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Middle English

Index Middle English

Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500. [1]

204 relations: A Linguistic Atlas of Early Middle English, AB language, Accusative case, Affricate consonant, Allophone, Ampersand, Analytic language, Anchorite, Ancrene Wisse, Anemoi, Anglic languages, Anglicisation, Anglo-Frisian languages, Anglo-Norman language, Apophony, Appeal, Arabic numerals, Archaism, Aries (astrology), Article (grammar), Auchinleck manuscript, Ayenbite of Inwyt, Æ, Beef, Bible translations into English, Book of Common Prayer, Bristol, Pennsylvania, C, Calf, Carolingian G, Carolingian minuscule, Cattle, Chicken, Chivalry, Christogram, Confessio Amantis, Court, Crusades, Danelaw, Dative case, Demonstrative, Digraph (orthography), Diphthong, Double plural, Dual (grammatical number), Early Modern English, East Midlands, England, English language, English orthography, ..., English possessive, Eth, Faroese language, Feudalism, Fingallian, Forest, Forth and Bargy dialect, French language, Fricative consonant, Gemination, General Prologue, Genitive case, Geoffrey Chaucer, Germanic languages, Germanic strong verb, Gospel of Luke, Grammatical case, Great Vowel Shift, Hard and soft C, Hard and soft G, He, Henry Sweet, High Middle Ages, History of English, History of the Scots language, I (pronoun), Icelandic language, Inflection, Instrumental case, Insular G, Insular script, Iota, Ireland, Isolating language, It (pronoun), John Gower, John Wycliffe, Judge, Jury, Katherine Group, Kentish dialect, Lamb and mutton, Late Middle Ages, Latin, Law French, Layamon's Brut, Liberty, Lincolnshire, Literal translation, Lollardy, London, Long s, Mackenzie, Macron (diacritic), Mansion, Medulla Grammatice, Metre (poetry), Middle English creole hypothesis, Middle English Dictionary, Middle English literature, Middle English phonology, Middle Scots, Modern English, Monarchy of the United Kingdom, Monumental brass, Movable type, Nativity of Jesus, New Testament, Norman conquest of England, Normans, North Sea Germanic, Northumbrian dialect (Old English), Object pronoun, Old English, Old English grammar, Old English Latin alphabet, Old English phonology, Old French, Old Norman, Old Norse, Oliver Farrar Emerson, Ormulum, Orthography, Palatal approximant, Palmer (pilgrim), Parliament, Personal pronoun, Peterborough Chronicle, Phoneme, Phonemic orthography, Phonological history of English, Phonological history of English diphthongs, Phonological history of English high back vowels, Phonological history of English high front vowels, Pig, Plural, Pork, Possessive, Possessive determiner, Poultry, Preposition and postposition, Prestige (sociolinguistics), Pronunciation of English ⟨wh⟩, Proto-Germanic language, Reflexive pronoun, Richard Pynson, Roman numerals, Roundedness, Routledge, Saint, Sche, Schwa, Scotland, Scots language, Scribal abbreviation, Sense-for-sense translation, She, Sheep, Silent e, Silent letter, Subject pronoun, Syllable, Synthetic language, Tauno Frans Mustanoja, Th (digraph), The Canterbury Tales, The Chaucer Review, The Owl and the Nightingale, The Reeve's Tale, They, Thomas Becket, Thorn (letter), Thou, Typographic ligature, Veal, Vernacular, Vikings, Voicelessness, W, Wales, We, West Germanic languages, West Midlands (region), West Saxon dialect, William Caxton, Word order, Wycliffe's Bible, Wynn, Y, Ye (pronoun), Ye olde, Yodh, Yogh, You. Expand index (154 more) »

A Linguistic Atlas of Early Middle English

A Linguistic Atlas of Early Middle English (LAEME) is a digital, corpus-driven, historical dialect resource for Early Middle English (1150–1325).

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AB language

In English philology, AB language is a variety of Middle English found in the Corpus manuscript, containing Ancrene Wisse (whence 'A'), and in MS Bodley 34 in Bodleian Library, Oxford (whence 'B').

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Accusative case

The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.

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Affricate consonant

An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).

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In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.

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The ampersand is the logogram &, representing the conjunction "and".

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Analytic language

In linguistic typology, an analytic language is a language that primarily conveys relationships between words in sentences by way of helper words (particles, prepositions, etc.) and word order, as opposed to utilizing inflections (changing the form of a word to convey its role in the sentence).

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An anchorite or anchoret (female: anchoress; adj. anchoritic; from ἀναχωρητής, anachōrētḗs, "one who has retired from the world", from the verb ἀναχωρέω, anachōréō, signifying "to withdraw", "to retire") is someone who, for religious reasons, withdraws from secular society so as to be able to lead an intensely prayer-oriented, ascetic, or Eucharist-focused life.

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Ancrene Wisse

Ancrene Wisse (also known as the Ancrene Riwle or Guide for Anchoresses) is an anonymous monastic rule (or manual) for female anchorites ("anchoresses") written in the early 13th century.

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In ancient Greek religion and myth, the Anemoi (Greek: Ἄνεμοι, "Winds") were wind gods who were each ascribed a cardinal direction from which their respective winds came (see Classical compass winds), and were each associated with various seasons and weather conditions.

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Anglic languages

The Anglic languages (also called the English languages or Insular Germanic languages) are a group of linguistic varieties including Old English and the languages descended from it.

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Anglicisation (or anglicization, see English spelling differences), occasionally anglification, anglifying, englishing, refers to modifications made to foreign words, names and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English.

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Anglo-Frisian languages

The Anglo-Frisian languages are the West Germanic languages which include Anglic (or English) and Frisian.

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Anglo-Norman language

Anglo-Norman, also known as Anglo-Norman French, is a variety of the Norman language that was used in England and, to a lesser extent, elsewhere in the British Isles during the Anglo-Norman period.

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In linguistics, apophony (also known as ablaut, (vowel) gradation, (vowel) mutation, alternation, internal modification, stem modification, stem alternation, replacive morphology, stem mutation, internal inflection etc.) is any sound change within a word that indicates grammatical information (often inflectional).

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In law, an appeal is the process in which cases are reviewed, where parties request a formal change to an official decision.

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Arabic numerals

Arabic numerals, also called Hindu–Arabic numerals, are the ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, based on the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world today.

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In language, an archaism (from the ἀρχαϊκός, archaïkós, 'old-fashioned, antiquated', ultimately ἀρχαῖος, archaîos, 'from the beginning, ancient') is the use of a form of speech or writing that is no longer current or that is current only within a few special contexts.

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Aries (astrology)

Aries (♈) (meaning "ram") is the first astrological sign in the zodiac, spanning the first 30 degrees of celestial longitude (0°≤.

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Article (grammar)

An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.

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Auchinleck manuscript

The Auchinleck Manuscript, NLS Adv.

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Ayenbite of Inwyt

The Ayenbite of Inwyt —also Aȝenbite (Agenbite) of Inwit; literally, the "again-biting of inner wit", or the Remorse (Prick) of Conscience is the title of a confessional prose work written in a Kentish dialect of Middle English.

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Æ (minuscule: æ) is a grapheme named æsc or ash, formed from the letters a and e, originally a ligature representing the Latin diphthong ae.

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Beef is the culinary name for meat from cattle, particularly skeletal muscle.

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Bible translations into English

Partial Bible translations into languages of the English people can be traced back to the late 7th century, including translations into Old and Middle English.

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Book of Common Prayer

The Book of Common Prayer (BCP) is the short title of a number of related prayer books used in the Anglican Communion, as well as by the Continuing Anglican, Anglican realignment and other Anglican Christian churches.

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Bristol, Pennsylvania

Bristol Borough is a borough in Bucks County, Pennsylvania, northeast of Center City Philadelphia, opposite Burlington, New Jersey on the Delaware River.

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C is the third letter in the English alphabet and a letter of the alphabets of many other writing systems which inherited it from the Latin alphabet.

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A calf (plural, calves) is the young of domestic cattle.

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Carolingian G

The Carolingian G or French G is one of two historical variants of the letter G which were in use in the Middle English alphabet; the other variant was the insular G or Irish G. The Carolingian G is named for the Carolingian minuscule script, an exemplar of its use.

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Carolingian minuscule

Carolingian minuscule or Caroline minuscule is a script which developed as a calligraphic standard in Europe so that the Latin alphabet could be easily recognized by the literate class from one region to another.

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Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.

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The chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) is a type of domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the red junglefowl.

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Chivalry, or the chivalric code, is an informal, varying code of conduct developed between 1170 and 1220, never decided on or summarized in a single document, associated with the medieval institution of knighthood; knights' and gentlewomen's behaviours were governed by chivalrous social codes.

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A Christogram (Latin Monogramma ChristiThe portmanteau of Christo- and -gramma is modern, first introduced in German as Christogramm in the mid-18th century. Adoption into English as Christogram dates to c. 1900.) is a monogram or combination of letters that forms an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, traditionally used as a religious symbol within the Christian Church.

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Confessio Amantis

Confessio Amantis ("The Lover's Confession") is a 33,000-line Middle English poem by John Gower, which uses the confession made by an ageing lover to the chaplain of Venus as a frame story for a collection of shorter narrative poems.

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A court is a tribunal, often as a government institution, with the authority to adjudicate legal disputes between parties and carry out the administration of justice in civil, criminal, and administrative matters in accordance with the rule of law.

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The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.

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The Danelaw (also known as the Danelagh; Dena lagu; Danelagen), as recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, is a historical name given to the part of England in which the laws of the Danes held sway and dominated those of the Anglo-Saxons.

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Dative case

The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".

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Demonstratives (abbreviated) are words, such as this and that, used to indicate which entities are being referred to and to distinguish those entities from others.

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Digraph (orthography)

A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.

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A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.

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Double plural

A double plural is a plural form to which an extra suffix has been added, mainly because the original plural suffix (or other variation) had become unproductive and therefore irregular.

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Dual (grammatical number)

Dual (abbreviated) is a grammatical number that some languages use in addition to singular and plural.

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Early Modern English

Early Modern English, Early New English (sometimes abbreviated to EModE, EMnE or EME) is the stage of the English language from the beginning of the Tudor period to the English Interregnum and Restoration, or from the transition from Middle English, in the late 15th century, to the transition to Modern English, in the mid-to-late 17th century.

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East Midlands

The East Midlands is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes.

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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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English orthography

English orthography is the system of writing conventions used to represent spoken English in written form that allows readers to connect spelling to sound to meaning.

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English possessive

In English, possessive words or phrases exist for nouns and most pronouns, as well as some noun phrases.

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Eth (uppercase: Ð, lowercase: ð; also spelled edh or eð) is a letter used in Old English, Middle English, Icelandic, Faroese (in which it is called edd), and Elfdalian.

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Faroese language

Faroese (føroyskt mál,; færøsk) is a North Germanic language spoken as a first language by about 66,000 people, 45,000 of whom reside on the Faroe Islands and 21,000 in other areas, mainly Denmark.

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Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.

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Fingallian or the Fingal dialect is an extinct variety of English formerly spoken in Fingal, Ireland.

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A forest is a large area dominated by trees.

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Forth and Bargy dialect

The Forth and Bargy dialect, also known as Yola, is an extinct variety of English once spoken in the baronies of Forth and Bargy in County Wexford, Ireland.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.

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Fricative consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.

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General Prologue

The General Prologue is the first part of Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales.

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Genitive case

In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.

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Geoffrey Chaucer

Geoffrey Chaucer (c. 1343 – 25 October 1400), known as the Father of English literature, is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages.

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Germanic languages

The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.

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Germanic strong verb

In the Germanic languages, a strong verb is a verb that marks its past tense by means of changes to the stem vowel (ablaut).

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Gospel of Luke

The Gospel According to Luke (Τὸ κατὰ Λουκᾶν εὐαγγέλιον, to kata Loukan evangelion), also called the Gospel of Luke, or simply Luke, is the third of the four canonical Gospels.

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Grammatical case

Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.

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Great Vowel Shift

The Great Vowel Shift was a major series of changes in the pronunciation of the English language that took place, beginning in southern England, primarily between 1350 and the 1600s and 1700s, today influencing effectively all dialects of English.

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Hard and soft C

In the Latin-based orthographies of many European languages (including English), a distinction between hard and soft occurs in which represents two distinct phonemes.

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Hard and soft G

In the Latin-based orthographies of many European languages (including English), the letter is used in different contexts to represent two distinct phonemes, often called hard and soft.

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He is a masculine third-person, singular personal pronoun (subjective case) in Modern English.

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Henry Sweet

Henry Sweet (15 September 1845 – 30 April 1912) was an English philologist, phonetician and grammarian.

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High Middle Ages

The High Middle Ages, or High Medieval Period, was the period of European history that commenced around 1000 AD and lasted until around 1250 AD.

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History of English

English is a West Germanic language that originated from Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Britain in the mid 5th to 7th centuries AD by Anglo-Saxon settlers from what is now northwest Germany, west Denmark and the Netherlands, displacing the Celtic languages that previously predominated.

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History of the Scots language

The history of the Scots language refers to how Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland developed into modern Scots.

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I (pronoun)

The pronoun I is the first-person singular nominative case personal pronoun in Modern English.

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Icelandic language

Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.

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In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.

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Instrumental case

The instrumental case (abbreviated or) is a grammatical case used to indicate that a noun is the instrument or means by or with which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action.

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Insular G

Insular G (font:Ᵹ ᵹ; image) is a form of the letter g used in Insular fonts somewhat resembling a tailed z or lowercase delta, used in Great Britain and Ireland.

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Insular script

Insular script was a medieval script system invented in Ireland that spread to Anglo-Saxon England and continental Europe under the influence of Irish Christianity.

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Iota (uppercase Ι, lowercase ι) is the ninth letter of the Greek alphabet.

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Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.

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Isolating language

An isolating language is a type of language with a very low morpheme per word ratio and no inflectional morphology whatsoever.

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It (pronoun)

It is a third-person, singular neuter pronoun (nominative (subjective) case and oblique (objective) case) in Modern English.

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John Gower

John Gower (c. 1330 – October 1408) was an English poet, a contemporary of William Langland and the Pearl Poet, and a personal friend of Geoffrey Chaucer.

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John Wycliffe

John Wycliffe (also spelled Wyclif, Wycliff, Wiclef, Wicliffe, Wickliffe; 1320s – 31 December 1384) was an English scholastic philosopher, theologian, Biblical translator, reformer, English priest, and a seminary professor at the University of Oxford.

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A judge is a person who presides over court proceedings, either alone or as a part of a panel of judges.

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A jury is a sworn body of people convened to render an impartial verdict (a finding of fact on a question) officially submitted to them by a court, or to set a penalty or judgment.

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Katherine Group

The so-called Katherine Group is a group of five 13th century Middle English texts composed by an anonymous author of the English West Midlands, in a variety of Middle English known as AB language.

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Kentish dialect

The Kentish dialect is a dialect of English spoken in and around the county of Kent in southeast England.

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Lamb and mutton

Lamb, hogget, and mutton are the meat of domestic sheep (species Ovis aries) at different ages.

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Late Middle Ages

The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Law French

Law French is an archaic language originally based on Old Norman and Anglo-Norman, but increasingly influenced by Parisian French and, later, English.

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Layamon's Brut

Layamon's Brut (ca. 1190 - 1215), also known as The Chronicle of Britain, is a Middle English poem compiled and recast by the English priest Layamon.

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Liberty, in politics, consists of the social, political, and economic freedoms to which all community members are entitled.

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Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs) is a county in east central England.

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Literal translation

Literal translation, direct translation, or word-for-word translation is the rendering of text from one language to another one word at a time (Latin: "verbum pro verbo") with or without conveying the sense of the original whole.

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Lollardy (Lollardism, Lollard movement) was a pre-Protestant Christian religious movement that existed from the mid-14th century to the English Reformation.

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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Long s

The long, medial, or descending s (ſ) is an archaic form of the lower case letter s. It replaced a single s, or the first in a double s, at the beginning or in the middle of a word (e.g. "ſinfulneſs" for "sinfulness" and "ſucceſsful" for "successful").

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Mackenzie, MacKenzie, or McKenzie may refer to.

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Macron (diacritic)

A macron is a diacritical mark: it is a straight bar placed above a letter, usually a vowel.

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A mansion is a large dwelling house.

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Medulla Grammatice

Medulla Grammatice or Medulla Grammaticae ("the Marrow of Grammar") is collection of fifteenth century Latin-Middle English glossaries in the British Museum.

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Metre (poetry)

In poetry, metre is the basic rhythmic structure of a verse or lines in verse.

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Middle English creole hypothesis

The Middle English creole hypothesis is the concept that the English language is a creole, i.e. a language that developed from a pidgin.

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Middle English Dictionary

The Middle English Dictionary is a dictionary of Middle English published by the University of Michigan.

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Middle English literature

The term Middle English literature refers to the literature written in the form of the English language known as Middle English, from the 12th century until the 1470s.

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Middle English phonology

Middle English phonology is necessarily somewhat speculative, since it is preserved only as a written language.

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Middle Scots

Middle Scots was the Anglic language of Lowland Scotland in the period from 1450 to 1700.

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Modern English

Modern English (sometimes New English or NE as opposed to Middle English and Old English) is the form of the English language spoken since the Great Vowel Shift in England, which began in the late 14th century and was completed in roughly 1550.

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Monarchy of the United Kingdom

The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories.

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Monumental brass

Monumental brass is a species of engraved sepulchral memorial which in the early part of the 13th century began to partially take the place of three-dimensional monuments and effigies carved in stone or wood.

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Movable type

Movable type (US English; moveable type in British English) is the system and technology of printing and typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual letters or punctuation) usually on the medium of paper.

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Nativity of Jesus

The nativity of Jesus or birth of Jesus is described in the gospels of Luke and Matthew.

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New Testament

The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.

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Norman conquest of England

The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.

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The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.

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North Sea Germanic

North Sea Germanic, also known as Ingvaeonic, is a postulated grouping of the northern West Germanic languages, consisting of Old Frisian, Old English and Old Saxon and their descendants.

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Northumbrian dialect (Old English)

Northumbrian was a dialect of Old English spoken in the Anglian Kingdom of Northumbria.

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Object pronoun

In linguistics, an object pronoun is a personal pronoun that is used typically as a grammatical object: the direct or indirect object of a verb, or the object of a preposition.

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Old English

Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

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Old English grammar

The grammar of Old English is quite different from that of Modern English, predominantly by being much more inflected.

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Old English Latin alphabet

The Old English Latin alphabet—though it had no standard orthography—generally consisted of 24 letters, and was used for writing Old English from the 9th to the 12th centuries.

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Old English phonology

Old English phonology is necessarily somewhat speculative since Old English is preserved only as a written language.

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Old French

Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.

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Old Norman

Old Norman, also called Old Northern French or Old Norman French, was one of many langues d'oïl (Old French) dialects.

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Old Norse

Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.

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Oliver Farrar Emerson

Oliver Farrar Emerson (born in Traer, Iowa, 24 May 1860; died in Ocala, Florida 13 March 1927) was a United States educator and philologist noted for Chaucer scholarship and his History of the English Language.

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The Ormulum or Orrmulum is a twelfth-century work of biblical exegesis, written by a monk named Orm (or Ormin) and consisting of just under 19,000 lines of early Middle English verse.

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An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.

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Palatal approximant

The voiced palatal approximant is a type of consonant used in many spoken languages.

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Palmer (pilgrim)

In the Middle Ages, a palmer (palmarius or palmerius) was a Christian pilgrim, normally from Western Europe, who had visited the holy places in Palestine and who, as a token of his visits to the Holy Land, brought back a palm leaf or a palm leaf folded into a cross.

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In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government.

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Personal pronoun

Personal pronouns are pronouns that are associated primarily with a particular grammatical person – first person (as I), second person (as you), or third person (as he, she, it, they).

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Peterborough Chronicle

The Peterborough Chronicle (also called the Laud manuscript and the E manuscript), one of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, contains unique information about the history of England after the Norman Conquest.

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A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.

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Phonemic orthography

In linguistics, a phonemic orthography is an orthography (system for writing a language) in which the graphemes (written symbols) correspond to the phonemes (significant spoken sounds) of the language.

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Phonological history of English

The phonological history of English describes the changing phonology of the English language over time, starting from its roots in proto-Germanic to diverse changes in different dialects of modern English.

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Phonological history of English diphthongs

English diphthongs have undergone many changes since the Old and Middle English periods.

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Phonological history of English high back vowels

Most dialects of modern English have two high back vowels: the near-close near-back rounded vowel found in words like foot, and the close back rounded vowel (realized as central in many dialects) found in words like goose.

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Phonological history of English high front vowels

The high and mid-height front vowels of English (vowels of i and e type) have undergone a variety of changes over time, often varying from dialect to dialect.

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A pig is any of the animals in the genus Sus, within the even-toed ungulate family Suidae.

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The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.

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Pork is the culinary name for meat from a domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).

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A possessive form (abbreviated) is a word or grammatical construction used to indicate a relationship of possession in a broad sense.

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Possessive determiner

Possessive determiners constitute a sub-class of determiners which modify a noun by attributing possession (or other sense of belonging) to someone or something.

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Poultry are domesticated birds kept by humans for their eggs, their meat or their feathers.

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Preposition and postposition

Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions (or broadly, in English, simply prepositions), are a class of words used to express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or mark various semantic roles (of, for).

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Prestige (sociolinguistics)

Prestige is the level of regard normally accorded a specific language or dialect within a speech community, relative to other languages or dialects.

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Pronunciation of English ⟨wh⟩

The pronunciation of the wh in English has changed over time, and still varies today between different regions and accents.

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Proto-Germanic language

Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Reflexive pronoun

In language, a reflexive pronoun, sometimes simply called a reflexive, is a pronoun that is preceded or followed by the noun, adjective, adverb or pronoun to which it refers (its antecedent) within the same clause.

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Richard Pynson

Richard Pynson (1448 in Normandy – 1529) was one of the first printers of English books.

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Roman numerals

The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages.

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In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel.

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Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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A saint (also historically known as a hallow) is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God.

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Sche (pronounced) was the feminine, third-person, singular, personal pronoun (subject case) in Middle English.

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In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa (rarely or; sometimes spelled shwa) is the mid central vowel sound (rounded or unrounded) in the middle of the vowel chart, denoted by the IPA symbol ə, or another vowel sound close to that position.

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Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

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Scots language

Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots).

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Scribal abbreviation

Scribal abbreviations or sigla (singular: siglum or sigil) are the abbreviations used by ancient and medieval scribes writing in Latin, and later in Greek and Old Norse.

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Sense-for-sense translation

Sense-for-sense translation is the oldest norm for translating.

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She is a feminine third-person, singular personal pronoun (subjective case) in Modern English.

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Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.

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Silent e

In English orthography, many words feature a silent, most commonly at the end of a word or morpheme.

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Silent letter

In an alphabetic writing system, a silent letter is a letter that, in a particular word, does not correspond to any sound in the word's pronunciation.

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Subject pronoun

In linguistics, a subject pronoun is a personal pronoun that is used as the subject of a verb.

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A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.

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Synthetic language

In linguistic typology, a synthetic language is a language with a high morpheme-per-word ratio, as opposed to a low morpheme-per-word ratio in what is described as an analytic language.

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Tauno Frans Mustanoja

Tauno Frans Mustanoja (1912–1996) was a professor of English Philology and Literature at the University of Helsinki, Finland.

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Th (digraph)

Th is a digraph in the Latin script.

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The Canterbury Tales

The Canterbury Tales (Tales of Caunterbury) is a collection of 24 stories that runs to over 17,000 lines written in Middle English by Geoffrey Chaucer between 1387 and 1400.

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The Chaucer Review

The Chaucer Review: A Journal of Medieval Studies and Literary Criticism is an academic journal published by the Penn State University Press.

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The Owl and the Nightingale

The Owl and the Nightingale is a twelfth- or thirteenth-century Middle English poem detailing a debate between an owl and a nightingale as overheard by the poem's narrator.

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The Reeve's Tale

"The Reeve's Tale" is the third story told in Geoffrey Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales.

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They is the third-person plural personal pronoun (subjective case) in Modern English.

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Thomas Becket

Thomas Becket (also known as Saint Thomas of Canterbury, Thomas of London, and later Thomas à Becket; (21 December c. 1119 (or 1120) – 29 December 1170) was Archbishop of Canterbury from 1162 until his murder in 1170. He is venerated as a saint and martyr by both the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion. He engaged in conflict with Henry II, King of England, over the rights and privileges of the Church and was murdered by followers of the king in Canterbury Cathedral. Soon after his death, he was canonised by Pope Alexander III.

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Thorn (letter)

Thorn or þorn (Þ, þ) is a letter in the Old English, Gothic, Old Norse and modern Icelandic alphabets, as well as some dialects of Middle English.

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The word thou is a second person singular pronoun in English.

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Typographic ligature

In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph.

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Veal is the meat of calves, in contrast to the beef from older cattle.

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A vernacular, or vernacular language, is the language or variety of a language used in everyday life by the common people of a specific population.

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Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.

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In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.

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W (named double-u,Pronounced plural double-ues) is the 23rd letter of the modern English and ISO basic Latin alphabets.

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Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.

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We is the first person, plural personal pronoun (nominative case) in Modern English.

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West Germanic languages

The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages).

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West Midlands (region)

The West Midlands is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes.

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West Saxon dialect

West Saxon was one of four distinct dialects of Old English.

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William Caxton

William Caxton (c. 1422 – c. 1491) was an English merchant, diplomat, writer and printer.

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Word order

In linguistics, word order typology is the study of the order of the syntactic constituents of a language, and how different languages can employ different orders.

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Wycliffe's Bible

Wycliffe's Bible is the name now given to a group of Bible translations into Middle English that were made under the direction of John Wycliffe.

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Ƿynn (Ƿ ƿ) (also spelled wen, ƿynn, or ƿen) is a letter of the Old English alphabet, where it is used to represent the sound.

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Y (named wye, plural wyes) is the 25th and penultimate letter in the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.

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Ye (pronoun)

Ye is a second-person, plural, personal pronoun (nominative), spelled in Old English as "ge".

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Ye olde

"Ye olde" is a pseudo-Early Modern English stock prefix, used anachronistically, suggestive of a Merry England, Deep England or "old, as in Medieval old" feel.

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Yodh (also spelled yud, yod, jod, or jodh) is the tenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Yōd, Hebrew Yōd, Aramaic Yodh, Syriac Yōḏ ܚ, and Arabic ي (in abjadi order, 28th in modern order).

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The letter yogh (ȝogh) (Ȝ ȝ; Middle English: ȝogh) was used in Middle English and Older Scots, representing y and various velar phonemes.

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The pronoun you is the second-person personal pronoun, both singular and plural, and both nominative and oblique case in Modern English.

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14th-century English, Chancery Standard, Early Middle English, ISO 639:enm, Late Middle English, Medieval English, Medieval english, Middle English Language, Middle English declension, Middle English grammar, Middle English language, Middle English language (1100-1500), Middle English orthography, Middle English personal pronouns, Middle English-speaking, Middle english, Middle english declension, Middle-English, MiddleEnglish.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middle_English

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