177 relations: Almagest, Alpha Centauri, Amerigo Vespucci, Ancient Greek, Ancient history, Andrea Corsali, Antonín Bečvář, Antonio Pigafetta, Anyang, Apus, Aratus, Argo Navis, Asterism (astronomy), Astrology, Astrometry, Astronomical spectroscopy, Astronomy, Astronomy in the medieval Islamic world, Australian Aboriginal astronomy, Babylonia, Babylonian star catalogues, Belgians, Benjamin Apthorp Gould, Beta Centauri, Big Dipper, Boötes, Book of Ezekiel, Book of Job, Book of Revelation, Bright Star Catalogue, Bronze Age, Cape of Good Hope, Carina (constellation), Catasterismi, Celestial cartography, Celestial coordinate system, Celestial equator, Celestial navigation, Celestial pole, Celestial sphere, Chaldea, Chamaeleon, Chen Zhuo, Chinese astronomy, Chinese constellations, Chinese star maps, Chongzhen calendar, Chongzhen Emperor, Circa, Circumpolar constellation, ..., Coalsack Nebula, Columba (constellation), Constellation, Constellation family, Crux, Dark nebula, Decan, Declination, Dendera zodiac, Destruction of the Library of Alexandria, Dorado, Dorrit Hoffleit, Draco (constellation), Dunhuang manuscripts, E. W. Bullinger, Early modern period, Ecliptic, Egyptian astronomy, Emu, Epoch (astronomy), Equinox, Eudoxus of Cnidus, Eugène Joseph Delporte, European exploration of Africa, Farnese Atlas, Flamsteed designation, Former constellations, Frederick de Houtman, G. P. Putnam's Sons, Gaius Julius Hyginus, Gautama Siddha, Greek alphabet, Grus (constellation), Han dynasty, Hanno the Navigator, Hapax legomenon, Hellenistic period, Henry Norris Russell, Hesiod, Hipparchus, Hipparcos, Horizon, Hyades (star cluster), Hydrus, Ian Ridpath, Inca Empire, Indus (constellation), International Astronomical Union, Jérôme Lalande, Johann Adam Schall von Bell, Johann Bayer, Johannes Hevelius, King James Version, Late antiquity, Late Latin, Leo (astrology), Leo (constellation), Lists of stars by constellation, Mazzaroth, Middle English, Milky Way, Millennium Star Atlas, Ming dynasty, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, MUL.APIN, Musca, National Geographic, National Geographic Society, Navigation, Neo-Babylonian Empire, Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille, North Pole, Norton's Star Atlas, Oracle bone, Orion (constellation), Pavo (constellation), Petrus Plancius, Phoenix (constellation), Pierre Lemonnier, Pieter Dirkszoon Keyser, Planet, Planisphere, Pleiades, Precession, Proper motion, Ptolemaic Kingdom, Ptolemy, Quadrans Muralis, Quadrantids, Radial velocity, Refracting telescope, Right ascension, Scorpius, Shang dynasty, Song dynasty, South Pole, Southern Hemisphere, Star chart, Star Names, Stellar designations and names, Sumer, Sumerian language, Tanakh, Tang dynasty, Taurus (astrology), Taurus (constellation), Telescope, Three Kingdoms, Treatise on Astrology of the Kaiyuan Era, Triangulum Australe, Tucana, Twenty-Eight Mansions, Uranometria, Ursa Major, Vela (constellation), Volans, Warring States period, Wil Tirion, William Tyler Olcott, Works and Days, Xu Guangqi, Yale University Observatory, Yuan dynasty, Zodiac, 88 modern constellations, 88 modern constellations by area, 88 modern constellations in different languages. Expand index (127 more) » « Shrink index
The Almagest is a 2nd-century Greek-language mathematical and astronomical treatise on the apparent motions of the stars and planetary paths, written by Claudius Ptolemy. One of the most influential scientific texts of all time, its geocentric model was accepted for more than 1200 years from its origin in Hellenistic Alexandria, in the medieval Byzantine and Islamic worlds, and in Western Europe through the Middle Ages and early Renaissance until Copernicus.
Alpha Centauri (α Centauri, abbreviated Alf Cen or α Cen) is the star system closest to the Solar System, being from the Sun.
Amerigo Vespucci (March 9, 1454February 22, 1512) was an Italian explorer, financier, navigator and cartographer.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
Andrea Corsali (1487—?) was an Italian explorer who worked in the service of Giuliano di Lorenzo de' Medici of Florence and Lorenzo II de' Medici, duke of Urbino.
Antonín Bečvář (10 June 1901 – 10 January 1965) was a Czech astronomer who was active in Slovakia.
Antonio Pigafetta (c. 1491 – c. 1531) was an Italian scholar and explorer from the Republic of Venice.
Anyang is a prefecture-level city in Henan province, China.
Apus is a small constellation in the southern sky.
Aratus (Ἄρατος ὁ Σολεύς; ca. 315 BC/310 BC240) was a Greek didactic poet.
Argo Navis (the Ship Argo), or simply Argo, was a large constellation in the southern sky that has since been divided into the three constellations of Carina, Puppis and Vela.
In observational astronomy, an asterism is a popular known pattern or group of stars that are recognised in the night sky.
Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events.
Astrometry is the branch of astronomy that involves precise measurements of the positions and movements of stars and other celestial bodies.
Astronomical spectroscopy is the study of astronomy using the techniques of spectroscopy to measure the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, including visible light and radio, which radiates from stars and other celestial objects.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Islamic astronomy comprises the astronomical developments made in the Islamic world, particularly during the Islamic Golden Age (9th–13th centuries), and mostly written in the Arabic language.
Australian Aboriginal astronomy is a name given to indigenous Australian culture relating to astronomical subjects – such as the Sun and Moon, the stars, planets, and the Milky Way, and their motions on the sky.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
Babylonian astronomy collated earlier observations and divinations into sets of Babylonian star catalogues, during and after the Kassite rule over Babylonia.
Belgians (Belgen, Belges, Belgier) are people identified with the Kingdom of Belgium, a federal state in Western Europe.
Benjamin Apthorp Gould (September 27, 1824 – November 26, 1896) was a pioneering American astronomer.
Beta Centauri (β Centauri, abbreviated Beta Cen, β Cen), also named Agena and Hadar, is a triple star system in the southern constellation of Centaurus.
The Big Dipper (US) or the Plough (UK) is an asterism consisting of seven bright stars of the constellation Ursa Major; six of them are of second magnitude and one, Megrez (δ), of third magnitude.
Boötes is a constellation in the northern sky, located between 0° and +60° declination, and 13 and 16 hours of right ascension on the celestial sphere.
The Book of Ezekiel is the third of the Latter Prophets in the Tanakh and one of the major prophetic books in the Old Testament, following Isaiah and Jeremiah.
The Book of Job (Hebrew: אִיוֹב Iyov) is a book in the Ketuvim ("Writings") section of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh), and the first poetic book in the Old Testament of the Christian Bible.
The Book of Revelation, often called the Revelation to John, the Apocalypse of John, The Revelation, or simply Revelation or Apocalypse (and often misquoted as Revelations), is a book of the New Testament that occupies a central place in Christian eschatology.
The Bright Star Catalogue, also known as the Yale Catalogue of Bright Stars or Yale Bright Star Catalogue, is a star catalogue that lists all stars of stellar magnitude 6.5 or brighter, which is roughly every star visible to the naked eye from Earth.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
The Cape of Good Hope (Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop, Cabo da Boa Esperança) is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa.
Carina is a constellation in the southern sky.
Catasterismi (Greek Καταστερισμοί Katasterismoi, "placings among the stars") is an Alexandrian prose retelling of the mythic origins of stars and constellations, as they were interpreted in Hellenistic culture.
Celestial cartography, uranography, astrography or star cartography is the fringe of astronomy and branch of cartography concerned with mapping stars, galaxies, and other astronomical objects on the celestial sphere.
In astronomy, a celestial coordinate system is a system for specifying positions of celestial objects: satellites, planets, stars, galaxies, and so on.
The celestial equator is the great circle of the imaginary celestial sphere on the same plane as the equator of Earth.
Celestial navigation, also known as astronavigation, is the ancient and modern practice of position fixing that enables a navigator to transition through a space without having to rely on estimated calculations, or dead reckoning, to know their position.
The north and south celestial poles are the two imaginary points in the sky where the Earth's axis of rotation, indefinitely extended, intersects the celestial sphere.
In astronomy and navigation, the celestial sphere is an abstract sphere with an arbitrarily large radius concentric to Earth.
Chaldea or Chaldaea was a Semitic-speaking nation that existed between the late 10th or early 9th and mid-6th centuries BC, after which it and its people were absorbed and assimilated into Babylonia.
Chamaeleon is a small constellation in the southern sky.
Chen Zhuo (3rd century) was a Chinese astronomer who lived in the Three Kingdoms period (220–280) of China.
Astronomy in China has a long history, beginning from the Shang Dynasty (Chinese Bronze Age).
Traditional Chinese astronomy has a system of dividing the celestial sphere into asterisms or constellations, known as "officials" (Chinese xīng guān).
Chinese star maps (Chinese: s, t, xīngtú) are usually directional or graphical representations of Chinese astronomical alignments.
The Chongzhen calendar or Shixian calendar was the final lunisolar Chinese calendar.
The Chongzhen Emperor (6 February 1611 – 25 April 1644), personal name Zhu Youjian, was the 17th and last emperor of the Ming dynasty in China, reigning from 1627–1644.
Circa, usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.
In astronomy, a circumpolar constellation is a constellation (group of stars) that never sets below the horizon, as viewed from a location on Earth.
The Coalsack Dark Nebula (or simply the Coalsack) is the most prominent dark nebula in the skies, easily visible to the naked eye as a dark patch silhouetted against the southern Milky Way.
Columba is a small, faint constellation created in the late sixteenth century.
A constellation is a group of stars that are considered to form imaginary outlines or meaningful patterns on the celestial sphere, typically representing animals, mythological people or gods, mythological creatures, or manufactured devices.
Constellation families are collections of constellations sharing some defining characteristic, such as proximity on the celestial sphere, common historical origin, or common mythological theme.
Crux is a constellation located in the southern sky in a bright portion of the Milky Way.
A dark nebula or absorption nebula is a type of interstellar cloud that is so dense that it obscures the light from objects behind it, such as background stars and emission or reflection nebulae.
The decans (Egyptian bakiu) are 36 groups of stars (small constellations) used in the Ancient Egyptian astronomy.
In astronomy, declination (abbreviated dec; symbol δ) is one of the two angles that locate a point on the celestial sphere in the equatorial coordinate system, the other being hour angle.
The sculptured Dendera zodiac (or Denderah zodiac) is a widely known Egyptian bas-relief from the ceiling of the pronaos (or portico) of a chapel dedicated to Osiris in the Hathor temple at Dendera, containing images of Taurus (the bull) and the Libra (the scales).
The Library of Alexandria was one of the largest and most significant libraries of the ancient world and part of a larger research institution called the Musaeum.
Dorado (English pronunciation) is a constellation in the southern sky.
Ellen Dorrit Hoffleit (March 12, 1907 – April 9, 2007) was an American senior research astronomer at Yale University.
Draco is a constellation in the far northern sky.
The Dunhuang manuscripts are a cache of important religious and secular documents discovered in the Mogao Caves of Dunhuang, China, in the early 20th century.
Ethelbert William Bullinger (December 15, 1837 – June 6, 1913) was an Anglican clergyman, Biblical scholar, and ultradispensationalist theologian.
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.
The ecliptic is the circular path on the celestial sphere that the Sun follows over the course of a year; it is the basis of the ecliptic coordinate system.
Egyptian astronomy begins in prehistoric times, in the Predynastic Period.
The emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) is the second-largest living bird by height, after its ratite relative, the ostrich.
In astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time used as a reference point for some time-varying astronomical quantity, such as the celestial coordinates or elliptical orbital elements of a celestial body, because these are subject to perturbations and vary with time.
An equinox is commonly regarded as the moment the plane (extended indefinitely in all directions) of Earth's equator passes through the center of the Sun, which occurs twice each year, around 20 March and 22-23 September.
Eudoxus of Cnidus (Εὔδοξος ὁ Κνίδιος, Eúdoxos ho Knídios) was an ancient Greek astronomer, mathematician, scholar, and student of Archytas and Plato.
Eugène Joseph Delporte (10 January 1882 – 19 October 1955) was a Belgian astronomer born in Genappe.
The geography of North Africa has been reasonably well known among Europeans since classical antiquity in Greco-Roman geography.
The Farnese Atlas is a 2nd-century Roman marble copy of a Hellenistic sculpture of Atlas kneeling with the celestial spheres, not a globe, weighing heavily on his shoulders.
A Flamsteed designation is a combination of a number and constellation name that uniquely identifies most naked eye stars in the modern constellations visible from southern England.
Former constellations are old historical Western constellations that for various reasons are no longer recognized or adopted as official constellations by the International Astronomical Union (IAU).
Frederick de Houtman (1571 – 21 October 1627), or Frederik de Houtman, was a Dutch explorer who sailed along the Western coast of Australia en route to Batavia, known today as Jakarta in Indonesia.
Gaius Julius Hyginus (64 BC – AD 17) was a Latin author, a pupil of the famous Cornelius Alexander Polyhistor, and a freedman of Caesar Augustus.
Gautama Siddha, (fl. 8th century) astronomer, astrologer and compiler of Indian descent, known for leading the compilation of the Treatise on Astrology of the Kaiyuan Era during the Tang Dynasty.
The Greek alphabet has been used to write the Greek language since the late 9th or early 8th century BC.
Grus (or colloquially) is a constellation in the southern sky.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Hanno the Navigator was a Carthaginian explorer of the sixth or fifth century BC, best known for his supposed naval exploration of the western coast of Africa.
In corpus linguistics, a hapax legomenon (also or; pl. hapax legomena; sometimes abbreviated to hapax) is a word that occurs only once within a context, either in the written record of an entire language, in the works of an author, or in a single text.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Prof Henry Norris Russell FRS(For) HFRSE FRAS (October 25, 1877 – February 18, 1957) was an American astronomer who, along with Ejnar Hertzsprung, developed the Hertzsprung–Russell diagram (1910).
Hesiod (or; Ἡσίοδος Hēsíodos) was a Greek poet generally thought by scholars to have been active between 750 and 650 BC, around the same time as Homer.
Hipparchus of Nicaea (Ἵππαρχος, Hipparkhos) was a Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician.
Hipparcos was a scientific satellite of the European Space Agency (ESA), launched in 1989 and operated until 1993.
The horizon or skyline is the apparent line that separates earth from sky, the line that divides all visible directions into two categories: those that intersect the Earth's surface, and those that do not.
The Hyades (Greek Ὑάδες, also known as Melotte 25 or Collinder 50) is the nearest open cluster and one of the best-studied star clusters.
Hydrus is a small constellation in the deep southern sky.
Ian William Ridpath (born 1 May 1947, Ilford, Essex) is an English science writer and broadcaster best known as a popularizer of astronomy and a biographer of constellation history.
The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, "The Four Regions"), also known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America, and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century.
Indus is a constellation in the southern sky created in the late sixteenth century.
The International Astronomical Union (IAU; Union astronomique internationale, UAI) is an international association of professional astronomers, at the PhD level and beyond, active in professional research and education in astronomy.
Joseph Jérôme Lefrançois de Lalande (11 July 1732 – 4 April 1807) was a French astronomer, freemason and writer.
Johann Adam Schall von Bell (1 May 1591 – 15 August 1666) was a German Jesuit and astronomer.
Johann Bayer (1572 – 7 March 1625) was a German lawyer and uranographer (celestial cartographer).
Johannes Hevelius Some sources refer to Hevelius as Polish.
The King James Version (KJV), also known as the King James Bible (KJB) or simply the Version (AV), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, begun in 1604 and completed in 1611.
Late antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages in mainland Europe, the Mediterranean world, and the Near East.
Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late Antiquity.
Leo (♌) (Greek: Λέων, Leōn), is the fifth astrological sign of the zodiac, originating from the constellation of Leo.
Leo is one of the constellations of the zodiac, lying between Cancer the crab to the west and Virgo the maiden to the east.
All stars but one can be associated with an IAU constellation.
Mazzaroth (Mazarot מַזָּרוֹת, LXX μαζουρωθ) The word's meaning is literally 'a garland of crowns'.
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.
The Millennium Star Atlas was constructed as a collaboration between a team at Sky & Telescope led by Roger Sinnott, and the European Space Agency's Hipparcos project, led by Michael Perryman.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (MNRAS) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research in astronomy and astrophysics.
MUL.APIN is the conventional title given to a Babylonian compendium that deals with many diverse aspects of Babylonian astronomy and astrology.
Musca is a small constellation in the deep southern sky.
National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.
The Neo-Babylonian Empire (also Second Babylonian Empire) was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 626 BC and ended in 539 BC.
Abbé Nicolas-Louis de Lacaille, formerly sometimes spelled de la Caille, (15 March 1713 – 21 March 1762) was a French astronomer.
The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is (subject to the caveats explained below) defined as the point in the Northern Hemisphere where the Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface.
Norton's Star Atlas is a set of 16 celestial charts, first published in 1910 and currently in its 20th edition under the editorship of Ian Ridpath.
Oracle bones are pieces of ox scapula or turtle plastron, which were used for pyromancy – a form of divination – in ancient China, mainly during the late Shang dynasty.
Orion is a prominent constellation located on the celestial equator and visible throughout the world.
Pavo is a constellation in the southern sky with the Latin name for peacock.
Petrus Plancius (1552 – May 15, 1622) was a Dutch-Flemish astronomer, cartographer and clergyman.
Phoenix is a minor constellation in the southern sky.
Pierre Lemonnier (aka Petro Lemonnier) (28 June 1675 in Saint-Sever – 27 November 1757 in Saint-Germain-en-Laye) was a French astronomer, a Professor of Physics and Philosophy at the Collège d'Harcourt (University of Paris), and a member of the French Academy of Sciences.
Pieter Dirkszoon Keyser, sometimes Petrus Theodorus (c. 1540 in Emden – 11 September 1596 in Banten), was a Dutch navigator who mapped the southern sky.
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
In astronomy, a planisphere is a star chart analog computing instrument in the form of two adjustable disks that rotate on a common pivot.
The Pleiades (also known as the Seven Sisters and Messier 45), are an open star cluster containing middle-aged, hot B-type stars located in the constellation of Taurus.
Precession is a change in the orientation of the rotational axis of a rotating body.
Proper motion is the astronomical measure of the observed changes in the apparent places of stars or other celestial objects in the sky, as seen from the center of mass of the Solar System, compared to the abstract background of the more distant stars.
The Ptolemaic Kingdom (Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
Quadrans Muralis (Latin for mural quadrant) was a constellation created by the French astronomer Jérôme Lalande in 1795.
The Quadrantids (QUA) are a January meteor shower.
The radial velocity of an object with respect to a given point is the rate of change of the distance between the object and the point.
A refracting telescope (also called a refractor) is a type of optical telescope that uses a lens as its objective to form an image (also referred to a dioptric telescope).
Right ascension (abbreviated RA; symbol) is the angular distance measured only eastward along the celestial equator from the Sun at the March equinox to the (hour circle of the) point above the earth in question.
Scorpius is one of the constellations of the zodiac.
The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
The South Pole, also known as the Geographic South Pole or Terrestrial South Pole, is one of the two points where the Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface.
The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the Equator.
A star chart or star map, also called a sky chart or sky map, is a map of the night sky.
Star Names: Their Lore and Meaning is an 1899 book by Richard Hinckley Allen that discusses the names of stars, constellations, and their histories.
Designations and names of stars (and other celestial bodies) are currently primarily mediated in the scientific community by the International Astronomical Union (IAU), a de facto authority.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
Sumerian (𒅴𒂠 "native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer and a language isolate that was spoken in southern Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).
The Tanakh (or; also Tenakh, Tenak, Tanach), also called the Mikra or Hebrew Bible, is the canonical collection of Jewish texts, which is also a textual source for the Christian Old Testament.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
Taurus (Latin for "the Bull"; symbol:, Unicode: ♉) is the second astrological sign in the present zodiac.
Taurus (Latin for "the Bull") is one of the constellations of the zodiac, which means it is crossed by the plane of the ecliptic.
A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).
The Three Kingdoms (220–280) was the tripartite division of China between the states of Wei (魏), Shu (蜀), and Wu (吳).
The Treatise on Astrology of the Kaiyuan Era is a Chinese astrology encyclopedia compiled by the lead editor Gautama Siddha and numerous scholars from 714 to 724 AD during the Kaiyuan era of Tang Dynasty.
Triangulum Australe is a small constellation in the far Southern Celestial Hemisphere.
Tucana is a constellation of stars in the southern sky, named after the toucan, a South American bird.
The Twenty-Eight Mansions, hsiu, xiu or sieu are part of the Chinese constellations system.
Uranometria is the short title of a star atlas produced by Johann Bayer.
Ursa Major (also known as the Great Bear) is a constellation in the northern sky, whose associated mythology likely dates back into prehistory.
Vela is a constellation in the southern sky.
Volans is a constellation in the southern sky.
The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.
Wil Tirion (born February 19, 1943) is a Dutch uranographer (celestial cartographer).
William Tyler Olcott (1873–1936) was an American lawyer and amateur astronomer.
The Works and Days (Ἔργα καὶ Ἡμέραι, Erga kai Hēmerai)The Works and Days is sometimes called by the Latin translation of the title, Opera et Dies.
Xu Guangqi or Hsü Kuang-ch'i (April 24, 1562– November 8, 1633), also known by his baptismal name Paul, was a Chinese scholar-bureaucrat, Catholic convert, agricultural scientist, astronomer, and mathematician under the Ming dynasty.
The Yale University Observatory, also known as the Leitner Family Observatory and Planetarium, is an astronomical observatory owned and operated by Yale University, and maintained for student use.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
The zodiac is an area of the sky that extends approximately 8° north or south (as measured in celestial latitude) of the ecliptic, the apparent path of the Sun across the celestial sphere over the course of the year.
In modern astronomy, the sky (celestial sphere) is divided into 88 regions called constellations, generally based on the asterisms (which are also called "constellations") of Greek and Roman mythology.
The table below ranks the 88 modern constellations by the solid angle that they subtend in the sky, measured in square degrees and millisteradians.
The following list of constellations in different languages are the informally adopted foreign common names used to represent the official 88 designated constellations of the International Astronomical Union (IAU).
ConStellations, Constelation, Constelations, Constellation (astronomy), Constellation boundaries, Constellation name, Constellations, History of the constellations, IAU constellation, IAU constellations, Southern Birds.