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Shang dynasty

Index Shang dynasty

The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty. [1]

173 relations: Academia Sinica, Agriculture, Ancient Chinese states, Animal husbandry, Antiquarian, Anyang, Bamboo Annals, Battle of Mingtiao, Battle of Muye, Beijing, Bone, Book of Documents, Brill Publishers, Bronze, Bronze Age, Bu Bing, Celestial stem, Ceramic, Chariot, Chariots in ancient China, Chenggu County, Chinese bronze inscriptions, Chinese classics, Chinese folk religion, Chinese historiography, Chinese History: A New Manual, Chinese jade, Chinese mythology, Chinese sovereign, Christopher I. Beckwith, Comet, Confucius, Copper, Cowry, Da Ding, Dagger-axe, Di Yi, Divination, Dong Zuobin, Duke Huan of Qi, Duke of Zhou, Dynasties in Chinese history, Emperor Ku, Emperor Wu of Han, Erligang culture, Erlitou culture, Feoffment, Fu Hao, Geng Ding, Gija Joseon, ..., Gojoseon, Gold, Grave robbery, Great Flood (China), Guzhu, Hainan, Han Chinese, Han dynasty, He Dan Jia, Henan, Historical capitals of China, History of China, Horse burial, Houmuwu ding, Huan River, Huanbei, Huangfu Mi, Human sacrifice, Hunting, Investiture of the Gods, Jade, Jerry Norman (sinologist), Jiandi, Jizi, King Cheng of Zhou, King Wu of Zhou, King Zhou of Shang, Lead, Lin Xin, Liu Xin, Longshan culture, Luoyang, Mars, Mencius, Mencius (book), Ming dynasty, Mitochondrial DNA, Nan Geng, Neolithic, Old Chinese, Oracle bone, Oracle bone script, Pan Geng, Panlongcheng, Posthumous name, Princeton University Press, Proto-Indo-Europeans, Qi (state), Radiocarbon dating, Rammed earth, Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary, Rebellion of the Three Guards, Records of the Grand Historian, Regular script, Rock (geology), Sanxingdui, Scapula, Seal script, Second Sino-Japanese War, Shamanism, Shangdi, Shangqiu, Silk Road, Sima Qian, Slavery, Song (state), Song dynasty, Spoke, Steppe, Stoneware, Tai Geng, Tai Jia, Tai Wu, Taiwan, Tang of Shang, Tangshan, Taotie, The Cambridge History of China, Timber framing, Tin, Tomb of Fu Hao, Vassal, Veneration of the dead, Wai Ren, Wen Ding, Western Zhou, Wo Ding, Wo Jia, Women in ancient and imperial China, Written Chinese, Wu Ding, Wu Geng, Wu Yi of Shang, Wucheng culture, Xia dynasty, Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project, Xiao Jia, Xiao Xin, Xiao Yi of Shang, Xie of Shang, Yan (state), Yan Mountains, Yang Jia of Shang, Yangtze, Yanshi, Yellow River, Yi Zhou Shu, Yinxu, Yong Ji, Yu the Great, Zheng Zhenxiang, Zhengzhou, Zhengzhou Shang City, Zhong Ding, Zhong Ren, Zhou dynasty, Zu Ding, Zu Geng of Shang, Zu Ji, Zu Jia, Zu Xin, Zu Yi, Zuo zhuan. Expand index (123 more) »

Academia Sinica

Academia Sinica (Han characters: 中央研究院, literally "central research academy"; abbreviated AS), headquartered in Nangang District, Taipei, is the national academy of Taiwan.

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Agriculture

Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.

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Ancient Chinese states

Ancient Chinese States were typified by variously sized city states and territories that existed in China prior to its unification by Qin Shi Huang in 221 BCE.

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Animal husbandry

Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products.

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Antiquarian

An antiquarian or antiquary (from the Latin: antiquarius, meaning pertaining to ancient times) is an aficionado or student of antiquities or things of the past.

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Anyang

Anyang is a prefecture-level city in Henan province, China.

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Bamboo Annals

The Bamboo Annals, also known as the Ji Tomb Annals, is a chronicle of ancient China.

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Battle of Mingtiao

The Battle of Mingtiao was a legendary battle between the Xia dynasty and the Shang dynasty, resulting in a Shang victory which created the circumstances for the elevation of the Duke of Shang to the throne of China.

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Battle of Muye

The Battle of Muye or Mu was a battle fought in ancient China between the Zhou dynasty and Shang dynasty.

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Beijing

Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.

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Bone

A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.

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Book of Documents

The Book of Documents (Shujing, earlier Shu-king) or Classic of History, also known as the Shangshu ("Esteemed Documents"), is one of the Five Classics of ancient Chinese literature.

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Brill Publishers

Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is a Dutch international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.

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Bronze

Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.

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Bronze Age

The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.

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Bu Bing

Bu Bing or Wai Bing (Chinese: 外丙) was a Shang dynasty King of China.

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Celestial stem

The ten Celestial or Heavenly Stems are a Chinese system of ordinals that first appear during the Shang dynasty, ca.

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Ceramic

A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.

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Chariot

A chariot is a type of carriage driven by a charioteer using primarily horses to provide rapid motive power.

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Chariots in ancient China

The ancient Chinese chariot was used as an attack and pursuit vehicle on the open fields and plains of Ancient China from around 1200 BCE.

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Chenggu County

Chenggu County is a county of Hanzhong, in the southwest of Shaanxi province, China.

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Chinese bronze inscriptions

Chinese bronze inscriptions, also commonly referred to as Bronze script or Bronzeware script, are writing in a variety of Chinese scripts on Chinese ritual bronzes such as zhōng bells and dǐng tripodal cauldrons from the Shang dynasty to the Zhou dynasty and even later.

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Chinese classics

Chinese classic texts or canonical texts refers to the Chinese texts which originated before the imperial unification by the Qin dynasty in 221 BC, particularly the "Four Books and Five Classics" of the Neo-Confucian tradition, themselves a customary abridgment of the "Thirteen Classics".

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Chinese folk religion

Chinese folk religion (Chinese popular religion) or Han folk religion is the religious tradition of the Han people, including veneration of forces of nature and ancestors, exorcism of harmful forces, and a belief in the rational order of nature which can be influenced by human beings and their rulers as well as spirits and gods.

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Chinese historiography

Chinese historiography is the study of the techniques and sources used by historians to develop the recorded history of China.

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Chinese History: A New Manual

Chinese History: A New Manual, written by Endymion Wilkinson, is an encyclopedic guide to Sinology and Chinese history.

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Chinese jade

Chinese jade refers to the jade mined or carved in China from the Neolithic onward.

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Chinese mythology

Chinese mythology refers to myths found in the historical geographic area of China: these include myths in Chinese and other languages, as transmitted by Han Chinese and other ethnic groups, which have their own languages and myths.

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Chinese sovereign

The Chinese sovereign is the ruler of a particular period in ancient China.

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Christopher I. Beckwith

Christopher I. Beckwith (born 1945) is a professor in the Department of Central Eurasian Studies at Indiana University in Bloomington, Indiana.

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Comet

A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.

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Confucius

Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.

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Copper

Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.

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Cowry

Cowry or cowrie, plural cowries, is the common name for a group of small to large sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Cypraeidae, the cowries.

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Da Ding

Tai Ding or Da Ding was the eldest son of King Tang but sources are conflicted as to whether he actually succeeded his father as a Shang dynasty King of China or not.

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Dagger-axe

The dagger-axe (sometimes confusingly translated "halberd") or ge is a type of pole weapon that was in use from the Shang dynasty until the Han dynasty in China.

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Di Yi

Di Yi (Chinese: 帝乙) was a king of the Shang dynasty of China from 1101BC to 1076 BC.

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Divination

Divination (from Latin divinare "to foresee, to be inspired by a god", related to divinus, divine) is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic, standardized process or ritual.

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Dong Zuobin

Dong Zuobin or Tung Tso-pin (1895–1963) was a Chinese archaeologist.

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Duke Huan of Qi

Duke Huan of Qi (died 643 BC), personal name Xiǎobái (小白), was the ruler of the State of Qi from 685 to 643 BC.

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Duke of Zhou

Dan, Duke Wen of Zhou (11th Century BC), commonly known as the Duke of Zhou, was a member of the royal family of the Zhou dynasty who played a major role in consolidating the kingdom established by his elder brother King Wu.

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Dynasties in Chinese history

The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese History.

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Emperor Ku

Kù, usually referred to as Dì Kù, also known as Gaoxin or Gāoxīn Shì, was (according to many versions of the list) one of the Five Emperors of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors of Chinese mythology: some sources treat Ku as a semi-historical figure, while others make fantastic mythological or religious claims about him.

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Emperor Wu of Han

Emperor Wu of Han (30 July 157BC29 March 87BC), born Liu Che, courtesy name Tong, was the seventh emperor of the Han dynasty of China, ruling from 141–87 BC.

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Erligang culture

The Erligang culture is a Bronze Age urban civilization and archaeological culture in China that existed from approximately 1510 to 1460 BC.

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Erlitou culture

The Erlitou culture was an early Bronze Age urban society and archaeological culture that existed in the Yellow River valley from approximately 1900 to 1500 BC.

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Feoffment

In the Middle Ages, especially under the European feudal system, feoffment or enfeoffment was the deed by which a person was given land in exchange for a pledge of service.

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Fu Hao

Fu Hao (died c. 1200 BC) or Lady Hao, posthumously Mu Xin (母辛), was one of the many wives of King Wu Ding of the Shang dynasty and, unusually for that time, also served as a military general and high priestess.

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Geng Ding

Kang Ding (康丁) or Geng Ding (庚丁) was a king of the Shang dynasty of China from c. 1170 BC to c. 1147 BC.

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Gija Joseon

Gija Joseon (1120–194 BC) refers to the period of Gojoseon following the alleged arrival of the sage Gija.

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Gojoseon

Gojoseon, originally named Joseon, was an ancient Korean kingdom.

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Gold

Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.

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Grave robbery

Grave robbery, tomb robbing, or tomb raiding is the act of uncovering a grave, tomb or crypt to steal matter.

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Great Flood (China)

The Great Flood of Gun-Yu, also known as the Gun-Yu myth,Yang, 74 was a major flood event in ancient China that allegedly continued for at least two generations, which resulted in great population displacements among other disasters, such as storms and famine.

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Guzhu

Guzhu was a vassal state of the Shang and Zhou dynasties located in the vicinity of modern Tangshan, Hebei province.

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Hainan

Hainan is the smallest and southernmost province of the People's Republic of China (PRC), consisting of various islands in the South China Sea.

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Han Chinese

The Han Chinese,.

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Han dynasty

The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.

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He Dan Jia

Jian Jia or He Dan Jia was a Shang dynasty King of China.

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Henan

Henan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country.

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Historical capitals of China

There are traditionally four historical capitals of China, collectively referred to as the "Four Great Ancient Capitals of China".

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History of China

The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.

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Horse burial

Horse burial is the practice of burying a horse as part of the ritual of human burial, and is found among many Indo-European peoples and others, including Chinese and Turkic peoples.

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Houmuwu ding

The Houmuwu ding, formerly called Simuwu ding, is a rectangular bronze ding (sacrificial vessel, one of the common types of Chinese ritual bronzes) of the ancient Chinese Shang dynasty.

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Huan River

The Huan River, or Anyang River (安阳河), is a river in Henan, China, and part of the Hai River basin.

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Huanbei

Huanbei is the site of a Bronze Age city on the northern outskirts of the modern city of Anyang in Henan province, China, discovered in 1999.

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Huangfu Mi

Huangfu Mi (215–282) was a Chinese scholar and physician who lived through the late Eastern Han dynasty, Three Kingdoms period and early Western Jin dynasty.

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Human sacrifice

Human sacrifice is the act of killing one or more humans, usually as an offering to a deity, as part of a ritual.

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Hunting

Hunting is the practice of killing or trapping animals, or pursuing or tracking them with the intent of doing so.

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Investiture of the Gods

The Investiture of the Gods or also known by its Chinese names and is a 16th-century Chinese novel and one of the major vernacular Chinese works in the gods-and-demons (shenmo) genre written during the Ming dynasty (1368–1644).

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Jade

Jade is an ornamental mineral, mostly known for its green varieties, which is featured prominently in ancient Asian art.

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Jerry Norman (sinologist)

Jerry Lee Norman (July 16, 1936July 7, 2012) was an American sinologist and linguist known for his studies of Chinese dialects and historical phonology, particularly on the Min Chinese dialects, and of the Manchu language.

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Jiandi

Jiandi, also with variants 簡易/简易 and 簡逷/简逷, is an important figure in Chinese history and in Chinese mythology.

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Jizi

Jizi or Qizi (Gija or Kija in Korean) was a semi-legendary Chinese sage who is said to have ruled Gija Joseon in the 11th century BCE.

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King Cheng of Zhou

King Cheng of Zhou or King Ch'eng of Chou was the second king of the Chinese Zhou Dynasty.

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King Wu of Zhou

King Wu of Zhou was the first king of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China.

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King Zhou of Shang

King Zhou was the pejorative posthumous name given to Di Xin, the last king of the Shang dynasty of ancient China.

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Lead

Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.

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Lin Xin

Lin Xin (廩辛) was king of the Shang dynasty of China.

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Liu Xin

Liu Xin (c. 50 BCE – 23 CE), courtesy name Zijun, was a Chinese astronomer, historian, librarian and politician during the Western Han Dynasty (206 BCE – 9 CE) and Xin Dynasty (9 – 23 CE).

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Longshan culture

The Longshan (or Lung-shan) culture, also sometimes referred to as the Black Pottery Culture, was a late Neolithic culture in the middle and lower Yellow River valley areas of northern China from about 3000 to 1900 BC.

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Luoyang

Luoyang, formerly romanized as Loyang, is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River in the west of Henan province.

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Mars

Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.

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Mencius

Mencius or Mengzi (372–289 BC or 385–303 or 302BC) was a Chinese philosopher who has often been described as the "second Sage", that is after only Confucius himself.

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Mencius (book)

The Mencius (Old Chinese: *mˤraŋ-s tsəʔ) is a collection of anecdotes and conversations of the Confucian thinker and philosopher Mencius on topics in moral and political philosophy, often between Mencius and the rulers of the various Warring States.

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Ming dynasty

The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.

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Mitochondrial DNA

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA or mDNA) is the DNA located in mitochondria, cellular organelles within eukaryotic cells that convert chemical energy from food into a form that cells can use, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

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Nan Geng

Nan Geng was a king of the Shang dynasty of ancient China.

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Neolithic

The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.

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Old Chinese

Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese, and the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese.

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Oracle bone

Oracle bones are pieces of ox scapula or turtle plastron, which were used for pyromancy – a form of divination – in ancient China, mainly during the late Shang dynasty.

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Oracle bone script

Oracle bone script was the form of Chinese characters used on oracle bonesanimal bones or turtle plastrons used in pyromantic divinationin the late 2nd millennium BCE, and is the earliest known form of Chinese writing.

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Pan Geng

Pán Gēng, given name Xun, was a Shang dynasty King of China.

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Panlongcheng

Panlongcheng or Panlong City is an archaeological site associated with the Erligang culture.

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Posthumous name

A posthumous name is an honorary name given to royalty, nobles, and sometimes others, in East Asia after the person's death, and is used almost exclusively instead of one's personal name or other official titles during his life.

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Princeton University Press

Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

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Proto-Indo-Europeans

The Proto-Indo-Europeans were the prehistoric people of Eurasia who spoke Proto-Indo-European (PIE), the ancestor of the Indo-European languages according to linguistic reconstruction.

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Qi (state)

Qi was a state of the Zhou dynasty-era in ancient China, variously reckoned as a march, duchy, and independent kingdom.

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Radiocarbon dating

Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.

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Rammed earth

Rammed earth, also known as taipa in Portuguese, tapial or tapia in Spanish, pisé (de terre) in French, and hangtu, is a technique for constructing foundations, floors, and walls using natural raw materials such as earth, chalk, lime, or gravel.

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Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary

Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary is a large American dictionary, first published in 1966 as The Random House Dictionary of the English Language: The Unabridged Edition.

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Rebellion of the Three Guards

The Rebellion of the Three Guards, or less commonly the Wu Geng Rebellion, was a civil war, instigated by an alliance of discontent Zhou princes, Shang loyalists, vassal states and non-Chinese peoples against the Zhou government under the Duke of Zhou's regency in the latter 11th century BC.

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Records of the Grand Historian

The Records of the Grand Historian, also known by its Chinese name Shiji, is a monumental history of ancient China and the world finished around 94 BC by the Han dynasty official Sima Qian after having been started by his father, Sima Tan, Grand Astrologer to the imperial court.

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Regular script

Regular script (Hepburn: kaisho), also called 正楷, 真書 (zhēnshū), 楷體 (kǎitǐ) and 正書 (zhèngshū), is the newest of the Chinese script styles (appearing by the Cao Wei dynasty ca. 200 CE and maturing stylistically around the 7th century), hence most common in modern writings and publications (after the Ming and gothic styles, used exclusively in print).

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Rock (geology)

Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.

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Sanxingdui

Sanxingdui is the name of an archaeological site and a major Bronze Age culture in modern Sichuan, China.

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Scapula

In anatomy, the scapula (plural scapulae or scapulas; also known as shoulder bone, shoulder blade or wing bone) is the bone that connects the humerus (upper arm bone) with the clavicle (collar bone).

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Seal script

Seal script is an ancient style of writing Chinese characters that was common throughout the latter half of the 1st millennium BC.

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Second Sino-Japanese War

The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945.

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Shamanism

Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world.

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Shangdi

Shangdi, also written simply, "Emperor", is the Chinese term for "Supreme Deity" or "Highest Deity" in the theology of the classical texts, especially deriving from Shang theology and finding an equivalent in the later Tian ("Heaven" or "Great Whole") of Zhou theology.

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Shangqiu

Shangqiu, formerly romanized as Shangkiu, is a city in eastern Henan province, Central China.

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Silk Road

The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.

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Sima Qian

Sima Qian was a Chinese historian of the early Han dynasty (206AD220).

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Slavery

Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.

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Song (state)

Sòng (Old Chinese: *) was a state during the Zhou dynasty of ancient China, with its capital at Shangqiu.

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Song dynasty

The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.

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Spoke

A spoke is one of some number of rods radiating from the center of a wheel (the hub where the axle connects), connecting the hub with the round traction surface.

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Steppe

In physical geography, a steppe (p) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.

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Stoneware

--> Stoneware is a rather broad term for pottery or other ceramics fired at a relatively high temperature.

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Tai Geng

Da Geng or Tai Geng was a king of the Shang dynasty of ancient China.

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Tai Jia

Tai Jia or Da Jia, personal name Zhi (至), was the son of Prince Da Ding (son of King Tang) and a king of the ancient Chinese Shang dynasty.

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Tai Wu

Da Wu or Tai Wu was a Shang dynasty King of China.

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Taiwan

Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.

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Tang of Shang

Tang (– 1646 BC) or Cheng Tang (成湯), recorded on oracle bones as Da Yi (大乙), was the first king of the Shang dynasty in Chinese history.

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Tangshan

Tangshan is a largely industrial prefecture-level city in northeastern Hebei province, China.

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Taotie

The taotie is a motif commonly found on Chinese ritual bronze vessels from the Shang and Zhou dynasty.

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The Cambridge History of China

The Cambridge History of China is an ongoing series of books published by Cambridge University Press (CUP) covering the history of China from the founding of the Qin dynasty in 221 BC to 1982.

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Timber framing

Timber framing and "post-and-beam" construction are traditional methods of building with heavy timbers, creating structures using squared-off and carefully fitted and joined timbers with joints secured by large wooden pegs.

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Tin

Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.

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Tomb of Fu Hao

The Tomb of Fu Hao is an archaeological site at Yinxu, the ruins of the ancient Shang dynasty capital Yin, within the modern city of Anyang in Henan Province, China.

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Vassal

A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.

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Veneration of the dead

The veneration of the dead, including one's ancestors, is based on love and respect for the deceased.

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Wai Ren

Bu Ren or Wai Ren was a Shang dynasty King of China.

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Wen Ding

Wen Wu Ding or Wen Ding was a king of the Shang dynasty of China from 1112 to 1102 BC.

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Western Zhou

The Western Zhou (西周; c. 1046 – 771 BC) was the first half of the Zhou dynasty of ancient China.

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Wo Ding

Wo Ding (personal name Xuan, (绚) is traditionally held to be a Shang dynasty King of China but recent archaeological evidence has thrown this into doubt. In the Records of the Grand Historian he was listed by Sima Qian as the fifth Shang king, succeeding his father Tai Jia. He was enthroned in the year of Guisi (癸巳) with Qingshi (卿士) as his prime minister and Bo (亳) as he capital. In the 8th year of his reign, he conducted ceremonies to honour Yi Yin, the previous prime minister. He ruled for 19 years (other sources say 29 years) before his death. He was given the posthumous name Wo Ding and was succeeded by his brother Tai Geng. Oracle script inscriptions on bones unearthed at Yinxu do not list him as one of the Shang kings.

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Wo Jia

Qiang Jia or Wo Jia was a Shang dynasty King of China.

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Women in ancient and imperial China

The study of women's history in the context of imperial China has been pursued since at least the late 1990s.

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Written Chinese

Written Chinese comprises Chinese characters (汉字/漢字; pinyin: Hànzì, literally "Han characters") used to represent the Chinese language.

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Wu Ding

Wu Ding was a king of the Shang dynasty in ancient China, whose reign lasted from approximately 1250–1192 BC.

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Wu Geng

Wu Geng (Chinese: 庚, Wǔ Gēng) was an ancient Chinese noble who was the son of Zhou, the last king of the Shang.

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Wu Yi of Shang

Wu Yi (Chinese: 武乙) was king of the Shang dynasty of ancient China from 1147 to 1112 BC.

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Wucheng culture

The Wucheng culture (吳城文化) was a Bronze Age archaeological culture in Jiangxi, China.

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Xia dynasty

The Xia dynasty is the legendary, possibly apocryphal first dynasty in traditional Chinese history.

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Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project

The Xia–Shang–Zhou Chronology Project was a multi-disciplinary project commissioned by the People's Republic of China in 1996 to determine with accuracy the location and time frame of the Xia, Shang, and Zhou dynasties.

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Xiao Jia

Xiao Jia was a Shang dynasty King of China.

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Xiao Xin

Xiao Xin was a Shang dynasty King of China.

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Xiao Yi of Shang

Xiao Yi was a Shang dynasty King of China.

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Xie of Shang

Xie was an ancient Chinese nobleman, an ancestor of the kings of the Shang dynasty.

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Yan (state)

Yan (Old Chinese pronunciation: &#42) was an ancient Chinese state during the Zhou dynasty.

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Yan Mountains

The Yan Mountains, also known by their Chinese name Yanshan, are a major mountain range to the north of the North China Plain, principally in the province of Hebei.

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Yang Jia of Shang

Xiang Jia or Yang Jia (was a Shang dynasty King of China. In the Records of the Grand Historian he was listed by Sima Qian as the eighteenth Shang king, succeeding his father's cousin Nan Geng. He was enthroned in the year of Renxu (Chinese: 壬戌) with Yan (Chinese: 奄) as his capital. In the third year of his reign he sent troops against the barbarians of Danshan (Chinese: 丹山). He ruled for about 17 years (although other sources claim 7 years) before his death. He was given the posthumous name Yang Jia and was succeeded by his younger brother Pan Geng. Oracle script inscriptions on bones unearthed at Yinxu alternatively record that he was the seventeenth Shang king, given the posthumous name Xiang Jia (Chinese: 象甲).

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Yangtze

The Yangtze, which is 6,380 km (3,964 miles) long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world.

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Yanshi

Yanshi is a county-level city administered by the prefecture-level city of Luoyang in western Henan province in the China.

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Yellow River

The Yellow River or Huang He is the second longest river in Asia, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of.

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Yi Zhou Shu

The Yi Zhou Shu is a compendium of Chinese historical documents about the Western Zhou period (1046–771 BCE).

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Yinxu

Yinxu (modern) is the site of one of the ancient and major historical capitals of China.

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Yong Ji

Lü Ji or Yong Ji was a Shang dynasty King of China.

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Yu the Great

Yu the Great (c. 2200 – 2100 BC) was a legendary ruler in ancient China famed for his introduction of flood control, inaugurating dynastic rule in China by establishing the Xia Dynasty, and for his upright moral character.

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Zheng Zhenxiang

Zheng Zhenxiang (郑振香) is a Chinese archaeologist most famous for excavating the Bronze Age tomb of Fuhao at Anyang.

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Zhengzhou

Zhengzhou is the capital of Henan Province in the central part of the People's Republic of China.

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Zhengzhou Shang City

The Zhengzhou Shang City (郑州商城遗址, Pinyin: Zhèngzhōu Shāngchéngyízhǐ) is an archaeological site in Zhengzhou, Henan, China.

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Zhong Ding

Zhong Ding was a Shang dynasty King of China.

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Zhong Ren

Zhòng Rén (born Zi Yong, 子庸) is traditionally held to be a Shang dynasty King of China but recent archaeological evidence has thrown this into doubt.

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Zhou dynasty

The Zhou dynasty or the Zhou Kingdom was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty.

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Zu Ding

Zu Ding was a king of the Chinese Shang dynasty.

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Zu Geng of Shang

Zu Geng (祖庚) was king of the Shang dynasty of China.

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Zu Ji

Zu Ji was the eldest son of King Wu Ding but despite his kingly title he never succeeded his father as a Shang dynasty King of China.

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Zu Jia

Zu Jia (祖甲) was king of the Shang dynasty of China.

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Zu Xin

Zu Xin was a Shang dynasty King of China.

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Zu Yi

Zu Yi was a Shang dynasty King of China.

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Zuo zhuan

The Zuo zhuan, generally translated The Zuo Tradition or The Commentary of Zuo, is an ancient Chinese narrative history that is traditionally regarded as a commentary on the ancient Chinese chronicle ''Spring and Autumn Annals'' (''Chunqiu'' 春秋).

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Redirects here:

King of Shang, Kingdom of Shang, List of Shang emperors, List of kings of the Shang dynasty, Shang, Shang China, Shang Dynasty, Shang Empire, Shang Great Dynasty, Shang culture, Shang kingdom, Shang period, Shang-Yin Dynasty, Shang-dynasty, Shāng Dynasty, Tzu (surname), Yin Dynasty, Yin dynasty, Yīn dynasty, Zi (surname).

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shang_dynasty

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