190 relations: Age of Discovery, Al-Andalus, Aldebaran, Alidade, Almagest, Almucantar, Altair, Ammianus Marcellinus, Antonín Bečvář, Anyang, Apophenia, Apparent magnitude, Aratus, Argo Navis, Aryabhata, Aryabhatiya, Asterism (astronomy), Astrological sign, Astrology, Astrology and astronomy, Astronomy, Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world, Atharvaveda, Australian Aboriginal astronomy, Azimuth, Babylonian astronomy, Babylonian star catalogues, Bayer designation, Benjamin Apthorp Gould, Beta Ursae Minoris, Big Dipper, Boötes, Book of Ezekiel, Book of Job, Book of Revelation, Bradley Schaefer, Brahmagupta, Bright Star Catalogue, Bronze Age, Byzantine science, C. V. Vishveshwara, Catasterismi, Celestial cartography, Celestial coordinate system, Celestial equator, Celestial pole, Celestial sphere, Chen Zhuo, Chinese astronomy, Chinese calendar, ..., Chinese constellations, Circumpolar constellation, Coalsack Nebula, Crux, Dark nebula, Decans, Declination, Delta Ursae Minoris, Dendera zodiac, Dorrit Hoffleit, Draco (constellation), Dunhuang manuscripts, E. W. Bullinger, Early modern period, Ecliptic, Ecliptic coordinate system, Egyptian astronomy, Emu, Epoch (astronomy), Equinox, Eta Ursae Minoris, Eudoxus of Cnidus, Eugène Joseph Delporte, European science in the Middle Ages, Far East, Four Symbols (China), Frederick de Houtman, G. P. Putnam's Sons, Gaius Julius Hyginus, Galaxy, Gamma Ursae Minoris, Gautama Siddha, Han dynasty, Hapax legomenon, Hebrew Bible, Hellenistic period, Henry Norris Russell, Hesiod, Horsehead Nebula, Ian Ridpath, Inca Empire, Indian astronomy, Indus Valley Civilization, International Astronomical Union, Internet Archive, Islam, Islamic Golden Age, Johann Bayer, Johannes Hevelius, Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics, King James Version, Lalla, Late Antiquity, Late Latin, Latin translations of the 12th century, Leo (astrology), Leo (constellation), List of Arabic star names, List of brightest stars, List of Nakshatras, Lists of constellations, Lists of stars by constellation, Mazzaroth, Middle English, Milky Way, Millennium Star Atlas, Ming dynasty, MUL.APIN, Muslim world, Naked eye, Nakshatra, National Geographic (magazine), National Geographic Society, Neo-Babylonian Empire, Nicolas Louis de Lacaille, North Pole, Norton's Star Atlas, Oracle bone, Orion (constellation), Orion's Belt, Pareidolia, Petrus Plancius, Pieter Dirkszoon Keyser, Planet, Planets in astrology, Planisphere, Polaris, Precession, Proper motion, Ptolemaic Kingdom, Ptolemy, Quadrans Muralis, Quadrantids, Right ascension, Romaka Siddhanta, Sanskrit, Sanskrit verbs, Sasanian Empire, Science in the medieval Islamic world, Scientific American, Scorpius, Shang dynasty, Sky, Solar term, Song dynasty, Southern Hemisphere, Springer Science+Business Media, Star, Star cluster, Star Names, Sumer, Sumerian language, Tang dynasty, Taurus (astrology), Three Kingdoms, Timbuktu Manuscripts, Treatise on Astrology of the Kaiyuan Era, Twenty-Eight Mansions, Uranometria, Ursa Major, Ursa Major Moving Group, Ursa Minor, Varāhamihira, Vedanga, Vedanga Jyotisha, Vedas, Vedic Sanskrit, Warring States period, Wil Tirion, William Tyler Olcott, Works and Days, Xu Guangqi, Yale University Observatory, Yavanajataka, Yuan dynasty, Zeta Ursae Minoris, Zodiac, 88 modern constellations, 88 modern constellations by area, 88 modern constellations in different languages. Expand index (140 more) » « Shrink index
The Age of Discovery is an informal and loosely defined European historical period from the 15th century to the 18th century, marking the time in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture.
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al-Andalus (الأندلس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Andalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus or Wandalus), also known as Muslim Spain or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim cultural domain and territory occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
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Aldebaran (α Tau, α Tauri, Alpha Tauri) is an orange giant star located about 65 light years away in the zodiac constellation of Taurus.
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An alidade (archaic forms include alhidade, alhidad, alidad) or a turning board is a device that allows one to sight a distant object and use the line of sight to perform a task.
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The Almagest is a 2nd-century mathematical and astronomical treatise on the apparent motions of the stars and planetary paths.
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An almucantar (also spelled almucantarat or almacantara) is a circle on the celestial sphere parallel to the horizon.
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Altair (α Aquilae, α Aql) is the brightest star in the constellation Aquila and the twelfth brightest star in the night sky.
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Ammianus Marcellinus (325 330 – after 391) was a fourth-century Roman soldier and historian.
Antonín Bečvář (10 June 1901 – 10 January 1965) was a Czech astronomer who was active in Slovakia.
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Anyang is a prefecture-level city in Henan province, People's Republic of China.
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Apophenia is the human tendency to perceive meaningful patterns within random data.
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The apparent magnitude (m) of a celestial object is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth, adjusted to the value it would have in the absence of the atmosphere.
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Aratus (Ἄρᾱτος ὁ Σολεύς; ca. 315 BC/310 BC – 240 BC) was a Greek didactic poet.
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Argo Navis (the Ship Argo), or simply Argo, was a large constellation in the southern sky that has since been divided into three constellations.
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Aryabhata (आर्यभट; IAST) or Aryabhata I (476–550 CE) was the first of the major mathematician-astronomers from the classical age of Indian mathematics and Indian astronomy.
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Aryabhatiya (IAST) or Aryabhatiyam, a Sanskrit astronomical treatise, is the magnum opus and only known surviving work of the 5th century Indian mathematician, Aryabhata.
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In astronomy, an asterism is a pattern of stars recognized in the Earth's night sky.
|Circles of 9 and 12 - The 108 Human Types |Circles of 9 and 12 - The 108 Human Types In Western astrology, astrological signs are the twelve 30° sectors of the ecliptic, starting at the vernal equinox (one of the intersections of the ecliptic with the celestial equator), also known as the First Point of Aries.
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Astrology consists of several pseudoscientific systems of divination based on the premise that there is a relationship between astronomical phenomena and events in the human world.
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Astrology and astronomy were archaically treated together (astrologia), and were only gradually separated in Western 17th century philosophy (the "Age of Reason") with the rejection of astrology.
Astronomy is a natural science which is the study of celestial objects (such as stars, galaxies, planets, moons, asteroids, comets and nebulae), the physics, chemistry, and evolution of such objects, and phenomena that originate outside the atmosphere of Earth, including supernovae explosions, gamma ray bursts, and cosmic microwave background radiation.
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Islamic astronomy comprises the astronomical developments made in the Islamic world, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age (8th–15th centuries), and mostly written in the Arabic language.
The Atharvaveda (Sanskrit: अथर्ववेद, from and veda meaning "knowledge") is the "knowledge storehouse of atharvāṇas, the procedures for everyday life".
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Australian Aboriginal astronomy is a name given to indigenous Australian culture relating to astronomical subjects — such as the Sun and Moon, the stars, planets, and the Milky Way, and their motions on the sky.
An azimuth (from Arabic al-sumūt, meaning "the directions") is an angular measurement in a spherical coordinate system.
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According to Asger Aaboe, the origins of Western astronomy can be found in Mesopotamia, and all Western efforts in the exact sciences are descendants in direct line from the work of the late Babylonian astronomers.
Babylonian astronomy collated earlier observations and divinations into sets of Babylonian star catalogues, during and after the Kassite rule over Babylonia.
A Bayer designation is a stellar designation in which a specific star is identified by a Greek letter, followed by the genitive form of its parent constellation's Latin name.
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Benjamin Apthorp Gould (September 27, 1824 – November 26, 1896) was a pioneering American astronomer.
Beta Ursae Minoris (β UMi, β Ursae Minoris) is the brightest star in the bowl of the "Little Dipper" (which is part of the constellation Ursa Minor), and only slightly fainter than Polaris, the northern pole star and brightest star in Ursa Minor.
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The Big Dipper (US) or Plough (UK) is an asterism (not a constellation) of seven stars recognized as a distinct grouping in many cultures.
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Boötes is a constellation in the northern sky, located between 0° and +60° declination, and 13 and 16 hours of right ascension on the celestial sphere.
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The Book of Ezekiel is the third of the Major Prophets in the Tanakh and one of the major prophetic books in the Old Testament, following Isaiah and Jeremiah.
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The Book of Job (Hebrew: אִיוֹב Iyov) is one of the Writings (Ketuvim) of the Hebrew Bible, and the first poetic book in the Christian Old Testament.
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The Book of Revelation, often known simply as Revelation or The Apocalypse of John, is a book of the New Testament that occupies a central place in Christian eschatology.
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Brahmagupta (ब्रह्मगुप्त) (598–c.670 CE) was an Indian mathematician and astronomer who wrote two works on mathematics and astronomy: the Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta (Extensive Treatise of Brahma) (628), a theoretical treatise, and the Khaṇḍakhādyaka, a more practical text.
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The Bright Star Catalogue, also known as the Yale Catalogue of Bright Stars or Yale Bright Star Catalogue, is a star catalogue that lists all stars of stellar magnitude 6.5 or brighter, which is roughly every star visible to the naked eye from Earth.
The Bronze Age is a time period characterized by the use of bronze, proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
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Byzantine science played an important role in the transmission of classical knowledge to the Islamic world and to Renaissance Italy, and also in the transmission of Arabic science to Renaissance Italy.
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Catasterismi (Greek Καταστερισμοί Katasterismoi, "placings among the stars") is an Alexandrian prose retelling of the mythic origins of stars and constellations, as they were interpreted in Hellenistic culture.
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Celestial cartography, uranography or star cartography is the fringe of astronomy and branch of cartography concerned with mapping stars, galaxies, and other astronomical objects on the celestial sphere.
In astronomy, a celestial coordinate system is a system for specifying positions of celestial objects: satellites, planets, stars, galaxies, and so on.
The celestial equator is a great circle on the imaginary celestial sphere, in the same plane as the Earth's equator.
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The north and south celestial poles are the two imaginary points in the sky where the Earth's axis of rotation, indefinitely extended, intersects the celestial sphere.
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In astronomy and navigation, the celestial sphere is an imaginary sphere of arbitrarily large radius, concentric with Earth.
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Chen Zhuo (陳卓 chén zhuō) was a Chinese astronomer of the 3rd century.
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Astronomy in China has a very long history, with historians indicating that the Chinese were the most persistent and accurate observers of celestial phenomena anywhere in the world before the Arabs.
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The Chinese calendar is a lunisolar calendar which arranges the year, month and day number upon the astronomical date.
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Traditional Chinese astronomy has a system of dividing the celestial sphere into asterisms or constellations, known as "officials" (Chinese xīng guān).
In astronomy, the circumpolar constellations are constellations that never set from the viewer's perspective.
The Coalsack Dark Nebula (or simply the Coalsack) is the most prominent dark nebula in the skies, easily visible to the naked eye as a dark patch silhouetted against the southern Milky Way.
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Crux, located in the deep southern sky, is the smallest yet one of the most distinctive of the 88 modern constellations.
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A dark nebula or absorption nebula is a type of interstellar cloud that is so dense it obscures the light from objects behind it, such as background stars and emission or reflection nebulae.
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The decans (Egyptian bakiu) are 36 groups of stars (small constellations) which rise consecutively on the horizon throughout each earth rotation.
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In astronomy, declination (abbreviated dec; symbol δ) is one of the two angles that locate a point on the celestial sphere in the equatorial coordinate system, the other being hour angle.
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Delta Ursae Minoris (δ UMi, δ Ursae Minoris; also 23 UMi) is a star in the constellation Ursa Minor.
The sculptured Dendera zodiac (or Denderah zodiac) is a widely known Egyptian bas-relief from the ceiling of the pronaos (or portico) of a chapel dedicated to Osiris in the Hathor temple at Dendera, containing images of Taurus (the bull) and the Libra (the scales).
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Ellen Dorrit Hoffleit (March 12, 1907 – April 9, 2007) was an American senior research astronomer at Yale University.
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Draco is a constellation in the far northern sky.
The Dunhuang manuscripts are a cache of important religious and secular documents discovered in the Mogao Caves of Dunhuang, China, in the early 20th century.
Ethelbert William Bullinger AKC (December 15, 1837 – June 6, 1913) was an Anglican clergyman, Biblical scholar, and ultradispensationalist theologian.
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In history, the early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.
The ecliptic is the apparent path of the Sun on the celestial sphere, and is the basis for the ecliptic coordinate system.
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The ecliptic coordinate system is a celestial coordinate system commonly used for representing the positions and orbits of Solar System objects.
Egyptian astronomy begins in prehistoric times, in the Predynastic Period.
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The emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) is the second-largest living bird in the world by height, after its ratite relative, the ostrich.
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In astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time used as a reference point for some time-varying astronomical quantity, such as the celestial coordinates or elliptical orbital elements of a celestial body, because these are subject to perturbations and vary with time.
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An equinox is an astronomical event in which the plane of Earth's equator passes the center of the Sun.
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Eta Ursae Minoris (η UMi, η Ursae Minoris) is a star in the constellation Ursa Minor.
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Eudoxus of Cnidus (Εὔδοξος ὁ Κνίδιος, Eúdoxos ho Knídios; 408–355 BC) was a Greek astronomer, mathematician, scholar and student of Plato.
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Eugène Joseph Delporte (10 January 1882–19 October 1955) was a Belgian astronomer born in Genappe.
European science in the Middle Ages comprised the study of nature, mathematics and natural philosophy in medieval Europe.
The Far East is an alternate geographical term in English (with equivalents in many other languages – see the infobox on the right for examples), that usually refers to East Asia (including Northeast Asia), the Russian Far East (part of North Asia), and Southeast Asia.
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The Four Symbols are four mythological creatures in the Chinese constellations.
Frederick de Houtman (1571 – 21 October 1627), or Frederik de Houtman, was a Dutch explorer who sailed along the Western coast of Australia en route to Batavia, nowadays known as Jakarta in Indonesia.
Gaius Julius Hyginus (64 BC – AD 17) was a Latin author, a pupil of the famous Cornelius Alexander Polyhistor, and a freedman of Caesar Augustus.
A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas and dust, and dark matter.
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Gamma Ursae Minoris (γ UMi, γ Ursae Minoris; also 13 UMi) is a star in the northern circumpolar constellation of Ursa Minor.
Gautama Siddha, (fl. 8th century) astronomer, astrologer and compiler of Indian descent, known for leading the compilation of the Treatise on Astrology of the Kaiyuan Era during the Tang Dynasty.
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The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China, preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–207 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to itself as the "Han people" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC – 9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Latter Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty was an age of economic prosperity and saw a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To pay for its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han period. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including papermaking, the nautical steering rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu of Han (r. 141–87 BC) launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empress dowagers, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty ceased to exist.
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In corpus linguistics, a hapax legomenon (also or; pl. hapax legomena; sometimes abbreviated to hapax, pl. hapaxes) is a word that occurs only once within a context, either in the written record of an entire language, in the works of an author, or in a single text.
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Hebrew Bible or Hebrew Scriptures (Biblia Hebraica) is the term used by biblical scholars to refer to the Tanakh (תנ"ך), the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is the common textual source of the several canonical editions of the Christian Old Testament.
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The Hellenistic period covers the period of ancient Greek (Hellenic) history and Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
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Henry Norris Russell (October 25, 1877 – February 18, 1957) was an American astronomer who, along with Ejnar Hertzsprung, developed the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram (1910).
Hesiod (or; Ἡσίοδος Hēsíodos) was a Greek poet generally thought by scholars to have been active between 750 and 650 BC, around the same time as Homer.
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The Horsehead Nebula (also known as Barnard 33) is a dark nebula in the constellation Orion.
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Ian William Ridpath (born 1 May 1947, Ilford, Essex) is an English science writer and broadcaster best known as a popularizer of astronomy and a biographer of constellation history.
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The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, "The Four Regions"), also known as the Incan Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America.
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From pre-historic to modern times, Indian astronomy continues to play an integral role.
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The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was a Bronze Age civilisation (3300–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE, pre-Harappan cultures starting c.7500 BCE) in northwest Indian subcontinent (including present day Pakistan, northwest India) and also in some regions in northeast Afghanistan.
The International Astronomical Union (IAU; Union astronomique internationale, UAI) is a collection of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy.
The Internet Archive is a San Francisco-based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge".
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Islam (There are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster). The most common are (Oxford English Dictionary, Random House) and (American Heritage Dictionary). الإسلام,: Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~. In Northwestern Africa, they do not have stress or lengthened vowels.) is a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a religious text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God, and, for the vast majority of adherents, by the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad (circa 570–8 June 632 CE), considered by most of them to be the last prophet of God.
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The Islamic Golden Age refers to the period in Islam's history during the Middle Ages from the 8th century to the 13th century when much of the historically Arabic-speaking world was ruled by various caliphates, experiencing a scientific, economic, and cultural flourishing.
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Johann Bayer (1572 – 7 March 1625) was a German lawyer and uranographer (celestial cartographer).
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Johannes Hevelius Some sources refer to Hevelius as Polish.
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The Kerala school of astronomy and mathematics was a school of mathematics and astronomy founded by Madhava of Sangamagrama in Kerala, India, which included among its members: Parameshvara, Neelakanta Somayaji, Jyeshtadeva, Achyuta Pisharati, Melpathur Narayana Bhattathiri and Achyuta Panikkar.
The King James Version (KJV), also known as the Authorized Version (AV) or King James Bible (KJB), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England begun in 1604 and completed in 1611.
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Lalla (720–790 CE) was an Indian mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer who belonged to a family of astronomers.
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Late Antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages, in both mainland Europe and the Mediterranean world.
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Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late Antiquity.
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Latin translations of the 12th century were spurred by a major search by European scholars for new learning unavailable in Christian Europe at the time; their search led them to areas of southern Europe, particularly in central Spain and Sicily, which recently had come under Christian rule following their reconquest in the late 11th century.
Leo (♌) is the fifth astrological sign of the zodiac, originating from the constellation of Leo.
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Leo is one of the constellations of the zodiac, lying between Cancer to the west and Virgo to the east.
This is a list of traditional Arabic names for stars.
This is a list of the brightest naked eye stars to +2.50 magnitude, as determined by their maximum, total or combined apparent visual magnitudes as seen from Earth.
The classical list of 27 nakshatras ("lunar mansion") is first found in the Vedanga Jyotisha, a text dated to the final centuries BCE.
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The following lists of constellations are available.
All stars but one can be associated with an IAU constellation.
Mazzaroth (Mazarot מַזָּרוֹת, LXX μαζουρωθ) is a hapax legomenon (i.e., a word appearing only once in a text) of the Hebrew Bible, found in.
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Middle English (ME) refers to the dialects of the English language spoken in parts of the British Isles after the Norman conquest (1066) until the late 15th century.
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The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.
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The Millennium Star Atlas was constructed as a collaboration between a team at Sky & Telescope led by Roger Sinnott, and the European Space Agency's Hipparcos project, led by Michael Perryman.
The Ming dynasty, or the Great Ming, also called the Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
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MUL.APIN is the conventional title given to a Babylonian compendium that deals with many diverse aspects of Babylonian astronomy and astrology.
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The term Muslim world, also known as Islamic world and the (أمة, meaning "nation" or "community") has different meanings.
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Naked eye (also called bare eye) is the practice of engaging in visual perception unaided by a magnifying or light-collecting optical device, such as a telescope or microscope.
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Nakshatra (Sanskrit: नक्षत्र, IAST: Nakṣatra) is the term for lunar mansion in Hindu astrology.
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National Geographic, formerly The National Geographic Magazine, is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C. in the United States of America, is one of the largest nonprofit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
The Neo-Babylonian Empire was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 626 BC and ended in 539 BC.
Abbé Nicolas Louis de La Caille, sometimes spelled Lacaille, (28 December 1713 – 21 March 1762) was a French astronomer and priest.
The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole, Celestial North Pole, or Terrestrial North Pole, is (subject to the caveats explained below) defined as the point in the Northern Hemisphere where the Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface.
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Norton's Star Atlas is a set of 16 celestial charts, first published in 1910 and currently in its 20th edition under the editorship of Ian Ridpath.
Oracle bones are pieces of turtle shell or bone, normally from ox scapulae or turtle plastrons, which were used for pyromancy – a form of divination – in ancient China, mainly during the late Shang dynasty.
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Orion is a prominent constellation located on the celestial equator and visible throughout the world.
Orion's Belt or the Belt of Orion, also known as the Three Kings or Three Sisters, is an asterism in the constellation Orion.
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Pareidolia is a psychological phenomenon involving a stimulus (an image or a sound) wherein the mind perceives a familiar pattern where none actually exists.
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Petrus Plancius (1552 – May 15, 1622) was a Flemish astronomer, cartographer and clergyman.
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Pieter Dirkszoon Keyser, sometimes Petrus Theodorus (ca. 1540 in Emden – 11 September 1596 in Banten), was a Dutch navigator who mapped the southern sky.
A planet is an astronomical object orbiting a star, brown dwarf, or stellar remnant that.
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Planets in astrology have a meaning different from the modern astronomical understanding of what a planet is.
A planisphere is a star chart analog computing instrument in the form of two adjustable disks that rotate on a common pivot.
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Polaris (Ursae Minoris, UMi, commonly the North Star or Pole Star) is the brightest star in the constellation Ursa Minor, and the 50th brightest star in the night sky.
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Precession is a change in the orientation of the rotational axis of a rotating body.
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Proper motion is the astronomical measure of the observed changes in apparent positions of stars in the sky as seen from the center of mass of the Solar System, as compared to the imaginary fixed background of the more distant stars.
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The Ptolemaic Kingdom (Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ Basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.
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Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos,; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Egyptian writer of Alexandria, known as a mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
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Quadrans Muralis (Latin for mural quadrant) was a constellation created by Jérôme Lalande in 1795.
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The Quadrantids (QUA) are a January meteor shower.
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Right ascension (abbreviated RA; symbol α) is the angular distance measured eastward along the celestial equator from the vernal equinox to the hour circle of the point in question.
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The Romaka Siddhanta (literally "Doctrine of the Romans") is one of the five siddhantas mentioned in Varaha Mihira's Panchasidhantika which is an Indian astronomical treatise.
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Sanskrit (Sanskrit: or, originally, "refined speech") is the primary sacred language of Hinduism, a philosophical language in Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism, and a literary language that was in use as a lingua franca in Greater India.
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The Sanskrit verbal system is very complex, with verbs inflecting for different combinations of tense, aspect, mood, number, and person.
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The Sasanian Empire (or; also known as Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire), known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian language, was the last Iranian empire before the rise of Islam, ruled by the Sasanian dynasty from 224 AD to 651 AD.
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Science in the medieval Islamic world (also known, less accurately, as Islamic science or Arabic science) was the science developed and practiced in the medieval Islamic world during the Islamic Golden Age (8th century CE –, sometimes considered to have extended to the 15th or 16th century).
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
Scorpius is one of the constellations of the zodiac.
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The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.
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The sky (or celestial dome) is everything that lies above the surface of the Earth, including the atmosphere and outer space.
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A solar term is any of 24 points in traditional East Asian lunisolar calendars that matches a particular astronomical event or signifies some natural phenomenon.
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The Song dynasty was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
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The Southern Hemisphere of Earth is the half which is south of the equator.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
A star is a luminous sphere of plasma held together by its own gravity.
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Star clusters or star clouds are groups of stars.
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Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning is an 1899 book by Richard Hinckley Allen that discusses the names of stars, constellations, and their histories.
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SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
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Sumerian ("native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer, a language isolate which was spoken in northern Mesopotamia (modern Iraq).
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The Tang dynasty, was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
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Taurus (Latin for "the Bull"; symbol:, Unicode) is the second astrological sign in the present Zodiac.
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The Three Kingdoms (AD 220–280), a tripartite division between the states of Wei (魏), Shu (蜀), and Wu (吳), To further distinguish the three states from other historical Chinese states of the same name, historians have added a relevant character: Wei is also known as Cao Wei (曹魏), Shu is also known as Shu Han (蜀漢), and Wu is also known as Dong (or Eastern) Wu (東吳).
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Timbuktu Manuscripts or (Tombouctou Manuscripts) is a blanket term for the large number of historically important manuscripts that have been preserved for centuries in private households in Timbuktu, Mali.
The Treatise on Astrology of the Kaiyuan Era is a Chinese astrology encyclopedia compiled by the lead editor Gautama Siddha and numerous scholars from 714 to 724 AD during the Kaiyuan era of Tang Dynasty.
The Twenty-Eight Mansions, hsiu, xiu or sieu are part of the Chinese constellations system.
Uranometria is the short title of a star atlas produced by Johann Bayer.
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Ursa Major (also known as the Great Bear and Charles' Wain) is a constellation in the northern celestial hemisphere.
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The Ursa Major Moving Group, also known as Collinder 285 or Ursa Major association, is a nearby stellar moving group, a set of stars with common velocities in space and thought to have a common origin some 300 million years ago.
Ursa Minor (Latin: "Smaller She-Bear", contrasting with Ursa Major), also known as the Little Bear, is a constellation in the northern sky.
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Varāhamihira (505–587 CE), also called Varaha or Mihir, was an Indian astronomer, mathematician, and astrologer who lived in Ujjain.
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The Vedanga ("limbs of the Veda") are six auxiliary disciplines in Hinduism that are traditionally associated with the study and understanding of the Vedas (texts from the Vedic period).
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The, or Jyotiṣavedāṅga (Devanagari वेदाङ्ग ज्योतिष) is one of earliest known Indian text on astronomy and astrology (Jyotisha).
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The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of texts originating in ancient India.
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Vedic Sanskrit is an Old Indo-Aryan language.
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The Warring States period is a period in ancient China following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the victory of the state of Qin in 221 BC, creating a unified China under the Qin dynasty.
Wil Tirion (born February 19, 1943) is a Dutch uranographer (celestial cartographer).
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William Tyler Olcott (1873–1936) was an American lawyer and amateur astronomer.
The Works and Days (Ἔργα καὶ Ἡμέραι, Erga kai Hēmerai)The Works and Days is sometimes called by the Latin translation of the title, Opera et Dies.
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Xu Guangqi (April 24, 1562 – November 8, 1633), who later adopted the baptismal name Paul, was a Chinese scholar-bureaucrat, agricultural scientist, astronomer, and mathematician in the Ming Dynasty.
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Yale University's Observatory, the Atheneum, was founded in 1830.
The Yavanajātaka (Sanskrit: yavana 'Greek' + jātaka 'nativity'.
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The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Mongolian:, Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
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Zeta Ursae Minoris (ζ UMi, ζ Ursae Minoris) is a star in the constellation Ursa Minor.
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In both astrology and historical astronomy, the zodiac (Greek: ζῳδιακός, zōidiakos) is a circle of twelve 30° divisions of celestial longitude that are centered upon the ecliptic, the apparent path of the Sun across the celestial sphere over the course of the year.
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Many cultures divide the stars of the night sky into their own set of constellations, usually based on mythology.
The table below ranks the 88 modern constellations by the solid angle that they subtend in the sky, measured in square degrees and millisteradians.
The following list of constellations in different languages are the 88 designated constellations of the International Astronomical Union (IAU).
ConStellations, Constelation, Constelations, Constellation (astronomy), Constellation boundaries, Constellation name, Constellations, History of the constellations, IAU Constellation, IAU constellation, IAU constellations, Southern Birds.