14 of its 17 municipal districts (except Fengxian, Jinshan and Chongming) and to Huaqiao Township, Kunshan, Jiangsu Province.

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Shanghai Pudong International Airport

Shanghai Pudong International Airport is the primary international airport serving Shanghai, and a major aviation hub for Asia.

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Shanghainese

No description.

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Shen (Chinese religion)

Shen is a key word in Chinese philosophy, religion, and traditional medicine.

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Shenyang J-11

The Shenyang J-11 (Chinese: 歼-11) with NATO reporting name: Flanker B+ is a single-seat, twin-engine, jet fighter, whose airframe is based on the Soviet-designed Sukhoi Su-27 (NATO reporting name: Flanker) air superiority fighter.

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Shenyang J-15

The Shenyang J-15 (Chinese: 歼-15), also known as Flying Shark (Fēishā), is a carrier-based fighter aircraft in development by the Shenyang Aircraft Corporation and the 601 Institute for the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy's aircraft carriers.

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Shenyang J-16

The Shenyang J-16 (Chinese: 歼-16) is a strike fighter designed and manufactured by Shenyang Aircraft Corporation, China.

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Shenyang J-31

The Shenyang J-31, (or "FC-31 fifth Generation Multi-Purpose Medium Fighter") also known as "Gyrfalcon" (鹘鹰), or "Falcon Hawk" by some military enthusiasts, - Wired.com, October 31, 2012 is a twin-engine, mid-size fifth-generation jet fighter currently under development by Shenyang Aircraft Corporation.

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Shenzhen

Shenzhen is a major city in Guangdong Province, China.

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Shenzhen Metro

The Shenzhen Metro is the subway or underground system for the city of Shenzhen in Guangdong province, China.

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Shenzhou 5

Shenzhou 5 — was the first human spaceflight mission of the Chinese space program, launched on October 15, 2003.

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Short-range ballistic missile

A short-range ballistic missile (SRBM) is a ballistic missile with a range of about or less.

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Shun dynasty

The Shun dynasty, or Great Shun was a short-lived dynasty created in the Ming-Qing transition from Ming to Qing rule in Chinese history.

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Sichuan cuisine

Sichuan cuisine, Szechwan cuisine, or Szechuan cuisine (or; or) is a style of Chinese cuisine originating from Sichuan province in southwestern China.

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Silk Road

The Silk Road or Silk Route is an ancient network of trade and cultural transmission routes that were central to cultural interaction through regions of the Asian continent connecting the West and East by merchants, pilgrims, monks, soldiers, nomads, and urban dwellers from China and India to the Mediterranean Sea during various periods of time.

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Simplified Chinese characters

Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Xiandai Hanyu Tongyong Zibiao (List of Commonly Used Characters in Modern Chinese) for use in mainland China.

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Singapore

Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, and often referred to as the ''Lion City'', the ''Garden City'', and the ''Red Dot'', is a leading global city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.

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Single-party state

A single-party state, one-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which a single political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.

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Sinitic languages

The Sinitic languages, are a family of Sino-Tibetan languages, often synonymous with the group of Chinese varieties.

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Sino-Indian border dispute

Sovereignty over two large and various smaller separated pieces of territory have been contested between China and India.

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Sino-Platonic Papers

Sino-Platonic Papers is a scholarly monographic series published by the University of Pennsylvania.

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Sino-Tibetan languages

The Sino-Tibetan languages are a family of more than 400 languages spoken in East Asia, Southeast Asia and parts of South Asia. The family is second only to the Indo-European languages in terms of the number of native speakers. The Sino-Tibetan languages with the most native speakers are the varieties of Chinese (1.2 billion speakers), Burmese (33 million) and the Tibetic languages (8 million). Many Sino-Tibetan languages are spoken by small communities in remote mountain areas and are poorly documented. Several low-level groupings are well established, but the higher-level structure of the family remains unclear. Although the family is often presented as divided into Sinitic and Tibeto-Burman branches, a common origin of the non-Sinitic languages has never been demonstrated, and is rejected by an increasing number of researchers. A minority of researchers call the whole family "Tibeto-Burman", and the name "Trans-Himalayan" has also been proposed.

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Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China

The Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China, also referred to as the 2010 Chinese Census, was conducted by the National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China with a zero hour of November 1, 2010.

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Snooker

Snooker is a cue sport played on a table covered with a green cloth or baize, with pockets at each of the four corners and in the middle of each of the long side cushions.

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Socialism with Chinese characteristics

Socialism with Chinese characteristics, meaning socialism adapted to Chinese conditions, is the official ideology of the Communist Party of China (CPC) based upon scientific socialism.

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Socialist market economy

The socialist market economy is the economic model employed by the People's Republic of China.

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Socialist state

The term socialist state or socialist republic usually refers to any state that is constitutionally dedicated to the construction of a socialist society.

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Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication

The Society for Worldwide Interbank Financial Telecommunication (SWIFT) provides a network that enables financial institutions worldwide to send and receive information about financial transactions in a secure, standardized and reliable environment.

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Song dynasty

The Song dynasty was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.

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South Asia

South Asia or Southern Asia is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.

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South China Sea

The South China Sea is a marginal sea that is part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from the Singapore and Malacca Straits to the Strait of Taiwan of around.

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South Korea

South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (lit. The Republic of Great Han; ROK), and commonly referred to as Korea, is a sovereign state in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula.

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Southwest China

Southwest China is a region of the People's Republic of China defined by governmental bureaus that includes the municipality of Chongqing, the provinces of Sichuan, Yunnan and Guizhou, and the Tibet Autonomous Region.

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Sovereign state

In international law, a sovereign state is a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.

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Soviet Union

The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a) abbreviated to USSR (r) or shortened to the Soviet Union (p), was a Marxist–Leninist state on the Eurasian continent that existed between 1922 and 1991.

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Soy milk

Soy milk, also referred to as soymilk or soya milk, is a plant milk produced by soaking dried soybeans and grinding them in water.

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Special administrative region

The Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China (SAR; RAE) are autonomous territories that fall within the sovereignty of the People's Republic of China, yet do not form part of Mainland China (except for Wolong SAR).

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Special economic zone

The term special economic zone (SEZ) is commonly used as a generic term to refer to any modern economic zone.

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Sport in China

Although China has long been associated with the martial arts, sport in China today consists of a variety of competitive sports played in China, including mainland China, Hong Kong and Macau.

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Spring and Autumn period

The Spring and Autumn period was a period in Chinese history from approximately 771 to 476 BC (or according to some authorities until 403 BC).

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Spring Temple Buddha

The Spring Temple Buddha (and) is a statue depicting Vairocana Buddha located in the Zhaocun township of Lushan County, Henan, China, built from 1997 to 2008.

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SSN (hull classification symbol)

An SSN is a nuclear-powered general-purpose attack submarine.

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Standard Chinese

Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin and Putonghua, sometimes simply referred to as "Mandarin", is a standard language that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan, and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.

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Standard of living

Standard of living refers to the level of wealth, comfort, material goods and necessities available to a certain socioeconomic class in a certain geographic area.

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Standard Tibetan

Standard Tibetan is the most widely spoken form of the Tibetic languages.

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Standard Zhuang

Standard Zhuang (autonym) is the official standardized form of the Zhuang languages, which are a branch of the Northern Tai languages.

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State Administration for Religious Affairs

The State Administration for Religious Affairs (Simplified Chinese: 国家宗教事务局; Traditional Chinese: 國家宗教事務局; Pinyin: Guójiā Zōngjiào Shìwùjú), abbreviated SARA, is a functioning department under the State Council which oversees religious affairs and issues for the People's Republic of China.

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State capitalism

State capitalism is usually described as an economic system in which commercial (i.e. for-profit) economic activity is undertaken by the state, where the means of production are organized and managed as business enterprises, including the processes of capital accumulation, wage labor, and centralized management.

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State Council of the People's Republic of China

The State Council, constitutionally synonymous with the Central People's Government since 1954 (particularly in relation to local governments), is the chief administrative authority of the People's Republic of China.

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State-owned enterprise

A state-owned enterprise (SOE) otherwise known as a: state-owned company, state-owned entity, state enterprise, publicly owned corporation, government business enterprise, crown corporation, government-owned corporation, commercial government agency, public sector undertaking, or parastatal is a legal entity that undertakes commercial activities on behalf of an owner government.

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Stealth aircraft

Stealth aircraft are designed to avoid detection using a variety of stealth technologies that reduce reflection/emission of radar, infrared, visible light, radio-frequency (RF) spectrum, and audio, collectively known as stealth technology.

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STEM fields

STEM is an acronym referring to the academic disciplines of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

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Stephen G. Haw

Stephen G. Haw (b. 1951) is a botanical taxonomist and historian, specializing in subjects relating to China.

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Stockholm International Peace Research Institute

Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) is an independent international institute in Sweden, dedicated to research into conflict, armaments, arms control and disarmament.

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String of Pearls (Indian Ocean)

The String of Pearls theory is a geopolitical theory regarding potential Chinese intentions in the Indian Ocean region.

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Stunted growth

Stunted growth, also known as stunting and nutritional stunting, is a reduced growth rate in human development.

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Submarine

A submarine is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.

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Subtropics

The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropic circle of latitude (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and the 38th parallel in each hemisphere.

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Sui dynasty

The Sui dynasty was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China. Preceded by the Southern and Northern Dynasties, it unified China for the first time after over a century of north-south division. It was followed by the Tang dynasty. Founded by Emperor Wen of Sui, the Sui dynasty capital was Chang'an (which was renamed Daxing, 581–605) and the later at Luoyang (605–614). Emperors Wen and Yang undertook various centralized reforms including the equal-field system, intended to reduce economic inequality and improve agricultural productivity; the institution of the Three Departments and Six Ministries system; and the standardization and re-unification of the coinage. They also spread and encouraged Buddhism throughout the empire and undertook monumental construction projects including expanding the Great Wall and digging the Grand Canal. After its costly and disastrous military campaigns against the Korean kingdom of Goguryeo ended in defeat by 614, the dynasty disintegrated under a series of popular revolts culminating in the assassination of Emperor Yang by his ministers in 618. The dynasty's short duration—only thirty seven years—is often attributed to its heavy demands on its subjects, including taxation and the compulsory labor demanded by its ambitious construction projects. The dynasty is often compared to the earlier Qin dynasty, which also undertook wide-ranging reforms and construction projects yet lasted only a few decades.

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Sui language

The Sui language is a Tai–Kadai language spoken by the Sui people of Guizhou province in China.

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Sukhoi Su-30

The Sukhoi Su-30 (Cyrillic: Сухой Су-30; NATO reporting name: Flanker-C) is a twin-engine, two-seat supermaneuverable fighter aircraft developed by Russia's Sukhoi Aviation Corporation.

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Sun Yat-sen

Sun Yat-sen (12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925)Singtao daily.

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Supercomputer

A supercomputer is a computer with a high-level computational capacity compared to a general-purpose computer.

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Supreme People's Court

The Supreme People's Court is the highest court in the mainland area of the People's Republic of China.

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Surrender of Japan

The surrender of the Empire of Japan was announced by Imperial Japan on August 15 and formally signed on September 2, 1945, bringing the hostilities of World War II to a close.

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Tai chi

Often shortened to t'ai chi, taiji or tai chi in English usage, T'ai chi ch'uan or tàijíquán is an internal Chinese martial art practiced for both its defense training and its health benefits.

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Tai–Kadai languages

The Tai–Kadai languages, also known as Kra–Dai, Daic, and Kadai are a language family of highly tonal languages found in southern China and Southeast Asia.

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Taipei

Taipei (literally means "North of Tai(wan)"), officially known as Taipei City, is the capital city and a special municipality of Taiwan.

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Taiping Rebellion

The Taiping Rebellion or Taiping Civil War (simplified Chinese: 太平天国运动; traditional Chinese: 太平天國運動; pinyin: Taìpíng Tīanguó Yùndòng) was a major civil war in China that lasted from 1850 to 1864, which was fought between the established Manchu-led Qing dynasty and the Christian millenarian movement of the Heavenly Kingdom of Peace. The Taiping Civil War began in the southwestern province of Guangxi when local officials launched a campaign of persecution against a Christian sect known as the God Worshipping Society led by Hong Xiuquan, who believed himself to be the younger brother of Jesus Christ. The Taiping Civil War was mostly fought in the provinces of Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Anhui, Jiangxi, and Hubei, but over 14 years of war, the Taiping Army had marched through every regularized province of China proper except Gansu. The war was the largest in China since the Qing conquest in 1644, and ranks as one of the bloodiest wars in human history, the bloodiest civil war, and the largest conflict of the nineteenth century with estimates of war dead ranging from 20 to 70 million dead, as well as millions more displaced. Hostilities began on January 1, 1851 when the Qing Green Standard Army launched an attack against the God Worshipping Society at the town of Jintian, Guangxi. Hong declared himself the Heavenly King of the Heavenly Kingdom of Peace (or Taiping Heavenly Kingdom), from which the term Taipings has often been applied to them in the English language. The Taipings began marching north in September 1851 to escape Qing forces closing in on them. On March 19, 1853, the Taipings captured the city of Nanjing and Hong declared it the Heavenly Capital of his kingdom. For a decade, the Taiping occupied and fought across much of the mid and lower Yangzi valley, some of the wealthiest and most productive lands in the Qing empire. The Taiping nearly managed to capture the Qing capital of Beijing with a northern expedition launched in May 1853, and were quite successful in capturing large parts of Anhui, Jiangxi, and Hubei provinces with a western expedition launched in June 1853. Qing imperial troops proved to be largely ineffective in halting Taiping advances, focusing on a perpetually stalemated siege of Nanjing. In Hunan Province, a local irregular army, called the Xiang Army or Hunan Army, under the personal leadership of Zeng Guofan, became the main armed force fighting for the Qing against the Taiping. Zeng’s Xiang Army proved effective in gradually turning back the Taiping advance in the western theater of the war. In 1856, the Taiping were weakened after infighting after an attempted coup led by the East King, Yang Xiuqing. During this time, the Xiang Army managed to gradually retake much of Hubei and Jiangxi province. In May 1860, the Taiping defeated the imperial forces that had been besieging Nanjing since 1853, eliminating imperial forces from the region and opening the way for a successful invasion of southern Jiangsu and Zhejiang province, the wealthiest region of the Qing Empire. While Taiping forces were preoccupied in Jiangsu, Zeng’s forces moved down the Yangzi River capturing Anqing on September 5, 1861. In May 1862, the Xiang Army began directly sieging Nanjing and managed to hold firm despite numerous attempts by the Taiping Army to dislodge them with superior numbers. Hong died on June 1, 1864, and Nanjing fell shortly after on July 19. After the fall of Nanjing, Zeng Guofan and many of his protégées, such as Li Hongzhang and Zuo Zongtang, were celebrated as saviors of the Qing empire and were some of the most powerful men in late-nineteenth century China. A small remainder of loyal Taiping forces continued to fight in northern Zhejiang, rallying behind Hong’s teenage son Tianguifu, but after Tianguifu’s capture on October 25, 1864, Taiping resistance was gradually pushed into the highlands of Jiangxi, Zhejiang, Fujian, and finally Guangdong, where the last Taiping loyalist, Wang Haiyang, was defeated in January 29, 1866.

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Taishanese

Taishanese, or Toishanese (Taishanese), is a dialect of Yue Chinese.

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Taiwan

Taiwan (see below), officially the Republic of China (ROC) is a sovereign state in East Asia.

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Taiwan Province, People's Republic of China

Taiwan Province, People's Republic of China is a disputed territory claimed by the People's Republic of China as one of its provinces under its constitution.

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Taiwanese aborigines

Taiwanese aborigines is the term commonly applied to the indigenous peoples of Taiwan, who constitute about two percent of the island's population, or more than 500,000 people.

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Tajikistan

Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Çumhuriji Toçikiston/Jumhuriyi Tojikiston; جمهوری تاجیکستان; Респу́блика Таджикистан, Respublika Tadzhikistan), is a mountainous landlocked sovereign country in Central Asia.

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Tajiks of Xinjiang

Chinese Tajiks or Mountain Tajiks in China (Sarikoli:, Tujik), including Sarikolis (majority) and Wakhis (minority) in China, are an extension of the Pamiri ethnic group that lives in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China.

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Taklamakan Desert

The Taklamakan Desert, also known as Taklimakan and Teklimakan, is a desert in southwest Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwest China.

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Tang campaigns against the Western Turks

The Tang campaigns against the Western Turks, known as the Western Tujue in Chinese sources, were a series of military campaigns conducted during the Tang Dynasty against the Western Turkic Khaganate in the 7th century CE.

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Tang dynasty

The Tang dynasty, was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.

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Taoism

Taoism (sometimes Daoism) is a philosophical, ethical or religious tradition of Chinese origin, or faith of Chinese exemplification, that emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').

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Taxus

Taxus is a genus of small coniferous trees or shrubs in the yew family Taxaceae.

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Telephone numbers in China

Telephone numbers in China are organized and assigned according to the Chinese Telephone Code Plan of mainland China.

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Teochew dialect

The Teochew variety (Chaozhou dialect:; Shantou dialect) of Southern Min is a variety of Chinese spoken in the Chaoshan region of eastern Guangdong and by the Teochew diaspora around the world.

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Territorial changes of the People's Republic of China

Since its formation on 1 October 1949 the People's Republic of China's territorial claims have frequently been revised.

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Tertiary education

Tertiary education, also referred to as third stage, third level, and post-secondary education, is the educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education.

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Thai language

Thai, also known precisely as Siamese or Central Thai, is the national and official language of Thailand and the native language of the Thai people and the vast majority of Thai Chinese.

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The Christian Science Monitor

The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is an international news organization that delivers global coverage via its website, weekly magazine, daily news briefing, email newsletters, Amazon Kindle subscription, and mobile site.

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The Daily Telegraph

The Daily Telegraph is a British daily morning English-language broadsheet newspaper, published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed throughout the United Kingdom and internationally.

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The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited in offices in London.

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The Guardian

The Guardian is a British national daily newspaper.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (NYT) is an American daily newspaper, founded and continuously published in New York City since September 18, 1851, by the New York Times Company.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is an American daily newspaper.

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The Washington Times

The Washington Times is a daily broadsheet published at 3600 New York Avenue NE, Washington, D.C., United States.

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The World Factbook

The World Factbook (ISSN; also known as the CIA World Factbook) is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.

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Three Kingdoms

The Three Kingdoms (AD 220–280), a tripartite division between the states of Wei (魏), Shu (蜀), and Wu (吳), To further distinguish the three states from other historical Chinese states of the same name, historians have added a relevant character: Wei is also known as Cao Wei (曹魏), Shu is also known as Shu Han (蜀漢), and Wu is also known as Dong (or Eastern) Wu (東吳).

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Three Principles of the People

The Three Principles of the People, also translated as Three People's Principles, San-min Doctrine, or Tridemism is a political philosophy developed by Sun Yat-sen as part of a philosophy to make China a free, prosperous, and powerful nation.

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Three teachings

In Chinese philosophy, the phrase three teachings refers to Confucianism, Taoism, and Buddhism when considered as a harmonious aggregate.

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Tian Shan

The Tian Shan (Old Turkic: 𐰴𐰣 𐱅𐰭𐰼𐰃, Tenğri tağ), is a large system of mountain ranges located in Central Asia.

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Tiananmen Square protests of 1989

The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, commonly known as the June Fourth Incident (六四事件) or '89 Democracy Movement (八九民运) in Chinese,Events named by date in Chinese are conventionally named by the number of the month and the date, followed by the type of event.

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Tiangong-1

Tiangong-1 is China's first space station, serving as both a manned laboratory and an experimental testbed to demonstrate orbital rendezvous and docking capabilities.

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Tianjin

Tianjin (Tianjinese:; Postal map spelling: Tientsin) is a metropolis in coastal northeastern China and one of the five national central cities of the People's Republic of China, with a total municipal population of 15,200,000.

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Tibet

Tibet is a region on the Tibetan Plateau in Asia northeast of the Himalayas.

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Tibet Autonomous Region

The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province-level autonomous region of the People's Republic of China (PRC).

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Tibetan alphabet

The Tibetan alphabet is an abugida of Indic origin used to write the Tibetan language as well as Dzongkha, the Sikkimese language, Ladakhi, and sometimes Balti.

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Tibetan Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism is the body of religious doctrine and institutions characteristic of Buddhism in Tibet, Mongolia, Tuva, Bhutan, Kalmykia, Buryatia and certain regions of the Himalayas, including northern Nepal, and India (particularly in Arunachal Pradesh, Ladakh, Dharamsala, Lahaul and Spiti district in Himachal Pradesh and Sikkim).

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Tibetan people

The Tibetan people are an ethnic group that is native to Tibet.

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Tibetan Plateau

The Tibetan Plateau, also known in China as the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau or the Qingzang Plateau or Himalayan Plateau, is a vast elevated plateau in Central Asia or East Asia, covering most of the Tibet Autonomous Region and Qinghai Province in western China, as well as part of Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir state of India.

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Tibeto-Burman languages

The Tibeto-Burman languages are the non-Sinitic members of the Sino-Tibetan language family, over 400 of which are spoken throughout the highlands of Southeast Asia, as well as lowland areas in Myanmar (Burma).

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Time (magazine)

Time (styled within the magazine as TIME) is an American weekly news magazine published in New York City.

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Time in China

Time in China follows a single standard time offset of UTC+08:00, which is eight hours ahead of Greenwich Mean Time, despite that China spans five geographical time zones.

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Timeline of late anti-Qing rebellions

Numerous rebellions against China's Qing Dynasty took place during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, prior to the abdication of the last Emperor of China, Puyi, in February 1912.

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Tobacco smoking

Tobacco smoking is the practice of burning tobacco and inhaling the smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).

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Tofu

Tofu, also known as bean curd, is a food made by coagulating soy milk and then pressing the resulting curds into soft white blocks.

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TOP500

The TOP500 project ranks and details the 500 most powerful (non-distributed) computer systems in the world.

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Topography

Topography is a field of geoscience and planetary science comprising the study of surface shape and features of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids.

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Torture

Torture is the act of deliberately inflicting severe physical or psychological pain and possibly injury to an organism, usually to one who is physically restrained or otherwise under the torturer's control or custody and unable to defend against what is being done to him or her.

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Total fertility rate

The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, period total fertility rate (PTFR) or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.

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Tourism in China

Tourism in China has greatly expanded over the last few decades since the beginning of reform and opening.

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Traditional Chinese characters

Traditional Chinese characters (Pinyin) are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946.

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Traditional Chinese medicine

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a broad range of medicine practices sharing common concepts which have been developed in China and are based on a tradition of more than 2,000 years, including various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (Tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy.

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Trans-Karakoram Tract

The Trans-Karakoram Tract also known as Shaksgam or the Shaksgam Tract is an area of nearly along both sides of the Shaksgam River entirely administered by the People's Republic of China as a part of Kargilik County and Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County in the Kashgar Prefecture of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, but claimed by Pakistan until 1963.

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Treasure voyages

In Chinese history, the treasure voyages were the seven Ming-era maritime voyages of the treasure fleet between 1405 and 1433.

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Treaty of Nanking

The Treaty of Nanking, formally called the Treaty of Peace, Friendship and Commerce between Her Majesty the Queen of Great Britain and Ireland and the Emperor of China, was signed on the 29August 1842 to mark the end of the First Opium War (1839–42) between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Qing dynasty of China.

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Tsung-Dao Lee

Tsung-Dao Lee (T. D. Lee) (born November 24, 1926) is a Chinese-born American physicist, known for his work on parity violation, the Lee Model, particle physics, relativistic heavy ion (RHIC) physics, nontopological solitons and soliton stars.

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Tujia people

The Tujia (Tujia: Bizika; Chinese: 土家族; pinyin: Tǔjiāzú), with a total population of over 8 million, is the 8th largest ethnic minority in the People's Republic of China.

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Turkic languages

The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five languages, spoken by Turkic peoples from Southeastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are proposed to be part of the controversial Altaic language family.

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Turpan Depression

The Turpan Depression or Turfan Depression is a fault-bounded trough located around and south of the city-oasis of Turpan, in the Xinjiang Autonomous Region in far western China, about southeast of the regional capital Ürümqi.

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Twenty-Four Histories

The Twenty-Four Histories, also known as the Standard Histories (zhengshi 正史) are the Chinese official historical books covering a period from 3000 BC to the Ming dynasty in the 17th century.

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Type 99 tank

The Type 99 is a third-generation main battle tank (MBT) fielded by the Chinese People's Liberation Army.

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Typhoid fever

Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a symptomatic bacterial infection due to Salmonella typhi.

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UNESCO

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN).

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation.

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United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758

The United Nations General Assembly Resolution 2758 was passed in response to the United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1668 that required any change in China's representation in the UN be determined by a two-thirds vote referring to Article 18 of the UN Charter.

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United Nations Security Council

The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations and is charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.

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United States Congress

The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States consisting of two houses: the Senate and the House of Representatives.

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United States Department of Defense

The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.

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United States dollar

The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, US dollar or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its overseas territories.

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United States Treasury security

United States Treasury Securities are government debt instruments issued by the United States Department of the Treasury to finance the national debt of the United States.

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Universal suffrage

Universal suffrage (also universal adult suffrage, general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to adult citizens (or subjects), though it may also mean extending that right to minors (Demeny voting) and non-citizens.

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University of California Press

University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.

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Unmanned aerial vehicle

An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone and also referred to as a remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), is an aircraft without a human pilot aboard.

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Uprising of the Five Barbarians

The Uprising of the Five Barbarians refers to a series of uprisings between 304 and 316 by non-Han Chinese peoples living in North China against the Jin dynasty (265–420).

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Urban rail transit in China

Urban rail transit in the People's Republic of China encompasses a broad range of urban and suburban electric passenger rail mass transit systems including subway, light rail, tram and even maglev.

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USA Today

USA Today is a national American daily middle-market newspaper published by the Gannett Company.

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Uyghur Arabic alphabet

The Uyghur Perso-Arabic alphabet (or UEY) is an Arabic alphabet used for writing the Uyghur language, primarily by Uyghurs living in China.

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Uyghur language

Uyghur or Uighur (Uyghur tili, Uyghurche), formerly known as Eastern Turki, is a Turkic language with 8 to 11 million speakers, spoken primarily by the Uyghur people in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of Western China.

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Uyghurs

The Uyghurs (Old Turkic) are a Turkic ethnic group living in Eastern and Central Asia.

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Varieties of Chinese

Chinese (/ Hànyǔ) or Sinitic is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family, consisting of hundreds of local language varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible.

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Vietnam

Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (SRV), is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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Wa language

Wa (Va) is the language of the Wa people of Burma and China.

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Wang Lijun incident

The Wang Lijun incident is a major Chinese political scandal which began in February 2012 when Wang Lijun, vice-mayor of Chongqing, was abruptly demoted, after revealing to the United States Consulate details of British businessman Neil Heywood's murder and subsequent cover-up.

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Wang Yangming

Wang Yangming (31 October 1472 – 9 January 1529), courtesy name Bo'an, was a Chinese idealist Neo-Confucian philosopher, official, educationist, calligraphist and general during the Ming dynasty.

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Warring States period

The Warring States period is a period in ancient China following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the victory of the state of Qin in 221 BC, creating a unified China under the Qin dynasty.

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Water Margin

Water Margin (Shui Hu Zhuan, sometimes abbreviated to Shui Hu), also translated as Outlaws of the Marsh, Tale of the Marshes, All Men Are Brothers, Men of the Marshes, or The Marshes of Mount Liang, is a novel attributed to Shi Nai'an.

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Water scarcity

Water scarcity is the lack of sufficient available water resources to meet the demands of water usage within a region.

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Water supply and sanitation in China

Water supply and sanitation in China is undergoing a massive transition while facing numerous challenges such as rapid urbanization, a widening gap between rich and poor as well as urban and rural areas.

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Welfare state

A welfare state is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the economic and social well-being of its citizens.

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Wen Jiabao

Wen Jiabao (born 15 September 1942) was the sixth Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, serving as China's head of government for a decade.

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Western Regions

The Western Regions or Xiyu (Hsi-yu) was a historical name specified in the Chinese chronicles between the 3rd century BC to the 8th century AD that referred to the regions west of Yumen Pass, most often Central Asia or sometimes more specifically the easternmost portion of it (e.g. Altishahr or the Tarim Basin in southern Xinjiang), though it was sometimes used more generally to refer to other regions to the west of China as well, such as the Indian subcontinent (as in the novel Journey to the West).

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Western Yugur language

Western Yugur (Western Yugur: yoɣïr lar (Yugur speech) or yoɣïr śoz (Yugur word)) is the Turkic language spoken by the Yugur people.

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Western Zhou

The Western Zhou period (1046–771 BC) was the first half of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China.

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When China Rules the World

When China Rules the World: The End of the Western World and the Birth of a New Global Order is a book by British journalist and scholar Martin Jacques.

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WIN/GIA

The Worldwide Independent Network/Gallup International Association (WIN/GIA) is an international consortium of independent market research and polling firms.

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Wired (magazine)

Wired is a full-color monthly American magazine, published in both print and online editions, that reports on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy and politics.

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World Bank

The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programs.

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World energy consumption

World energy consumption refers to the total energy used by all of human civilization.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is concerned with international public health.

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World Trade Organization

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization which regulates international trade.

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World War II

World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.

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World's busiest airport

The definition of world's busiest airport has been specified by the Airports Council International in Geneva, Switzerland.

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Writing system

A writing system is any conventional method of visually representing verbal communication.

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Written vernacular Chinese

Written Vernacular Chinese refers to forms of written Chinese based on the varieties of Chinese spoken throughout China, in contrast to Classical Chinese, the written standard used during imperial China to the early twentieth century.

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Wu Chinese

Wu (Suzhou Wu:, Shanghai Wu) is a group of linguistically similar and historically related varieties of Chinese primarily spoken in Zhejiang province, the municipality of Shanghai, and southern Jiangsu province.

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Wu Sangui

Wu Sangui (courtesy name Changbai (長白) or Changbo (長伯); 1612 – 2 October 1678) was a Chinese military general who was instrumental in the fall of the Ming Dynasty and the establishment of the Qing Dynasty in 1644.

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Wuxia

Wuxia (IPA), which literally means "martial hero", is a genre of Chinese fiction concerning the adventures of martial artists in ancient China.

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Xi Jinping

Xi Jinping (pronounced; born 15 June 1953) is the general secretary of the Communist Party of China, the president of the People's Republic of China, and the chairman of the Central Military Commission.

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Xi River

The Xi River is the western tributary of the Pearl River in China.

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Xi'an Incident

The Xi'an Incident of December 1936, an important turning point in Chinese modern history, took place in the city of Xi'an during the Chinese Civil War between the ruling Kuomintang (KMT) and the insurgent Chinese Communist Party and just before the Second Sino-Japanese War.

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Xia dynasty

The Xia dynasty (c. 2070 – c. 1600 BC) is the first dynasty in traditional Chinese history.

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Xiang Chinese

Xiang (Hsiang) or imprecisely Hunanese, is a group of linguistically similar and historically related varieties of Chinese, spoken mainly in Hunan province but also in a few parts of Guangxi, Sichuan and Shaanxi.

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Xiangqi

Xiangqi (Chinese: 象棋, p Xiàngqí), also called Chinese chess, is a strategy board game for two players.

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Xi–Li Administration

The Xi–Li Administration (abbreviated as Xi-Li) is the name given to the fifth generation leadership of Xi Jinping and Li Keqiang that succeeded Hu Jintao and Wen Jiabao in 2012 following the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China.

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Xinhai Revolution

The Xinhai Revolution, or the Hsin-hai Revolution, also known as the Revolution of 1911, or the Chinese Revolution, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty (the Qing dynasty), and established the Republic of China (ROC).

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Xinhua News Agency

The Xinhua News Agency (English pronunciation: J. C. Wells: Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, 3rd ed., for both British and American English) is the official press agency of the People's Republic of China.

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Xinjiang

Xinjiang (Shinjang), officially Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, is an autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.

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Xinzhong Yao

Professor Xinzhong Yao (born 1957) is Dean of the School of Philosophy at Renmin University of China in Beijing, as well as author and editor of the Encyclopaedia of Confucianism.

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Xungen movement

The xungen movement is a cultural and literary movement in mainland China emphasizing local and minority cultures.

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Yalu River

The Yalu River, also called the Amnok River, is a river on the border between North Korea and China.

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Yan Huang Zisun

Yan Huang Zisun is a term that represents the Chinese people, most notably the Han.

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Yang Liwei

Yang Liwei; born June 21, 1965) is a major general and military pilot and China National Space Administration astronaut. In 2003, he became the first person sent into space by the Chinese space program. This mission, Shenzhou 5, made China the third country to independently send humans into space.

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Yangshan Port

Yangshan Port (Chinese: 港, p Yángshān Gǎng), formally the Yangshan Deep-Water Port (港, p Yángshān Shēnshuǐ Gǎng), is a deep water port for container ships in Hangzhou Bay south of Shanghai.

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Yangtze

The Yangtze River, (Chinese: 长江, Cháng Jiāng), known in China as the Chang Jiang or the Yangzi, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world.

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Yangtze River bridges and tunnels

The bridges and tunnels across the Yangtze River carry rail and road traffic across China's longest and largest river and form a vital part of the country's transportation infrastructure.

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Yao Ming

Yao Ming (born September 12, 1980) is a retired Chinese professional basketball player who played for the Houston Rockets of the National Basketball Association (NBA).

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Yellow Emperor

The Yellow Emperor or Huangdi, formerly romanized as Huang-ti and Hwang-ti, is one of the legendary Chinese sovereigns and culture heroesHelmer Aslaksen, section (retrieved on 2011-11-18) included among the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors.

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Yellow River

The Yellow River or Huáng Hé is the third-longest river in Asia, following the Yangtze River and Yenisei River, and the sixth-longest in the world at the estimated length of.

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Yellow Sea

The Yellow Sea is the name given to the northern part of the East China Sea, which is a marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean.

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Yi Jianlian

Yi Jianlian is a Chinese basketball player who currently plays for Guangdong Southern Tigers in the Chinese Basketball Association.

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Yi people

The Yi or Lolo people are an ethnic group in China, Vietnam, and Thailand.

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Yu Zhengsheng

Yu Zhengsheng (born April 1945 in Yan'an, Shaanxi Province) is a Chinese politician and one of the top leaders of the Communist Party of China.

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Yuan dynasty

The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Mongolian:, Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.

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Yuan Shikai

Yuan Shikai (16 September 1859 – 6 June 1916) was a Chinese general, politician and "emperor", famous for his influence during the late Qing Dynasty, his role in the events leading up to the abdication of the last Qing Emperor, his autocratic rule as the first formal President of the Republic of China, and his short-lived attempt to restore monarchy in China, with himself as the Hongxian Emperor.

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Yuan T. Lee

Yuan Tseh Lee (born November 19, 1936) is a Taiwanese chemist.

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Yue Chinese

Yue or Yueh is a primary branch of Chinese spoken in southern China, particularly the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi.

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Yunnan

Yunnan (-) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.

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Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau

The Yunnan–Guizhou Plateau or Yungui Plateau is a plateau located in the provinces of Yunnan and Guizhou in southwest China.

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Yutu (rover)

Yutu was an unmanned lunar rover that formed part of the Chinese Chang'e 3 mission to the Moon.

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Zhang Dejiang

Zhang Dejiang (born 4 November 1946) is a Chinese politician and a high-ranking official in the Communist Party of China.

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Zhejiang cuisine

Zhejiang cuisine (Chinese: 菜, p Zhècài) is one of the Eight Culinary Traditions of Chinese cuisine.

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Zheng He

Zheng He (1371–1433 or 1435), formerly romanized as Cheng Ho, was a Hui court eunuch, mariner, explorer, diplomat, and fleet admiral during China's early Ming dynasty.

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Zhongyuan

Zhongyuan, or the Central Plain, also known as Zhongtu or Zhongzhou, is the area on the lower reaches of the Yellow River which formed the cradle of Chinese civilization.

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Zhou dynasty

The Zhou dynasty was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty.

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Zhou Enlai

Zhou Enlai IPA: (5 March 1898 – 8 January 1976) was the first Premier of the People's Republic of China, serving from October 1949 until his death in January 1976.

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Zhou Qiang

Zhou Qiang (born April 1960) is the Chief Justice, Party Secretary, and President of the Supreme People's Court of China.

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Zhoukoudian

Zhoukoudian or Choukoutien, is a cave system in Beijing, China.

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Zhu Rongji

Zhu Rongji (IPA:; born 1 October 1928 in Changsha, Hunan) is a prominent Chinese politician who served as the Mayor and Party chief in Shanghai between 1987 and 1991, before serving as Vice-Premier and then the fifth Premier of the People's Republic of China from March 1998 to March 2003.

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Zhuang languages

The Zhuang languages (autonym: (pre-1982:, Sawndip: 話僮), from vah 'language' and Cuengh 'Zhuang') are any of more than a dozen Tai languages spoken by the Zhuang people of southern China in the province of Guangxi and adjacent parts of Yunnan and Guangdong.

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Zhuang people

The Zhuang people are an ethnic group who mostly live in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in southern China.

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Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers.

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ZTE

ZTE Corporation is a Chinese multinational telecommunications equipment and systems company headquartered in Shenzhen, China.

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.cn

.cn is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the People's Republic of China.

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135th meridian east

The meridian 135° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, Australasia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

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18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China

The 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China began on November 8, 2012 in Beijing, China, at the Great Hall of the People.

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18th parallel north

The 18th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 18 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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2007 Chinese anti-satellite missile test

The 2007 Chinese anti-satellite missile test was conducted by China on January 11, 2007.

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2008 Summer Olympics

The 2008 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad and commonly known as Beijing 2008, was a major international multi-sport event that took place in Beijing, China, from 8 to 24 August 2008.

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2008 Summer Olympics medal table

The 2008 Summer Olympics medal table is a list of National Olympic Committees (NOCs) ranked by the number of gold medals won by their athletes during the 2008 Summer Olympics, held in Beijing, the capital of the People's Republic of China, from 8 August to 24 August 2008.

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2011 Summer Universiade

The 2011 Summer Universiade, the XXVI Summer Universiade, was hosted in Shenzhen, Guangdong, China.

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2012 Summer Paralympics

The 2012 Summer Paralympics, the fourteenth Summer Paralympic Games, and also more generally known as the London 2012 Paralympic Games, were a major international multi-sport event for athletes with disabilities governed by the International Paralympic Committee (IPC), that took place in London, England from 29 August to 9 September 2012.

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2013 East Asian Games

The 2013 East Asian Game, officially known as the VI East Asian Game, was an international multi-sport event that took place in Tianjin, China, between 6 October and 15 October 2013.

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2014 Summer Youth Olympics

The 2014 Summer Youth Olympic Games (officially known as II Summer Youth Olympic Games) (Chinese: 第二届夏季青年奥林匹克运动会), was the second Summer Youth Olympic Games, an international sports, education and cultural festival for teenagers, held from 16 to 28 August 2014 in Nanjing, China.

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3G (countries)

3G countries or Global Growth Generating countries are 11 countries which have been identified as sources of growth potential and of profitable investment opportunities.

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3rd BRICS summit

The 2011 BRICS summit took place in Sanya on the island of Hainan, China, on 14 April 2011.

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54th parallel north

The 54th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 54 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.

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73rd meridian east

The meridian 73° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.

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Redirects here:

(The People's Republic of) China, CHINA, Chaina, China (PRC), China (Peking), China (People's Republic), China (Republic : 1949- ), China PR, China PRC, China People's Republic, China's, China, PRC, China, People's Republic of, China, the People's Republic of, Chinese PR, Chinese People's Republic, Chung-Kuo, Chung-kuo, Chungkuo, Cihna, Communist China (modern), Homes in china, ISO 3166-1:CN, Jhongguó, Land of China, Modern day China, Nation of China, P. R. China, P. R. of China, P.R. China, P.R. of CHINA, P.R. of China, P.R.C., P.R.China, P.r. of china, PR China, PR of China, PRC, PRC (China), PRChina, PROC, PRoC, People' Republic of China, People' s Republic of China, People's Republic Of China, People's Republic of China, People's Republic of China (Mainland China), People's Republic of China (PRC), People's Republic or China, People's republic of China, People's republic of china, People's repuublic of china, Peoples Republic of China, Peoples republic of China, Peoples republic of china, Peoples' Republic of China, People’s Republic of China, Pr china, Pr of c, Pr of china, Prc, Red China (modern), Red Chinese, Sinic, Socialist China, State of China, Territorial disputes of China, The PRC, The People's Republic of China, The Peoples Republic of China, The People’s Republic of China, The people's republic of china, The prc, Zhong Guo, Zhongguo, Zhongguó, Zhonghua Renmin Gonghe Guo, Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo, Zhonghua renmin gongheguo, Zhonghuarenmingongheguo, Zhonghuá rénmín gònghéguó, Zhōngguó, Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó, 中华, 中华人民共和国, 中国, 中國, 中華, 中華人民共和國.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/China

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