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Song dynasty

Index Song dynasty

The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279. [1]

480 relations: Aden, Alliance Conducted at Sea, Along the River During the Qingming Festival, Anatomy, Ancient Chinese coinage, Antiquarian, Arch bridge, Archaeology, Arhat, Ariq Böke, Aristocracy (class), Armillary sphere, Art criticism, Astronomical clock, Astronomy, Atlas, Autopsy, Ögedei Khan, Đại Việt, Bahri dynasty, Banknote, Bao Zheng, Bar (music), Battle of Ain Jalut, Battle of Caishi, Battle of Tangdao, Battle of Xiangyang, Battle of Yamen, Bayan of the Baarin, Beacon, Beijing, Bhikkhu, Bi Sheng, Bianzhong, Biology, Blast furnace, Bodhisattva, Bomb, Botany, Bracket (architecture), Buddhism, Bulkhead (partition), Bureaucrat, Byzantine Empire, Cadaver, Cai Jing, Cai Xiang, Cai Yan, Cambridge University Press, Camera obscura, ..., Canal, Caning, Cannon, Cantilever, Car, Cartography, Cast iron, Catalysis, Celestial globe, Cemetery, Central Asia, Chang'an, Chanyuan Treaty, Charcoal, Cheng Yi (philosopher), Chengdu, China, China proper, Chinese Buddhism, Chinese calligraphy, Chinese cash (currency unit), Chinese characters, Chinese city wall, Chinese culture, Chinese folk religion, Chinese folklore, Chinese historiography, Chinese kinship, Chinese literature, Chinese mathematics, Chinese nobility, Chinese opera, Chinese pagoda, Chinese painting, Chinese pavilion, Chinese philosophy, Chinese poetry, Chinese remainder theorem, Chola dynasty, Chongqing, Christianity, Ci (poetry), Cityscape, Civil service, Classical Chinese, Climate change, Clinic, Clock, Clock tower, Coal, Code of law, Coin, Collected Cases of Injustice Rectified, Commercialism, Compass, Confucianism, Corbel, Coroner, Counties of the People's Republic of China, Counting rods, Courtier, Crossbow, Date palm, Differential (mechanical device), Dinghai District, Dowry, Dream Pool Essays, Drogön Chögyal Phagpa, Dry dock, Dynasties in Chinese history, Early modern warfare, East China Sea, Economy of the Song dynasty, Eighteen Songs of a Nomad Flute, Elevation, Emperor Gaozong of Song, Emperor Gong of Song, Emperor Huizong of Song, Emperor Lizong, Emperor of China, Emperor Qinzong, Emperor Shenzong of Song, Emperor Taizu of Song, Encyclopædia Britannica, Entrepreneurship, Environmental issues in China, Epigraphy, Escapement, Ethics, Euclid, Euphrates, Extended family, Ezhou, Factory, Fallow deer, Fan Chengda, Fan Kuan, Fan Zhongyan, Fatimid Caliphate, Ferrous metallurgy, Fire lance, Firearm, Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, Flamethrower, Floruit, Fordham University, Forensic science, Four Books and Five Classics, Four Great Books of Song, Four occupations, Fragmentation (weaponry), Fujian, Gazette, Gazetteer, Gegeen Khan, Genghis Khan, Geographer, Geology, Geometry, Geomorphology, Gerardus Mercator, Ginger, Go (game), Golden Horde, Goryeo, Grand Canal (China), Grand chancellor (China), Grenade, Grid reference, Guangxi, Guangzhou, Guanyin, Guanzi (currency), Guild, Gujin Tushu Jicheng, Gunpowder, Guo Xi, Han dynasty, Han Shizhong, Hanfu, Hangzhou, Hanoi, Harbor, Harvard University Press, Hebei, Heian period, Henan, Heron's formula, History of cartography, History of China, History of Song, History of the Han dynasty, History of the Song dynasty, Horology, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Hua Sui, Huai River, Huizhou, Huizi (currency), Hulagu Khan, Hull (watercraft), Hydraulic engineering, Hydraulics, Ibn al-Haytham, Imperial examination, India, Indian Ocean, Indus River, Inquest, Interdisciplinarity, International Studies Quarterly, Interpolation, Iron, Iron Pagoda, Islam during the Song dynasty, Japan, Jia Sidao, Jiaozi (currency), Jin dynasty (1115–1234), Jin–Song Wars, Jingkang incident, Joint-stock company, Judiciary, Jujube, Junk (ship), Jurchen people, Kaifeng, Kaifeng Jews, Kara-Khanid Khanate, Khagan, Khitan people, Korea, Kublai Khan, Lama, Land mine, Land tenure, Land value tax, Landed gentry in China, Lantern Festival, Later Zhou, Lý dynasty, Lý–Song War, Leifeng Pagoda, Leopold von Ranke, Li (unit), Li Cheng (painter), Li Qingzhao, Li Song (painter), Liao dynasty, Liaodi Pagoda, Lin Tinggui, Lingxiao Pagoda, List of emperors of the Song dynasty, List of postal entities, Liu Songnian, Liuhe Pagoda, Lock (water navigation), Lu Xiufu, Lu You, Luoyang, Lychee, Ma Jun, Magic square, Magnetic declination, Magnetism, Mahayana, Manichaeism, Mannequin, Mao Yi, Map projection, Masonry, Mathematical Treatise in Nine Sections, Mathematics, Möngke Khan, Mechanics, Medieval demography, Mercator projection, Meritocracy, Metaphysics, Mi Fu, Michael VII Doukas, Middle Ages, Middle Chinese, Military history of China before 1911, Militia, Mineralogy, Ming dynasty, Mongol conquest of China, Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty, Mongol Empire, Mongol invasion of Rus', Mongol invasions of Korea, Mongols, Monopoly, Moroccans, Mortar (masonry), Mortise and tenon, Movable type, Muhammad al-Idrisi, Muslim, Names of China, Nanjing, National Palace Museum, Naval history of China, Navigation, Navy, Neo-Confucianism, Nestorianism, New Policies (Song dynasty), North China, Nuclear family, NUS Press, Odometer, Optics, Oracle bone script, Ouyang Xiu, Paddle steamer, Pagoda, Panoramic painting, Papaya, Parallelogram, Pascal's triangle, Pauperism, Pearl River Delta, Pei Xiu, Persuasive writing, Planisphere, Platoon, Pole star, Polychrome, Polymath, Pontoon bridge, Pork, Port, Print culture, Printing, Printing press, Qin Jiushao, Qing dynasty, Qingli Reforms, Qingming Festival, Qingzhou, Quadratic equation, Quanzhou, Quyang County, Raised-relief map, Red Sea, Relief, Religion in China, Retirement home, Routledge, Rudder, Scholar-official, Serfdom, Sesame oil, Shang dynasty, Shanxi, Shao Yong, Shen Kuo, Shipbuilding, Sichuan, Sichuan pepper, Siege of Baghdad (1258), Siege of Diaoyu Castle, Sight (device), Sima Guang, Simon & Schuster, Sino-Roman relations, Sixteen Prefectures, Sniper, Social mobility, Song Ci, Song dynasty, South-pointing chariot, Southeast Asia, Southern Han, Southern Tang, Soy sauce, Srivijaya, Stanford University Press, Star chart, Statue, Stern, Striking clock, Structural engineering, Strut, Su Shi, Su Song, Sui dynasty, Supernova, Surveying, Tang Clan, Tang dynasty, Tangut people, Taoism, Taxation in premodern China, Tenant farmer, Thames & Hudson, The Confusions of Pleasure, Tianjin, Tibet, Tibet and the Tang and Song dynasties, Tibetan Buddhism, Tiger Cave Kiln, Timeline of the Song dynasty, Tong Guan, Torque, Traditional Chinese law, Traditional Chinese medicine, Travel literature, Trebuchet, Trestle bridge, True north, Typeface, Universal history, Universalism, University of California Press, University of Hawaii Press, University of Massachusetts Press, University of Michigan Press, Vassal, Vegetable oil, Veneration of the dead, Verge escapement, Vietnam, Wang Anshi, Wang Chongyang, Wang Zhen (inventor), Wanyan Liang, War elephant, Warehouse, Water clock, Water Margin, Welfare, Wen Tianxiang, Western Xia, Winter solstice, Woodblock printing, Written vernacular Chinese, Wu Xing, Wujing Zongyao, Xiamen, Xiangqi, Xiangzhou District, Xiangyang, Xiaolian, Xiongnu, Yang Hui, Yangtze, Yellow River, Yellow Sea, Yemen, Yingzao Fashi, Yu Hao, Yuan dynasty, Yue Fei, Zeng Gong, Zhang Hongfan, Zhang Sixun, Zhang Zeduan, Zhao Bing, Zhao Mengfu, Zhao Mingcheng, Zhengding County, Zhou (country subdivision), Zhou Wenju, Zhu Xi, Zhu Yu (author), Zizhi Tongjian, Zoology, 0. 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Aden (عدن Yemeni) is a port city in Yemen, located by the eastern approach to the Red Sea (the Gulf of Aden), some east of Bab-el-Mandeb.

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Alliance Conducted at Sea

The Alliance Conducted at Sea (海上之盟) was a political alliance in Chinese history between the Song and Jurchen Jin dynasties in the early 12th century against the Liao dynasty.

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Along the River During the Qingming Festival

Along the River During the Qingming Festival, also known by its Chinese name as the Qingming Shanghe Tu, is a painting by the Song dynasty artist Zhang Zeduan (1085–1145).

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Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.

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Ancient Chinese coinage

Ancient Chinese coinage includes some of the earliest known coins.

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An antiquarian or antiquary (from the Latin: antiquarius, meaning pertaining to ancient times) is an aficionado or student of antiquities or things of the past.

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Arch bridge

An arch bridge is a bridge with abutments at each end shaped as a curved arch.

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Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.

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Theravada Buddhism defines arhat (Sanskrit) or arahant (Pali) as "one who is worthy" or as a "perfected person" having attained nirvana.

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Ariq Böke

Ariq Böke (after 1219–1266), the components of his name also spelled Arigh, Arik and Bukha, Buka (Аригбөх; Chinese: 阿里不哥), was the seventh and youngest son of Tolui, a grandson of Genghis Khan.

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Aristocracy (class)

The aristocracy is a social class that a particular society considers its highest order.

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Armillary sphere

An armillary sphere (variations are known as spherical astrolabe, armilla, or armil) is a model of objects in the sky (on the celestial sphere), consisting of a spherical framework of rings, centred on Earth or the Sun, that represent lines of celestial longitude and latitude and other astronomically important features, such as the ecliptic.

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Art criticism

Art criticism is the discussion or evaluation of visual art.

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Astronomical clock

An astronomical clock is a clock with special mechanisms and dials to display astronomical information, such as the relative positions of the sun, moon, zodiacal constellations, and sometimes major planets.

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Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.

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An atlas is a collection of maps; it is typically a bundle of maps of Earth or a region of Earth.

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An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes.

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Ögedei Khan

Ögedei (also Ogodei; translit, Mongolian: Ögedei, Ögüdei;; c.1185– 11 December 1241), was the third son of Genghis Khan and second Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, succeeding his father.

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Đại Việt

Đại Việt (literally Great Viet) is the name of Vietnam for the periods from 1054 to 1400 and 1428 to 1804.

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Bahri dynasty

The Bahri dynasty or Bahriyya Mamluks (translit) was a Mamluk dynasty of mostly Cuman-Kipchak Turkic origin that ruled the Egyptian Mamluk Sultanate from 1250 to 1382.

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A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand.

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Bao Zheng

Bao Zheng (包拯; 11 April 999 – 20 May 1062), commonly known as Bao Gong (包公, "Lord Bao"), was a government officer during the reign of Emperor Renzong in China's Song Dynasty.

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Bar (music)

In musical notation, a bar (or measure) is a segment of time corresponding to a specific number of beats in which each beat is represented by a particular note value and the boundaries of the bar are indicated by vertical bar lines.

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Battle of Ain Jalut

The Battle of Ain Jalut (Ayn Jalut, in Arabic: عين جالوت, the "Spring of Goliath", or Harod Spring, in Hebrew: מעין חרוד) took place in September 1260 between Muslim Mamluks and the Mongols in the southeastern Galilee, in the Jezreel Valley, in the vicinity of Nazareth, not far from the site of Zir'in.

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Battle of Caishi

The Battle of Caishi (Battle of Ts'ai-shih) was a major naval engagement of the Jin–Song Wars of China that took place on November 26–27, 1161.

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Battle of Tangdao

The Battle of Tangdao (唐岛之战) was a naval engagement that took place in 1161 between the Jurchen Jin and the Southern Song Dynasty of China on the East China Sea.

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Battle of Xiangyang

The Battle of Xiangyang was a key battle between the invading Mongols of the Yuan dynasty and Southern Song forces from AD 1267 to 1273.

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Battle of Yamen

The naval Battle of Yamen (also known as the Naval Battle of Mount Ya) took place on 19 March 1279 and is considered to be the last stand of the Song dynasty against the invading Mongol Yuan dynasty.

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Bayan of the Baarin

Bayan of the Baarin (Mongolian: Баян; 1236 – January 11, 1295), or Boyan, was a Mongol general.

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A beacon is an intentionally conspicuous device designed to attract attention to a specific location.

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Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.

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A bhikkhu (from Pali, Sanskrit: bhikṣu) is an ordained male monastic ("monk") in Buddhism.

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Bi Sheng

Bì Shēng (990–1051 AD) was a Chinese artisan and inventor of the world's first movable type technology, one of the Four Great Inventions of Ancient China.

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Bianzhong (pronounced) is an ancient Chinese musical instrument consisting of a set of bronze bells, played melodically.

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Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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Blast furnace

A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals, generally pig iron, but also others such as lead or copper.

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In Buddhism, Bodhisattva is the Sanskrit term for anyone who has generated Bodhicitta, a spontaneous wish and compassionate mind to attain Buddhahood for the benefit of all sentient beings. Bodhisattvas are a popular subject in Buddhist art.

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A bomb is an explosive weapon that uses the exothermic reaction of an explosive material to provide an extremely sudden and violent release of energy.

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Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.

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Bracket (architecture)

A bracket is an architectural element: a structural or decorative member.

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Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Bulkhead (partition)

A bulkhead is an upright wall within the hull of a ship or within the fuselage of an aeroplane.

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A bureaucrat is a member of a bureaucracy and can compose the administration of any organization of any size, although the term usually connotes someone within an institution of government.

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Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).

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A cadaver, also referred to as a corpse (singular) in medical, literary, and legal usage, or when intended for dissection, is a deceased body.

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Cai Jing

Cai Jing (1047–1126), courtesy name Yuanchang (元長), was a government official and calligrapher who lived in the Northern Song Dynasty.

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Cai Xiang

Cai Xiang (1012–1067) was a Chinese calligrapher, scholar, official, structural engineer, and poet.

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Cai Yan

Cai Yan (178 – post 206; or 170–215; or died 249), courtesy name Wenji, was a poet and musician who lived during the late Eastern Han dynasty of China.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Camera obscura

Camera obscura (plural camera obscura or camera obscuras; from Latin, meaning "dark room": camera "(vaulted) chamber or room," and obscura "darkened, dark"), also referred to as pinhole image, is the natural optical phenomenon that occurs when an image of a scene at the other side of a screen (or for instance a wall) is projected through a small hole in that screen as a reversed and inverted image (left to right and upside down) on a surface opposite to the opening.

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Canals, or navigations, are human-made channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles.

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Caning is a form of corporal punishment consisting of a number of hits (known as "strokes" or "cuts") with a single cane usually made of rattan, generally applied to the offender's bare or clothed buttocks (see spanking) or hand(s) (on the palm).

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A cannon (plural: cannon or cannons) is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant.

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A cantilever is a rigid structural element, such as a beam or a plate, anchored at one end to a (usually vertical) support from which it protrudes; this connection could also be perpendicular to a flat, vertical surface such as a wall.

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A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.

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Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.

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Cast iron

Cast iron is a group of iron-carbon alloys with a carbon content greater than 2%.

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Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.

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Celestial globe

Celestial globes show the apparent positions of the stars in the sky.

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A cemetery or graveyard is a place where the remains of dead people are buried or otherwise interred.

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Central Asia

Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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Chang'an was an ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xi'an.

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Chanyuan Treaty

The Chanyuan Treaty in 1004-1005 was the pivotal point in the relations between the Northern Song (960-1127) and the Liao Dynasties (916-1125).

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Charcoal is the lightweight black carbon and ash residue hydrocarbon produced by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances.

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Cheng Yi (philosopher)

Cheng Yi (1033–1107), courtesy name Zhengshu (正叔), also known as Yichuan Xiansheng (伊川先生), was a Chinese philosopher born in Luoyang during the Song Dynasty.

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Chengdu, formerly romanized as Chengtu, is a sub-provincial city which serves as the capital of China's Sichuan province.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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China proper

China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western writers on the Manchu Qing dynasty to express a distinction between the core and frontier regions of China.

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Chinese Buddhism

Chinese Buddhism or Han Buddhism has shaped Chinese culture in a wide variety of areas including art, politics, literature, philosophy, medicine, and material culture.

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Chinese calligraphy

Chinese calligraphy is a form of aesthetically pleasing writing (calligraphy), or, the artistic expression of human language in a tangible form.

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Chinese cash (currency unit)

The cash was a currency denomination used in China in imperial times.

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Chinese characters

Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.

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Chinese city wall

Chinese city walls refer to defensive systems used to protect towns and cities in China in pre-modern times.

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Chinese culture

Chinese culture is one of the world's oldest cultures, originating thousands of years ago.

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Chinese folk religion

Chinese folk religion (Chinese popular religion) or Han folk religion is the religious tradition of the Han people, including veneration of forces of nature and ancestors, exorcism of harmful forces, and a belief in the rational order of nature which can be influenced by human beings and their rulers as well as spirits and gods.

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Chinese folklore

Chinese folklore encompasses the folklore of China, and includes songs, poetry, dances, puppetry, and tales.

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Chinese historiography

Chinese historiography is the study of the techniques and sources used by historians to develop the recorded history of China.

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Chinese kinship

The Chinese kinship system is classified as a "Sudanese" or "descriptive" system for the definition of family.

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Chinese literature

The history of Chinese literature extends thousands of years, from the earliest recorded dynastic court archives to the mature vernacular fiction novels that arose during the Ming Dynasty to entertain the masses of literate Chinese.

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Chinese mathematics

Mathematics in China emerged independently by the 11th century BC.

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Chinese nobility

Chinese sovereignty and peerage, the nobility of China, was an important feature of the traditional social and political organization of Imperial China.

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Chinese opera

Traditional Chinese opera, or Xiqu, is a popular form of drama and musical theatre in China with roots going back to the early periods in China.

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Chinese pagoda

Chinese pagodas are a traditional part of Chinese architecture.

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Chinese painting

Chinese painting is one of the oldest continuous artistic traditions in the world.

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Chinese pavilion

A Chinese pavilion (Chinese 亭, pinyin tíng) is a type of covered structure without surrounding walls and is a traditional part of Chinese architecture.

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Chinese philosophy

Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, during a period known as the "Hundred Schools of Thought", which was characterized by significant intellectual and cultural developments.

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Chinese poetry

Chinese poetry is poetry written, spoken, or chanted in the Chinese language.

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Chinese remainder theorem

The Chinese remainder theorem is a theorem of number theory, which states that if one knows the remainders of the Euclidean division of an integer by several integers, then one can determine uniquely the remainder of the division of by the product of these integers, under the condition that the divisors are pairwise coprime.

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Chola dynasty

The Chola dynasty was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the history of southern India.

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Chongqing, formerly romanized as Chungking, is a major city in southwest China.

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ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Ci (poetry)

Cí (pronounced) is a type of lyric poetry in the tradition of Classical Chinese poetry.

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In the visual arts a cityscape (urban landscape) is an artistic representation, such as a painting, drawing, print or photograph, of the physical aspects of a city or urban area.

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Civil service

The civil service is independent of government and composed mainly of career bureaucrats hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leadership.

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Classical Chinese

Classical Chinese, also known as Literary Chinese, is the language of the classic literature from the end of the Spring and Autumn period through to the end of the Han Dynasty, a written form of Old Chinese.

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Climate change

Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).

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A clinic (or outpatient clinic or ambulatory care clinic) is a healthcare facility that is primarily focused on the care of outpatients.

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A clock is an instrument to measure, keep, and indicate time.

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Clock tower

Clock towers are a specific type of building which houses a turret clock and has one or more clock faces on the upper exterior walls.

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Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.

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Code of law

A code of law, also called a law code or legal code, is a type of legislation that purports to exhaustively cover a complete system of laws or a particular area of law as it existed at the time the code was enacted, by a process of codification.

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A coin is a small, flat, (usually) round piece of metal or plastic used primarily as a medium of exchange or legal tender.

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Collected Cases of Injustice Rectified

Collected Cases of Injustice Rectified or the Washing Away of Wrongs is a Chinese book written by Song Ci in 1247 during the Song Dynasty (960-1276) as a handbook for coroners.

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Commercialism is the application of both manufacturing and consumption towards personal usage, or the practices, methods, aims, and spirit of free enterprise geared toward generating profit.

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A compass is an instrument used for navigation and orientation that shows direction relative to the geographic cardinal directions (or points).

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Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.

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In architecture a corbel is a structural piece of stone, wood or metal jutting from a wall to carry a superincumbent weight, a type of bracket.

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A coroner is a person whose standard role is to confirm and certify the death of an individual within a jurisdiction.

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Counties of the People's Republic of China

Counties, formally county-level divisions, are found in the third level of the administrative hierarchy in Provinces and Autonomous regions, and the second level in municipalities and Hainan, a level that is known as "county level" and also contains autonomous counties, county-level cities, banners, autonomous banner, and City districts.

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Counting rods

Counting rods are small bars, typically 3–14 cm long, that were used by mathematicians for calculation in ancient East Asia.

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A courtier is a person who is often in attendance at the court of a monarch or other royal personage.

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A crossbow is a type of ranged weapon based on the bow and consisting of a horizontal bow-like assembly mounted on a frame which is handheld in a similar fashion to the stock of a gun.

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Date palm

Phoenix dactylifera, commonly known as date or date palm, is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit.

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Differential (mechanical device)

A differential is a gear train with three shafts that has the property that the rotational speed of one shaft is the average of the speeds of the others, or a fixed multiple of that average.

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Dinghai District

() is a district of Zhoushan City made of 128 islands in Zhejiang province, China.

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A dowry is a transfer of parental property, gifts or money at the marriage of a daughter.

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Dream Pool Essays

The Dream Pool Essays or Dream Torrent Essays (Pinyin: Mèng Xī Bǐ Tán; Wade-Giles: Meng⁴ Hsi¹ Pi³-t'an²; Chinese: 夢溪筆談/梦溪笔谈) was an extensive book written by the Han Chinese polymath, genius, scientist and statesman Shen Kuo (1031-1095) by 1088 AD, during the Song dynasty (960-1279) of China.

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Drogön Chögyal Phagpa

Drogön Chogyal Phagpa (1235 – 15 December 1280), was the fifth leader of the Sakya school of Tibetan Buddhism.

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Dry dock

A dry dock (sometimes dry-dock or drydock) is a narrow basin or vessel that can be flooded to allow a load to be floated in, then drained to allow that load to come to rest on a dry platform.

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Dynasties in Chinese history

The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese History.

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Early modern warfare

Early modern warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive, including artillery and firearms; for this reason the era is also referred to as the age of gunpowder warfare (a concept introduced by Michael Roberts in the 1950s).

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East China Sea

The East China Sea is a marginal sea east of China.

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Economy of the Song dynasty

For over three centuries during the Song dynasty (960–1279) China experienced sustained growth in per capita income and population, structural change in the economy, and increased pace of technological innovation.

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Eighteen Songs of a Nomad Flute

Eighteen Songs of a Nomad Flute are a series of Chinese songs and poems about the life of Han Dynasty (202 BCE – 220 CE) poet Cai Wenji, the songs were composed by Liu Shang, a poet of the middle Tang Dynasty.

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The elevation of a geographic location is its height above or below a fixed reference point, most commonly a reference geoid, a mathematical model of the Earth's sea level as an equipotential gravitational surface (see Geodetic datum § Vertical datum).

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Emperor Gaozong of Song

Emperor Gaozong of Song (12 June 1107 – 9 November 1187), personal name Zhao Gou, courtesy name Deji, was the tenth emperor of the Song dynasty in China and the first emperor of the Southern Song dynasty.

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Emperor Gong of Song

Emperor Gong of Song (2 November 1271 – May 1323), personal name Zhao Xian, was the 16th emperor of the Song dynasty in China and the seventh emperor of the Southern Song dynasty.

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Emperor Huizong of Song

Emperor Huizong of Song (7 June 1082 – 4 June 1135), personal name Zhao Ji, was the eighth emperor of the Song dynasty in China.

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Emperor Lizong

Emperor Lizong of Song (26 January 1205 – 16 November 1264), personal name Zhao Yun, was the 14th emperor of the Song dynasty in China and the fifth emperor of the Southern Song dynasty.

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Emperor of China

The Emperor or Huangdi was the secular imperial title of the Chinese sovereign reigning between the founding of the Qin dynasty that unified China in 221 BC, until the abdication of Puyi in 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution and the establishment of the Republic of China, although it was later restored twice in two failed revolutions in 1916 and 1917.

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Emperor Qinzong

Emperor Qinzong of Song (23 May 1100 – 14 June 1161), personal name Zhao Huan, was the ninth emperor of the Song dynasty in China and the last emperor of The Northern Song Dynasty.

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Emperor Shenzong of Song

Emperor Shenzong of Song (25 May 1048 – 1 April 1085), personal name Zhao Xu, was the sixth emperor of the Song dynasty in China.

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Emperor Taizu of Song

Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976) personal name Zhao Kuangyin, courtesy name Yuanlang, was the founder and first emperor of the Song dynasty in China.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Entrepreneurship is the process of designing, launching and running a new business, which is often initially a small business.

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Environmental issues in China

Environmental issues in China are plentiful, severely affecting the country's biophysical environment and human health.

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Epigraphy (ἐπιγραφή, "inscription") is the study of inscriptions or epigraphs as writing; it is the science of identifying graphemes, clarifying their meanings, classifying their uses according to dates and cultural contexts, and drawing conclusions about the writing and the writers.

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An escapement is a device in mechanical watches and clocks that transfers energy to the timekeeping element (the "impulse action") and allows the number of its oscillations to be counted (the "locking action").

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Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.

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Euclid (Εὐκλείδης Eukleidēs; fl. 300 BC), sometimes given the name Euclid of Alexandria to distinguish him from Euclides of Megara, was a Greek mathematician, often referred to as the "founder of geometry" or the "father of geometry".

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The Euphrates (Sumerian: Buranuna; 𒌓𒄒𒉣 Purattu; الفرات al-Furāt; ̇ܦܪܬ Pǝrāt; Եփրատ: Yeprat; פרת Perat; Fırat; Firat) is the longest and one of the most historically important rivers of Western Asia.

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Extended family

An extended family is a family that extends beyond the nuclear family, consisting of parents like father, mother, and their children, aunts, uncles, and cousins, all living nearby or in the same household.

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Ezhou is a prefecture-level city in eastern Hubei Province, China.

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A factory or manufacturing plant is an industrial site, usually consisting of buildings and machinery, or more commonly a complex having several buildings, where workers manufacture goods or operate machines processing one product into another.

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Fallow deer

The fallow deer (Dama dama) is a ruminant mammal belonging to the family Cervidae.

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Fan Chengda

Fan Chengda (1126–1193), courtesy name Zhineng (致能), was one of the best-known Chinese poets of the Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD), a government official, and an academic authority in geography, especially the southern provinces of China.

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Fan Kuan

Fan Zhongzheng (c. 960 - c. 1030; fl. 990–1020), courtesy name Zhongli, better known by his pseudonym (or perhaps nickname) Fan Kuan, was a Chinese landscape painter of the Song Dynasty.

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Fan Zhongyan

th:ฟ่านจงเยียน Fan Zhongyan (5 September 989 – 19 June 1052) from Wu County of Suzhou (Jiangsu Province, China), courtesy name Xiwen (希文), ratified as the Duke of Wenzheng (文正公) posthumously, and conferred as Duke of Chu (楚國公) posthumously, is one of the most prominent figures in the Chinese history, as a founder of Neo-Confucianism and a great statesman, philosopher, writer, educator, military strategist, and philanthropist.

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Fatimid Caliphate

The Fatimid Caliphate was an Islamic caliphate that spanned a large area of North Africa, from the Red Sea in the east to the Atlantic Ocean in the west.

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Ferrous metallurgy

Ferrous metallurgy is the metallurgy of iron and its alloys.

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Fire lance

The fire lance was a very early gunpowder weapon that appeared in 10th century China during the Jin-Song Wars.

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A firearm is a portable gun (a barreled ranged weapon) that inflicts damage on targets by launching one or more projectiles driven by rapidly expanding high-pressure gas produced by exothermic combustion (deflagration) of propellant within an ammunition cartridge.

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Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period

The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period was an era of political upheaval in 10th-century Imperial China.

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A flamethrower is a mechanical incendiary device designed to project a long, controllable stream of fire.

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Floruit, abbreviated fl. (or occasionally, flor.), Latin for "he/she flourished", denotes a date or period during which a person was known to have been alive or active.

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Fordham University

Fordham University is a private research university in New York City.

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Forensic science

Forensic science is the application of science to criminal and civil laws, mainly—on the criminal side—during criminal investigation, as governed by the legal standards of admissible evidence and criminal procedure.

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Four Books and Five Classics

The Four Books and Five Classics are the authoritative books of Confucianism in China written before 300 BC.

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Four Great Books of Song

The Four Great Books of Song was compiled by Li Fang (925–996) and others during the Song dynasty (960–1279).

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Four occupations

The four occupations or "four categories of the people"Hansson, pp.

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Fragmentation (weaponry)

Fragmentation is the process by which the casing of an artillery or mortar shell, rocket, missile, bomb, grenade, etc.

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Fujian (pronounced), formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, Fukien, and Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China.

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A gazette is an official journal, a newspaper of record, or simply a newspaper.

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A gazetteer is a geographical dictionary or directory used in conjunction with a map or atlas.

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Gegeen Khan

Gegeen Khan (Mongolian: Шидэбал Гэгээн хаан, Shidebal Gegegen qaγan), born Shidibala, also known by the temple name Yingzong (Emperor Yingzong of Yuan, Chinese: 元英宗, February 22, 1302 – September 4, 1323), was the successor of Ayurbarwada to rule as Emperor of the Yuan dynasty.

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Genghis Khan

Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.

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A geographer is a scholar whose area of study is geography, the study of Earth's natural environment and human society.

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Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.

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Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.

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Geomorphology (from Ancient Greek: γῆ, gê, "earth"; μορφή, morphḗ, "form"; and λόγος, lógos, "study") is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface.

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Gerardus Mercator

Gerardus Mercator (5 March 1512 – 2 December 1594) was a 16th-century German-Flemish cartographer, geographer and cosmographer.

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Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a flowering plant whose rhizome, ginger root or simply ginger, is widely used as a spice or a folk medicine.

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Go (game)

Go is an abstract strategy board game for two players, in which the aim is to surround more territory than the opponent.

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Golden Horde

The Golden Horde (Алтан Орд, Altan Ord; Золотая Орда, Zolotaya Orda; Алтын Урда, Altın Urda) was originally a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire.

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Goryeo (918–1392), also spelled as Koryŏ, was a Korean kingdom established in 918 by King Taejo.

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Grand Canal (China)

The Grand Canal, known to the Chinese as the Beijing–Hangzhou Grand Canal (Jīng-Háng Dà Yùnhé), a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the longest as well as one of the oldest canal or artificial river in the world and a famous tourist destination.

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Grand chancellor (China)

The grand chancellor, also translated as counselor-in-chief, chancellor, chief councillor, chief minister, imperial chancellor, lieutenant chancellor and prime minister, was the highest-ranking executive official in the imperial Chinese government.

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A grenade is a small weapon typically thrown by hand.

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Grid reference

Grid references define locations in maps using Cartesian coordinates.

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Guangxi (pronounced; Zhuang: Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is a Chinese autonomous region in South Central China, bordering Vietnam.

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Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.

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Guanyin or Guan Yin is an East Asian bodhisattva associated with compassion and venerated by Mahayana Buddhists and followers of Chinese folk religions, also known as the "Goddess of Mercy" in English.

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Guanzi (currency)

The guanzi, was a Song dynasty era form of paper money that served as promissory notes that could be traded for goods and services where the seller that received these notes could go to an issuing agency and redeem the note for strings of coins at a small exchange fee.

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A guild is an association of artisans or merchants who oversee the practice of their craft/trade in a particular area.

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Gujin Tushu Jicheng

The Gujin Tushu Jicheng, also known as the Imperial Encyclopaedia, is a vast encyclopedic work written in China during the reigns of the Qing Dynasty emperors Kangxi and Yongzheng.

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Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.

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Guo Xi

Guo Xi (1020 – c. 1090)Barnhart: Page 372.

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Han dynasty

The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.

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Han Shizhong

Han Shizhong (韓世忠) (1089–1151) was a Chinese general of the late Northern Song Dynasty and the early Southern Song Dynasty.

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Hanfu is a term associated with the Hanfu movement used to refer to the historical/traditional dress of the Han people.

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Hangzhou (Mandarin:; local dialect: /ɦɑŋ tseɪ/) formerly romanized as Hangchow, is the capital and most populous city of Zhejiang Province in East China.

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Hanoi (or; Hà Nội)) is the capital of Vietnam and the country's second largest city by population. The population in 2015 was estimated at 7.7 million people. The city lies on the right bank of the Red River. Hanoi is north of Ho Chi Minh City and west of Hai Phong city. From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam. It was eclipsed by Huế, the imperial capital of Vietnam during the Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1945). In 1873 Hanoi was conquered by the French. From 1883 to 1945, the city was the administrative center of the colony of French Indochina. The French built a modern administrative city south of Old Hanoi, creating broad, perpendicular tree-lined avenues of opera, churches, public buildings, and luxury villas, but they also destroyed large parts of the city, shedding or reducing the size of lakes and canals, while also clearing out various imperial palaces and citadels. From 1940 to 1945 Hanoi, as well as the largest part of French Indochina and Southeast Asia, was occupied by the Japanese. On September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). The Vietnamese National Assembly under Ho Chi Minh decided on January 6, 1946, to make Hanoi the capital of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. From 1954 to 1976, it was the capital of North Vietnam, and it became the capital of a reunified Vietnam in 1976, after the North's victory in the Vietnam War. October 2010 officially marked 1,000 years since the establishment of the city. The Hanoi Ceramic Mosaic Mural is a ceramic mosaic mural created to mark the occasion.

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A harbor or harbour (see spelling differences; synonyms: wharves, haven) is a sheltered body of water where ships, boats, and barges can be docked.

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Harvard University Press

Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.

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Hebei (postal: Hopeh) is a province of China in the North China region.

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Heian period

The is the last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185.

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Henan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country.

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Heron's formula

In geometry, Heron's formula (sometimes called Hero's formula), named after Hero of Alexandria, gives the area of a triangle by requiring no arbitrary choice of side as base or vertex as origin, contrary to other formulae for the area of a triangle, such as half the base times the height or half the norm of a cross product of two sides.

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History of cartography

Cartography, or mapmaking, has been an integral part of the human history for thousands of years.

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History of China

The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.

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History of Song

The History of Song or Song Shi (Sòng Shǐ) is one of the official Chinese historical works known as the Twenty-Four Histories of China that records the history of the Song dynasty (960–1279).

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History of the Han dynasty

The Han dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE), founded by the peasant rebel leader Liu Bang (known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu),From the Shang to the Sui dynasties, Chinese rulers were referred to in later records by their posthumous names, while emperors of the Tang to Yuan dynasties were referred to by their temple names, and emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties were referred to by single era names for their rule.

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History of the Song dynasty

The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝; pinyin: Sòng cháo; 960–1279) of China was a ruling dynasty that controlled China proper and southern China from the middle of the 10th century into the last quarter of the 13th century.

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Horology ("the study of time", related to Latin horologium from Greek ὡρολόγιον, "instrument for telling the hour", from ὥρα hṓra "hour; time" and -o- interfix and suffix -logy) is the study of the measurement of time.

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Houghton Mifflin Harcourt

Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH) is an educational and trade publisher in the United States.

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Hua Sui

Hua Sui (Traditional Chinese: 華燧; Simplified Chinese:华燧; Hanyu Pinyin: Huá Suì) (1439-1513 AD) was a Chinese scholar and printer of Wuxi, Jiangsu province during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644 AD).

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Huai River

The Huai River, formerly romanized as the Hwai, is a major river in China.

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Huìzhōu is a city in southeast Guangdong Province, China.

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Huizi (currency)

The Huizi, issued in the year 1160, was the official banknote of the Chinese Southern Song dynasty.

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Hulagu Khan

Hulagu Khan, also known as Hülegü or Hulegu (ᠬᠦᠯᠡᠭᠦ|translit.

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Hull (watercraft)

The hull is the watertight body of a ship or boat.

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Hydraulic engineering

Hydraulic engineering as a sub-discipline of civil engineering is concerned with the flow and conveyance of fluids, principally water and sewage.

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Hydraulics (from Greek: Υδραυλική) is a technology and applied science using engineering, chemistry, and other sciences involving the mechanical properties and use of liquids.

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Ibn al-Haytham

Hasan Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized Alhazen; full name أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم) was an Arab mathematician, astronomer, and physicist of the Islamic Golden Age.

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Imperial examination

The Chinese imperial examinations were a civil service examination system in Imperial China to select candidates for the state bureaucracy.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indian Ocean

The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).

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Indus River

The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.

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An inquest is a judicial inquiry in common law jurisdictions, particularly one held to determine the cause of a person's death.

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Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combining of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project).

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International Studies Quarterly

International Studies Quarterly is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal of international studies and the official journal of the International Studies Association.

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In the mathematical field of numerical analysis, interpolation is a method of constructing new data points within the range of a discrete set of known data points.

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Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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Iron Pagoda

The Iron Pagoda of Youguo Temple (佑國寺), Kaifeng City, Henan province, is a Buddhist Chinese pagoda built in 1049 during the Song dynasty (960–1279) of China.

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Islam during the Song dynasty

The transition from the Tang to the Song dynasty (960–1279) in China did not greatly interrupt the trends of Muslims established during the Tang.

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Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Jia Sidao

Jia Sidao (1213-1275), courtesy name Shixian, was a chancellor of the late Song dynasty of China, the brother of a concubine of Emperor Lizong, a subsequent relationship of special favor of Emperor Duzong, and with roles in the Mongol-Song Battle of Xiangyang and an unpopular land nationalization program in the 1260s.

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Jiaozi (currency)

Jiaozi was a form of promissory banknote which appeared around the 11th century in the Sichuan capital of Chengdu, China.

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Jin dynasty (1115–1234)

The Jin dynasty, officially known as the Great Jin, lasted from 1115 to 1234 as one of the last dynasties in Chinese history to predate the Mongol invasion of China.

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Jin–Song Wars

Map showing the Song-Jurchen Jin wars The Jin–Song Wars were a series of conflicts between the Jurchen Jin dynasty (1115–1234) and Han Chinese Song dynasty (960–1279).

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Jingkang incident

The Jingkang Incident, also known as the Humiliation of Jingkang and the Disorders of the Jingkang Period took place in 1127 during the Jin–Song Wars when the forces of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty besieged and sacked Bianjing (present-day Kaifeng), the capital of the Han Chinese-led Song dynasty.

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Joint-stock company

A joint-stock company is a business entity in which shares of the company's stock can be bought and sold by shareholders.

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The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.

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Ziziphus jujuba (from Greek ζίζυφον, zízyphon), commonly called jujube (sometimes jujuba), red date, Chinese date, Korean date, or Indian date is a species of Ziziphus in the buckthorn family (Rhamnaceae).

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Junk (ship)

Junk is a type of ancient Chinese sailing ship that is still in use today.

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Jurchen people

The Jurchen (Manchu: Jušen; 女真, Nǚzhēn), also known by many variant names, were a Tungusic people who inhabited the region of Manchuria until around 1630, at which point they were reformed and combined with their neighbors as the Manchu.

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Kaifeng, known previously by several names, is a prefecture-level city in east-central Henan province, China.

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Kaifeng Jews

The Kaifeng Jews are members of a small Jewish community in Kaifeng, in the Henan province of China who have assimilated into Chinese society while preserving some Jewish traditions and customs.

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Kara-Khanid Khanate

The Kara-Khanid Khanate was a Turkic dynasty that ruled in Transoxania in Central Asia, ruled by a dynasty known in literature as the Karakhanids (also spelt Qarakhanids) or Ilek Khanids.

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Khagan or Qaghan (Old Turkic: kaɣan; хаан, khaan) is a title of imperial rank in the Turkic and Mongolian languages equal to the status of emperor and someone who rules a khaganate (empire).

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Khitan people

The Khitan people were a nomadic people from Northeast Asia who, from the 4th century, inhabited an area corresponding to parts of modern Mongolia, Northeast China and the Russian Far East.

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Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.

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Kublai Khan

Kublai (Хубилай, Hubilai; Simplified Chinese: 忽必烈) was the fifth Khagan (Great Khan) of the Mongol Empire (Ikh Mongol Uls), reigning from 1260 to 1294 (although due to the division of the empire this was a nominal position).

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Lama ("chief" or "high priest") is a title for a teacher of the Dhamma in Tibetan Buddhism.

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Land mine

A land mine is an explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it.

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Land tenure

In common law systems, land tenure is the legal regime in which land is owned by an individual, who is said to "hold" the land.

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Land value tax

A land/location value tax (LVT), also called a site valuation tax, split rate tax, or site-value rating, is an ad valorem levy on the unimproved value of land.

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Landed gentry in China

The term "landed gentry", or "gentry", originally used for Britain, does not correspond to any single term in Chinese.

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Lantern Festival

The Lantern Festival or the Spring Lantern Festival is a Chinese festival celebrated on the fifteenth day of the first month in the lunisolar Chinese calendar.

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Later Zhou

The Later Zhou was the last in a succession of five dynasties that controlled most of northern China during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, which lasted from 907 to 960 and bridged the gap between the Tang Dynasty and the Song Dynasty.

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Lý dynasty

The Lý dynasty (Nhà Lý, Hán Nôm: 家李), sometimes known as the Later Lý dynasty, was a Vietnamese dynasty that began in 1009 when emperor Lý Thái Tổ overthrew the Early Lê dynasty and ended in 1225, when the empress Lý Chiêu Hoàng (then 8 years old) was forced to abdicate the throne in favor of her husband, Trần Cảnh.

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Lý–Song War

The Lý–Song War was a significant war fought between the Lý dynasty of Đại Việt and the Song dynasty of China between 1075 and 1077.

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Leifeng Pagoda

Leifeng Pagoda is a five stories tall tower with eight sides, located on Sunset Hill south of the West Lake in Hangzhou, China.

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Leopold von Ranke

Leopold von Ranke (21 December 1795 – 23 May 1886) was a German historian and a founder of modern source-based history.

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Li (unit)

The li (lǐ, or 市里, shìlǐ), also known as the Chinese mile, is a traditional Chinese unit of distance.

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Li Cheng (painter)

Li Cheng (919–967), Courtesy name Xiánxī (咸熙), was a Chinese painter from Qingzhou (now part of Weifang, Shandong) during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms and early Song Dynasty.

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Li Qingzhao

Li Qingzhao (1084 – ca 1155/1156, alternatively 1081 – c. 1141), pseudonym Householder of Yi'an (易安居士), was a Chinese writer and poet in the Song dynasty.

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Li Song (painter)

Li Song (active 1190–1230) was a Chinese imperial court painter in the Song Dynasty.

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Liao dynasty

The Liao dynasty (Khitan: Mos Jælud), also known as the Liao Empire, officially the Great Liao, or the Khitan (Qidan) State (Khitan: Mos diau-d kitai huldʒi gur), was an empire in East Asia that ruled from 907 to 1125 over present-day Mongolia and portions of the Russian Far East, northern China, and northeastern Korea.

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Liaodi Pagoda

The Liaodi Pagoda of Kaiyuan Monastery, Dingzhou, Hebei Province, China is the tallest existing pre-modern Chinese pagoda and tallest brick pagoda in the world, built in the 11th century during the Song dynasty (960–1279).

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Lin Tinggui

Lin Tinggui (fl. circa 1174–1189) (Japanese: Rin Teikei) was a Chinese painter of the Southern Song Dynasty (1127–1279 AD).

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Lingxiao Pagoda

The Lingxiao Pagoda is a Chinese pagoda west of the Xinglong Temple in Zhengding, Hebei Province, China.

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List of emperors of the Song dynasty

The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that succeeded the period referred to as Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–960) and preceded the Yuan dynasty (1271–1368), which conquered the Song dynasty in 1279.

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List of postal entities

This is a list of postal entities by country.

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Liu Songnian

Liu Songnian (刘松年 or traditional Liu Sung-nien) (1174–1224 CE), was a Chinese figure and landscape painter during the early Southern Song Dynasty (1127–1279).

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Liuhe Pagoda

Liuhe Pagoda, literally Six Harmonies Pagoda, is a multi-story Chinese pagoda in southern Hangzhou, Zhejiang province, China.

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Lock (water navigation)

A lock is a device used for raising and lowering boats, ships and other watercraft between stretches of water of different levels on river and canal waterways.

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Lu Xiufu

Lu Xiufu (1236-1279), courtesy name Junshi (君实/君實), was a Chinese statesman and military commander who lived in the final years of the Song dynasty.

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Lu You

Lu You (1125–1209) was a prominent poet of China's Southern Song Dynasty(南宋).

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Luoyang, formerly romanized as Loyang, is a city located in the confluence area of Luo River and Yellow River in the west of Henan province.

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Lychee (variously spelled litchi, liechee, liche, lizhi or li zhi, or lichee) (Litchi chinensis) is the sole member of the genus Litchi in the soapberry family, Sapindaceae.

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Ma Jun

Ma Jun (220–265), courtesy name Deheng, was a Chinese mechanical engineer and politician who lived in the state of Cao Wei during the Three Kingdoms period of China.

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Magic square

In recreational mathematics and combinatorial design, a magic square is a n\times n square grid (where is the number of cells on each side) filled with distinct positive integers in the range 1,2,...,n^2 such that each cell contains a different integer and the sum of the integers in each row, column and diagonal is equal.

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Magnetic declination

Magnetic declination or variation is the angle on the horizontal plane between magnetic north (the direction the north end of a compass needle points, corresponding to the direction of the Earth's magnetic field lines) and true north (the direction along a meridian towards the geographic North Pole).

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Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields.

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Mahāyāna (Sanskrit for "Great Vehicle") is one of two (or three, if Vajrayana is counted separately) main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice.

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Manichaeism (in Modern Persian آیین مانی Āyin-e Māni) was a major religious movement that was founded by the Iranian prophet Mani (in مانی, Syriac: ܡܐܢܝ, Latin: Manichaeus or Manes from Μάνης; 216–276) in the Sasanian Empire.

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A mannequin (also called a manikin, dummy, lay figure or dress form) is an often articulated doll used by artists, tailors, dressmakers, windowdressers and others especially to display or fit clothing.

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Mao Yi

Mao Yi (born 16 September 1999) is a Chinese artistic gymnast.

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Map projection

A map projection is a systematic transformation of the latitudes and longitudes of locations from the surface of a sphere or an ellipsoid into locations on a plane.

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Masonry is the building of structures from individual units, which are often laid in and bound together by mortar; the term masonry can also refer to the units themselves.

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Mathematical Treatise in Nine Sections

The Mathematical Treatise in Nine Sections is a mathematical text written by Chinese Southern Song dynasty mathematician Qin Jiushao in the year 1247.

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Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

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Möngke Khan

Möngke (valign / Мөнх;; January 11, 1209 – August 11, 1259) was the fourth khagan of the Mongol Empire, ruling from July 1, 1251, to August 11, 1259.

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Mechanics (Greek μηχανική) is that area of science concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment.

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Medieval demography

Medieval demography is the study of human demography in Europe and the Mediterranean during the Middle Ages.

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Mercator projection

The Mercator projection is a cylindrical map projection presented by the Flemish geographer and cartographer Gerardus Mercator in 1569.

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Meritocracy (merit, from Latin mereō, and -cracy, from Ancient Greek κράτος "strength, power") is a political philosophy which holds that certain things, such as economic goods or power, should be vested in individuals on the basis of talent, effort and achievement, rather than factors such as sexuality, race, gender or wealth.

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Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.

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Mi Fu

Mi Fu (also given as Mi Fei, 1051–1107)Barnhart: 373.

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Michael VII Doukas

Michael VII Doukas or Dukas/Ducas (Μιχαήλ Ζ΄ Δούκας, Mikhaēl VII Doukas), nicknamed Parapinakes (Παραπινάκης, lit. "minus a quarter", with reference to the devaluation of the Byzantine currency under his rule), was Byzantine emperor from 1071 to 1078.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Middle Chinese

Middle Chinese (formerly known as Ancient Chinese) or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of Chinese recorded in the Qieyun, a rime dictionary first published in 601 and followed by several revised and expanded editions.

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Military history of China before 1911

The recorded military history of China extends from about 2200 BC to the present day.

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A militia is generally an army or some other fighting organization of non-professional soldiers, citizens of a nation, or subjects of a state, who can be called upon for military service during a time of need, as opposed to a professional force of regular, full-time military personnel, or historically, members of a warrior nobility class (e.g., knights or samurai).

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Mineralogy is a subject of geology specializing in the scientific study of chemistry, crystal structure, and physical (including optical) properties of minerals and mineralized artifacts.

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Ming dynasty

The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.

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Mongol conquest of China

The Mongol conquest of China was a series of major military efforts by the Mongol Empire to invade China proper.

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Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty

The Mongol conquest of the Song dynasty under Kublai Khan (r. 1260–1294) was the final step for the Mongols to rule the whole of China under the Yuan dynasty.

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Mongol Empire

The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.

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Mongol invasion of Rus'

As part of the Mongol invasion of Europe, the Mongol Empire invaded Kievan Rus' in the 13th century, destroying numerous cities, including Ryazan, Kolomna, Moscow, Vladimir and Kiev.

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Mongol invasions of Korea

The Mongol invasions of Korea (1231–1259) comprised a series of campaigns between 1231 and 1270 by the Mongol Empire against the Kingdom of Goryeo (the proto-state of modern-day Korea).

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The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.

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A monopoly (from Greek μόνος mónos and πωλεῖν pōleîn) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity.

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Moroccans (Berber: ⵉⵎⵖⵕⴰⴱⵉⵢⵏ, Imɣṛabiyen) are people inhabiting or originating from Morocco that share a common Moroccan culture and Maghrebi ancestry.

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Mortar (masonry)

Mortar is a workable paste used to bind building blocks such as stones, bricks, and concrete masonry units together, fill and seal the irregular gaps between them, and sometimes add decorative colors or patterns in masonry walls.

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Mortise and tenon

A mortise (or mortice) and tenon joint is a type of joint that connects two pieces of wood or other material.

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Movable type

Movable type (US English; moveable type in British English) is the system and technology of printing and typography that uses movable components to reproduce the elements of a document (usually individual letters or punctuation) usually on the medium of paper.

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Muhammad al-Idrisi

Abu Abdullah Muhammad al-Idrisi al-Qurtubi al-Hasani as-Sabti, or simply al-Idrisi (أبو عبد الله محمد الإدريسي القرطبي الحسني السبتي; Dreses; 1100 – 1165), was an Arab Muslim geographer, cartographer and Egyptologist who lived in Palermo, Sicily at the court of King Roger II.

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A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.

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Names of China

The names of China include the many contemporary and historical appellations given in various languages for the East Asian country known as Zhongguo (中國/中国) in its official language.

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Nanjing, formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of and a total population of 8,270,500.

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National Palace Museum

The National Palace Museum, located in Taipei and Taibao, Taiwan, has a permanent collection of nearly 700,000 pieces of ancient Chinese imperial artifacts and artworks, making it one of the largest of its type in the world.

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Naval history of China

The naval history of China dates back thousands of years, with archives existing since the late Spring and Autumn period (722 BC – 481 BC) about the ancient navy of China and the various ship types used in war.

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Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.

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A navy or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces principally designated for naval and amphibious warfare; namely, lake-borne, riverine, littoral, or ocean-borne combat operations and related functions.

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Neo-Confucianism (often shortened to lixue 理學) is a moral, ethical, and metaphysical Chinese philosophy influenced by Confucianism, and originated with Han Yu and Li Ao (772–841) in the Tang Dynasty, and became prominent during the Song and Ming dynasties.

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Nestorianism is a Christological doctrine that emphasizes a distinction between the human and divine natures of the divine person, Jesus.

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New Policies (Song dynasty)

The New Policies were a series of reforms initiated by the Northern Song dynasty reformer Wang Anshi when he served as minister under Emperor Shenzong from 1069–1076.

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North China

North China (literally "China's north") is a geographical region of China, lying North of the Qinling Huaihe Line.

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Nuclear family

A nuclear family, elementary family or conjugal family is a family group consisting of two parents and their children (one or more).

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NUS Press

NUS Press is the academic press of the National University of Singapore.

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An odometer or odograph is an instrument used for measuring the distance travelled by a vehicle, such as a bicycle or car.

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Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.

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Oracle bone script

Oracle bone script was the form of Chinese characters used on oracle bonesanimal bones or turtle plastrons used in pyromantic divinationin the late 2nd millennium BCE, and is the earliest known form of Chinese writing.

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Ouyang Xiu

Ouyang Xiu (1 August 1007 – 22 September 1072), courtesy name Yongshu, also known by his art names Zuiweng ("Old Drunkard") and Liu Yi Jushi ("Retiree Six-One"), was a Chinese scholar-official, essayist, historian, poet, calligrapher, and epigrapher of the Song dynasty.

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Paddle steamer

A paddle steamer is a steamship or riverboat powered by a steam engine that drives paddle wheels to propel the craft through the water.

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A pagoda is a tiered tower with multiple eaves, built in traditions originating as stupa in historic South Asia and further developed in East Asia or with respect to those traditions, common to Nepal, China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, Myanmar, India, Sri Lanka and other parts of Asia.

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Panoramic painting

Panoramic paintings are massive artworks that reveal a wide, all-encompassing view of a particular subject, often a landscape, military battle, or historical event.

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The papaya (from Carib via Spanish), papaw, or pawpaw is the plant Carica papaya, one of the 22 accepted species in the genus Carica of the family Caricaceae.

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In Euclidean geometry, a parallelogram is a simple (non-self-intersecting) quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides.

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Pascal's triangle

In mathematics, Pascal's triangle is a triangular array of the binomial coefficients.

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Pauperism (Lat. pauper, poor) is a term meaning poverty or generally the state of being poor, but in English usage particularly the condition of being a "pauper", i.e. in receipt of relief administered under the English Poor Laws.

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Pearl River Delta

The Pearl River Delta Metropolitan Region (PRD), also known as Zhujiang Delta or Zhusanjiao, is the low-lying area surrounding the Pearl River estuary, where the Pearl River flows into the South China Sea.

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Pei Xiu

Pei Xiu (224–271), courtesy name Jiyan, was a Chinese politician, geographer, writer, and cartographer of the state of Cao Wei during the late Three Kingdoms period and Jin dynasty of China.

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Persuasive writing

Persuasive writing intends to convince readers to believe in an idea and to do an action.

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In astronomy, a planisphere is a star chart analog computing instrument in the form of two adjustable disks that rotate on a common pivot.

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A platoon is a military unit typically composed of two or more squads/sections/patrols.

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Pole star

Pole star or polar star refers to a star, preferably bright, closely aligned to the axis of rotation of an astronomical object.

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Polychrome is the "'practice of decorating architectural elements, sculpture, etc., in a variety of colors." The term is used to refer to certain styles of architecture, pottery or sculpture in multiple colors.

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A polymath (πολυμαθής,, "having learned much,"The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century Latin: uomo universalis, "universal man") is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas—such a person is known to draw on complex bodies of knowledge to solve specific problems.

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Pontoon bridge

A pontoon bridge (or ponton bridge), also known as a floating bridge, uses floats or shallow-draft boats to support a continuous deck for pedestrian and vehicle travel.

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Pork is the culinary name for meat from a domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus).

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A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo.

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Print culture

Print culture embodies all forms of printed text and other printed forms of visual communication.

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Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template.

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Printing press

A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink.

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Qin Jiushao

Qin Jiushao (ca. 1202–1261), courtesy name Daogu (道古), was a Chinese mathematician, inventor, politician and author.

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Qing dynasty

The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.

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Qingli Reforms

The Qingli Reforms, also called Minor Reforms, took place in China’s Song dynasty under the leadership of Fan Zhongyan and Ouyang Xiu.

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Qingming Festival

The Qingming or Ching Ming festival, also known as Tomb-Sweeping Day in English (sometimes also called Chinese Memorial Day or Ancestors' Day), is a traditional Chinese festival.

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Qingzhou (Chinese: 青州; Pinyin: Qīngzhōu), formerly Yidu County (益都县), is a county-level city, which is located in the west of Weifang City, Shandong Province, China.

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Quadratic equation

In algebra, a quadratic equation (from the Latin quadratus for "square") is any equation having the form where represents an unknown, and,, and represent known numbers such that is not equal to.

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Quanzhou, formerly known as Chinchew, is a prefecture-level city beside the Taiwan Strait in Fujian Province, China.

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Quyang County

Quyang County is under the administration of Baoding City, Hebei province, China.

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Raised-relief map

A raised-relief map or terrain model is a three-dimensional representation, usually of terrain, materialized as a physical artifact.

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Red Sea

The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.

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Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material.

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Religion in China

China has long been a cradle and host to a variety of the most enduring religio-philosophical traditions of the world.

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Retirement home

A retirement home – sometimes called an old people's home or old age home, although this term can also refer to a nursing home – is a multi-residence housing facility intended for the elderly.

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Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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A rudder is a primary control surface used to steer a ship, boat, submarine, hovercraft, aircraft, or other conveyance that moves through a fluid medium (generally air or water).

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Scholar-officials, also known as Literati, Scholar-gentlemen, Scholar-bureaucrats or Scholar-gentry were politicians and government officials appointed by the emperor of China to perform day-to-day political duties from the Han dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty in 1912, China's last imperial dynasty.

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Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.

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Sesame oil

Sesame oil is an edible vegetable oil derived from sesame seeds.

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Shang dynasty

The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.

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Shanxi (postal: Shansi) is a province of China, located in the North China region.

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Shao Yong

Shao Yong (1011–1077), courtesy name Yaofu (堯夫), named Shào Kāngjié (邵康節) after death, was a Song dynasty Chinese philosopher, cosmologist, poet and historian who greatly influenced the development of Neo-Confucianism in China.

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Shen Kuo

Shen Kuo (1031–1095), courtesy name Cunzhong (存中) and pseudonym Mengqi (now usually given as Mengxi) Weng (夢溪翁),Yao (2003), 544.

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Shipbuilding is the construction of ships and other floating vessels.

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Sichuan, formerly romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan, is a province in southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, and the Yungui Plateau to the south.

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Sichuan pepper

Sichuan pepper, Sichuan peppercorn, or Szechuan pepper, is a commonly used spice in Chinese cuisine.

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Siege of Baghdad (1258)

The Siege of Baghdad, which lasted from January 29 until February 10, 1258, entailed the investment, capture, and sack of Baghdad, the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate, by Ilkhanate Mongol forces and allied troops.

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Siege of Diaoyu Castle

The Mongol Siege of Diaoyu Castle was a battle between Song dynasty China and the Mongol Empire in the year 1259.

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Sight (device)

A sight is an aiming device used to assist in visually aligning ranged weapons, surveying instruments or optical illumination equipments with the intended target.

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Sima Guang

Sima Guang (17 November 1019 – 11 October 1086), courtesy name Junshi, was a Chinese historian, writer, and politician.

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Simon & Schuster

Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.

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Sino-Roman relations

Sino-Roman relations comprised the mostly indirect contact, flow of trade goods, information, and occasional travellers between the Roman Empire and Han Empire of China, as well as between the later Eastern Roman Empire and various Chinese dynasties.

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Sixteen Prefectures

The Sixteen Prefectures, more specifically the Sixteen Prefectures of Yan and Yun or the Sixteen Prefectures of You and Ji, comprise a historical region in northern China along the Great Wall in present-day Beijing and Tianjin Municipalities and northern Hebei and Shanxi Province, that were ceded by the Shatuo Turk Emperor Shi Jingtang of the Later Jin to the Khitan Liao dynasty in 938.

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A sniper is a military/paramilitary marksman who operates to maintain effective visual contact with the enemy and engage targets from concealed positions or at distances exceeding their detection capabilities.

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Social mobility

Social mobility is the movement of individuals, families, households, or other categories of people within or between social strata in a society.

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Song Ci

Song Ci (Chinese: 宋慈; Pinyin: Sòng Cí) (1186–1249) was a Chinese physician, judge, and forensic medical scientist active during the Southern Song Dynasty who wrote a groundbreaking book titled Collected Cases of Injustice Rectified (Xi Yuan Ji Lu).

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Song dynasty

The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.

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South-pointing chariot

The south-pointing chariot (or carriage) was an ancient Chinese two-wheeled vehicle that carried a movable pointer to indicate the south, no matter how the chariot turned.

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Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.

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Southern Han

Southern Han (917–971), originally Great Yue, was one of the ten kingdoms that existed during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.

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Southern Tang

Southern Tang (also referred to as Nantang), later known as Jiangnan (江南), was one of the Ten Kingdoms in Southern China created following the Tang dynasty from 937–976.

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Soy sauce

Soy sauce (also called soya sauce in British English) is a liquid condiment of Chinese origin, made from a fermented paste of soybeans, roasted grain, brine, and Aspergillus oryzae or Aspergillus sojae molds.

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Srivijaya (also written Sri Vijaya, Indonesian/Malay: Sriwijaya, Javanese: ꦯꦿꦶꦮꦶꦗꦪ, Sundanese:, ศรีวิชัย, Sanskrit: श्रीविजय, Śrīvijaya, Khmer: ស្រីវិជ័យ "Srey Vichey", known by the Chinese as Shih-li-fo-shih and San-fo-ch'i t) was a dominant thalassocratic Malay city-state based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia.

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Stanford University Press

The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.

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Star chart

A star chart or star map, also called a sky chart or sky map, is a map of the night sky.

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A statue is a sculpture, representing one or more people or animals (including abstract concepts allegorically represented as people or animals), free-standing (as opposed to a relief) and normally full-length (as opposed to a bust) and at least close to life-size, or larger.

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The stern is the back or aft-most part of a ship or boat, technically defined as the area built up over the sternpost, extending upwards from the counter rail to the taffrail.

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Striking clock

A striking clock (also known as chiming clock) is a clock that sounds the hours audibly on a bell or gong.

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Structural engineering

Structural engineering is that part of civil engineering in which structural engineers are educated to create the 'bones and muscles' that create the form and shape of man made structures.

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A strut is a structural component commonly found in engineering, aeronautics, architecture and anatomy.

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Su Shi

Su Shi (8January103724August1101), also known as Su Dongpo, was a Chinese writer, poet, painter, calligrapher, pharmacologist, gastronome, and a statesman of the Song dynasty.

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Su Song

Su Song (courtesy name: Zirong 子容) (1020–1101 AD) was a renowned Hokkien polymath who was described as a scientist, mathematician, statesman, astronomer, cartographer, horologist, medical doctor, pharmacologist, mineralogist, zoologist, botanist, mechanical and architectural engineer, poet, antiquarian, and ambassador of the Song Dynasty (960–1279).

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Sui dynasty

The Sui Dynasty was a short-lived imperial dynasty of China of pivotal significance.

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A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.

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Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them.

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Tang Clan

The Tang Clan is one of the Great Five Clans of Hong Kong.

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Tang dynasty

The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.

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Tangut people

The Tangut first appeared as a tribal union living under Tuyuhun authority and moved to Northwest China sometime before the 10th century to found the Western Xia or Tangut Empire (1038–1227).

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Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').

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Taxation in premodern China

Taxation in premodern China varied greatly over time.

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Tenant farmer

A tenant farmer is one who resides on land owned by a landlord.

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Thames & Hudson

Thames & Hudson (also Thames and Hudson and sometimes T&H for brevity) is a publisher of illustrated books on art, architecture, design, and visual culture.

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The Confusions of Pleasure

The Confusions of Pleasure: Commerce and Culture in Ming China is an influential Passim, but states that the book is "now-influential": "...

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Tianjin, formerly romanized as Tientsin, is a coastal metropolis in northern China and one of the four national central cities of the People's Republic of China (PRC), with a total population of 15,469,500, and is also the world's 11th-most populous city proper.

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Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.

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Tibet and the Tang and Song dynasties

This article elaborates on the historical relationship development between imperial China and Tibetan regime in Tang and Song dynasty.

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Tibetan Buddhism

Tibetan Buddhism is the form of Buddhist doctrine and institutions named after the lands of Tibet, but also found in the regions surrounding the Himalayas and much of Central Asia.

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Tiger Cave Kiln

Archaeological excavations at the Tiger Cave Kiln at Hangzhou in the Chinese province of Zhejiang have helped to identify one site of origin of the important ceramic wares of the Southern Song dynasty known as Guan ware, meaning "official" ware, which were made for the exclusive use of the imperial court.

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Timeline of the Song dynasty

This is a timeline of the Song dynasty.

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Tong Guan

Tong Guan (1054–1126), courtesy name Daofu (道夫), was a court eunuch, military general, political adviser, and state councillor to Emperor Huizong of the Song dynasty.

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Torque, moment, or moment of force is rotational force.

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Traditional Chinese law

Traditional Chinese law refers to the laws, regulations and rules used in China up to 1911, when the last imperial dynasty fell.

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Traditional Chinese medicine

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a style of traditional medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy, but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine.

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Travel literature

The genre of travel literature encompasses outdoor literature, guide books, nature writing, and travel memoirs.

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A trebuchet (French trébuchet) is a type of siege engine.

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Trestle bridge

A trestle (sometimes tressel) is a rigid frame used as a support, historically a tripod used both as stools and to support tables at banquets.

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True north

True north (also called geodetic north) is the direction along Earth's surface towards the geographic North Pole.

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In typography, a typeface (also known as font family) is a set of one or more fonts each composed of glyphs that share common design features.

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Universal history

A universal history is a work aiming at the presentation of the history of humankind as a whole, coherent unit.

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Universalism is a theological and philosophical concept that some ideas have universal application or applicability.

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University of California Press

University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.

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University of Hawaii Press

The University of Hawaii Press is a university press that is part of the University of Hawaiokinai.

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University of Massachusetts Press

The University of Massachusetts Press is a university press that is part of the University of Massachusetts Amherst.

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University of Michigan Press

The University of Michigan Press is part of Michigan Publishing at the University of Michigan Library.

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A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.

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Vegetable oil

Vegetable oils, or vegetable fats, are fats extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits.

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Veneration of the dead

The veneration of the dead, including one's ancestors, is based on love and respect for the deceased.

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Verge escapement

The verge (or crown wheel) escapement is the earliest known type of mechanical escapement, the mechanism in a mechanical clock that controls its rate by allowing the gear train to advance at regular intervals or 'ticks'.

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Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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Wang Anshi

Wang Anshi (December 8, 1021 – May 21, 1086) was a Chinese economist, statesman, chancellor and poet of the Song Dynasty who attempted major and controversial socioeconomic reforms known as the New Policies.

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Wang Chongyang

Wang Chongyang (11 January 1113 – 22 January 1170; Chinese calendar: 22nd day, 12th month, 2nd year, Zhenghe era in the reign of Emperor Huizong of Song - 4th day, 1st month, 10th year, Dading era in the reign of Emperor Shizong of Jin) was a Chinese Taoist and one of the founders of the Quanzhen School in the 12th century during the Jin dynasty (1115–1234).

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Wang Zhen (inventor)

Wang Zhen (1290–1333) was a Chinese agronomist, inventor, writer, and politician of the Yuan Dynasty (1271–1368).

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Wanyan Liang

Digunai (24 February 1122 – 15 December 1161), also known by his sinicised name Wanyan Liang and his formal title Prince of Hailing (or Hailing Wang), was the fourth emperor of the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty, which ruled northern China between the 12th and 13th centuries.

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War elephant

A war elephant is an elephant that is trained and guided by humans for combat.

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A warehouse is a commercial building for storage of goods.

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Water clock

A water clock or clepsydra (Greek κλεψύδρα from κλέπτειν kleptein, 'to steal'; ὕδωρ hydor, 'water') is any timepiece in which time is measured by the regulated flow of liquid into (inflow type) or out from (outflow type) a vessel where the amount is then measured.

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Water Margin

Water Margin, also translated as Outlaws of the Marsh, Tale of the Marshes, All Men Are Brothers, Men of the Marshes or The Marshes of Mount Liang, is a Chinese novel attributed to Shi Nai'an.

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Welfare is a government support for the citizens and residents of society.

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Wen Tianxiang

Wen Tianxiang (June 6, 1236 – January 9, 1283 AD), Duke of Xinguo (信國公), was a scholar-general in the last years of the Southern Song Dynasty.

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Western Xia

The Western Xia, also known as the Xi Xia Empire, to the Mongols as the Tangut Empire and to the Tangut people themselves and to the Tibetans as Mi-nyak,Stein (1972), pp.

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Winter solstice

The winter solstice (or hibernal solstice), also known as midwinter, is an astronomical phenomenon marking the day with the shortest period of daylight and the longest night of the year.

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Woodblock printing

Woodblock printing is a technique for printing text, images or patterns used widely throughout East Asia and originating in China in antiquity as a method of printing on textiles and later paper.

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Written vernacular Chinese

Written Vernacular Chinese is the forms of written Chinese based on the varieties of Chinese spoken throughout China, in contrast to Classical Chinese, the written standard used during imperial China up to the early twentieth century.

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Wu Xing

The Wu Xing, also known as the Five Elements, Five Phases, the Five Agents, the Five Movements, Five Processes, the Five Steps/Stages and the Five Planets of significant gravity: Jupiter-木, Saturn-土, Mercury-水, Venus-金, Mars-火Dr Zai, J..

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Wujing Zongyao

The Wujing Zongyao, sometimes rendered in English as the Complete Essentials for the Military Classics, is a Chinese military compendium written from around 1040 to 1044.

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Xiamen, formerly romanized as Amoy, is a sub-provincial city in southeastern Fujian province, People's Republic of China, beside the Taiwan Strait.

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Xiangqi, also called Chinese chess, is a strategy board game for two players.

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Xiangzhou District, Xiangyang

Xiangzhou District is a district of the city of Xiangyang, Hubei, People's Republic of China.

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Xiaolian (literally "filial and incorrupt"), was the standard of nominating civil officers started by Emperor Wu of Han in 134 BC.

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The Xiongnu were a confederation of nomadic peoples who, according to ancient Chinese sources, inhabited the eastern Asian Steppe from the 3rd century BC to the late 1st century AD.

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Yang Hui

Yang Hui (ca. 1238–1298), courtesy name Qianguang (謙光), was a late-Song dynasty Chinese mathematician from Qiantang (modern Hangzhou, Zhejiang).

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The Yangtze, which is 6,380 km (3,964 miles) long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world.

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Yellow River

The Yellow River or Huang He is the second longest river in Asia, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of.

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Yellow Sea

The Yellow Sea or West Sea is located between China and Korea.

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Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Yingzao Fashi

The Yingzao Fashi is a technical treatise on architecture and craftsmanship written by the Chinese author Li Jie (李誡; 1065–1110), the Directorate of Buildings and Construction during the mid Song Dynasty of China.

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Yu Hao

Yu Hao (970) was an eminent Chinese structural engineer and architect during the Song Dynasty period (960-1279).

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Yuan dynasty

The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.

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Yue Fei

Yue Fei (24 March 1103 – 27 January 1142), courtesy name Pengju, was a Han Chinese military general who lived during the Southern Song dynasty.

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Zeng Gong

Zeng Gong (1019–1083), courtesy name Zigu (子固), was a Chinese scholar and historian of the Song Dynasty in China.

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Zhang Hongfan

Zhang Hongfan (1238–1280) was a Han Chinese general of the Mongol Empire (afterwards the Yuan Dynasty) in China.

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Zhang Sixun

Zhang Sixun (fl. 10th century) was a Chinese astronomer and military engineer from Bazhong, Sichuan during the early Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD).

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Zhang Zeduan

Zhang Zeduan (1085–1145), alias Zheng Dao, was a Chinese painter of the Song Dynasty.

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Zhao Bing

Zhao Bing (12 February 1272 – 19 March 1279), also known as Emperor Bing of Song or Bing, Emperor of Song (宋帝昺),Note that the "Bing" refers to the emperor's personal given name.

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Zhao Mengfu

Zhao Mengfu (courtesy name Zi'ang (子昂); pseudonyms Songxue (松雪, "Pine Snow"), Oubo (鸥波, "Gull Waves"), and Shuijing-gong Dao-ren (水精宫道人, "Master of the Crystal Palace"); 1254–1322), was a descendant of the Song Dynasty's imperial family, and a Chinese scholar, painter and calligrapher during the Yuan Dynasty.

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Zhao Mingcheng

Zhao Mingcheng (courtesy name Défǔ (德甫) or Défù (德父) (1081–1129) was a Chinese writer, scholar-official, and epigrapher of the Song dynasty, husband to the famous poet Li Qingzhao. His 30-volume magnum opus Jīn Shí Lù (金石錄) has long been hailed as an important work in the development of Chinese epigraphy since its publication.

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Zhengding County

Zhengding, originally Zhending and formerly romanized as Chengting, is a county of southwestern Hebei Province, China, located approximately south of Beijing.

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Zhou (country subdivision)

Zhou were historical political divisions of China.

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Zhou Wenju

Zhou Wenju (fl. 942-961), also known as Chou Wen-chu, was a Chinese painter during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–960).

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Zhu Xi

Zhu Xi (October 18, 1130 – April 23, 1200), also known by his courtesy name Yuanhui (or Zhonghui), and self-titled Hui'an, was a Chinese philosopher, politician, and writer of the Song dynasty.

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Zhu Yu (author)

Zhu Yu was a Chinese author and historian of the Song Dynasty (960–1279 AD).

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Zizhi Tongjian

The Zizhi Tongjian is a pioneering reference work in Chinese historiography, published in 1084, in the form of a chronicle.

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Zoology or animal biology is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their ecosystems.

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0 (zero) is both a number and the numerical digit used to represent that number in numerals.

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Bei Song, Empire of Song, Great Song, Great Sung, North Song Dynasty, Northern Song, Northern Song dynasty, Northern Sung, Northern Sung dynasty, Northern song, Song China, Song Dynast, Song Dynasty, Song Dynasty (960-1279), Song Dynasty (960–1279), Song Empire, Song dai, Song empire, Song last name, Song period, Songdai, Soong Dynasty, Soong Dynasty (960-1279), South Song Dynasty, South Sung Dynasty, Southern Song, Southern Song Dynasty, Southern Song dynasty, Southern Sung, Southern Sung dynasty, Sung Ch'ao, Sung China, Sung Dynasty, Sung Dynasty (960-1279), Sung Empire, Sung dynasty, Sung era, Sung government, Sung period, Sòng Cháo, Sòng Dynasty, Sòng dynasty, The Song Dynasty, The Sung Dynasty, Zhao Song, 宋朝.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Song_dynasty

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